Sample records for hepa high-efficiency particulate

  1. OPERATING EXPERIENCE LEVEL 3, Requalification Test Failure of Certain High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters- Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2014-01 Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides information regarding the previous requalification test failure and subsequent successful requalification, of certain high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter models manufactured by Flanders Corporation.

  2. ALTERNATE HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTRATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bishop; Robert Goldsmith; Karsten Nielsen; Phillip Paquette

    2002-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In Phase IIA of this project, CeraMem has further developed and scaled up ceramic HEPA filters that are appropriate for use on filtration of vent gas from HLW tanks at DOE sites around the country. This work included procuring recrystallized SiC monoliths, developing membrane and cement materials, and defining a manufacturing process for the production of prototype full sizes HEPA filters. CeraMem has demonstrated that prototype full size filters can be manufactured by producing 9 full size filters that passed DOP aerosol testing at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. One of these filters was supplied to the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) for process tests using simulated HLW tank waste. SRTC has reported that the filter was regenerable (with some increase in pressure drop) and that the filter retained its HEPA retention capability. CeraMem has also developed a Regenerable HEPA Filter System (RHFS) design and acceptance test plan that was reviewed by DOE personnel. The design and acceptance test plan form the basis of the system proposal for follow-on work in Phase IIB of this project.

  3. In-place HEPA (high efficiency, particulate air) filter testing at Hanford: Operating experiences, calibrations, and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores, D.S.; Decelis, D.G.

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High Efficiency, Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters provide a minimum of 99.97% removal efficiency for particles greater than or equal to .3 microns in diameter. Each HEPA filter installation at Hanford is, at specified intervals, functionally tested for leaks. The test procedure involves a dioctylphthalate (DOP) smoke generator and a calibrated airborne particle detector. The DOP generator produces smoke of a known quantitative particle size distribution upstream of the filter. The airborne particle detector is first placed upstream, and then downstream of the filter to determine percent penetration. The smoke generator is characterized using a calibrated laser spectrometer, and the particle detector is calibrated using a calibrated picoammeter. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

  5. Water washable stainless steel HEPA filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a high efficiency particulate (HEPA) filter apparatus and system, and method for assaying particulates. The HEPA filter provides for capture of 99.99% or greater of particulates from a gas stream, with collection of particulates on the surface of the filter media. The invention provides a filter system that can be cleaned and regenerated in situ.

  6. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  7. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  8. Operating Experience Level 3, Laboratory Tests Indicate Conditions that Could Potentially Impact Certain Type of HEPA Filter Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE-3: 2013-02 This Operating Experience Summary provides new information on a potential performance issue associated with certain axial flow high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that do not contain separators in the folded media (separatorless).

  9. Response of HEPA filters to simulated-accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, W.S.; Martin, R.A.; Smith, P.R.; Fenton, D.E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters have been subjected to simulated accident conditions to determine their response to abnormal operating events. Both domestic and European standard and high-capacity filters have been evaluated to determine their response to simulated fire, explosion, and tornado conditions. The HEPA filter structural limitations for tornado and explosive loadings are discussed. In addition, filtration efficiencies during these accident conditions are reported for the first time. Our data indicate efficiencies between 80% and 90% for shock loadings below the structural limit level. We describe two types of testing for ineffective filtration - clean filters exposed to pulse-entrained aerosol and dirty filters exposed to tornado and shock pulses. Efficiency and material loss data are described. Also, the resonse of standard HEPA filters to simulated fire conditions is presented. We describe a unique method of measuring accumulated combustion products on the filter. Additionally, data relating to pressure drop vs accumulated mass during plugging are reported for simulated combustion aerosols. The effects of concentration and moisture levels on filter plugging were evaluated. We are obtaining all of the above data so that mathematical models can be developed for fire, explosion, and tornado accident analysis computer codes. These computer codes can be used to assess the response of nuclear air cleaning systems to accident conditions.

  10. U-235 Holdup Measurements in the 321-M Lathe HEPA Banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salaymeh, S.R.

    2002-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Analytical Development Section of Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the Facilities Decommissioning Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The results of the holdup assays are essential for determining compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control and Accountability, and to meet criticality safety controls. This report covers holdup measurements of uranium residue in six high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter banks of the A-lathe and B-lathe exhaust systems of the 321-M facility. This report discusses the non-destructive assay measurements, assumptions, calculations, and results of the uranium holdup in these six items.

  11. HEPA filter encapsulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D. (Union City, CA); Kidd, Scott D. (Brentwood, CA); Bowers, John S. (Manteca, CA); Attebery, Ronald W. (San Lorenzo, CA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  12. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  13. Figure S1.Technical diagram of the 1-by-3 tandem differential mobility analyzer (cf. schematic diagram shown in Figure 1). Relative humidity sensors are located at positions RH,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    compressed air; CPC, condensation particle counter; and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter

  14. ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

  15. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  16. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  17. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  18. High efficiency virtual impactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, B.W.

    1980-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental monitoring of atmospheric air is facilitated by a single stage virtual impactor for separating an inlet flow (Q/sub 0/) having particulate contaminants into a coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) and a fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) to enable collection of such particles on different filters for separate analysis. An inlet particle acceleration nozzle and coarse particle collection probe member having a virtual impaction opening are aligned along a single axis and spaced apart to define a flow separation region at which the fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) is drawn radially outward into a chamber while the coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) enters the virtual impaction opening.

  19. Multi-Canister overpack internal HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The rationale for locating a filter assembly inside each Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) rather than include the filter in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) process piping system was to eliminate the potential for contamination to the operators, processing equipment, and the MCO. The internal HEPA filters provide essential protection to facility workers from alpha contamination, both external skin contamination and potential internal depositions. Filters installed in the CVD process piping cannot mitigate potential contamination when breaking the process piping connections. Experience with K-Basin material has shown that even an extremely small release can result in personnel contamination and costly schedule disruptions to perform equipment and facility decontamination. Incorporating the filter function internal to the MCO rather than external is consistent with ALARA requirements of 10 CFR 835. Based on the above, the SNF Project position is to retain the internal HEPA filters in the MCO design.

  20. Fundamental study on recovery uranium oxide from HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumida, T. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works; Matsumoto, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Iba, H. [Hitachi Nuclear Engineering Co., Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Noguchi, Y. [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large numbers of spent HEPA filters are produced at uranium fuel fabrication facilities. Uranium oxide particles have been collected on these filters. Then, a spent HEPA filter treatment system was developed from the viewpoint of recovering the UO{sub 2} and minimizing the volume. The system consists of a mechanical separation process and a chemical dissolution process. This paper describes the results of fundamental experiments on recovering UO{sub 2} from HEPA filters.

  1. DOE-STD-3020-2005 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (January 1987) This standard establishes specification and testing requirements for High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters procured to provide personnel and environmental...

  2. Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to experiments with radionuclides. This technology includes establishing controlled radiation zones with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered exhaust from all...

  3. Mr. John E. Kieling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    underground facility, causing the ventilation exhaust to automatically shift to high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration mode. The ventilation system has been operating in...

  4. Manual

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    includes the attached ductwork to the Filter Building Annex, the final stage high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter banks, housings, dampers, and exhaust fans; and...

  5. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

  6. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems," originally presented on January 13, 2015.

  7. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in. deep that showed significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructures favorable to increased fracture toughness and fatigue performance. The final tasks of the project demonstrated that the FSP concept can be applied to a relevant part geometry by fabricating diesel piston crowns with FSP regions applied selectively to the edge of the bowl rim. This area of the piston typically suffers from conditions at high PCP that cause severe thermal fatigue issues. It is expected that, given the data from coupon testing, the durability of pistons modified by FSP will allow much higher fatigue lifetime and potentially also greater resistance to elevated stress-level effects on fatigue.

  8. Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Developing integrated TE system...

  9. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" on Tuesday, January 13, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  10. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highly Efficient, Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems (2014 R&D 100 Award Winner) U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2 Question and Answer * Please type your...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - air-treatment system hepa Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These filters are significantly less efficient than HEPA... -209: These facilities also conduct operations involving tritium. ... Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory,...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - additional hepa filter Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hygiene Group Environment, Safety, Health Directorate Summary: 3011 R. Selvey IH Group Manager HP24. Respirator Fit Testing Matrixed to RCD - D. Hanley HEPA Filter Source:...

  13. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  14. Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes - ORNL-FEERC Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes - ORNL-FEERC Poster presentation at...

  15. Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of Electricity Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of...

  16. High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  17. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines (Caterpillar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency CIDI Engines (Caterpillar CRADA) Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines (Caterpillar CRADA) 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for High-Efficiency Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Efficiency Combustion Engines Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for High-Efficiency Combustion Engines The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) is supporting work to improve...

  19. Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells Researchers reveal a new solution-based...

  20. Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications...

  1. Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC...

  2. Challenging Conventional Wisdom: A Clean and Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenging Conventional Wisdom: A Clean and Highly Efficient Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Challenging Conventional Wisdom: A Clean and Highly Efficient Opposed-Piston...

  3. High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Presentatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Presentation by Capstone Turbine Corporation, June 2011 High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery -...

  4. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Work on...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency, Low EMI and Positioning Tolerant Wireless Charging of EVs Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency, Low EMI and Positioning Tolerant Wireless...

  6. Development of Enabling Technologies for High Efficiency, Low...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines Development of Enabling Technologies for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous...

  7. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at DEER 2006,...

  8. Technology Development for Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines Technology Development for Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines Improve the efficiency of diesel engines for light duty applications...

  9. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines...

  10. Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines A significant...

  11. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  12. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Presentation from the U.S....

  13. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  14. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Compression Ignition Engines High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Compression Ignition Engines Presentation from...

  15. Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Summary of advanced combustion research...

  16. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,...

  17. Technology Development for High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technology Development for High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines and a Pathway to 50% Thermal Efficiency Technology Development for High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines and a...

  18. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  19. High Efficiency Engine Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency

  20. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  1. Very High Efficiency Solar Cell Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, A.; Kirkpatrick, D.; Honsberg, C.; Moore, D.; Wanlass, M.; Emery, K.; Schwartz, R.; Carlson, D.; Bowden, S.; Aiken, D.; Gray, A.; Kurtz, S.; Kazmerski, L., et al

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Very High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) program is developing integrated optical system - PV modules for portable applications that operate at greater than 50% efficiency. We are integrating the optical design with the solar cell design, and have entered previously unoccupied design space. Our approach is driven by proven quantitative models for the solar cell design, the optical design, and the integration of these designs. Optical systems efficiency with an optical efficiency of 93% and solar cell device results under ideal dichroic splitting optics summing to 42.7 {+-} 2.5% are described.

  2. High Efficiency Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorge Waldmann GeorgeLogging| DepartmentScience EducationHeyHigh Efficiency

  3. High Efficiency Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency Cold Climate

  4. High-efficiency silicon concentrator cell commercialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (US)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the first phase of a forty-one month program to develop a commercial, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell and facility for manufacturing it. The period covered is November 1, 1990 to December 31, 1991. This is a joint program between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Sandia National Laboratories. (This report is also published by EPRI as EPRI report number TR-102035.) During the first year of the program, SunPower accomplished the following major objectives: (1) a new solar cell fabrication facility, which is called the Cell Pilot Line (CPL), (2) a baseline concentrator cell process has been developed, and (3) a cell testing facility has been completed. Initial cell efficiencies are about 23% for the baseline process. The long-range goal is to improve this efficiency to 27%.

  5. 235U Holdup Measurements in the 321-M Cooling Hut HEPA Bank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2002-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers holdup measurements of uranium residue in the cooling hut HEPA bank of the 321-M facility. This report discusses the methodology, non-destructive assay measurements, assumptions, and results of the uranium holdup in this item.

  6. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty...

  8. High Efficiency Organic Light Emitting Devices for Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    So, Franky; Tansu, Nelson; Gilchrist, James

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Incorporate internal scattering layers and microlens arrays in high efficiency OLED to achieve up to 70% EQE.

  9. Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ongoing work exploring fuel chemistry, analysis of and improving simulation methodologies for high efficiency clean combustion regimes, and computational performance...

  10. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  11. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  12. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  13. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a gas dryer, significant time and energy savings, combined with dramatically reduced fabric temperatures, was achieved in a cost-effective manner. The key design factor lay in developing a system that matches the heat input to the dryer with the fabrics ability to absorb it. The development work done on the modulating gas dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) Up to 25% reduction in energy consumption for small and medium loads; (2) Up to 35% time savings for large loads with 10-15% energy reduction and no adverse effect on cloth temperatures; (3) Reduced fabric temperatures, dry times and 18% energy reduction for delicate loads; and, (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions.

  14. Recent Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery Scale Up of Si...

  15. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in...

  16. High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  17. Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency Diesel Engines (CRADA with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines (CRADA with Caterpillar) Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency Diesel Engines (CRADA with Caterpillar) 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit...

  18. Project Profile: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Building-Integrated PV Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells Project Profile: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost...

  19. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    sponsored this assignment and provided comments on draft versions of the report. iii Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential...

  20. Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for high efficiency compression-ignition engines can be used to show how turbulence-chemistry interactions influence autoignition and combustion. p-19raja.pdf More Documents &...

  1. High-efficiency turquoise-blue electrophosphorescence from a...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiency turquoise-blue electrophosphorescence from a Pt(II)-pyridyltriazolate complex in phosphine oxide host. High-efficiency turquoise-blue electrophosphorescence from a...

  2. High efficiency and low roll-off blue phosphorescent organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiency and low roll-off blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using mixed host architecture. High efficiency and low roll-off blue phosphorescent organic...

  3. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Ultra-Low-Temperature...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and DOE Test Procedures Building Science "Power Words"...

  4. Evaluation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion (HECC) Strategies for Meeting Future Emissions Regulations in Light-Duty Engines Evaluation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies for Meeting Future...

  5. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Evaluation ace012aceves2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms Development...

  6. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    428114 Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Daniel Flowers (PI), Salvador Aceves, Nicholas Killingsworth, Matthew McNenly, Thomas...

  7. Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Clean, in-cylinder combustion...

  8. Graphene-Polypyrrole Nanocomposite as a Highly Efficient and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene-Polypyrrole Nanocomposite as a Highly Efficient and Low Cost Electrically Switched Ion Exchanger for Removing ClO4- Graphene-Polypyrrole Nanocomposite as a Highly...

  9. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review 2014: Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly...

  10. High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  11. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In 2003, a large area, OLED based illumination source was demonstrated that could provide light with a quality, quantity, and efficiency on par with what can be achieved with traditional light sources. The demonstration source was made by tiling together 16 separate 6-inch x 6-inch blue-emitting OLEDs. The efficiency, total lumen output, and lifetime of the OLED based illumination source were the same as what would be achieved with an 80 watt incandescent bulb. The devices had an average efficacy of 15 LPW and used solution-processed OLEDs. The individual 6-inch x 6-inch devices incorporated three technology strategies developed specifically for OLED lighting -- downconversion for white light generation, scattering for outcoupling efficiency enhancement, and a scalable monolithic series architecture to enable large area devices. The downconversion approach consists of optically coupling a blue-emitting OLED to a set of luminescent layers. The layers are chosen to absorb the blue OLED emission and then luminescence with high efficiency at longer wavelengths. The composition and number of layers are chosen so that the unabsorbed blue emission and the longer wavelength re-emission combine to make white light. A downconversion approach has the advantage of allowing a wide variety of colors to be made from a limited set of blue emitters. In addition, one does not have to carefully tune the emission wavelength of the individual electro-luminescent species within the OLED device in order to achieve white light. The downconversion architecture used to develop the 15LPW large area light source consisted of a polymer-based blue-emitting OLED and three downconversion layers. Two of the layers utilized perylene based dyes from BASF AG of Germany with high quantum efficiency (>98%) and one of the layers consisted of inorganic phosphor particles (Y(Gd)AG:Ce) with a quantum efficiency of {approx}85%. By independently varying the optical density of the downconversion layers, the overall emission spectrum could be adjusted to maximize performance for lighting (e.g. blackbody temp

  12. High Efficiency Organic Multilayer Photodetectors based on Singlet Fission ....................................................................................................................................................................................

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    .........................................................................................................................PH.14 High-efficiency, Low-cost Photovoltaics using III-V on Silicon Tandem CellsPhotonics High Efficiency Organic Multilayer Photodetectors based on Singlet Fission.........................................................................................................................PH.2 Efficiently Coupling Light to Superconducting Nanowire Single-photon Detectors

  13. Summary of meeting on disposal of LET&D HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a compilation of correspondence between Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company and the US EPA over a period of time from 1988 to 1992 (most from 1991-92) regarding waste management compliance with EPA regulations. Typical subjects include: compliance with satellite accumulation requirements; usage of ``Sure Shot`` containers in place of aerosol cans; notice of upcoming recyclable battery shipments; disposition of batteries; HEPA filter leach sampling and permit impacts; functional and operation requirements for the spent filter handling system; summary of meeting on disposal of LET and D HEPA filters; solvent substitution database report; and mercury vapor light analytical testing.

  14. A Survey of Mixed-Waste HEPA Filters in the DOE Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felicione, F. S.; Barber, D. B.; Carney, K. P.

    2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief investigation was made to determine the quantities of spent, mixed-waste HEPA filters within the DOE Complex. The quantities of both the mixed-waste filters that are currently being generated, as well as the legacy mixed-waste filters being stored and awaiting disposition were evaluated. Seven DOE sites representing over 89% of the recent HEPA filter usage were identified. These sites were then contacted to determine the number of these filters that were likely destined to become mixed waste and to survey the legacy-filter quantities. Inquiries into the disposition plans for the filters were also made. It was determined that the seven sites surveyed possess approximately 500 m3 of legacy mixed-waste HEPA filters that will require processing, with an annual generation rate of approximately 25 m3. No attempt was made to extrapolate the results of this survey to the entire DOE Complex. These results were simply considered to be the lower bound of the totality of mixed-waste HEPA filters throughout the Complex. The quantities determined encourage the development of new treatment technologies for these filters, and provide initial data on which an appropriate capacity for a treatment process may be based.

  15. Design of high efficiency Mid IR QCL lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Allen Long

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed research is a study of designing high-efficiency Mid-IR quantum cascade lasers (QCL). This thesis explores "injector-less" designs for achieving lower voltage defects and improving wall plug efficiencies through ...

  16. III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  17. Case Studies of High Efficiency Electric Motor Applicability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.

    Much has been written about the advantages and disadvantages of high efficiency electric motors. For a given motor application it is possible to find literature that enables a plant engineer to make an informed choice between a standard efficiency...

  18. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace012aceves2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines...

  19. High efficiency pulse motor drive for robotic propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Zhen, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research is to improve the power efficiency of robotic locomotion through the use of series elastic actuation, with a focus on swimming motion. To achieve high efficiency, electromechanical drives need to ...

  20. Emerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    . A Manufacturing Cost Analysis Relevant to Photovoltaic Cells Fabricated with IIIEmerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies Mike McGehee Materials Science and Engineering Center for Advanced Molecular Photovoltaics Bay Area Photovoltaic Consortium Precourt Institute

  1. Test plan for N2 HEPA filters assembly shop stock used on PFP E4 exhaust system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DICK, J.D.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) Self-contained HEPA filters, encased in wooden frames and boxes, are installed in the E4 Exhaust Ventilation System to provide confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. Recently during the routine testing in-leakage was discovered downstream of the Self-contained HEPA filters boxes. This Test Plan describes the approach to conduct investigation of the root causes for the in-leakage of HEPA filters.

  2. High Efficiency Solar Power via Separated Photo and Voltaic Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Naughton

    2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This project demonstrates a novel nanostructured solar cell architecture capable of achieving high efficiency levels that is relatively simple and inexpensive to manufacture. The high efficiency will be achieved by the novel structure that separates the path of the photons from the path of the generated charge carriers. In this way, the photon path can be long for maximum light absorption, while the path for carriers can be short for maximum electronic energy harvesting. The combination of maximum light absorption coupled with maximum carrier harvesting is the basis for the expected high efficiency. The project will develop high efficiency solar cell prototypes utilizing this unique nanostructured architecture. The project addresses the fundamental limitation inherent in all current solar cell designs, and which opens a pathway to development for high efficiency solar cells at low cost. Realizing this goal will result in a levelized cost of electricity in the range of 10˘/kWh, which would achieve the long-sought goal of making photovoltaic electricity cost competitive with fossil-fuel generated electricity without any governmental subsidies. This breakthrough would spur the already rapid growth in the photovoltaic industry to an explosive pace, with significant, widespread benefit to the national economy and the nation’s energy security. The initial target of the program is to develop single-junction solar cells using ultrathin amorphous silicon with the performance approaching that of single crystal silicon cells.

  3. High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines High Efficiency...

  4. Low Cost, High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Cost, High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Systems DE-FC36-99GO-10455 POC: Doug Hooker Dr Approach: System Concept Fuel Cell Subsystem Battery Subsystem Converter Electrolyzer Subsystem Inverter, -- (216) 541(216) 541--10001000 Slide 5 Approach: Challenges ·Electrolyzer Subsystem Efficiency ·Fuel Cell

  5. Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics Thesis by Emily Cathryn Warmann, who reminds me that this is fun and interesting. iv #12;Abstract While concentrator photovoltaic cells, the over all module efficiency drops to only 34 to 36%. T

  6. New US Ultra High Efficiency R&D Programme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen Barnett Douglas Kirkpatrick

    Very high efficiency is an important characteristic of the value proposition for solar to electric conversion. High efficiency is the shortest path to cost-effective commercial applications and leads to new high value applications such as portable battery charging. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has initiated the Very High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) program to address the critical need of the soldier for power in the field. Very High Efficiency Solar Cells for portable applications1,2 that operate at greater than 55 percent efficiency in the laboratory and 50 percent in production are being developed. We are integrating the optical design with the solar cell design, and have entered previously unoccupied design space that leads to a new architecture paradigm. An integrated team effort is now underway that requires us to invent, develop and transfer to production these new solar cells. Our approach is driven by proven quantitative models for the solar cell design, the optical design and the integration of these designs. We start with a very high performance crystalline silicon solar cell platform. Examples will be presented. Initial solar cell device results are shown for devices fabricated in geometries designed for this VHESC Program.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER Richard F. Topping-efficient refrigerator- freezer prototype involving the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Arthur D refrigerator-freezers. The resulting 16 cubic foot prototype uses significantly less energy than the most

  8. LOW COST, HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSIBLE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    common hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., natural gas, propane, and bio-derived fuel) as well as hydrogenLOW COST, HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSIBLE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS Dr. Christopher E. Milliken, Materials Group Boulevard Cleveland, Ohio 44108 216-541-1000 Abstract Fuel cell technologies are described in the 2001 DOE

  9. High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation 2005 Diesel Engine...

  10. High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with TPV & Fiber-Optic Daylighting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with TPV & Fiber-Optic Daylighting High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with TPV & Fiber-Optic Daylighting Lead Performer: Creative Light Source,...

  11. SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline Engines SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline Engines Presentation given at the...

  12. High-Efficiency Solar Cell Concepts: Physics, Materials, and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Francoeur, S.; Seong, M. J.; Fluegel, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wanlass, M. W.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the area of high-efficiency multijunction solar cells, with the effort primarily directed at current-matched solar cells in tandem. The key materials issues here have been obtaining semiconductors with the required bandgaps for sequential absorption of light in the solar spectrum and that are lattice matched to readily available substrates. The GaInP/GaAs/Ge cell is a striking example of success achieved in this area. Recently, several new approaches for high-efficiency solar cell design have emerged, that involve novel methods for tailoring alloy bandgaps, as well as alternate technologies for hetero-epitaxy of III-V's on Si. The advantages and difficulties expected to be encountered with each approach will be discussed, addressing both the materials issues and device physics whilst contrasting them with other fourth-generation solar cell concepts.

  13. A Perspective on the Future of High Efficiency Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New fuel economy standards and emissions regulations are accelerating the development of new engine technologies, sensors, and on-board computing. These developments will enable unprecedented engine control, which will in turn enable real-world implementations of low temperature combustion, high-speed controls, and other high efficiency engine technologies. With this expanded flexibility in engine design and control, the challenge will now be the exponential increase in the design and calibration space and the need for the development of new simulations, optimization methods, and self-learning control methodologies. This manuscript provides historical and future perspectives on the opportunities and challenges of this unparalleled technology growth on the next generation of high efficiency engines.

  14. OSRAM SYLVANIA Develops High-Efficiency LED Troffer Replacement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, OSRAM SYLVANIA is developing a high-efficiency LED 2'x2' troffer replacement that is expected to be commercially available in the spring of 2012 and to be cost-competitive with existing troffers of that size. It is projected to have a light output of up to 4,000 lumens, an efficacy of more than 100 lm/W, and a CCT of 3500K.

  15. High Efficiency Gas Turbines Overcome Cogeneration Project Feasibility Hurdles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, J.

    HIGH EFFICIENCY GAS TlJR1HNES OVERCOME COGENFRATION PROJECT FEASIBILITY HURDLES JIM KING Gas Turbine Perfonumce Engineer STEVART &: STEVENSON SERVICES. INC. Houston. TelUlS ABSTRACT Cogeneration project feasibility sometimes fails... during early planning stages due to an electrical cycle efficiency which could be improved through the use of aeroderivative gas turbine engines. The aeroderivative engine offers greater degrees of freedom in terms of power augmentation through...

  16. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean

  17. High Efficiency Combustion and Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency Cold

  18. High Efficiency Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Applications |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency| Department

  19. High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Presentation by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency|

  20. High Efficiency and Stable White OLED Using a Single Emitter

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency| - ADVANCEDJian

  1. Basic studies of 3-5 high efficiency cell components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Pierret, R.F.; Carpenter, M.S.; Chuang, H.L.; Dodd, P.E.; Keshavarzi, A.; Klausmeier-Brown, M.E.; Lush, G.B.; Stellwag, T.B. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project's objective is to improve our understanding of the generation, recombination, and transport of carriers within III-V homo- and heterostructures. The research itself consists of fabricating and characterizing solar cell building blocks'' such as junctions and heterojunctions as well as basic measurements of material parameters. A significant effort is also being directed at characterizing loss mechanisms in high-quality, III-V solar cells fabricated in industrial research laboratories throughout the United States. The project's goal is to use our understanding of the device physics of high-efficiency cell components to maximize cell efficiency. A related goal is the demonstration of new cell structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The development of measurement techniques and characterization methodologies is also a project objective. This report describes our progress during the fifth and final year of the project. During the past five years, we've teamed a great deal about heavy doping effects in p[sup +] and n[sup +] GaAs and have explored their implications for solar cells. We have developed an understanding of the dominant recombination losses in present-day, high-efficiency cells. We've learned to appreciated the importance of recombination at the perimeter of the cell and have developed techniques for chemically passivating such edges. Finally, we've demonstrated that films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are suitable for high-efficiency cell research.

  2. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creek, Kathryn Louise (San Diego, CA); Castro, Alonso (Santa Fe, NM); Gray, Perry Clayton (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  3. High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency ColdEnergy 2

  4. High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency ColdEnergy

  5. High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency| Department of

  6. Holography as a highly efficient RG flow : Part 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behr, Nicolas; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate how the holographic correspondence can be reconstructed as a special RG flow in a strongly interacting large $N$ field theory. We firstly define a "highly efficient RG flow" as one in which the cut-off in momentum space can be adjusted as a functional of the elementary fields, and of the external sources and of the background metric in order to be compatible with the following requirement: the Ward identities for single-trace operators involving conservation of energy, momentum and global charges must preserve the same form at every scale. In order to absorb the contributions of the multi-trace operators to these effective Ward identities, the external sources and the background metric need to be redefined at each scale, and thus they become dynamical as in the dual gravity equations. We give a schematic construction of such highly efficient RG flows using appropriate collective variables, leaving a more explicit construction in certain limits to the second part of this work. We find that all h...

  7. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Kitt C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

  8. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, H.Q.; Reinhardt, K.C.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). 4 figs.

  9. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Ibbetson

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  10. ULTRA HIGH EFFICIENCY ESP DEVELOPMENT FOR AIR TOXICS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Anderson

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because more than 90 percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), retrofitable ESP technologies represent a logical approach towards achieving the Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and mercury emissions (air toxics) from coal based power systems. EPA's recent issuance of significantly tightened ambient air standards for particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM{sub 2.5}) creates a new urgency for developing cost-effective means to control fine particulate emissions. This challenge is compounded by the on-going switch in the utility industry to low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, that generate higher resistivity and difficult-to-collect fly ash. Particulate emissions can increase by a factor of ten when a utility switches to a low-sulfur coal. Numerous power plants are presently limited in operation by the inability of their ESPs to control opacity at high loads. In Phase I of this program, ABB investigated five technologies to improve the collection of fine particulate and trace metals in ESPs. These included: (1) flue-gas cooling, (2) flue-gas humidification, (3) pulsed energization, (4) wet ESP and precharger modules, and (5) sorbent injection for mercury control. Tests were conducted with an Eastern bituminous coal and a Powder River Basin sub-bituminous low-sulfur coal in an integrated pilot-scale combustor and ESP test facility. The impacts of the different retrofit technologies on ESP performance, individually and in combination, were evaluated indepth through advanced sampling and measurement techniques. In Phase II, the most promising concepts identified from Phase I testing, flue-gas cooling and humidification, pulsed energization, and sorbent injection at low flue-gas temperatures for mercury control, were integrated into a commercially oriented sub-scale system for field testing at Commonwealth Edison's Waukegan Unit No. 8. The main objective of the proposed Phase II testing was to determine longer term ESP performance and mercury capture improvements with the above enhancements for a range of low-sulfur coals currently fired by utilities. Unanticipated cost growth in readying the Pilot Plant for shipment and during slipstream construction at the utility host site resulted in the issuance of a preemptive stop work order from ABB until a detailed technical and budgetary review of the project could be completed. Four program recovery scenarios were developed and presented to the DOE. After careful review of these options, it was decided to terminate the program and although the Pilot Plant installation was essentially completed, no testing was performed. The Pilot Plant was subsequently decommissioned and the host site returned to its preprogram condition.

  11. Performance of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toqan, M.A.; Paloposki, T.; Yu, T.; Teare, J.D.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract from DOE-PETC, Combustion Engineering, Inc. undertook the lead-role in a multi-task R D program aimed at development of a new burner system for coal-based fuels; the goal was that this burner system should be capable of being retrofitted in oil- or gas-fired industrial boilers, or usable in new units. In the first phase of this program a high efficiency advanced coal combustor was designed jointly by CE and MIT. Its burner is of the multiannular design with a fixed shrouded swirler in the center immediately surrounding the atomizer gun to provide the primary act,'' and three further annuli for the supply of the secondary air.'' The degree of rotation (swirl) in the secondary air is variable. The split of the combustion air into primary and secondary air flows serves the purpose of flame stabilization and combustion staging, the latter to reduce NO{sub x} formation.

  12. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercializ

  13. High efficiency silicon nanohole/organic heterojunction hybrid solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Lei [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Wang, Xincai; Zheng, Hongyu [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); He, Lining; Wang, Hao; Rusli, E-mail: yu.hy@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: erusli@ntu.edu.sg [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: yu.hy@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: erusli@ntu.edu.sg [South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen (China)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    High efficiency hybrid solar cells are fabricated based on silicon with a nanohole (SiNH) structure and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The SiNH structure is fabricated using electroless chemical etching with silver catalyst, and the heterojunction is formed by spin coating of PEDOT on the SiNH. The hybrid cells are optimized by varying the hole depth, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 8.3% is achieved with a hole depth of 1??m. The SiNH hybrid solar cell exhibits a strong antireflection and light trapping property attributed to the sub-wavelength dimension of the SiNH structure.

  14. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

  15. High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel...

  16. High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2...

  17. Kieffer Paper Mill's Recycled Fiber Mill and PSI Energy's High Efficiency Motors Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, J. A.

    efficiency would yield significant energy savings. PSI Energy was able to help Kieffer examine the economics of high efficiency motors, and through the PSI Energy High Efficiency Motors Plan encouraged Kieffer Paper Mills to purchase energy efficient motors...

  18. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  19. Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Presentation given at DEER...

  20. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first phase was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most three) for further detailed consideration. During Phase 1, an exhaustive literature search was performed to locate all cycles previously proposed. The cycles located were screened using objective criteria to determine which could benefit, in terms of efficien

  1. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

  2. Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

    2011-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

  3. In-Plant Testing of High-Efficiency Hydraulic Separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. H. Luttrell; R. Q. Honaker; R. C. Bratton; T. C. Westerfield; J. N. Kohmuench

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic separators are commonly used for particle size classification and gravity concentration of minerals and coal. Unfortunately, the efficiency of these processes can be quite low due to poor equipment design and variations in feed consistency. To help alleviate these problems, an industry-driven R&D program has been undertaken to develop a new generation of hydraulic separators that are more efficient and less costly to operate and maintain. These units, which are commercially called the CrossFlow separator and HydroFloat separator, have the potential to improve performance (separation efficiency and throughput) and reduce operating costs (power consumption, water and reagent usage). In Phase I of this project, laboratory and pilot-scale test units were evaluated at various industrial sites in both the coal and mineral industries. Based on promising results obtained from Phase I, full-scale prototypes were purchased and installed by a major U.S. phosphate producer and a large eastern U.S. coal company. The test data obtained from these sites demonstrate that significant performance improvements can be realized through the application of these high-efficiency separators.

  4. IN-PLANT TESTING OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY HYDRAULIC SEPARATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.H. Luttrell; R.Q. Honaker; R.C. Bratton; T.C. Westerfield; J.N. Kohmuench

    2006-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic separators are commonly used for particle size classification and gravity concentration of minerals and coal. Unfortunately, the efficiency of these processes can be quite low due to poor equipment design and variations in feed consistency. To help alleviate these problems, an industry-driven R&D program has been undertaken to develop a new generation of hydraulic separators that are more efficient and less costly to operate and maintain. These units, which are commercially called the CrossFlow separator and HydroFloat separator, have the potential to improve performance (separation efficiency and throughput) and reduce operating costs (power consumption, water and reagent usage). In Phase I of this project, laboratory and pilot-scale test units were evaluated at various industrial sites in both the coal and mineral industries. Based on promising results obtained from Phase I, full-scale prototypes were purchased and installed by a major U.S. phosphate producer and a large eastern U.S. coal company. The test data obtained from these sites demonstrate that significant performance improvements can be realized through the application of these high-efficiency separators.

  5. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Doshi, Parag (Altanta, GA); Tate, John Keith (Lawrenceville, GA); Mejia, Jose (Atlanta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA)

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

  6. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA); Doshi, Parag (Atlanta, GA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

  7. Highly Efficient Quantum Key Distribution Immune to All Detector Attacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Fei Cao; Yi-Zheng Zhen; Yu-Lin Zheng; Zeng-Bing Chen; Nai-Le Liu; Kai Chen; Jian-Wei Pan

    2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Vulnerabilities and imperfections of single-photon detectors have been shown to compromise security for quantum key distribution (QKD). The measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD) appears to be the most appealing solution to solve the issues. However, in practice one faces severe obstacles of having significantly lower key generation rate, difficult two photon interferences, and remote synchronization etc. In this letter, we propose a highly efficient and simple quantum key distribution scheme to remove all of these drawbacks. Our proposal can be implemented with only small modifications over the standard decoy BB84 system. Remarkably it enjoys both the advantages of high key generation rate (being almost two orders of magnitude higher than that based on conventional MDI-QKD) comparable to the normal decoy system, and security against any detector side channel attacks. Most favorably one can achieve complete Bell state measurements with resort to single photon interference, which reduces significantly experimental costs. Our approach enables utilization of high speed and efficient secure communication, particularly in real-life scenario of both metropolitan and intercity QKD network, with an attack free fashion from arbitrary detector side channels.

  8. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  9. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  10. frequency high efficiency two-stage approach for future microprocessors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuancheng Ren; Dusan Boroyevich; Daan Wyk; Guo Quan; Lu Douglas; K. Lindner; Yuancheng Ren

    It is perceived that Moore’s Law will prevail at least for the next decade, with continuous advancements of processing technologies for very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Nano technology is driving VLSI circuits in a path of greater transistor integration, faster clock frequency, and lower operation voltage. This has imposed a new challenge for delivering highquality power to modern processors. Power management technology is critical for transferring the required high current in a highly efficient way, and accurately regulating the sub-1V voltage in very fast dynamic transient response conditions. Furthermore, the VRs are limited in a given area and the power density is important to save the precious real estate of the motherboard. Based on the power delivery path model, the analysis results show that as long as the bandwidth can reach around 350 kHz, the bulk capacitor of the VR can be completely eliminated, which means significant savings in cost and real estate. Analysis also indicates that 650kHz bandwidth can reduce the number of the decoupling capacitor from 230 to 50 for future microprocessor case. Beyond 650kHz, the reduction is not obvious any more due to the parasitic components along the power delivery path. Following the vision of high bandwidth, the VRs need to operate at much higher frequency

  11. Gaz de France ordering high-efficiency drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Biasi, V.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For natural gas transmission, distribution, and storage operations, Gaz de France is installing Creusot-Loire's new line of high-efficiency gas-turbine packages, powered by Allison 501 and 570 generators for compressor speeds exceeding 10,000 rpm. The Type CA.3 driver comprises a 501 generator coupled to a two-stage power turbine; the ISO base rating is 3265 kW on gas fuel with a heat rate of 12,050 Btu/kWhr. The CA.5 driver with the stronger 570 gas-turbine engine is base-rated at 4805 kW with a heat rate of 11,360 Btu/kWhr. Designed for direct-drive, with no intermediary gearing, the high-speed compressor operates on the 13,820-rpm output shaft speed of the CA.3 for baseload requirements or on 11,500 rpm for the more powerful CA.5 set. These compressor packages will serve as boosters for the transmission and storage of regasified LNG from Algeria and natural gas from the North Sea, USSR, and France's own Lacq fields.

  12. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  13. Analysis of highly-efficient electric residential HPWHs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A scoping level analysis was conducted to identify electric HPWH concepts that have the potential to achieve or exceed 30% source energy savings compared to a gas tankless water heater (GTWH) representative of the type represented in version 0.9.5.2 beta of the BEopt software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis was limited to evaluation of options to improve the energy efficiency of electric HPWH product designs currently on the market in the US. The report first defines the baseline GTWH system and determines its efficiency (source-energy-based adjusted or derated EF of ~0.71). High efficiency components (compressors, pumps, fans, heat exchangers, etc.) were identified and applied to current US HPWH products and analyzed to determine the viability of reaching the target EF. The target site-based energy factor (EF) required for an electric HPWH necessary to provide 30% source energy savings compared to the GTWH baseline unit is then determined to be ~3.19.

  14. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  15. Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

  16. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications...

  17. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally, the transient demonstration was performed in Phase IV. The project demonstrated the achievement of meeting US10 emissions without NOx aftertreatment. The successful execution of the project has served to highlight the effectiveness of closely matched combustion predictive tools to engine testing. It has further served to highlight the importance of key technologies and future areas of research and development. In this regard, recommendations are made towards further improvements in the areas of engine hardware, fuel injection systems, controls and fuels.

  18. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution relied heavily on computational fluid dynamic predictions of design alternatives. The final design features modular separate radiant cells, each with one and two-side fired vertical tubes. The convection section configuration is vertical tube banks enclosed in the radiant channels. Commercial modular plate air preheaters are used. The predicted performance for the integrated advanced heater and Callidus burner is 95 percent efficiency with 9 ppm NOx emissions firing natural gas, and 12 ppm firing refinery gas. The total erected cost is less than a conventional heater with combustion air preheat.

  19. High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of the High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Research Program for the U.S. Department of Energy. Work under this co-funded program began in August 2005 and finished in July 2010. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a low emission, high thermal efficiency engine system that met 2010 EPA heavy-duty on-highway truck emissions requirements (0.2g/bhp-hr NOx, 0.14g/bhp-hr HC and 0.01g/bhp-hr PM) with a thermal efficiency of 46%. To achieve this goal, development of diesel homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was the chosen approach. This report summarizes the development of diesel HCCI combustion and associated enabling technologies that occurred during the HECC program between August 2005 and July 2010. This program showed that although diesel HCCI with conventional US diesel fuel was not a feasible means to achieve the program objectives, the HCCI load range could be increased with a higher volatility, lower cetane number fuel, such as gasoline, if the combustion rate could be moderated to avoid excessive cylinder pressure rise rates. Given the potential efficiency and emissions benefits, continued research of combustion with low cetane number fuels and the effects of fuel distillation are recommended. The operation of diesel HCCI was only feasible at part-load due to a limited fuel injection window. A 4% fuel consumption benefit versus conventional, low-temperature combustion was realized over the achievable operating range. Several enabling technologies were developed under this program that also benefited non-HCCI combustion. The development of a 300MPa fuel injector enabled the development of extended lifted flame combustion. A design methodology for minimizing the heat transfer to jacket water, known as precision cooling, will benefit conventional combustion engines, as well as HCCI engines. An advanced combustion control system based on cylinder pressure measurements was developed. A Well-to-wheels analysis of the energy flows in a mobile vehicle system and a 2nd Law thermodynamic analysis of the engine system were also completed under this program.

  20. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water With High-Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water With High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program: Best Management Practice Case Study 6 - Toilets and Urinals (Fact Sheet), Federal...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high efficiency...

  2. Integration of High Efficiency Solar Cells on Carriers for Concentrating System Applications .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Simon Ka Ming

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??High efficiency multi-junction (MJ) solar cells were packaged onto receiver systems. The efficiency change of concentrator cells under continuous high intensity illumination was done. Also,… (more)

  3. High efficient electrical stimulation of hippocampal slices with vertically aligned carbon nanofiber microbrush array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    9295-7 High efficient electrical stimulation of hippocampalE. D. de Asis Jr. Departments of Electrical Engineering andaligned carbon nanofiber . Electrical stimulation . Neural

  4. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymerorganic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electronhole pairs...

  5. Scientists Confirm Robustness of Key Component in Ultra-High-Efficiency Solar Cell (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists developed and tested a new, stable 1-eV metamorphic junction for a high efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for CPV application.

  6. High efficiency resonant dc/dc converter for solar power applications .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inam, Wardah

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis presents a new topology for a high efficiency dc/dc resonant power converter that utilizes a resistance compression network to provide simultaneous zero voltage… (more)

  7. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light fixture. During the third and final year of the project, the LRC team investigated alternate packaging methods for the white LED device to achieve at least 25 percent more luminous efficacy than traditional white LEDs; conducted optical ray-tracing analyses and human factors studies to determine the best form factor for the white light source under development, in terms of high luminous efficacy and greater acceptance by subjects; and developed a new die encapsulant using silicone-epoxy resins that showed less yellowing and slower degradation. At the conclusion of this project, the LRC demonstrated a new packaging method, called scattered photon extraction (SPE), that produced an average luminous flux and corresponding average efficacy of 90.7 lm and 36.3 lm/W, respectively, compared with 56.5 lm and 22.6 lm/W for a similar commercial white LED package. At low currents, the SPE package emitted white light with an efficacy of over 80 lm/W and had chromaticity values very close to the blackbody locus. The SPE package showed an overall improvement of 61% for this particular comparison, exceeding the LRC's third-year goal of 25% improvement.

  8. EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special machining and heat treatment. Timken designed and manufactured all of the roller bearing related components such as the thrust bearing package. The production connecting rods and camshafts could not be used for the roller bearing engine, so new ones were produced according to the team’s designs using Timken steel. The remaining miscellaneous components were designed and procured by FEV. Timken prepared a display version of the crankshaft portion of the production engine without connecting rods which could be driven by a motor through a cogged-belt and electrically actuated clutch arrangement. A modified version was also made in which the engine was outfitted with roller bearings on the main bearing positions. Preliminary tests showed that the rollerized engine was running with 1/3 less friction than the standard display engine. Additional friction testing and noise characterization was cut short because of shipping damage to the rollerized engine display and because of other project priorities. The team did successfully demonstrate the ability to package roller bearings satisfactorily in numerous locations in a typical automotive engine. The scope of this project did not include durability demonstration and that subject would have to be addressed in any follow-on work. In the actual test phase, the rollerized engine did show significantly less friction in motored dynamometer tests compared to its production equivalent. The 5-10% improvement measured in this study was about half that seen in other studies. However, the fired test results did not show a reduction in friction which did not match prior experience or expectations. Subsequent teardown and inspection of the rollerized engine revealed potential sources of excessive friction in the experimental application. These features would be eliminated in a design not based on modification of production parts. The team is confident (based on experience) that friction reduction would be realized with proper modifications.

  9. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stuecker, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, James E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  10. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  11. NANOSTRUCTURED SOLAR CELLS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY PHOTOVOLTAICS Christiana B. Honsberg1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    for solar energy conversion. NANOSTRUCTURED SOLAR CELLS Nanostructured solar cells offer several advantages to contribute to high efficiency devices NEW CONCEPTS FOR SOLAR CELLS An important advantage for nanostructuredNANOSTRUCTURED SOLAR CELLS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY PHOTOVOLTAICS Christiana B. Honsberg1 , Allen M

  12. Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Three of central challenges in solar cells are high light coupling into solar cell, high light trappingUltrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni- acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic and demonstration of a new ultra-thin high- efficiency organic solar cell (SC), termed "plasmonic cavity

  13. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER (2} (3) (21 icense in and to any copyright covering the drticle. This paper describes a high-efficiency water heater which uses a design approach quite different from the conventional center-flue water heater. While high

  14. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

  15. Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro...

  16. Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  17. Approaches to fabricating high-efficiency ultra-thin CdTe solar cells.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, Wei (1981 - )

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis is an investigation of the fabrication, characterization and performance of high-efficiency and ultra-thin CdTe solar cells with an aim of reducing the material… (more)

  18. High Efficiency CdTe Ink-Based Solar Cells Using Nanocrystals (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This NREL Highlight is being developed for the 2015 February Alliance S&T Board meeting and describes a solution-processable ink to produce high-efficiency solar cells using low temperature and simple processing.

  19. Highly Efficient Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease Agent by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amplification with Beads (PMCAb) Chad J. Johnson1 , Judd M. Aiken2 , Debbie McKenzie2 , Michael D. Samuel3. Citation: Johnson CJ, Aiken JM, McKenzie D, Samuel MD, Pedersen JA (2012) Highly Efficient Amplification

  20. Synthesis of Highly Efficient Flame Retardant High-Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites with Inorgano-Layered Double

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Synthesis of Highly Efficient Flame Retardant High-Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites, Harbin 150080, P. R. China ABSTRACT: High-density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer nanocomposites containing. INTRODUCTION High density polyethylene (HDPE) has good electrical proper- ties, high stiffness, and tensile

  1. Ultra Clean 1.1 MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ultra Clean 1.1 MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered CHP System Contract: DE-EE0004016 GE Energy, Dresser Inc. 102010 - 92014 Jim Zurlo, Principal Investigator...

  2. High-Efficiency and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Efficiency and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using a Single Emitter High-Efficiency and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using a Single Emitter Presenter: Jian...

  3. Webinar: Award-Winning LEEP Campaign Sites Demonstrate Big Savings in High Efficiency Parking Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Lighting Energy Efficiency in Parking (LEEP) Campaign is saving nearly 45 million kilowatt-hours and $4 million annually by upgrading its partners to high efficiency lighting in over 500,000 parking spaces.

  4. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilawa-Podgurski, R. C. N.

    The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system ...

  5. A new power combining and outphasing modulation system for high-efficiency power amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, David J.

    This paper describes a new power combining and outphasing system that provides both high efficiency and linear output control. Whereas conventional outphasing systems utilize two power amplifiers, the system introduced ...

  6. A New Power Combining and Outphasing Modulation System for High-Efficiency Power Amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, David J.

    This paper describes a new power combining and outphasing system that provides both high efficiency and linear output control. Whereas conventional outphasing systems utilize two power amplifiers, the system introduced ...

  7. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Optical-Engine and Surrogate-Fuels Research for an Improved Understanding of Fuel Effects on...

  8. Graphene-Multilayer Graphene Nanocomposites as Highly Efficient Thermal Interface Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    resistance at the graphene-matrix interface. KEYWORDS: Graphene, thermal interface materials, nanocompositesGraphene-Multilayer Graphene Nanocomposites as Highly Efficient Thermal Interface Materials Khan M suggest that graphene-multilayer graphene nanocomposite used as the thermal interface material outperforms

  9. High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Impacts of Advanced Combustion...

  10. High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  11. High efficiency resonant dc/dc converter for solar power applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inam, Wardah

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a new topology for a high efficiency dc/dc resonant power converter that utilizes a resistance compression network to provide simultaneous zero voltage switching and near zero current switching across ...

  12. Testing and Economic Evaluation of a High Efficiency 10-ton Rooftop Air Conditioner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Davis, M. A.

    2006-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a project to design, build and demonstrate a high efficiency commercial rooftop air conditioning unit. The unit was designed by Hibberd Consulting of Westminster, Colorado, and was built...

  13. Recent advances in III-V on Si integration for high-efficiency,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Recent advances in III-V on Si integration for high-efficiency, low cost MJ cells Minjoo Larry Lee for concentrator photovoltaics · Metamorphic mid-infrared (2-3 µm) materials and devices(w/ D.Wasserman, UIUC · Conclusions 4 300 mm Si Low-cost, high- efficiency MJ cells on 300 mm Si 50 mm GaP 150 mm GaAs #12;Challenge

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY MECHANICALLY STACKED MULTI-JUNCTION SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Aiken; Paul Sharps; Mark Stan; Harry Atwater; Anna Fontcuberta I Morral; James Zahler; Mark Wanlass

    Monolithic, 2-terminal, epitaxially grown multi-junctions represent the state-of-the-art in high efficiency photovoltaic space power. Their in-situ monolithic integration results in an elegant device structure with high efficiency, relatively high specific power, and a simple fabrication process. The monolithic, epitaxially grown nature of these devices also imposes materials and design restrictions which impede the march to significantly higher

  15. IH Report # 04-011 April 2004 Mold Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , condensation, etc.) is properly addressed (identified and fixed/eliminated). 4. Work area should be unoccupied parts water) is suggested. 3. Always allow time for treated material to be dried thoroughly 4. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) vacuum can be used after all material is cleaned and dried. Discard filter

  16. Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atreya, Arvind

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a transformational combustion technology for high temperature furnaces to reduce the energy intensity and carbon footprint of U.S. manufacturing industries such as steel, aluminum, glass, metal casting, and petroleum refining. A new technology based on internal and/or external Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) along with significant enhancement in flame radiation was developed. It produces "Radiative Flameless Combustion (RFC)" and offers tremendous energy efficiency and pollutant reduction benefits over and above the now popular "flameless combustion." It will reduce the energy intensity (or fuel consumption per unit system output) by more than 50% and double the furnace productivity while significantly reducing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions (10^3 times reduction in NOx and 10 times reduction in CO & hydrocarbons and 3 times reduction in CO2). Product quality improvements are also expected due to uniform radiation, as well as, reduction in scale/dross formation is expected because of non-oxidative atmosphere. RFC is inexpensive, easy to implement, and it was successfully tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at the University of Michigan during the course of this work. A first-ever theory with gas and particulate radiation was also developed. Numerical programs were also written to design an industrial-scale furnace. Nine papers were published (or are in the process of publication). We believe that this early stage research adequately proves the concept through laboratory experiments, modeling and computational models. All this work is presented in the published papers. Important conclusions of this work are: (1) It was proved through experimental measurements that RFC is not only feasible but a very beneficial technology. (2) Theoretical analysis of RFC was done in (a) spatially uniform strain field and (b) a planar momentum jet where the strain rate is neither prescribed nor uniform. Four important non-dimensional parameters controlling RFC in furnaces were identified. These are: (i) The Boltzmann number; (ii) The Damkohler number, (iii) The dimensionless Arrhenius number, and (iv) The equivalence ratio. Together they define the parameter space where RFC is possible. It was also found that the Damkohler number must be small for RFC to exist and that the Boltzmann number expands the RFC domain. The experimental data obtained during the course of this work agrees well with the predictions made by the theoretical analysis. Interestingly, the equivalence ratio dependence shows that it is easier to establish RFC for rich mixtures than for lean mixtures. This was also experimentally observed. Identifying the parameter space for RFC is necessary for controlling the RFC furnace operation. It is hoped that future work will enable the methodology developed here to be applied to the operation of real furnaces, with consequent improvement in efficiency and pollutant reduction. To reiterate, the new furnace combustion technology developed enables intense radiation from combustion products and has many benefits: (i) Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions; (ii) Uniform and intense radiation to substantially increase productivity; (iii) Oxygen-free atmosphere to reduce dross/scale formation; (iv) Provides multi-fuel capability; and (v) Enables carbon sequestration if pure oxygen is used for combustion.

  17. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  18. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  19. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  20. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANLCorningCaterpillar CRADA) Development of Advanced Particulate Filters...

  1. Particulate Control Device (PCD) Testing at the Power Systems Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longanbach, J.R.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) objectives overseen by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to test systems and components for advanced coal-based power generation systems, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and integrated gasification/fuel cell (IGFC) systems. Stringent particulate requirements for fuel gas for both combustion turbines and fuel cells that are integral to these systems. Particulates erode and chemically attack the blade surfaces in turbines, and cause blinding of the electrodes in fuel cells. Filtration of the hot, high-pressure, gasified coal is required to protect these units. Filtration can be accomplished by first cooling the gas, but the system efficiency is reduced. High-temperature, high-pressure, particulate control devices (PCDs) need to be developed to achieve high efficiency and to extend the lifetime of downstream components to acceptable levels. Demonstration of practical high-temperature PCDs is crucial to the evolution of advanced, high-efficiency, coal-based power generation systems. The intent at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is to establish a flexible test facility that can be used to (1) develop advanced power system components, such as high-temperature, high-pressure PCDs; (2) evaluate advanced power system configurations and (3) assess the integration and control issues of these advanced power systems.

  2. Silicon Photodiodes for High-Efficiency Low-Energy Electron Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    Silicon Photodiodes for High-Efficiency Low-Energy Electron Detection Agata Saki, Lis K. Nanver, T--Solid-state electron detectors have been fabricated using a p+ n silicon photodiode where the p+ region is created near theoretical efficiency at high electron energies. The photodiodes have outstanding performance

  3. Solar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 -340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, JesĂşs A.

    . CUEVAS, A. LUQUE, J. EGUREN and J. DEL ALAMO Instituto de Energia Solar, Escuela Tdcnica Superior deSolar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 - 340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS A solar cells are presented. Effi- ciencies of 15.7% and 13.6% were measured under front and back air mass

  4. Review paper: Toward highly efficient quantum-dot-and dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    Review paper: Toward highly efficient quantum-dot- and dye-sensitized solar cells Hongsik Choi Interface control Light harvesting Tandem solar cell a b s t r a c t Dye- and quantum-dot-sensitized solar technologies of silicon-based solar cells should be resolved [7]. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been

  5. Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes-TiO2 Photoanodes for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes-TiO2 Photoanodes for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Kadiatou photoanodes for dye- sensitized solar cells (DSCs), based on nanocrystalline TiO2 with limited addition applied (i.e., soaking in TiCl4 to boost open circuit photovoltage). INTRODUCTION Dye-sensitized solar

  6. Air-Stable High-Efficiency Solar Cells Using Improved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Air-Stable High-Efficiency Solar Cells Using Improved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films Kehang-3-5800-6983. #12;2 ABSTRACT We present the single-walled carbon nanotube/silicon (SWNT/Si) solar cells approaching, the PCEs of the fabricated solar cells slightly increased after six-month exposure in air without any

  7. EARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    EARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS Yun Seog Lee 1; * Corresponding author: buonassisi@mit.edu; ABSTRACT We investigate earth abundant materials for thin- film solar cuprous oxide (Cu2O) as a prototype candidate for investigation as an absorber layer in thin film solar

  8. FIELD TEST OF A HIGH-EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC-DEFROST REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;FIELD TEST OF A HIGH-EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC- DEFROST REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER By Richard F. Topping and manufacture pre-production units for home usage tests. The purpose of the field test and the associated market been promising. The first five months of field test data have shown an average 57% decrease in energy

  9. Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems with tungsten cermets David, Massachusetts 02139, USA bermel@mit.edu Abstract: Solar thermal, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV by selective solar absorbers and TPV selective emitters. To improve these critical components, we study a class

  10. Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with open metal capture of CO2, which is essential for natural gas purifi- cation and CO2 sequestration, has been reported media. carbon dioxide capture dynamic adsorption reticular chemistry Selective removal of CO2 from

  11. Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated environmental crises such as global warming and ocean acidication, efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) capture As CO2 capture mate- rials, numerous solid adsorbents such as silica5 and carbon materials,6 metal

  12. High-Efficiency Solar Cells for Large-Scale Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Olson, J.; Geisz, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.; Wanlass, M.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Bertness, K.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Young, M.; Carapella, J.; Steiner, M.

    2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    One strategy for helping the solar industry to grow faster is to use very high efficiency cells under concentrating optics. By using lenses or mirrors to concentrate the light, very small solar cells can be used, reducing the amount of semiconductor material and allowing use of higher efficiency cells, which are now >40% efficient.

  13. Design of Heterostructures for High Efficiency Thermionic Emission Zhixi Bian and Ali Shakouri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -state thermionic energy converters are expected to offer a larger thermoelectric power factor ( 2 S ) than uniformDesign of Heterostructures for High Efficiency Thermionic Emission Zhixi Bian and Ali Shakouri heterostructure designs to improve the energy conversion efficiency of solid- state thermionic devices. The first

  14. High-efficient solar power systems based on thermionic converter with small gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolaev, Y.V.; Eryomin, S.A.; Kalmykov, S.S.; Karpechenko, Y.D.; Kucherov, R.Y.; Lapochkin, N.V. [Research Institute of Scientific Industrial Association ``Lutch``, 142100, Podolsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various configurations of power systems based on thermionic converter with small interelectrode gap have been considered. The results of studies of systems energy characteristics are presented. The high efficiency and perspectivety of such systems for different applications have been shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    . Figure 3-1 IV curve of a UT fabricated triple cell, showing 12.7% initial, active-area efficiency. Figure1 High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells PHASE I Annual-junction a-Si Solar Cells with Heavily Doped Thin Interface Layers at the Tunnel Junctions Section 4 High

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle Emily D Kosten1 solar cell under direct sunlight, light is received from the solar disk, but is re-emitted isotropically.1038/lsa.2013.1; published online 4 January 2013 Keywords: detailed balance; GaAs solar cell; light

  17. High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN- sapphire interface M. H. Lo and optimization of a light-emitting diode projection micro-stereolithography three-dimensional manufacturingGaN micro-light emitting diodes Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231110 (2012) A bright cadmium-free, hybrid organic

  18. Evaluation of SiC MOSFETs for a High Efficiency Three-Phase Buck Rectifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    -voltage DC (HVDC) distribution architecture in telecom and data centers was shown to have superior efficiency and reliability compared with the traditional AC architecture [1-2]. HVDC bus is usually set as 380 Vdc or 400 Vdc a high efficiency buck rectifier used in the first stage of HVDC architecture data center power supplies

  19. High efficiency photovoltaic power conditioning system Hosam Sharabash, DVMM Krishna, Norbert Frhleke and Joachim Bcker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    , Germany sharabash@lea.upb.de Abstract A new topology for photovoltaic Power Conditioning System (PCS, this redundant topol- ogy consists of two new components, one for DC/DC converter and one for inverter. The preHigh efficiency photovoltaic power conditioning system Hosam Sharabash, DVMM Krishna, Norbert

  20. innovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Low-bandgap cells can lose 25% of their power output and efficiency ratings as solar cell operating energy output than a low-bandgap cell with the same wattage or power rating. NREL is a nationalinnovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells Researchers

  1. Development of a PF Fired High Efficiency Power Plant (AD700)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of a PF Fired High Efficiency Power Plant (AD700) Rudolph Blum, Sven Kjćr and Jřrgen and nickel-based superalloys for the hottest sections of boilers, steam lines and turbines. Other targets were development of boiler and turbine designs for the more advanced conditions and finally economic

  2. Hexachloroethane: a highly efficient reagent for the synthesis of chlorosilanes from hydrosilanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    Hexachloroethane: a highly efficient reagent for the synthesis of chlorosilanes from hydrosilanes online 27 May 2009 Keywords: Hexachloroethane Hydrosilanes Chlorosilanes Palladium(II) chloride of chlorosilanes from hydrosil- anes. A variety of chlorinating agents in combination with palladium(II) chloride

  3. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinson, P.A.

    1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs.

  4. Durability of Diesel Particulate Filters - Bench Studies on Cordierite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems fundamental...

  5. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions...

  6. Process for particulate removal from coal liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rappe, Gerald C. (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

  7. Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure in Genotoxicity Studies to Support Engineering Development of Emission Controls Preserving Diesel Exhaust...

  8. 7, 1569315721, 2007 Particulate PAH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of sources and15 ages of particles are present. Among carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxide, particulate PAHs are most strongly correlated with NOx. Mexico City's PAH-to-black carbon mass ratio of 0.01 is similar to that found on a freeway loop in the Los Angeles area and approximately 8

  9. Light Trapping for High Efficiency Heterojunction Crystalline Si Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Xu, Y.; Iwaniczko, E.; Page, M.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light trapping plays an important role to achieve high short circuit current density (Jsc) and high efficiency for amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells. Si heterojunction uses hydrogenated amorphous Si for emitter and back contact. This structure of solar cell posses highest open circuit voltage of 0.747 V at one sun for c-Si based solar cells. It also suggests that over 25% record-high efficiency is possible with further improvement of Jsc. Light trapping has two important tasks. The first one is to reduce the surface reflectance of light to zero for the solar spectrum that Si has a response. The second one is to increase the effective absorption length to capture all the photon. For Si heterojunction solar cell, surface texturing, anti-reflectance indium tin oxides (ITO) layer at the front and back are the key area to improve the light trapping.

  10. Development of a solar receiver for a high-efficiency thermionic/thermoelectric conversion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naito, H.; Kohsaka, Y.; Cooke, D.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku Univ., Aramaki (Japan)] [Tohoku Univ., Aramaki (Japan)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar energy is one of the most promising energy resources on Earth and in space, because it is clean and inexhaustible. Therefore, we have been developing a solar-powered high-efficiency thermionic-thermoelectric conversion system which combines a thermionic converter (TIC) with a thermoelectric converter (TEC) to use thermal energy efficiently and to achieve high efficiency conversion. The TIC emitter must uniformly heat up to 1800 K. The TIC emitter can be heated using thermal radiation from a solar receiver maintained at a high temperature by concentrated solar irradiation. A cylindrical cavity-type solar receiver constructed from graphite was designed and heated in a vacuum by using the solar concentrator at Tohoku University. The maximum temperature of the solar receiver enclosed by a molybdenum cup reached 1965 K, which was sufficiently high to heat a TIC emitter using thermal radiation from the receiver. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Research directions and progress in the SERI advanced high efficiency concept program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, L.A.; Benner, J.P.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The inherent electro-optical properties of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and related III-V compounds make this class of semiconductors an optimum choice for use in very high efficiency solar cells. The ability to alloy GaAs with other column III and V elements while maintaining the single crystal zincblende structure allows the photovoltaic properties to be tailored to specific needs. The current understanding and control of the properties of these materials is more advanced than for any other semiconductor except single crystal silicon. For these reasons, the Advanced High Efficiency Concepts Program supports materials research to improve the properties of III-V semiconductors needed to achieve the maximum attainable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies.

  12. Field test of a high-efficiency, automatic-defrost refrigerator-freezer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Topping, R.F.; Vineyard, E.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the successful design, development, and demonstration of a high efficiency refrigerator-freezer prototype, work was done to design and manufacture pre-production units for home usage tests. The purpose of the field test and the associated market evaluation is to confirm the energy saving potential of the high-efficiency design, identify possible design deficiencies or service difficulties, and assess the consumer appeal of the new unit. The first five months of field test data have shown an average 57% decrease in energy consumption when compared to a baseline unit of convention design. This energy savings is larger than predicted by the standard DOE test procedure. No serious design or service problems have been encountered. Consumers have not been adversely affected by the larger cabinet and thicker doors, and responded favorably in an actual retail sales test to initially spending more for an energy-saving refrigerator that will reduce electric usage.

  13. High efficiency SHG of orbital angular momentum light in an external cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhi-Yuan Zhou; Yan Li; Dong-Sheng Ding; Yun-Kun Jiang; Wei Zhang; Shuai Shi; Bao-Sen Shi; Guang-Can Guo

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional methods for generating orbital angular momentum (OAM) light include holographic diffraction gratings, vortex phase plate and spatial light modulator. In this article, we report a new method for high efficient OAM light generation. By pumping an external cavity contains a quasi phase matching nonlinear crystal with a fundamental OAM carrying light and properly aligning the cavity, mode matching between the pump light and the cavitys higher order Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode is achieved, conversion efficiency up to 10.3 percentage have been obtained. We have demonstrated that the cavity can stably operate at its higher order LG mode just as Gaussian mode for the first time. The SHG light possesses a doubled OAM value with respect to the pump light. The parameters that affect the beam quality and conversion efficiency are discussed in detail. Our work opens a brand new field in laser optics, and makes the first step toward high efficiency OAM light processing.

  14. Highly-Efficient Thermoelectronic Conversion of Solar Energy and Heat into Electric Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meir, S; Geballe, T H; Mannhart, J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric power may, in principle, be generated in a highly efficient manner from heat created by focused solar irradiation, chemical combustion, or nuclear decay by means of thermionic energy conversion. As the conversion efficiency of the thermionic process tends to be degraded by electron space charges, the efficiencies of thermionic generators have amounted to only a fraction of those fundamentally possible. We show that this space-charge problem can be resolved by shaping the electric potential distribution of the converter such that the static electron space-charge clouds are transformed into an output current. Although the technical development of practical generators will require further substantial efforts, we conclude that a highly efficient transformation of heat to electric power may well be achieved.

  15. Highly efficient star formation in NGC 5253 possibly from stream-fed accretion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, J L; Benford, D J; Consiglio, S M; Ho, P T P; Kovács, A; Meier, D S; Zhao, J -H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A local dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253, has a young super star cluster that may provide an example of highly efficient star formation. Here we report the detection and imaging, with the Submillimeter Array, of the J= 3-2 rotational transition of CO at the location of the massive cluster associated with the supernebula. The gas cloud is hot, dense, quiescent, and extremely dusty. Its gas-to-dust ratio is lower than the Galactic value, which we attribute to dust enrichment by Wolf-Rayet stars within the embedded star cluster. Its star formation efficiency exceeds 50%, ten times higher than clouds in the Milky Way: this cloud is a factory of stars and soot. We suggest that high efficiency results from the force-feeding of star formation by a streamer of gas falling into the galaxy.

  16. High-efficiency He-3 proportional counter for the detection of delayed neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loaiza, D.J.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work examines a high-neutron efficiency detector used to measure delayed neutron techniques. The measurement of delayed neutrons requires a detector system that has high neutron efficiency and a low dead- time. The detection system must also have low gamma-ray sensitivity, and in addition must be insensitive to small sample displacement. The operating characteristics of the high-efficiency He-3 proportional counter used for the measurement of {beta}{sub i}-delayed neutrons is reported here.

  17. Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehault, N.; Kalz, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant Nicolas R?hault 1 and Doreen Kalz 2 1 Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg, Germany 2 Fraunhofer Institute... for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg, Germany Email: nicolas.rehault@ise.fraunhofer.de Abstract: A significant reduction in the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of supermarkets can be reached by the combination of several innovative...

  18. Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean|

  19. High Efficient Clean Combustion for SuperTruck | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency| -

  20. Life cycle assessment of buildings technologies: High-efficiency commercial lighting and residential water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, S.L.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study the life cycle emissions and energy use are estimated for two types of energy technologies. The first technology evaluated is the sulfur lamp, a high-efficiency lighting system under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Fusion Lighting, the inventor of the technology. The sulfur lamp is compared with conventional metal halide high-intensity discharge lighting systems. The second technology comparison is between standard-efficiency and high-efficiency gas and electric water heaters. In both cases the life cycle energy use and emissions are presented for the production of an equivalent level of service by each of the technologies. For both analyses, the energy use and emissions from the operation of the equipment are found to dominate the life cycle profile. The life cycle emissions for the water heating systems are much more complicated. The four systems compared include standard- and high-efficiency gas water heaters, standard electric resistance water heaters, and heat pump water heaters.

  1. Field test of a high efficiency, automatic defrost refrigerator-freezer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Topping, R.F.; Vineyard, E.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the market evaluation and field test portion of a program to design, develop, and demonstrate a high efficiency, automatic defrosting refrigerator-freezer for the residential market. After the successful completion of Phase I of the program, which concentrated on the design, construction, and laboratory testing of a 453 1 (16 ft/sup 3/) high-efficiency refrigerator-freezer prototype, Phase II was initiated in February 1979 to evaluate the sales potential and performance of the high-efficiency refrigerator concept under field conditions, as a necessary step in creating a product that was both manufacturable and marketable. In Phase I, a survey of food consumption and storage trends, family size, and consumer buying habits led to a sales-weighted average-capacity forecast for 1985 of approximately 453 1 (16 ft/sup 3/) and identification of the top-mount, automatic defrosting refrigerator as the projected sales leader. To meet this market demand, a 453 1 (16 ft/sup 3/) top-mount was selected as the baseline for the Phase I design and development. In Phase II, a 509 1 (18 ft/sup 3/) unit using Phase I technology was chosen for the field test, since the slightly larger model better fit the participating manufacturer's new product development efforts and market.

  2. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  3. Highly efficient inverted organic solar cells using amino acid modified indium tin oxide as cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Aiyuan; Nie, Riming; Deng, Xianyu, E-mail: xydeng@hitsz.edu.cn [Research Center for Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wei, Huaixin; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zheng, Shizhao; Wong, King-Young [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we report that highly efficient inverted organic solar cells were achieved by modifying the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) using an amino acid, Serine (Ser). With the modification of the ITO surface, device efficiency was significantly enhanced from 0.63% to 4.17%, accompanied with an open circuit voltage (Voc) that was enhanced from 0.30?V to 0.55?V. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the work function reduction induced by the amino acid modification resulting in the decreased barrier height at the ITO/organic interface played a crucial role in the enhanced performances.

  4. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  5. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  6. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  7. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Public * Continuing efforts for further CO 2 and PN reduction create a challenging environment for vehicles equipped with DI gasoline engines * Gasoline particulate filters...

  8. Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Technology: Success stories...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Technology: Success stories at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Dr. Amit Shyam, ORNL Sponsored by U.S. Department...

  9. Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Technology: Success stories...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Success stories at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Technology: Success stories at the High Temperature...

  10. Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation pm041lance2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel...

  11. Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  12. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  13. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  14. Thermionic/AMTEC cascade converter concept for high-efficiency space power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagan, T.H. van; Smith, J.N. Jr. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Schuller, M. [PL/VTP, Kirtland AFB, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents trade studies that address the use of the thermionic/AMTEC cell--a cascaded, high-efficiency, static power conversion concept that appears well-suited to space power applications. Both the thermionic and AMTEC power conversion approaches have been shown to be promising candidates for space power. Thermionics offers system compactness via modest efficiency at high heat rejection temperatures, and AMTEC offers high efficiency at modest heat rejection temperature. From a thermal viewpoint the two are ideally suited for cascaded power conversion: thermionic heat rejection and AMTEC heat source temperatures are essentially the same. In addition to realizing conversion efficiencies potentially as high as 35--40%, such a cascade offers the following perceived benefits: survivability; simplicity; technology readiness; and technology growth. Mechanical approaches and thermal/electric matching criteria for integrating thermionics and AMTEC into a single conversion device are described. Focusing primarily on solar thermal space power applications, parametric trends are presented to show the performance and cost potential that should be achievable with present-day technology in cascaded thermionic/AMTEC systems.

  15. Interfacial Engineering for Highly Efficient-Conjugated Polymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex Jen; David Ginger; Christine Luscombe; Hong Ma

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of our proposal is to apply interface engineering approach to improve charge extraction, guide active layer morphology, improve materials compatibility, and ultimately allow the fabrication of high efficiency tandem cells. Specifically, we aim at developing: i. Interfacial engineering using small molecule self-assembled monolayers ii. Nanostructure engineering in OPVs using polymer brushes iii. Development of efficient light harvesting and high mobility materials for OPVs iv. Physical characterization of the nanostructured systems using electrostatic force microscopy, and conducting atomic force microscopy v. All-solution processed organic-based tandem cells using interfacial engineering to optimize the recombination layer currents vi. Theoretical modeling of charge transport in the active semiconducting layer The material development effort is guided by advanced computer modeling and surface/ interface engineering tools to allow us to obtain better understanding of the effect of electrode modifications on OPV performance for the investigation of more elaborate device structures. The materials and devices developed within this program represent a major conceptual advancement using an integrated approach combining rational molecular design, material, interface, process, and device engineering to achieve solar cells with high efficiency, stability, and the potential to be used for large-area roll-to-roll printing. This may create significant impact in lowering manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells for promoting clean renewable energy use and preventing the side effects from using fossil fuels to impact environment.

  16. Cost Effective, High Efficiency Integrated Systems Approach To Auxiliary Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Kessinger; Kanchan Angal; Steve Brewer; Steve Kraihanzel; Lenny Schrank; Jason Wolf

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The CARAT program, carried out by Kinetic Art & Technology Corporation (KAT), has been one of the most commercially successful KAT R&D programs to date. Based on previous development of its technology, KAT designed, constructed and tested a highly efficient motor and controller system under this CARAT program with supplemental commercial funding. Throughout this CARAT effort, the technical objectives have been refined and refocused. Some objectives have been greatly expanded, while others have been minimized. The determining factor in all decisions to refocus the objectives was the commercial need, primarily the needs of KAT manufacturing partners. Several companies are employing the resulting CARAT motor and controller designs in prototypes for commercial products. Two of these companies have committed to providing cost share in order to facilitate the development. One of these companies is a major manufacturing company developing a revolutionary new family of products requiring the ultra-high system efficiency achievable by the KAT motor and controller technologies (known as Segmented ElectroMagnetic Array, or SEMA technology). Another company requires the high efficiency, quiet operation, and control characteristics afforded by the same basic motor and controller for an advanced air filtration product. The combined annual production requirement projected by these two companies exceeds one million units by 2005.

  17. Cost Effective, High Efficiency Integrated Systems Approach to Auxilliary Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Kessinger Jr.; Keith Seymour; Kanchan Angal; Jason Wolf; Steve Brewer; Leonard Schrank

    2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The CARAT program, carried out by Kinetic Art & Technology Corporation (KAT), has been one of the most commercially successful KAT R&D programs to date. Based on previous development of its technology, KAT designed, constructed and tested a highly efficient motor and controller system under this CARAT program with supplemental commercial funding. Throughout this CARAT effort, the technical objectives have been refined and refocused. Some objectives have been greatly expanded, while others have been minimized. The determining factor in all decisions to refocus the objectives was the commercial need, primarily the needs of KAT manufacturing partners. Several companies are employing the resulting CARAT motor and controller designs in prototypes for commercial products. Two of these companies have committed to providing cost share in order to facilitate the development. One of these companies is a major manufacturing company developing a revolutionary new family of products requiring the ultra-high system efficiency achievable by the KAT motor and controller technologies (known as Segmented ElectroMagnetic Array, or SEMA technology). Another company requires the high efficiency, quiet operation, and control characteristics afforded by the same basic motor and controller for an advanced air filtration product. The combined annual production requirement projected by these two companies exceeds one million units by 2005.

  18. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  19. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  20. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high efficiency...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency VCR Engine with Variable Valve Actuation and new Supercharging Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Envera LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high efficiency VCR engine...

  3. Flow-Through Microfluidic Device for High-Efficiency Transfection of Mammalian Cells through Combined Microelectroporation and Sonoporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longsine, Whitney Leigh

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we are presenting a proof-of-concept microfluidic device that simultaneously applies the conditions required for microelectroporation and micro-sonoporation in a flow-through fashion that allows for high throughput, high efficiency...

  4. Study of Energy and Demand Savings on a High Efficiency Hydraulic Pump System with Infinite Turn Down Technology (ITDT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sfeir, R. A.; Kanungo, A.; Liou, S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed field measurement and verification of electrical energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings is conducted on an injection molding machine used in typical plastic manufacturing facility retrofitted with a high efficiency hydraulic pump system...

  5. Simulation of Dehumidification Characteristics of High Efficiency Residential Central Air-Conditioners in Hot and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D.; Somasundram, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the dehumidifying performance of the high efficiency residential central air conditioners (CAC) in hot/humid climates typified by that of Houston and Galveston. The performance study is based on such factors as: (i) weather (ii...

  6. Edinburgh Research Explorer Pulmonary diesel particulate increases susceptibility to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Pulmonary diesel particulate increases susceptibility to myocardial, MR & Gray, GA 2014, 'Pulmonary diesel particulate increases susceptibility to myocardial ischemia. Pulmonary diesel particulate increases susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via

  7. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Final Technical Report for the Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Final Technical Report for the PeriodTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. Phases I and II have the performance of a-SiGe solar cells and properties of a-SiGe single layer films with different Ge contents

  8. HIGH EFFICIENCY CdTe/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH A NOVEL BACK-CONTACT Nicola Romeoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    HIGH EFFICIENCY CdTe/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH A NOVEL BACK-CONTACT Nicola Romeoa , Alessio in the fabrication of high efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells. Usually, it is done first by etching the Cd: Back Contact, CdTe, Thin Film 1 INTRODUCTION The back contact in the CdTe/CdS thin film solar cell

  9. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Annual Technical Report for the Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Annual Technical Report for the Period solar cells and on high efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. The effort on CdTe- based materials the performance of a-SiGe solar cells and properties of a-SiGe single layer films with different Ge contents

  10. A High Efficiency DC-DC Converter Topology Suitable for Distributed Large Commercial and Utility Scale PV Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed S. Agamy; Maja Harfman-Todorovic; Ahmed Elasser; Robert L. Steigerwald; Juan A. Sabate; Song Chi; Adam J. McCann; Li Zhang; Frank Mueller

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a DC-DC power converter for distributed photovoltaic plant architectures is presented. The proposed converter has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, and low cost. High efficiency is achieved by having a portion of the input PV power directly fed forward to the output without being processed by the converter. The operation of this converter also allows for a simplified maximum power point tracker design using fewer measurements

  11. Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

  12. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  13. Simulation of a High Efficiency Multi-bed Adsorption Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Humble, Paul H.; Sweeney, J. B.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attaining high energy efficiency with adsorption heat pumps is challenging due to thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. The multi-bed concept described here effectively transfers heat from beds being cooled to beds being heated, which enables high efficiency in thermally driven heat pumps. A simplified lumped-parameter model and detailed finite element analysis are used to simulate the performance of an ammonia-carbon sorption compressor, which is used to project the overall heat pump coefficient of performance. The effects of bed geometry and number of beds on system performance are explored, and the majority of the performance benefit is obtained with four beds. Results indicate that a COP of 1.24 based on heat input is feasible at AHRI standard test conditions for residential HVAC equipment. When compared on a basis of primary energy input, performance equivalent to SEER 13 or 14 are theoretically attainable with this system.

  14. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  15. Electrical heating of soils using high efficiency electrode patterns and power phases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buettner, Harley M. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powerline-frequency electrical (joule) heating of soils using a high efficiency electrode configuration and power phase arrangement. The electrode configuration consists of several heating or current injection electrodes around the periphery of a volume of soil to be heated, all electrodes being connected to one phase of a multi-phase or a single-phase power system, and a return or extraction electrode or electrodes located inside the volume to be heated being connected to the remaining phases of the multi-phase power system or to the neutral side of the single-phase power source. This electrode configuration and power phase arrangement can be utilized anywhere where powerline frequency soil heating is applicable and thus has many potential uses including removal of volatile organic compounds such as gasoline and tricholorethylene (TCE) from contaminated areas.

  16. Lattice-Mismatched III-V Epilayers for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrenkiel, Scott Phillip [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology] [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project focused on development of new approaches and materials combinations to expand and improve the quality and versatility of lattice-mismatched (LMM) III-V semiconductor epilayers for use in high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaic (PV) devices. To address these goals, new capabilities for materials synthesis and characterization were established at SDSM&T that have applications in modern opto- and nano-electronics, including epitaxial crystal growth and transmission electron microscopy. Advances were made in analyzing and controlling the strain profiles and quality of compositional grades used for these technologies. In particular, quaternary compositional grades were demonstrated, and a quantitative method for characteristic X-ray analysis was developed. The project allowed enhanced collaboration between scientists at NREL and SDSM&T to address closely related research goals, including materials exchange and characterization.

  17. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped features. As a result, we believe that this work will lead to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing solution to produce very-high efficiency OLEDs. By comparison to more common ink-jet printing (IJP), OVJP can also produce well-defined patterns without the need to pattern the substrate with ink wells or to dry/anneal the ink. In addition, the material set is not limited by viscosity and solvent solubility. During the program we successfully demonstrated a 6-inch x 6-inch PHOLED lighting panel consisting of fine-featured red, green and blue (R-G-B) stripes (1mm width) using an OVJP deposition system that was designed, procured and installed into UDC's cleanroom as part of this program. This project will significantly accelerate the DOE's ability to meet its 2015 DOE SSL targets of 70-150 lumens/Watt and less than $10 per 1,000 lumens for high CRI lighting index (76-90). Coupled with a low cost manufacturing path through OVJP, we expect that this achievement will enable the DOE to achieve its 2015 performance goals by the year 2013, two years ahead of schedule. As shown by the technical work performed under this program, we believe that OVJP is a very promising technology to produce low cost, high efficacy, color tunable light sources. While we have made significant progress to develop OVJP technology and build a pilot line tool to study basic aspects of the technology and demonstrate a lighting panel prototype, further work needs to be performed before its full potential and commercial viability can be fully assessed.

  18. High efficiency off-axis current drive by high frequency fast waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prater, R.; Pinsker, R. I.; Moeller, C. P. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Porkolab, M.; Vdovin, V. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling work shows that current drive can be done off-axis with high efficiency, as required for FNSF and DEMO, by using very high harmonic fast waves (“helicons” or “whistlers”). The modeling indicates that plasmas with high electron beta are needed in order for the current drive to take place off-axis, making DIII-D a highly suitable test vehicle for this process. The calculations show that the driven current is not very sensitive to the launched value of n{sub ?}, a result that can be understood from examination of the evolution of n{sub ?} as the waves propagate in the plasma. Because of this insensitivity, relatively large values (?3) of n{sub ?} can be launched, thereby avoiding some of the problems with mode conversion in the boundary found in some previous experiments. Use of a traveling wave antenna provides a very narrow n{sub ?} spectrum, which also helps avoid mode conversion.

  19. High efficiency direct detection of ions from resonance ionization of sputtered atoms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Oak Brook, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for trace and other quantitative analysis with high efficiency of a component in a sample, with the analysis involving the removal by ion or other bombardment of a small quantity of ion and neutral atom groups from the sample, the conversion of selected neutral atom groups to photoions by laser initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, the selective deflection of the photoions for separation from original ion group emanating from the sample, and the detection of the photoions as a measure of the quantity of the component. In some embodiments, the original ion group is accelerated prior to the RIS step for separation purposes. Noise and other interference are reduced by shielding the detector from primary and secondary ions and deflecting the photoions sufficiently to avoid the primary and secondary ions.

  20. High efficiency direct detection of ions from resonance ionization of sputtered atoms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Pellin, M.J.; Young, C.E.

    1985-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for trace and other quantitative analysis with high efficiency of a component in a sample, with the analysis involving the removal by ion or other bombardment of a small quantity of ion and neutral atom groups from the sample, the conversion of selected neutral atom groups to photoions by laser initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, the selective deflection of the photoions for separation from original ion group emanating from the sample, and the detection of the photoions as a measure of the quantity of the component. In some embodiments, the original ion group is accelerated prior to the RIS step for separation purposes. Noise and other interference are reduced by shielding the detector from primary and secondary ions and deflecting the photoions sufficiently to avoid the primary and secondary ions.

  1. Performance of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor. Task 2, Pilot scale combustion tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toqan, M.A.; Paloposki, T.; Yu, T.; Teare, J.D.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract from DOE-PETC, Combustion Engineering, Inc. undertook the lead-role in a multi-task R&D program aimed at development of a new burner system for coal-based fuels; the goal was that this burner system should be capable of being retrofitted in oil- or gas-fired industrial boilers, or usable in new units. In the first phase of this program a high efficiency advanced coal combustor was designed jointly by CE and MIT. Its burner is of the multiannular design with a fixed shrouded swirler in the center immediately surrounding the atomizer gun to provide the ``primary act,`` and three further annuli for the supply of the ``secondary air.`` The degree of rotation (swirl) in the secondary air is variable. The split of the combustion air into primary and secondary air flows serves the purpose of flame stabilization and combustion staging, the latter to reduce NO{sub x} formation.

  2. Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

  3. Demonstration of High Efficiency Elastocaloric Cooling with Large Delta- T Using NiTi Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jun; Wu, Yiming; Muehlbauer, Jan; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Fackler, Sean; Wuttig, Manfred; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit, but its envi-ronmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochlo-roflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas (GHG) emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2. It is expected that building space cooling and re-frigeration alone will amount to {approx} 5% of primary energy consumption and {approx}5% of all CO2 emission in U.S. in 2030 . As such, there is an urgent need to develop an al-ternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly. Among the proposed candidates, magnetocaloric cooling (MC) is currently received a lot of attention because of its high efficiency. However, MC is inherently expensive because of the requirement of large magnetic field and rare earth materi-als. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation. We call it elasto-caloric cooling (EC) after the superelastic transformation of austenite it utilizes. The solid-state refrigerant of EC is cost-effective, and it completely eliminates the use of any refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs. We show that the COP (coefficient of per-formance) of a jugular EC with optimized materials can be as high as > 10 with measured {Delta}T of 17 C.

  4. Measuring PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter using a Terahertz Wave Scanner Measuring PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter using a Terahertz Wave Scanner...

  5. Emissions and Durability of Underground Mining Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Durability of Underground Mining Diesel Particulate Filter Applications Emissions and Durability of Underground Mining Diesel Particulate Filter Applications Presentation given...

  6. Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Using a non-parametric...

  7. Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (Agreement ID...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (Agreement ID:10461) Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (Agreement ID:10461) 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  8. Feasibility of the detection of trace elements in particulate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of trace elements in particulate matter using online High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry. Feasibility of the detection of trace elements in particulate matter using online...

  9. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Filters Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANLCorningCaterpillar CRADA)...

  10. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANLCorningCaterpillar CRADA) Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems Development of...

  11. Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters Non-destructive, non-invasive imaging is being...

  12. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  13. Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  14. Value Analysis of Alternative Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Value Analysis of Alternative Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Substrates for Future Diesel Aftertreatment Systems Value Analysis of Alternative Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)...

  15. New Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non-Catalyzed Applications New Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non-Catalyzed Applications 2003 DEER...

  16. CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency Generator Sets CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency Generator Sets 2005...

  17. A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

  18. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization 2005 Diesel Engine...

  19. Single Wall Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Filtration Efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single Wall Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Filtration Efficiency Studies Using Laboratory Generated Particles. Single Wall Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Filtration Efficiency...

  20. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods...

  1. Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperatur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion Engines Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Particulate Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems for GDI Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration...

  3. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  4. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong potential for net gains in efficiency at high concentration.

  5. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  6. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Richard M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images taken as a singleforward-looking infrared (FLIR) instrumentation. Particulate

  7. Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) from High Efficiency Clean Combustion: Catalytic Exhaust Treatment Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) strategies such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer much promise for the reduction of NOx and PM from diesel engines. While delivering low PM and low NOx, these combustion modes often produce much higher levels of CO and HC than conventional diesel combustion modes. In addition, partially oxygenated species such as formaldehyde (an MSAT) and other aldehydes increase with HECC modes. The higher levels of CO and HCs have the potential to compromise the performance of the catalytic aftertreatment, specifically at low load operating points. As HECC strategies become incorporated into vehicle calibrations, manufacturers need to avoid producing MSATs in higher quantities than found in conventional combustion modes. This paper describes research on two different HECC strategies, HCCI and PCCI. Engine-out data for several MSAT species (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, naphthalene, PAHs, diesel PM) as well as other HC species are presented and compared when possible with conventional operation. In addition, catalyst-out values were measured to assess the destruction of individual MSATs over the catalyst. At low engine loads, MSATs were higher and catalyst performance was poorer. Particle sizing results identify large differences between PM from conventional and HECC operation.

  8. Highly efficient blue OLEDs based on diphenylaminofluorenylstyrenes end-capped with heterocyclic aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Suhyun [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kum Hee; Kim, Young Kwan [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have designed four diphenylaminofluorenylstyrene derivatives end-capped with heterocyclic aromatic groups, such as 9-phenylcabazole, 4-dibenzofuran, 2-benzoxazole, 2-quinoxaline, respectively. These materials showed blue to red fluorescence with maximum emission wavelengths of 476–611 nm, respectively, which were dependent on the structural and electronic nature of end-capping groups. To explore the electroluminescent properties of these materials, multilayer OLEDs were fabricated in the following sequence: ITO/DNTPD (40 nm)/NPB (20 nm)/2% doped in MADN (20 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (40 nm)/Liq. (1 nm)/Al. Among those, a device exhibited a highly efficient blue emission with the maximum luminance of 14,480 cd/m{sup 2} at 9 V, the luminous efficiency of 5.38 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, power efficiency of 2.77 lm/W at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, and CIE{sub x,y} coordinates of (0.147, 0.152) at 8 V, respectively.

  9. Development of manufacturing capability for high-concentration, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, R.A.; Verlinden, P.J.; Crane, R.A.; Swanson, R.N. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a summary of the major results from a program to develop a manufacturable, high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cell and a cost-effective manufacturing facility. The program was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, Sandia National Laboratories through the Concentrator Initiative, and SunPower Corporation. The key achievements of the program include the demonstration of 26%-efficient silicon concentrator solar cells with design-point (20 W/cm{sup 2}) efficiencies over 25%. High-performance front-surface passivations; that were developed to achieve this result were verified to be absolutely stable against degradation by 475 days of field exposure at twice the design concentration. SunPower demonstrated pilot production of more than 1500 of these cells. This cell technology was also applied to pilot production to supply 7000 17.7-cm{sup 2} one-sun cells (3500 yielded wafers) that demonstrated exceptional quality control. The average efficiency of 21.3% for these cells approaches the peak efficiency ever demonstrated for a single small laboratory cell within 2% (absolute). Extensive cost models were developed through this program and calibrated by the pilot-production project. The production levels achieved indicate that SunPower could produce 7-10 MW of concentrator cells per year in the current facility based upon the cell performance demonstrated during the program.

  10. Low background high efficiency radiocesium detection system based on positron emission tomography technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ogata, Yoshimune [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)] [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    After the 2011 nuclear power plant accident at Fukushima, radiocesium contamination in food became a serious concern in Japan. However, low background and high efficiency radiocesium detectors are expensive and huge, including semiconductor germanium detectors. To solve this problem, we developed a radiocesium detector by employing positron emission tomography (PET) technology. Because {sup 134}Cs emits two gamma photons (795 and 605 keV) within 5 ps, they can selectively be measured with coincidence. Such major environmental gamma photons as {sup 40}K (1.46 MeV) are single photon emitters and a coincidence measurement reduces the detection limit of radiocesium detectors. We arranged eight sets of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BGO) scintillation detectors in double rings (four for each ring) and measured the coincidence between these detectors using PET data acquisition system. A 50 × 50 × 30 mm BGO was optically coupled to a 2 in. square photomultiplier tube (PMT). By measuring the coincidence, we eliminated most single gamma photons from the energy distribution and only detected those from {sup 134}Cs at an average efficiency of 12%. The minimum detectable concentration of the system for the 100 s acquisition time is less than half of the food monitor requirements in Japan (25 Bq/kg). These results show that the developed radiocesium detector based on PET technology is promising to detect low level radiocesium.

  11. High Efficiency Optical MEMS by the Integration of Photonic Lattices with Surface MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FLEMING, JAMES G.; LIN, SHAWN-YU; MANI, SEETHAMBAL S.; RODGERS, M. STEVEN; DAGEL, DARYL J.

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines our work on the integration of high efficiency photonic lattice structures with MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems). The simplest of these structures were based on 1-D mirror structures. These were integrated into a variety of devices, movable mirrors, switchable cavities and finally into Bragg fiber structures which enable the control of light in at least 2 dimensions. Of these devices, the most complex were the Bragg fibers. Bragg fibers consist of hollow tubes in which light is guided in a low index media (air) and confined by surrounding Bragg mirror stacks. In this work, structures with internal diameters from 5 to 30 microns have been fabricated and much larger structures should also be possible. We have demonstrated the fabrication of these structures with short wavelength band edges ranging from 400 to 1600nm. There may be potential applications for such structures in the fields of integrated optics and BioMEMS. We have also looked at the possibility of waveguiding in 3 dimensions by integrating defects into 3-dimensional photonic lattice structures. Eventually it may be possible to tune such structures by mechanically modulating the defects.

  12. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  13. An improved visualization of diesel particulate filter/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boehm, Kevin (Kevin W.)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prevalence of diesel particulate filters (DPF) is increasing as emissions standards worldwide evolve to match current technologies. Since the first application of DPFs in the 1980's, PM trapping effectiveness has ...

  14. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer. p-10gibbs.pdf...

  15. Desorption of hexachlorobiphenyl from selected particulate matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rorschach, Reagan Cartwright

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DESORPTION OF HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL FROM SELECTED PARTICULATE MATTER A Thesis by REAGAN CARTWRIGHT RORS CHACH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Civil Engineering DESORPTION OF HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL FROM SELECTED PARTICULATE MATTER A Thesis by REAGAN C. RORSCHACH Approved as to style and content by: Robin L. Autenrieth (Chair of Committee...

  16. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the January-March, 2002 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. Some instrumental issues were noted with the upgrade of the APS model 3320 are described in the report, as well as preliminary performance indications for the upgraded instrument. During the quarter preliminary data analysis and modeling studies were conducted to test the potential of the North Birmingham site data for source attribution analyses. Our initial assessment has continued to be optimistic in this regard due to the location of the site relative to several important classes of local and midrange emission sources. We anticipate that these analyses will provide good separations of the effects of major source classes and spatial source clusters, and will provide useful information relevant to PM{sub 2.5} implementation strategies.

  17. High Efficiency Single Crystal CdTe Solar Cells: November 19, 2009 - January 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, M.; Gilmore, A.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the program was to develop single crystal CdTe-based top cells grown on Si solar cells as a platform for the subsequent manufacture of high efficiency tandem cells for CPV applications. The keys to both the single junction and the tandem junction cell architectures are the ability to grow high quality single-crystal CdTe and CdZnTe layers on p-type Si substrates, to dope the CdTe and CdZnTe controllably, both n and p-type, and to make low resistance ohmic front and back contacts. EPIR demonstrated the consistent MBE growth of CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si having high crystalline quality despite very large lattice mismatches; epitaxial CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si consistently showed state-of-the-art electron mobilities and good hole mobilities; bulk minority carrier recombination lifetimes of unintentionally p-doped CdTe and CdZnTe grown by MBE on Si were demonstrated to be consistently of order 100 ns or longer; desired n- and p-doping levels were achieved; solar cell series specific resistances <10 ?-cm2 were achieved; A single-junction solar cell having a state-of-the-art value of Voc and a unverified 16.4% efficiency was fabricated from CdZnTe having a 1.80 eV bandgap, ideal for the top junction in a tandem cell with a Si bottom junction.

  18. Development of A Self Biased High Efficiency Solid-State Neutron Detector for MPACT Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara; Jian-Qiang Lu, James

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron detection is an important aspect of materials protection, accounting, and control for transmutation (MPACT). Currently He-3 filled thermal neutron detectors are utilized in many applications; these detectors require high-voltage bias for operation, which complicates the system when multiple detectors are used. In addition, due to recent increase in homeland security activity and the nuclear renaissance, there is a shortage of He-3, and these detectors become more expensive. Instead, cheap solid-state detectors that can be mass produced like any other computer chips will be developed. The new detector does not require a bias for operation, has low gamma sensitivity, and a fast response. The detection system is based on a honeycomb-like silicon device, which is filled with B-10 as the neutron converter; while a silicon p-n diode (i.e., solar cell type device) formed on the thin silicon wall of the honeycomb structure detects the energetic charged particles emitted from the B-10 conversion layer. Such a detector has ~40% calculated thermal neutron detection efficiency with an overall detector thickness of about 200 ?m. Stacking of these devices allows over 90% thermal neutron detection efficiency. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a high-efficiency, low-noise, self-powered solid-state neutron detector system based on the promising results of the existing research program. A prototype of this solid-state neutron detector system with sufficient detector size (up to 8-inch diam., but still portable and inexpensive) and integrated with interface electronics (e.g., preamplifier) will be designed, fabricated, and tested as a coincidence counter for MPACT applications. All fabrications proposed are based on silicon-compatible processing; thus, an extremely cheap detector system could be massively produced like any other silicon chips. Such detectors will revolutionize current neutron detection systems by providing a solid-state alternative to traditional gas-based neutron detectors.

  19. High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) and Converter Advancement (CAP) programs. Final reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, C.B.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.R. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States)] [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Desplat, J.L.; Hansen, L.K.; Hatch, G.L.; McVey, J.B.; Rasor, N.S. [Rasor Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)] [Rasor Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the final report of the High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) Program, Attachment A, performed at Rasor Associates, Inc. (RAI); and the final report of the Converter Advancement Program (CAP), performed at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Attachment B. The phenomenology of cesium-oxygen thermionic converters was elucidated in these programs, and the factors that had prevented the achievement of stable, enhanced cesium-oxygen converter performance for the previous thirty years were identified. Based on these discoveries, cesium-oxygen vapor sources were developed that achieved stable performance with factor-of-two improvements in power density and thermal efficiency, relative to conventional, cesium-only ignited mode thermionic converters. Key achievements of the HET-IV/CAP programs are as follows: a new technique for measuring minute traces of oxygen in cesium atmospheres; the determination of the proper range of oxygen partial pressures for optimum converter performance--10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}9} torr; the discovery, and analysis of the cesium-oxygen liquid migration and compositional segregation phenomena; the successful use of capillary forces to contain the migration phenomenon; the use of differential heating to control compositional segregation, and induce vapor circulation; the development of mechanically and chemically stable, porous reservoir structures; the development of precise, in situ oxygen charging methods; stable improvements in emitter performance, up to effective emitter bare work functions of 5.4 eV; stable improvements in barrier index, to value below 1.8 Volts; the development of detailed microscopic models for cesium-oxygen reservoir dynamics and collector work function behavior; and the discovery of new relationships between electrode geometry and Schock Instability.

  20. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  1. High efficiency photodetectors fabricated by electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly of CdTe quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Lih Y.

    High efficiency photodetectors fabricated by electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly of CdTe 20 October 2008 We demonstrate high-performance photodetectors from multilayers of CdTe quantum dots. The synthesis of CdTe QDs in aqueous solution using cadmium perchlorate hydrate and Al2Te3 was previously re

  2. Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection Agata Sakic a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection Agata Sakic´ a photodiodes Electron detection Low-energy electrons Boron deposition Ultrashallow junctions Responsivity Electron signal gain Electron irradiation Dark current degradation a b s t r a c t Silicon photodiodes

  3. Hole-conductor-free perovskite organic lead iodide heterojunction thin-film solar cells: High efficiency and junction property

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Hole-conductor-free perovskite organic lead iodide heterojunction thin-film solar cells: High-conductor-free organic lead iodide thin film solar cells have been fabricated with a sequential deposition method are comparable to that of the high-efficiency thin-film solar cells. VC 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. [http

  4. Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 laser by direct in-band diode pumping at 914 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 laser by direct in-band diode pumping at 914 nm Damien Sangla,1,2 Marc (Doc. ID 109884); published July 9, 2009 A Nd:YVO4 crystal was pumped directly into the emitting level nm for an absorbed pump power of 14.6 W, corresponding to an optical efficiency of 78.7%. We

  5. ENI Renewable and Non-conventional Energy Prize 2012 High-efficiency solar cells based on nanophotonic design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    new solar cell designs that enable both a higher photovoltaic conversion efficiency and reduced) Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics, A. Polman and H.A. Atwater, Nature MaterENI Renewable and Non-conventional Energy Prize 2012 High-efficiency solar cells based

  6. High-Efficiency Harmonically-Terminated Rectifier for Wireless Powering Applications Michael Roberg, Erez Falkenstein and Zoya Popovic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    , Erez Falkenstein and Zoya Popovic Department of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, University effect on overall system efficiency. This paper presents an approach to high-efficiency microwave high-power directive wireless beaming, e.g. [I], and low-power harvesting, e.g. [2]. Other applications

  7. HIGH-EFFICIENCY BACK-JUNCTION SILICON SOLAR CELL WITH AN IN-LINE EVAPORATED ALUMINUM FRONT GRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HIGH-EFFICIENCY BACK-JUNCTION SILICON SOLAR CELL WITH AN IN-LINE EVAPORATED ALUMINUM FRONT GRID M-diffused back-junction emitter. The aluminum front side grid is evaporated in an industrial-type in-thick silicon shadow masks for the in-line evaporation of the aluminum front grid. The masks are fabricated

  8. ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR to those measured on reference cells passivated by an aluminum-annealed thermal SiO2, while those of the Al of aluminum ox- ide (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) pro- vide an excellent level of sur

  9. Vanderbauwhede, W., Azzopardi, L. and Moadeli, M. (2009) FPGA-accelerated information retrieval: high-efficiency document filtering. In

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azzopardi, Leif

    efficient solutions for processing large amounts of data and information. Re- ducing the amount of energy is paramount. Therefore, our aim is to filter documents efficiently in terms of both time and energy: high-efficiency document filtering. In: International Conference on Field Programmable Logic

  10. High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on Si by InP layer transfer James M. Zahler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on Si by InP layer transfer James M. Zahler Aonex Technologies, Pasadena, California 91106 Katsuaki Tanabea Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Corinne Ladous and Tom Pinnington Aonex Technologies

  11. Low-cost, highly efficient, and tunable ultrafast laser technology based on directly diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirbas, Umit

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This doctoral project aims to develop robust, ultra low-cost ($5,000-20,000), highly-efficient, and tunable femtosecond laser technology based on diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite gain media (Cr:LiCAF, Cr3+:LiSAF and Cr:LiSGaF). ...

  12. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 1, NO. 1, JULY 2011 49 High Efficiency n-Type Emitter-Wrap-Through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Verena Mertens, Stefan Bordihn, Christina Peters, and J¨org W. M¨uller Abstract--In the ALBA-II project, Emmerthal, Germany, are developing high-efficiency emitter-wrap-through (EWT) solar cells on n-type silicon cell development as it offers high bulk carrier lifetimes. The EWT device structure allows us to em

  13. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  14. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

  15. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.C.

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best suited to driving the selected thermochemical process and to define the selected reactor and process to the point that capital costs, operating costs and the resultant cost of hydrogen can be estimated. During original contract negotiation, it was necessary to reduce work scope to meet funding limits. As a result, the reactor interface and process will not be iterated to the point that only hydrogen is produced. Rather, hydrogen and electricity will be co-generated and the hydrogen cost will be stated as a function of the electricity sales price.

  16. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

  17. US Department of Energy`s high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup for advanced coal-based power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, R.A.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of reliable, low-cost electricity is a cornerstone for the United States` ability to compete in the world market. The Department of Energy (DOE) projects the total consumption of electricity in the US to rise from 2.7 trillion kilowatt-hours in 1990 to 3.5 trillion in 2010. Although energy sources are diversifying, fossil fuel still produces 90 percent of the nation`s energy. Coal is our most abundant fossil fuel resource and the source of 56 percent of our electricity. It has been the fuel of choice because of its availability and low cost. A new generation of high-efficiency power systems has made it possible to continue the use of coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems greatly reduce the pollutants associated with cola-fired plants built before the 1970s. To realize this high efficiency and superior environmental performance, advanced coal-based power systems will require gas stream cleanup under high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) process conditions. Presented in this paper are the HTHP particulate capture requirements for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) power systems, the HTHP particulate cleanup systems being implemented in the PFBC and IGCC Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Projects, and the currently available particulate capture performance results.

  18. Evaluation of Lifetime of High Efficiency Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-379

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of this joint work, Solarmer and NREL will investigate the lifetime and stability of Organic Photovoltaic Devices based on Solarmer high efficiency active layer materials.

  19. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  20. Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Morante

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and remedial time required by the electrician and end user. (3) Minimize ongoing perceived overhead costs and inconvenience to the end user, or in other words, systems should be simple to understand and use. In addition, we believe that no lighting controls solution is effective or acceptable unless it contributes to, or does not compromise, the following goals: (1) Productivity--Planning, installation, commissioning, maintenance, and use of controls should not decrease business productivity; (2) Energy savings--Lighting controls should save significant amounts of energy and money in relation to the expense involved in using them (acceptable payback period); and/or (3) Reduced power demand--Society as a whole should benefit from the lowered demand for expensive power and for more natural resources. Discussions of technology barriers and developments are insufficient by themselves to achieve higher penetration of lighting controls in the market place. Technology transfer efforts must play a key role in gaining market acceptance. The LRC developed a technology transfer model to better understand what actions are required and by whom to move any technology toward full market acceptance.

  1. Modeling of Particulate Behavior in Pinhole Breaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model is presented for calculating depressurization time for and particulate release from used nuclear fuel dry storage containers that have developed a pinhole breach. Particular attention is given to particulate deposition and transmission within the breach pathway. The model is modular in nature and is developed in a way that allows for more advanced treatments of internal temperature, internal component geometry, or aerosol flow to be readily incorporated. The model can be treated as a basis for addressing concerns associated with monitoring and verification efforts during long-term dry cask storage

  2. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  3. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  4. Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Annual subcontract report, 1 November 1992--31 May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, M.; Kampas, F.; Xi, J. [Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes progress made in the first half of Phase II of a three-phase program to develop high-efficiency, same-band-gap, amorphous-silicon, tandem-junction modules. Results for both 1-cm- {sup 2} devices and 0.3-m (0.09-m{sup 2}) modules are given. considerable effort was devoted to finding a device structure and layer conditions that reconcile the conflicting requirements of a good ``tunnel junction`` contact between the two stacks and a high-efficiency device. High-band-gap p{sub 2}layers, which enable good voltage and current from the second stack, were found to result in poor tunnel junctions. The best results were obtained by using a thin (1-nm-thick) p{sup +} layer (no carbon) between the n{sub 1} and p{sub 2} layers of the device.

  5. Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters CRADA No. ORNL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters CRADA No. ORNL-04-0692 with Cummins Inc. Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters CRADA No. ORNL-04-0692 with Cummins Inc....

  6. In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Exhaust Materails from a Set of Gasoline and a Set of Diesel Engine Vehicles Operated at 30F In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate...

  7. Study of a-SiGe:H films and nip devices used in high efficiency triple junction solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    Study of a-SiGe:H films and n­i­p devices used in high efficiency triple junction solar cells-Si:H films). This allows the capture of the full range of the solar spectra in different layers and thus, North Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039, India Abstract We report our systematic studies on a-SiGe:H thin films

  8. Basic studies of 3-5 high efficiency cell components. Annual subcontract report, 15 August 1989--14 August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Pierret, R.F.; Carpenter, M.S.; Chuang, H.L.; Dodd, P.E.; Keshavarzi, A.; Klausmeier-Brown, M.E.; Lush, G.B.; Stellwag, T.B. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project`s objective is to improve our understanding of the generation, recombination, and transport of carriers within III-V homo- and heterostructures. The research itself consists of fabricating and characterizing solar cell ``building blocks`` such as junctions and heterojunctions as well as basic measurements of material parameters. A significant effort is also being directed at characterizing loss mechanisms in high-quality, III-V solar cells fabricated in industrial research laboratories throughout the United States. The project`s goal is to use our understanding of the device physics of high-efficiency cell components to maximize cell efficiency. A related goal is the demonstration of new cell structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The development of measurement techniques and characterization methodologies is also a project objective. This report describes our progress during the fifth and final year of the project. During the past five years, we`ve teamed a great deal about heavy doping effects in p{sup +} and n{sup +} GaAs and have explored their implications for solar cells. We have developed an understanding of the dominant recombination losses in present-day, high-efficiency cells. We`ve learned to appreciated the importance of recombination at the perimeter of the cell and have developed techniques for chemically passivating such edges. Finally, we`ve demonstrated that films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are suitable for high-efficiency cell research.

  9. Electrically heated particulate filter preparation methods and systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a fuel control module that controls injection of fuel into exhaust that passes through the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration after the fuel has been injected into the exhaust.

  10. Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beauboeuf, Daniel P

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Fine Particulate Matter and Mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    landmark cohort studies for estimating the chronic effects of fine particulate air pollution (PM2 that the Medicare files can be used to construct on-going cohorts for tracking the risk of air pollution over time- tory diseases, and also with increased mortality.1­6 Chronic effects of air pollution potentially

  12. Highly efficient second-harmonic generation of intense femtosecond pulses with a significant effect of cubic nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mironov, S Yu; Ginzburg, V N; Lozhkarev, V V; Luchinin, G A; Kirsanov, Aleksei V; Yakovlev, I V; Khazanov, Efim A; Shaykin, A A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly efficient (73%) second-harmonic generation of femtosecond pulses in a 1-mm-thick KDP crystal at a fundamentalharmonic peak intensity of 2 TW cm{sup -2} has been demonstrated experimentally. In a 0.5-mm-thick KDP crystal, a 50% efficiency has been reached at a peak intensity of 3.5 TW cm{sup -2}. We examine the key factors that limit the conversion efficiency and present numerical simulation results on further temporal compression of second-harmonic pulses.

  13. Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y. L., E-mail: yilu.chang@mail.utoronto.ca; Gong, S., E-mail: sgong@chem.utoronto.ca; White, R.; Lu, Z. H., E-mail: zhenghong.lu@utoronto.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Wang, X.; Wang, S., E-mail: wangs@chem.queensu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Queen's University, 90 Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Yang, C. [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8?lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1130_Jeff Baker_Final Ultra-High Efficiency Commercial Buildings

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32 Master EM ProjectMemoDepartmentFYEnergy 09High Efficiency

  15. Cummins SuperTruck Program Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLEReport 2009Site | Department ofHighly Efficient

  16. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  17. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  18. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  19. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

  20. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  1. Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  2. Atmospheric particulates in a semi-rural environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Thomas Kelly

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER Page Vli1 iX I INTRODUCTION Air pollution ? general Air pollution ? historical perspective Scope of research Importance of atmospheric particulates Particulates and climatology Particulates and human health 14... of the best definitions of an air pollutant is given by Huschke (1968), "with respect to the atmosphere, any substance within it that is foreign to the 'natural' atmosphere or that exceeds its 'natural' concentration in the atmosphere. The universal...

  3. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  4. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13 - Particulate Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management The purpose of this regulation is to limit emissions of particulate matter from fossil fuel fired and...

  5. Development of SCR on Diesel Particulate Filter System for Heavy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    172012 Development of SCR on Diesel Particulate Filter System for Heavy Duty Applications Mojghan Naseri, Daniel Kucheruck, Hai-Ying Chen , Sougato Chatterjee DEER Conference 2012...

  6. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Exhaust Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in...

  7. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (ANLCorningCaterpillar CRADA) Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANLCorningCaterpillar CRADA) ace22lee.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  8. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace056stewart2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions...

  9. Failure Stress and Apparent Elastic Modulus of Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Apparent Elastic Modulus of Diesel Particulate Filter Ceramics Three established mechanical test specimen geometries and test methods for brittle materials are adapted to DPF...

  10. Improvement and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improvement and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter System using a Ceria-Based Fuel-Borne Catalyst in Serial Applications Improvement and Simplification of Diesel...

  11. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Requirements Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap (DCPT) Design and Optimization Tom Harris, Donna McConnell and Danan Dou Delphi Catalyst Tulsa, Oklahoma 2 Euro 45 Light Duty...

  12. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  13. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  14. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine ParticulatesThrough...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pre-commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Alla Zelenyuk, Paul Reitz, Mark Stewart Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Paul Loeper, Cory Adam,...

  15. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly...

  16. active fine particulates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Effects of Sampling Conditions on the Size Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from complex because the dilution...

  17. Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M. (Center for Environmental Research and Technology College of Engineering, University of California - Riverside, California)

    1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

  18. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization...

  19. Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    were completed while Unit 1 was operating at 90% of full load (84MW) or greater. Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria,...

  20. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Produced From Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine P-1 Particulate Produced From Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine P-1...

  1. Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Volatile Carbon Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research...

  2. Qualification of a high-efficiency, gated spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Döppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Burns, S.; Hawreliak, J.; House, A.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Swift, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Neumayer, P. [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenphysik, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kraus, D. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Falcone, R. W. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94309 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed, built, and successfully fielded a highly efficient and gated Bragg crystal spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It utilizes a cylindrically curved Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite crystal. Its spectral range of 7.4–10?keV is optimized for scattering experiments using a Zn He-? x-ray probe at 9.0 keV or Mo K-shell line emission around 18 keV in second diffraction order. The spectrometer has been designed as a diagnostic instrument manipulator-based instrument for the NIF target chamber at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. Here, we report on details of the spectrometer snout, its novel debris shield configuration and an in situ spectral calibration experiment with a Brass foil target, which demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/?E = 220 at 9.8 keV.

  3. Highly efficient inverted top emitting organic light emitting diodes using a transparent top electrode with color stability on viewing angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Jang-Joo, E-mail: jjkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a highly efficient phosphorescent green inverted top emitting organic light emitting diode with excellent color stability by using the 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile/indium zinc oxide top electrode and bis(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III) acetylacetonate as the emitter in an exciplex forming co-host system. The device shows a high external quantum efficiency of 23.4% at 1000?cd/m{sup 2} corresponding to a current efficiency of 110?cd/A, low efficiency roll-off with 21% at 10?000?cd/m{sup 2} and low turn on voltage of 2.4?V. Especially, the device showed very small color change with the variation of ?x?=?0.02, ?y?=?0.02 in the CIE 1931 coordinates as the viewing angle changes from 0° to 60°. The performance of the device is superior to that of the metal/metal cavity structured device.

  4. High-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors fabricated from MoSi thin-films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verma, V B; Bussičres, F; Horansky, R D; Dyer, S D; Lita, A E; Vayshenker, I; Marsili, F; Shaw, M D; Zbinden, H; Mirin, R P; Nam, S W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) fabricated from MoSi thin-films. We measure a maximum system detection efficiency (SDE) of 87 +- 0.5 % at 1542 nm at a temperature of 0.7 K, with a jitter of 76 ps, maximum count rate approaching 10 MHz, and polarization dependence as low as 3.4 +- 0.7 % The SDE curves show saturation of the internal efficiency similar to WSi-based SNSPDs at temperatures as high as 2.3 K. We show that at similar cryogenic temperatures, MoSi SNSPDs achieve efficiencies comparable to WSi-based SNSPDs with nearly a factor of two reduction in jitter.

  5. High-Efficiency Low-Dross Combustion System for Aluminum Remelting Reverberatory Furnaces, Project Final Report, July 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soupos, V.; Zelepouga, S.; Rue, D.

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    GTI, and its commercial partners, have developed a high-efficiency low-dross combustion system that offers environmental and energy efficiency benefits at lower capital costs for the secondary aluminum industry users of reverberatory furnaces. The high-efficiency low-dross combustion system, also called Self-Optimizing Combustion System (SOCS), includes the flex-flame burner firing an air or oxygen-enriched natural gas flame, a non-contact optical flame sensor, and a combustion control system. The flex-flame burner, developed and tested by GTI, provides an innovative firing process in which the flame shape and velocity can be controlled. The burner produces a flame that keeps oxygen away from the bath surface by including an O2-enriched fuel-rich zone on the bottom and an air-fired fuel-lean zone on the top. Flame shape and velocity can be changed at constant firing rate or held constant over a range of firing conditions. A non-intrusive optical sensor is used to monitor the flame at all times. Information from the optical sensor(s) and thermocouples can be used to control the flow of natural gas, air, and oxygen to the burner as needed to maintain desired flame characteristics. This type of control is particularly important to keep oxygen away from the melt surface and thus reduce dross formation. This retrofit technology decreases fuel usage, increases furnace production rate, lowers gaseous emissions, and reduces dross formation. The highest priority research need listed under Recycled Materials is to turn aluminum process waste into usable materials which this technology accomplishes directly by decreasing dross formation and therefore increasing aluminum yield from a gas-fired reverberatory furnace. Emissions of NOx will be reduced to approximately 0.3 lb/ton of aluminum, in compliance with air emission regulations.

  6. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murawski, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.murawski@iapp.de; Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Gather, Malte C. [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of N,N?-[(Diphenyl-N,N?-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2?,7,7?-tetrakis(N,N?-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9?-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N?-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N?-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2?-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4?wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35?.1?lm/W (74?.0?lm/W) at 1000?cd/m{sup 2} and reach a very high brightness of 10?000 cd/m{sup 2} at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  7. Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

  8. Trends in Particulate Nanostructure | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyThe EnergyDepartment7 thFuel27, 2008,Inc. | DepartmentParticulate

  9. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ? 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873K and 83 CRI. As such, the package’s performance exceeds DOE’s warm-white phosphor LED efficacy target for 2013. At the end of the program, we assembled an A19 sized demonstration bulb housing the integrated package which met Energy Star intensity variation requirements. With further development to reduce overall component cost, we anticipate that an integrated remote converter package such as developed during this program will find application in compact, high-efficacy LED-based lamps, particularly those requiring omnidirectional emission.

  10. Modeling and interpreting the observed effects of ash on diesel particulate filter performance and regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yujun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are devices that physically capture diesel particulates to prevent their release to the atmosphere. Diesel particulate filters have seen widespread use in on- and off-road applications as ...

  11. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  12. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carl, Daniel E. (Orchard Park, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

  13. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Guthrie, Stephen E. (Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N. (Livermore, CA); Wally, Karl (Lafayette, CA); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  14. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

    1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

  15. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  16. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient particulate matter Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ambient particulate matter Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Summary: Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - air particulate analysis Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air particulate analysis Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Summary: and the composition of...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - air particulate samples Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    search results for: air particulate samples Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships: Diesel Engine Particulate Emission Reduction via...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient particulate matterpm10 Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particulate matterpm10 Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Summary: Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient particulate matter-induced Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particulate matter-induced Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Summary: Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  2. Field Demonstration of a High-Efficiency Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioning Unit at Fort Gordon, Augusta, GA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Peter R.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a larger program targeting the market transformation of packaged rooftop air conditioning, five high-efficiency rooftop air conditioning products were selected in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Unitary Air Conditioner (UAC) Technology Procurement (http://www.pnl.gov/uac). In February 2003, Fort Gordon in Augusta, Georgia was chosen as the demonstration site. With the goal of validating the field performance and operation of one of the awarded products, a 10-ton high-efficiency packaged rooftop unit (RTU) manufactured by Global Energy Group (GEG) was installed at Fort Gordon in October 2003. Following equipment installation, power metering, air- and refrigerant-side instrumentation was installed on the GEG RTU and a 4-year old typical-efficiency 20-ton RTU manufactured by AAON . The GEG and AAON units were instrumented identically and operated May through July, 2005, to observe performance under a range of conditions. Based on the data collected as part of this demonstration, the GEG equipment performed at least 8% better in stage-1 (single compressor running) cooling and at least 16% better in stage-2 (both compressors running) than the baseline AAON equipment. Performance comparisons are based on what we call application EER normalized to equivalent specific fan power. The full-load, specific-fan-power-normalized application EERs at ARI design conditions were 10.48 Btu/Wh for the GEG and 9.00 Btu/Wh for the baseline machine. With a cost premium of nearly 50%, and slightly higher maintenance costs, the life-cycle cost analysis shows that the GEG technology pays for itself--a positive net-present value (NPV)--only in climates and buildings with long cooling seasons. Manufacture of this equipment on a larger scale can be expected to reduce costs to the point where it is more broadly cost-effective. The assumed 10-ton baseline and new-technology unit costs are $3824.00 and $5525.00 respectively. If the new technology cost is assumed to drop as sales increase to $4674.50 for a 10-ton unit (i.e. the original cost difference is halved), the life-cycle costs improve. A grid of first cost, annual maintenance cost and electricity price is enumerated and the results presented in the report show the sensitivity of life cycle cost to these three financial parameters in each of eight different climates.

  3. Use of an Accurate DNS Particulate Flow Method to Supply and Validate Boundary Conditions for the MFIX Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi-Gang Feng

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The simulation of particulate flows for industrial applications often requires the use of two-fluid models, where the solid particles are considered as a separate continuous phase. One of the underlining uncertainties in the use of the two-fluid models in multiphase computations comes from the boundary condition of the solid phase. Typically, the gas or liquid fluid boundary condition at a solid wall is the so called no-slip condition, which has been widely accepted to be valid for single-phase fluid dynamics provided that the Knudsen number is low. However, the boundary condition for the solid phase is not well understood. The no-slip condition at a solid boundary is not a valid assumption for the solid phase. Instead, several researchers advocate a slip condition as a more appropriate boundary condition. However, the question on the selection of an exact slip length or a slip velocity coefficient is still unanswered. Experimental or numerical simulation data are needed in order to determinate the slip boundary condition that is applicable to a two-fluid model. The goal of this project is to improve the performance and accuracy of the boundary conditions used in two-fluid models such as the MFIX code, which is frequently used in multiphase flow simulations. The specific objectives of the project are to use first principles embedded in a validated Direct Numerical Simulation particulate flow numerical program, which uses the Immersed Boundary method (DNS-IB) and the Direct Forcing scheme in order to establish, modify and validate needed energy and momentum boundary conditions for the MFIX code. To achieve these objectives, we have developed a highly efficient DNS code and conducted numerical simulations to investigate the particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in particulate flows. Most of our research findings have been reported in major conferences and archived journals, which are listed in Section 7 of this report. In this report, we will present a brief description of these results.

  4. The Relationships of Particulate Matter and Particulate Organic Carbon with Hypoxic Conditions Along the Texas-Louisiana Shelf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuck, Nicole A

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    an onboard surface-water flow-through system, CTD casts, and by an undulating towed vehicle. Total particulate matter and particulate organic carbon samples were obtained from Niskin bottles on CTD casts. Samples were also taken to measure dissolved oxygen...

  5. High-Efficiency Resonant RF Spin Rotator with Broad Phase Space Acceptance for Pulsed Polarized Cold Neutron Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. -N. Seo; L. Barron-Palos; J. D. Bowman; T. E. Chupp; C. Crawford; M. Dabaghyan; M. Dawkins; S. J. Freedman; T. Gentile; M. T. Gericke; R. C. Gillis; G. L. Greene; F. W. Hersman; G. L. Jones; M. Kandes; S. Lamoreaux; B. Lauss; M. B. Leuschner; R. Mahurin; M. Mason; J. Mei; G. S. Mitchell; H. Nann; S. A. Page; S. I. Penttila; W. D. Ramsay; A. Salas Bacci; S. Santra; M. Sharma; T. B. Smith; W. M. Snow; W. S. Wilburn; H. Zhu

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a radio-frequency resonant spin rotator to reverse the neutron polarization in a 9.5 cm x 9.5 cm pulsed cold neutron beam with high efficiency over a broad cold neutron energy range. The effect of the spin reversal by the rotator on the neutron beam phase space is compared qualitatively to RF neutron spin flippers based on adiabatic fast passage. The spin rotator does not change the kinetic energy of the neutrons and leaves the neutron beam phase space unchanged to high precision. We discuss the design of the spin rotator and describe two types of transmission-based neutron spin-flip efficiency measurements where the neutron beam was both polarized and analyzed by optically-polarized 3He neutron spin filters. The efficiency of the spin rotator was measured to be 98.0+/-0.8% on resonance for neutron energies from 3.3 to 18.4 meV over the full phase space of the beam. As an example of the application of this device to an experiment we describe the integration of the RF spin rotator into an apparatus to search for the small parity-violating asymmetry A_gamma in polarized cold neutron capture on para-hydrogen by the NPDGamma collaboration at LANSCE.

  6. Application of electrolytic in-process dressing for high-efficiency grinding of ceramic parts. Research activities 1995--96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of Electrolytic In-Process Dressing (ELID) for highly efficient and stable grinding of ceramic parts is discussed. This research was performed at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Tokyo, Japan, June 1995 through August 1995. Experiments were conducted using a vertical machining center. The silicon nitride work material, of Japanese manufacture and supplied in the form of a rectangular block, was clamped to a vice which was firmly fixed on the base of a strain gage dynamometer. The dynamometer was clamped on the machining center table. Reciprocating grinding was performed with a flat-faced diamond grinding wheel. The output from the dynamometer was recorded with a data acquisition system and the normal component of the force was monitored. Experiments were carried out under various cutting conditions, different ELID conditions, and various grinding wheel bonds types. Rough grinding wheels of grit sizes {number_sign}170 and {number_sign}140 were used in the experiments. Compared to conventional grinding, there was a significant reduction in grinding force with ELID grinding. Therefore, ELID grinding can be recommended for high material removal rate grinding, low rigidity machines, and low rigidity workpieces. Compared to normal grinding, a reduction in grinding ratio was observed when ELID grinding was performed. A negative aspect of the process, this reduced G-ratio derives from bond erosion and can be improved somewhat by adjustments in the ELID current. The results of this investigation are discussed in detail in this report.

  7. SIPHORE: Conceptual Study of a High Efficiency Neutral Beam Injector Based on Photo-detachment for Future Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonin, A.; Christin, L.; Esch, H. de; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Villecroze, F. [IRFM, CEA Cadarache, IRFM, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Blondel, C.; Delsart, C.; Drag, C.; Vandevraye, M. [LAC :Aime-Cotton Laboratory, Univ. Paris-sud, Orsay (France); Brillet, A.; Chaibi, W. [ARTEMIS Laboratory, Cote-d'azur Observatory, Nice (France)

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative high efficiency neutral beam injector concept for future fusion reactors is under investigation (simulation and R and D) between several laboratories in France, the goal being to perform a feasibility study for the neutralization of intense high energy (1 MeV) negative ion (NI) beams by photo-detachment.The objective of the proposed project is to put together the expertise of three leading groups in negative ion quantum physics, high power stabilized lasers and neutral beam injectors to perform studies of a new injector concept called SIPHORE (SIngle gap PHOto-neutralizer energy REcovery injector), based on the photo-detachment of negative ions and energy recovery of unneutralised ions; the main feature of SIPHORE being the relevance for the future Fusion reactors (DEMO), where high injector efficiency (up to 70-80%), technological simplicity and cost reduction are key issues to be addressed.The paper presents the on-going developments and simulations around this project, such as, a new concept of ion source which would fit with this injector topology and which could solve the remaining uniformity issue of the large size ion source, and, finally, the presentation of the R and D program in the laboratories (LAC, ARTEMIS) around the photo-neutralization for Siphore.

  8. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Planned request for FY15 - 200K Barriers addressed for enabling of high-efficiency engine technology: B. Lack of cost-effective emission control C. Lack of modeling capability...

  9. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  10. Laser induced thermophoresis and particulate deposition efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipolla, J.; Morse, T.F.; Wang, C.Y.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of laser radiation and an absorbing aerosol in a tube flow has been considered. The aerosol is produced by external heating of reactants as in the MCVD (Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition) process to produce submicron size particles in the manufacture of optical fiber preforms. These are subsequently deposited by thermophoretic forces on the inner wall of the tube as they are convected by a Poiseuille velocity profile. Axial laser radiation in the tube interacts with the absorbing particles, and the laser heating of the gas induces additional thermophoretic forces that markedly increase the efficiency of particulate deposition. A particle concentration dependent absorption coefficient that appears in the energy equation couples the energy equation to the equation of particle conservation, so that a non-linear set of coupled partial integrodifferential equations must be solved. Numerical solutions for aerosol particle trajectories, and thus deposition efficiencies, have been obtained. It is shown that laser enhanced thermophoresis markedly improves the deposition efficiency.

  11. Final Technical Progress Report: High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program; July 14, 2010 - January 13, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattos, L.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical progress report of the High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program. Alta Devices has successfully completed all milestones and deliverables established as part of the NREL PV incubator program. During the 18 months of this program, Alta has proven all key processes required to commercialize its solar module product. The incubator focus was on back end process steps directed at conversion of Alta's high quality solar film into high efficiency 1-sun PV modules. This report describes all program deliverables and the work behind each accomplishment.

  12. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  13. High-efficiency turquoise-blue electrophosphorescence from a Pt(II)-pyridyltriazolate complex in phosphine oxide host

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhansali, Unnat S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chen, Wei; Jia, Huiping; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Omary, Mohammad A.

    2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency turquoise-blue electrophosphorescence from the complex Pt(ptp)2 = bis[3,5–bis(2–pyridyl)–1,2,4–triazolato]platinum(II) doped in the wide band-gap, ambipolar phosphine oxide host HM-A1 = 4-(diphenylphosphoryl)-N,N-diphenylaniline. For devices with 5% Pt(ptp)2 doping in HM-A1, we have achieved a peak external quantum efficiency and power efficiency of (11.8 ± 0.6) % and (61.2 ± 5.9) lm/W with high-pixel values of 13.1 % and 70.6 lm/W, respectively. These parameters maintained (10.6 ± 0.2) % and (40.3 ± 1.2) lm/W at a brightness of 1000 cd/m2 with high-pixel values of 10.8 % and 41.6 lm/W. Examination of several device structures suggests that the high performance is due to improved charge transport and exciton confinement in the emissive region. Devices with 1-10% doping concentration exhibit turquoise-blue emissions (?max ~ 480 nm) with a monotonic decrease in monomer/excimer intensity ratio upon increasing the doping concentration. Devices with 5% doping exhibit sufficient blue contribution to attain white light upon combination with highly-doped or neat emissive layers of the same phosphor; the work herein represents a significant backdrop toward optimizing such white OLEDs given the performance metrics above, which to our knowledge represent the highest performance for OLEDs that exhibit blue emission maxima.

  14. Impacts of a Nanosized Ceria Additive on Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulate and Gaseous Pollutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic

  15. Li2O Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Li2O Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 9-1 CHAPTER 9: Li2O PARTICULATE FLOW CONCEPT ­ APPLE DESIGN Contributors Lead Author: Dai Kai Sze Dai Kai Sze, Zhanhe Wang (ANL Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 9-2 9. LI2O PARTICULATE FLOW CONCEPT

  16. A physically-based heat pump model was connected to an optimization program to form a computer code for use in the design of high-efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;ABSTRACT A physically-based heat pump model was connected to an optimization program to form a computer code for use in the design of high-efficiency heat pumps. The method used allows efficiency of conventional heat pumps, ten variables were optimized while heating capacity was fixed

  17. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  18. High efficiency battery converter with SiC devices for residential PV Cam Pham, Remus Teodorescu, Tamas Kerekes and Laszlo Mathe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teodorescu, Remus

    High efficiency battery converter with SiC devices for residential PV systems Cam Pham, Remus, where the generated energy price is relatively high. Smart PV systems with internal battery storage launched a financial support program for residential PV systems with battery storage [2]. Furthermore

  19. A Highly Efficient Solar Cell Made from a Dye-Modified ZnO-Covered TiO2 Nanoporous Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yanyi

    -circuit photovoltage. Introduction Overall power conversion efficiency1,2 reaching 10% for dye sensitized solar cellA Highly Efficient Solar Cell Made from a Dye-Modified ZnO-Covered TiO2 Nanoporous Electrode Zhong A photoelectrochemical solar cell based on porous ZnO-covered TiO2 film has been fabricated with ruthenium bipyridyl

  20. An Unconventional Route to High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells via Embedding Graphitic Thin Films into TiO2 Nanoparticle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    An Unconventional Route to High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells via Embedding Graphitic Thin into the conventional dye- sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), resulting in a remarkably improved cell efficiency due to its followed by direct carbonization. For dye-sensitized TiO2 based solar cells containing carbon/TiO2 thin

  1. uel cells are attractive alternatives to combustion engines for electri-cal-power generation because of their very high efficiencies and low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    uel cells are attractive alternatives to combustion engines for electri- cal-power generation because of their very high efficiencies and low pollution levels. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell such as hydrogen is brought into the anode compartment and oxygen is brought into the cathode compartment

  2. Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly of CIGS Nanoparticles and Polymers for All-Solution Processable Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    -Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells Tung Ho1 , Robert Vittoe3 , Namratha Kakumanu2 , Sudhir Shrestha2-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN 46202 Thin film solar cells made from copper indium gallium thereby affecting solar cell efficiency. This research aims to study various polymer materials to replace

  3. The 22nd International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, November 05-09, 2012, Hangzhou, China Limits for short-pulse laser processing of high efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Hangzhou, China Limits for short-pulse laser processing of high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells. Kajari-Schröder1 and R. Brendel1,3 1. Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, D. 1. INTRODUCTION Reducing the wafer thickness of crystalline silicon solar cells and high solar cell

  4. Development of a high-efficiency, automatic-defrosting refrigerator-freezer. Phase II. Field test. Volume III. Executive summary and task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Topping, R.F.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The second phase of the development of a high-efficiency, automatic-defrosting, refrigerator-freezer is described. Following the successful completion of Phase I (design, construction, and laboratory testing of a 16 ft/sup 3/ high efficiency refrigerator-freezer prototype), Phase II was initiated to evaluate sales potential and in-home performance as a necessary step in creating a product that was both manufacturable and marketable. Twenty-five pilot production 18 ft/sup 3/ units using prototype tooling were produced on the assembly line to confirm the feasibility of full-scale production. These units were then used in a market and field test program in which consumer appeal and in-home performance were assessed. The market evaluation confirmed that refrigerators incorporating high-efficiency features at added cost are saleable and that large capacity, automatic-defrosting, refrigerator-freezers will continue to capture a large portion of the market in the years ahead, The field test confirmed the in-home energy saving potential of a high efficiency, automatic-defrosting refrigerator-frezer utilizing advanced design features such as optimized, thick-wall, foam an average energy savings of 60% compared to a baseline unit of conventional design.

  5. High-efficiency Forage Systems for Texas Beef Production The cattle industry in Texas is facing a crisis due to doubling of fertilizer, grain, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-efficiency Forage Systems for Texas Beef Production The cattle industry in Texas is facing production systems will be developed and evaluated to target· the development of heavy, healthy calves ready production systems that limit profit-· ability for both the cow-calf and stocker operator. Develop new forage

  6. 2528 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 43, NO. 6, JUNE 2007 A Highly Efficient 200 000 RPM Permanent Magnet Motor System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Thomas

    presents the development of an ultra-high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) that produces large iron loss at high-speed. In ultra-high-speed applications, PMSM offers the advantage of high efficiency, and high stability, is generally considered for high performance PMSM control. However, for ultra

  7. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  8. The effects of secondary air injection on particulate matter emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pritchard, Joseph James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on particulate matter (PM) emissions. SAI was developed to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and has been shown to be effective ...

  9. aerosol bound particulates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data) cloud drop size distributions and (iv) TWP-ICE (Darwin, Australia) rain drop size distributions. A. M. Selvam 2010-05-08 26 7, 1569315721, 2007 Particulate PAH Computer...

  10. REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 1 DIESEL EXHAUST.D. and Megan Arnold University of Minnesota Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Diesel Research....................................................................................... 3 Diesel aerosol size instrumentation............................................................ 4

  11. REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 2 AEROSOL DYMAMICS Arnold University of Minnesota Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Diesel Research................................................................................................. 3 Diesel aerosol composition and structure................................................... 3

  12. Modeling of Particulate Matter Emissions from Agricultural Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bairy, Jnana 1988-

    2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    State Air Pollution Regulation Agencies (SAPRAs) issue and enforce permits that limit particulate matter emissions from all sources including layer and broiler facilities, cattle feedyards, dairies, cotton gins, and grain elevators...

  13. Ultrasonic wave propagation in random and periodic particulate composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Benjamin Kyle

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ULTRASONIC WAVE PROPAGATION IN RANDOM AND PERIODIC PARTICULATE COMPOSITES A Thesis by BENJAMIN KYLE HENDERSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilltnent of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1996 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering ULTRASONIC WAVE PROPAGATION IN RANDOM AND PERIODIC PARTICULATE COMPOSITES A Thesis by BENJAMIN KYLE HENDERSON Submitted to Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment...

  14. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  15. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration by electrical heating of resistive coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Weldon S. (Malibu, CA); Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is integrally formed in an upstream end of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  16. Development of submicron particle size classification and collection techniques for nuclear facility off-gas streams. [Diffusion battery and electrofluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohorst, F.A.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are an essential part of nuclear facility off-gas cleanup systems. However, HEPA-rated sampling filters are not the most appropriate samplers for the particle penetrating off-gas cleanup systems. Previous work at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) estimated perhaps 5% of the radioactivity that challenged sampling filters penetrated them in the form of submicron particles - typically less than 0.2 microns. Accordingly, to evaluate these penetrating aerosols more fully, a suitable robust monitoring system for size differentiation and measurement of submicron particles was developed. A literature survey revealed that the diffusion battery was the best choice for particle size classification and that the electrofluidized bed was the best method for particle collection in ICPP off-gas streams. This report describes the laboratory study and in-plant demonstration of these two techniques.

  17. Sintered composite medium and filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate filter medium is formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers. A preferred composition is about 40 vol. % quartz and about 60 vol. % stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100.degree. C. to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550.degree. C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  18. Technical safety requirements for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seylar, Roland F.

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) identify the operational conditions, boundaries, and administrative controls for the safe operation of the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, in compliance with 10 CFR 830, 'Nuclear Safety Management.' The bases for the TSRs are established in the AHCF Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), which was issued in compliance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements.' The AHCF Limiting Conditions of Operation (LCOs) apply only to the ventilation system, the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and the inventory. Surveillance Requirements (SRs) apply to the ventilation system, HEPA filters, and associated monitoring equipment; to certain passive design features; and to the inventory. No Safety Limits are necessary, because the AHCF is a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility.

  19. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. InGaAsN: A Novel Material for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Advanced Photonic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allerman, Andrew A.; Follstaedt, David M.; Gee, James M.; Jones, Eric D.; Kurtz, Steven R.; Modine, Norman A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents the completion of a 6 month Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program that focused on research and development of novel compound semiconductor, InGaAsN. This project seeks to rapidly assess the potential of InGaAsN for improved high-efficiency photovoltaic. Due to the short time scale, the project focused on quickly investigating the range of attainable compositions and bandgaps while identifying possible material limitations for photovoltaic devices. InGaAsN is a new semiconductor alloy system with the remarkable property that the inclusion of only 2% nitrogen reduces the bandgap by more than 30%. In order to help understand the physical origin of this extreme deviation from the typically observed nearly linear dependence of alloy properties on concentration, we have investigated the pressure dependence of the excited state energies using both experimental and theoretical methods. We report measurements of the low temperature photoluminescence energy of the material for pressures between ambient and 110 kbar. We describe a simple, density-functional-theory-based approach to calculating the pressure dependence of low lying excitation energies for low concentration alloys. The theoretically predicted pressure dependence of the bandgap is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of our calculations, we suggest an explanation for the strongly non-linear pressure dependence of the bandgap that, surprisingly, does not involve a nitrogen impurity band. Additionally, conduction-band mass measurements, measured by three different techniques, will be described and finally, the magnetoluminescence determined pressure coefficient for the conduction-band mass is measured. The design, growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and processing of an In{sub 0.07}Ga{sub 0.93}As{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02} solar cell, with 1.0 eV bandgap, lattice matched to GaAs is described. The hole diffusion length in annealed, n-type InGaAsN is 0.6-0.8 pm, and solar cell internal quantum efficiencies >70% are obtained. Optical studies indicate that defects or impurities, from doping and nitrogen incorporation, limit cell performance.

  1. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS IN TANK FARMS OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS DOCUMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BERGLIN, E J

    2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the technical basis for high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) for Hanford tank farm ventilation systems (sometimes known as heating, ventilation and air conditioning [HVAC]) to support limits defined in Process Engineering Operating Specification Documents (OSDs). This technical basis included a review of older technical basis and provides clarifications, as necessary, to technical basis limit revisions or justification. This document provides an updated technical basis for tank farm ventilation systems related to Operation Specification Documents (OSDs) for double-shell tanks (DSTs), single-shell tanks (SSTs), double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, and various other miscellaneous facilities.

  2. Continuous particulate monitoring for emission control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bock, A.H. (BHA Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical continuous particle monitoring system has been developed to overcome common problems associated with emissions monitoring equipment. Opacity monitors generally use a single- or double-pass system to analyze the presence of dust particles in the flue gas stream. The particles scatter and absorb light as it passes through the stack. As the particle content in the gas stream increases due to bag failure or some other problem, the amount of light that is blocked also increases. The opacity monitor compares the amount of lost light energy to the total energy of the light available and translates the signal to percentage of opacity. Opacity monitors are typically installed to meet the requirements set forth by pollution control agencies. Most opacity monitors are designed to meet all of the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 40 CFR, Part 60, Appendix B, Performance Specification. The new continuous particle monitor (CPM) increases the accuracy of emission monitoring and overcomes typical problems found in conventional emission monitoring devices. The CPM is an optically based, calibratible, continuous dust monitor that uses a microprocessor, transmitter head, and receiver head. When calibrated with an isokinetic sample, a continuous readout of particulate concentration (in mg/m[sup 3]) in the exhaust gas is provided. The system can be used as a filter bag failure system or a long-term emission trend analyzer. Formal testing was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the optically based CPM. The monitor was calibrated using particles of a range of compositions, size distributions, and concentrations. The feasibility of using the instrument to measure particle concentration as low as 10 mg/m[sup 3] was examined.

  3. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  4. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  5. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stang, John H.

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS -- NOx = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY -- The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT -- Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test procedure that allowed compliance with the Tier 2 Interim Bin 10 Standards and would apply to vehicles in MY2004 through MY2007 timeframe. In further technology development with active aftertreatment management, Cummins has been able to report that the emissions goals for the Tier 2 Bin 5 standards were met on an engine running the full FTP-75 test procedure. The fuel economy on the chassis tests was measured at over 59 percent MPG improvement over the gasoline engines that are offered in typical SUVs and light trucks. The above demonstration used only in-cylinder fueling for management of the aftertreatment system.

  6. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Stang

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS--NO{sub x} = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NO{sub x} = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY--The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT--Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test procedure that allowed compliance with the Tier 2 Interim Bin 10 Standards and would apply to vehicles in MY2004 through MY2007 timeframe. In further technology development with active aftertreatment management, Cummins has been able to report that the emissions goals for the Tier 2 Bin 5 standards were met on an engine running the full FTP-75 test procedure. The fuel economy on the chassis tests was measured at over 59 percent MPG improvement over the gasoline engines that are offered in typical SUVs and light trucks. The above demonstration used only in-cylinder fueling for management of the aftertreatment system.

  7. Mesoporous TiO2 beads for high efficiency CdS/ CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    ) as a derivative of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have attracted considerable attention and been regardedMesoporous TiO2 beads for high efficiency CdS/ CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells Ru Zhou for a CdS/CdSe quantum dot (QD) co-sensitized solar cell, which was constructed with the mesoporous TiO2

  8. Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    1 Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8572, Japan (Received ) KEYWORDS: ZnS buffer, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, thin-film solar cells alternative to CdS in polycrystalline thin-film Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. Cells with efficiency

  9. Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Riley, KS); Shultis, John K. (Manhattan, KS); Rice, Blake B. (Manhattan, KS); McNeil, Walter J. (Winnfield, KS); Solomon, Clell J. (Wichita, KS); Patterson, Eric L. (Manhattan, KS); Bellinger, Steven L. (Manhattan, KS)

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH EFFICIENCY FLEXIBLE CdTe SOLAR CELLS A.Romeo, M. Arnold, D.L. Btzner, H. Zogg and A.N. Tiwari*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    to the solar panel that can be adapted to any kind of shape and is easy to deploy in space. In the last yearsDEVELOPMENT OF HIGH EFFICIENCY FLEXIBLE CdTe SOLAR CELLS A.Romeo, M. Arnold, D.L. Bätzner, H. Zogg Telephone: +44-1509-227031 E-mail: a.n.tiwari@lboro.ac.uk ABSTRACT: Polycrystalline thin film solar cells

  11. Recovery Act: High-Efficiency, Wideband Three-Phase Rectifiers and Adaptive Rectifier Management for Telecomm Central Office and Large Data Center Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Johnson

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Lineage Power and Verizon teamed up to address a DOE funding opportunity focused on improving the power conversion chain in telecommunications facilities and data centers. The project had three significant elements: the design and development of high efficiency and high power three-phase rectifiers by Lineage Power, design and development of software to optimize overall plant energy efficiency by Lineage Power, and a field trial in active Verizon telecommunications facilities where energy consumption was measured before and after efficiency upgrades.

  12. Particulate control for low rank coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Touzel, R.McD.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The power generating system in Victoria currently comprises a total capacity of 6650 MW. Eighty percent of this capacity consists of base load stations in the Latrobe Valley using brown coal. The Latrobe Valley brown coals have unique characteristics with high moisture content ranging from 58 percent to 70 percent and an ash content which is relatively low but very variable in nature. These and other factors associated with the coal have caused special problems in handling and combustion of the coal and the de-dusting of the boiler flue gases. In recent years, this has been the basis for the design parameters adopted for all the plants in the system. With respect to flue gas de-dusting, the SECV has carried out extensive laboratory studies to characterize the different ashes obtained from the Latrobe Valley brown coals, including precipitability and aerodynamic tests. It also carried out full-scale tests on operating plants and pilot tests have been conducted on inertial collectors, precipitators and bag filters. The Environmental Protection Authority of Victoria has established a particulate emission level of 0.150 grams/m{sup 3} n.t.p. dry for recent Latrobe Valley boilers. However, the mandated emission level takes into account wide variations in operating conditions, and the plants normally achieve much lower emission levels. The Latrobe Valley plants presently in operation include Yallourn W (2x350 MW + 2x375 MW), Morwell (170 MW total and briquette factory), Hazelwood (8x200 MW) and Loy Yang (4x500 MW). The Yalloum W boilers are supplied with coal from the Yalloum Open Cut, the Morwell and Hazelwood boilers from the Morwell Open Cut and Loy Yang boilers from the Loy Yang Open Cut. All boilers are pulverized coal fired (PCF) and incorporate special firing equipment to enable the as-mined wet coal to be fired directly into the furnaces. All boilers are fitted with electrostatic precipitators. The locations of the stations and open cuts are shown.

  13. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  14. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material and product thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  15. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  16. Apparatus and method for void/particulate detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claytor, Thomas N. (Woodridge, IL); Ockert, Carl E. (Vienna, VA); Randall, Richard (Canoga Park, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for detecting voids and particulates in a fluid within a containing vessel. A diffuse ultrasonic signal is coupled into the fluid by a first transducer and the portion of the ultrasonic signal transmitted through the fluid is detected by a second transducer. The received signal is analyzed by a processor to determine the void fraction of the fluid responsive to the attenuation of the received ultrasonic signal. In addition, voids and particulates are detected by evaluating the increase in side-band energy of the received signal.

  17. A particulate non-specific alkaline phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, James Kent

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Dennis J. Opheim A previously undefined alkaline phosphatase in yeast, which is particulate, has been found. This latter form has no mobil- ity on polyacrylamide gels and can be sedimented after centri- fugation at 200, 000 x g for one hour. Over 90X... of the enzyme activity can be solubilized from the particulate fraction with 100 mM sodium cholate. In the solubilized state this enzyme has been found to migrate in the same position on polyacrylamide gels as the already known soluble repressible alkaline...

  18. Macrophage-Mediated Endothelial Inflammatory Responses to Airborne Particulates: Impact of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    -Fe/F-Al-Si). We have used these particulates, as well as coal fly ash (CFA) and diesel exhaust particulates (DEP remain unresolved. Using a microporous aluminosilicate zeolite Y as a manifold, we have synthesized 1 µm

  19. al-sic particulate composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Li, Wei 2008-01-01 2 Damping and Stiffness of Particulate SiCInSn Composite Materials Science Websites Summary: Damping and Stiffness of Particulate SiC-InSn Composite...

  20. The effect of lubricant derived ash on the catalytic activity of diesel particulate filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Timothy Quinn

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an aftertreatment device used to remove hazardous particulate matter (PM) from diesel engine exhaust. Modem emission restrictions have limited the acceptable amount of PM output by ...

  1. Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron Source Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron Source Detailed images of deposits identified...

  2. Testing an Active Diesel Particulate Filter on a 2-Cycle Marine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Active Diesel Particulate Filter on a 2-Cycle Marine Engine Testing an Active Diesel Particulate Filter on a 2-Cycle Marine Engine Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  3. PII S0016-7037(99)00361-0 Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burdige, David

    PII S0016-7037(99)00361-0 Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments D) and mid-Atlantic shelf/slope break (continental margin) sediments. Particulate carbohydrates (PCHOs) rep- resented 5­9% of the total sediment particulate organic carbon (POC), and PCHO remineralization appeared

  4. Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues: XAS XANES EXAFS Antimony Particulate matter Brake linings a b s t r a c t Insights into the speciation of Sb in samples of brake linings, brake pad wear residues, road dust, and atmospheric particulate

  5. 2008-01-0333 Detailed Effects of a Diesel Particulate Filter on the Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    2008-01-0333 Detailed Effects of a Diesel Particulate Filter on the Reduction of Chemical Species of Wisconsin-Madison Copyright © 2008 SAE International ABSTRACT Diesel particulate filters are designed to reduce the mass emissions of diesel particulate matter and have been proven to be effective

  6. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  7. CEC-500-2010-FS-017 Volatility of Ultrafine Particulate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Limited research has been done to characterize compressed natural gas mass emissions and practically-volatile and semi-volatile fractions of ultrafine particulate matter emissions from compressed natural gas vehicles compressed natural gas, and emission control technologies that will best protect human health

  8. Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Ament, Frank (Troy, MI)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

  9. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  10. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  11. Characterization of particulate emissions from non-ferrous smelters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, R.L.; Knapp, K.T.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical-composition and particle-size data for particulate emissions from stationary sources are required for environmental health-effect assessments, air chemistry studies, and air-quality-modelling investigations such as source apportionment. In this study, particulate emissions from a group of non-ferrous smelters were physically and chemically characterized. Emission samples were collected at the baghouse outlets from smelter furnaces and at smelter acid plant stacks at three locations: a zinc, a lead, and a copper smelter. Mass emission rate determinations were made by EPA reference methods. Cascade impactors were used to collect in-stack samples for particle-size distribution measurements. Particulate samples for chemical characterization were collected on membrane filters for analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Development measurement techniques required to determine the elemental composition of the total mass and sized fractions of the emission are discussed. Results of the tests at the three smelters include total mass and elemental emission rates, particle-size distribution, and the elemental composition of the total particulate mass and of sized fractions from both the smelter furnaces and acid plants.

  12. NUCLEATION PHENOMENON IN SiC PARTICULATE REINFORCED MAGNESIUM COMPOSITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    NUCLEATION PHENOMENON IN SiC PARTICULATE REINFORCED MAGNESIUM COMPOSITE Y. Cai, D. Taplin, M.J. Tan performance of matrix metals and alloys. Most magnesium alloy based MMCs are produced via a casting process into the last freezing interdendritic regions. For magnesium based composites, both particle pushing (or capture

  13. The distribution of particulate aluminum in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feely, Richard Alan

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of runoff water in the oceans. Toyota and Okabe (1967) reported vertical distri- butions of particulate aluminum ranging from 1-50 ug Al/L in samples from the Western North Pacific, Indian and Antarctic Oceans. , Stefansson and Atkinson (1969) used...

  14. Comparative Analysis on the Effects of Diesel Particulate Filter and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    Comparative Analysis on the Effects of Diesel Particulate Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction February 15, 2008. Revised manuscript received May 2, 2008. Accepted May 27, 2008. Two methods, diesel that these aftertreatment systems may have on the emission levels of a wide spectrum of chemical species found in diesel

  15. REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS FINAL REPORT Prepared by David B. Kittelson of Mechanical Engineering Center for Diesel Research Minneapolis, MN January 14, 1999 #12;01/14/99 Page 2 TABLE ................................................................................................................5 DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY AND EMISSION REGULATIONS .............................7 PHYSICAL

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  17. Parallel High-Resolution Finite Volume Simulation of Particulate Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braatz, Richard D.

    these methods is verified by application to PBMs for (1) aerosol coagulation and condensation, (2) the formation, coagulation, crystallization, distributed parameter systems, numerical analysis Introduction Particulate, in crystallization, x is the size of crystals measured by length or volume, f(x,t) is the crystal size distribution

  18. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s particulate cleanup program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, R.A.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) power systems has made it possible to use coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems significantly reduce the pollutants associated with coal-fired plants built before the 1970s. This superior environmental performance and related high system efficiency is possible, in part, because particulate gas-stream cleanup is conducted at high-temperature and high-pressure process conditions. A main objective of the Particulate Cleanup Program at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to ensure the success of the CCT demonstration projects. METC`s Particulate Cleanup Program supports research, development, and demonstration in three areas: (1) filter-system development, (2) barrier-filter component development, and (3) ash and char characterization. The support is through contracted research, cooperative agreements, Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs), and METC`s own in-house research. This paper describes METC`s Particulate Cleanup Program.

  19. Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalir, Hamed, E-mail: dalir.h.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Photonics Integration System Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-22 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Koyama, Fumio [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Photonics Integration System Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-22 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850?nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55?dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 ?m long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

  20. High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells Prepared by Treating CdTe Films with a Freon Gas in Substitution of CdCl2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells Prepared by Treating CdTe Films with a Freon Gas delle Scienze, 37/A-43010 Fontanini, Parma, Italy ABSTRACT: CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells have reached in the preparation of high efficiency CdTe/CdS solar cells is the activation treatment of CdTe film. Most research

  1. Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

  2. Microwave mode shifting antenna system for regenerating particulate filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA; Gregoire, Daniel J [Thousand Oaks, CA

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A regeneration system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter including a microwave energy absorbing surface, and an antenna system comprising N antennas and an antenna driver module that sequentially drives the antenna system in a plurality of transverse modes of the antenna system to heat selected portions of the microwave absorbing surface to regenerate the PM filter, where N is an integer greater than one. The transverse modes may include transverse electric (TE) and/or transverse magnetic (TM) modes.

  3. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND)

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between the rows of filter elements are rows of high voltage discharge electrodes. Between the rows of discharge electrodes and the rows of filter elements are grounded perforated plates for creating electrostatic precipitation zones.

  4. Device for measuring the flow of a gas containing particulates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.G.; Hofer, P.H.

    1991-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an apparatus for continuously measuring the flow of a gas containing entrained particulates. It comprises: a flow channel, through which the gas flows; an orifice disposed within the flow channel, including at least a first surface and a second surface; means for causing the first surface and second surface independently to move in directions perpendicular to lines normal to the surfaces; scraping means, for intimately contacting at least a portion of the first surface and of the second surface, at all times while the surfaces are moving, whereby particulates which adhere to the first and second surfaces are removed by the movement of the surfaces past the scraping means; pressure taps, positioned so as to communicate with the flow channel upstream and downstream from the orifice, the pressure taps additionally in communication with pressure-measuring means, for measuring the pressure differential in the flow channel resulting from the passage of the gas through the orifice; and thermophoretic heaters, positioned so as to heat the gas within the pressure taps, and thereby excluding particulates therefrom.

  5. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  6. High efficiency 2 micrometer laser utilizing wing-pumped Tm.sup.3+ and a laser diode array end-pumping architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wing pumping a Tm.sup.3+ doped, end pumped solid state laser generates 2 .mu.m laser radiation at high average powers with high efficiency. Using laser diode arrays to end-pump the laser rod or slab in the wing of the Tm.sup.3+ absorption band near 785 nm results in 2-for-1 quantum efficiency in Tm.sup.3+ because high Tm.sup.3+ concentrations can be used. Wing pumping allows the thermal power generated in the rod or slab to be distributed over a large enough volume to make thermal management practical in the laser gain medium even at high average power operation. The approach is applicable to CW, Q-switched, and rep-pulsed free-laser operation.

  7. MIC-SVM: Designing A Highly Efficient Support Vector Machine For Advanced Modern Multi-Core and Many-Core Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Yang; Song, Shuaiwen; Fu, Haohuan; Marquez, Andres; Mehri Dehanavi, Maryam; Barker, Kevin J.; Cameron, Kirk; Randles, Amanda; Yang, Guangwen

    2014-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) has been widely used in data-mining and Big Data applications as modern commercial databases start to attach an increasing importance to the analytic capabilities. In recent years, SVM was adapted to the ?eld of High Performance Computing for power/performance prediction, auto-tuning, and runtime scheduling. However, even at the risk of losing prediction accuracy due to insuf?cient runtime information, researchers can only afford to apply of?ine model training to avoid signi?cant runtime training overhead. To address the challenges above, we designed and implemented MICSVM, a highly efficient parallel SVM for x86 based multi-core and many core architectures, such as the Intel Ivy Bridge CPUs and Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor (MIC).

  8. High efficiency 2 micrometer laser utilizing wing-pumped Tm{sup 3+} and a laser diode array end-pumping architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, R.J.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Wing pumping a Tm{sup 3+} doped, end pumped solid state laser generates 2 {micro}m laser radiation at high average powers with high efficiency. Using laser diode arrays to end-pump the laser rod or slab in the wing of the Tm{sup 3+} absorption band near 785 nm results in 2-for-1 quantum efficiency in Tm{sup 3+} because high Tm{sup 3+} concentrations can be used. Wing pumping allows the thermal power generated in the rod or slab to be distributed over a large enough volume to make thermal management practical in the laser gain medium even at high average power operation. The approach is applicable to CW, Q-switched, and rep-pulsed free-laser operation. 7 figs.

  9. New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency. Annual subcontract report, 1 August 1990--31 July 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; O`Bradovich, G.J.; Young, M.P. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes progress during the first year of a three-year project. The objective of the research is to examine new design approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program is divided into two areas. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for III-V semiconductors. The second area centers on exploring design approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high quality material. Research activities consisted of an experimental study of minority carrier recombination in n-type, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-deposited GaAs, an assessment of the minority carrier lifetimes in n-GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and developing a high-efficiency cell fabrication process.

  10. High Efficiency Fans and High Efficiency Electrical Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breedlove, C. W.

    Replacing nominal efficient electrical motors with premium efficiency can save on electrical power costs in cotton gins. Connected horsepower load on industrial air fans is approximately 60% of the total horsepower in a typical cotton gin...

  11. Monitoring and evaluation of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached houses in Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, R.; Hough, R.E. (Fleming (W.S.) and Associates, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE initiated this project to evaluate the performance of an air conditioner retrofit program in Austin, Texas. The City's Austin's Resource Management Department pursued this project to quantify the retrofit effect of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached homes. If successfully implemented, this retrofit program could help defer construction of a new power plant which is a major goal of this department. The project compares data collected from 12 houses during two cooling seasons under pre-retrofit and then post-retrofit air conditioner units. The existing low-efficiency air conditioners were monitored during the 1987 cooling season, replaced during the 1987--88 heating season with new, smaller sized, high-efficiency units, and then monitored again during the 1988 cooling season. Results indicated that the air conditioner retrofits reduce the annual air conditioner electric consumption and peak electric demand by an average of 38%. When normalized to the nominal capacity of the air conditioner, average demand savings were 1.12 W/ft{sup 2} and estimated annual energy savings were 1.419 kWh/ft{sup 2}. Individual air conditioner power requirements were found to be a well defined function of outdoor temperature as expected. In the absence of detailed data, estimates of the peak demand reductions of new air conditioners can be made from the manufacturer's specifications. Air conditioner energy consumption proved to be strongly linear as a function of the outdoor temperature as expected when taken as an aggregate. No noticeable differences in the diversity factor of the air conditioner usage were found. Analysis of the retrofit effect using PRISM yields estimates of the reduction in normalized annual consumption (NAC) and annual cooling consumption of 12% and 30%. 2 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Multicolor, High Efficiency, Nanotextured LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung Han; Arto Nurmikko

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and green for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) heteroepitaxy of nitrogen-polar LEDs on sapphire, (ii) heteroepitaxy of semipolar (11{bar 2}2) green LEDs on sapphire, (iii) synthesis of quantum-dot loaded nanoporous GaN that emits white light without phosphor conversion, (iv) demonstration of the highest quality semipolar (11{bar 2}2) GaN on sapphire using orientation-controlled epitaxy, (v) synthesis of nanoscale GaN and InGaN medium, and (vi) development of a novel liftoff process for manufacturing GaN thin-film vertical LEDs. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  13. Highly Efficient Electric Motor Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    engineering capabilities · Develop & launch products beyond fan & pump applications, i.e. · Electric vehicle performance for same cost Replaces or simplifies mechanical belts, pulleys and gearboxes Delivers 2X torque and Menlo Ventures Low-cost manufacturing automation developed POs received for early products Projected

  14. High-Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vance, A L; Trent, J W; See, E F; Glass, R S

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen economy will require readily available and affordable hydrogen fuel. Current methods of hydrogen production do not fulfill these requirements. We are working on an electrolyzer system that can provide distributed hydrogen production while taking advantage of the nation's existing natural gas infrastructure. Electrolysis is a promising hydrogen production technology both because of its ability to produce pure hydrogen from water and because it does not require large, centralized plants. Unlike other technologies, the cost of hydrogen production scales well from larger to smaller systems. Electrolysis units could be widely distributed and scaled to meet the hydrogen requirements of different users such as individual households, local fueling stations and industrial facilities. A significant drawback to traditional electrolysis is the large electricity consumption required to convert water to hydrogen and oxygen. The electricity requirements mean such systems are expensive to operate. In addition, if the electricity is provided from coal or gas-fired power plants, electrolytic hydrogen production does not mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The concept described in this report is intended to resolve some of the problems associated with electrolytic hydrogen production. By utilizing natural gas in place of air in the anode compartment in a solid oxide electrolyzer, the electricity requirements of the system are greatly reduced. The system has the capability to produce pure hydrogen, or hydrogen humidified to levels appropriate for direct use in a PEM fuel cell. With inherent electrochemical compression, the requirement for external compression for pressurization could be reduced. This technology offers numerous advantages for distributed hydrogen production of stationary and transportation hydrogen fuel cells. Our preliminary calculations indicate that using this concept, hydrogen could be produced at a cost competitive with gasoline (on a per gallon equivalent basis) while also lowering carbon dioxide emissions.

  15. Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Efficiency Improvement Controls Variable Valve Actuation Variable Intake Swirl Turbo Technology Electrically Driven Components Aftertreatment Phase 2 0 2 4 6 8 0 0.2 0.4...

  16. Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    penalty associated with aftertreatment 3% improvement in open cycle efficiency (turbo, EGR system, etc.) 8 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or...

  17. High efficiency turbine blade coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600 oC and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the production of layered periodic microstructures in the coating, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) modeling of particle transport in the PVD plume, functional graded layer development, the deposition of all layers to form a complete coating, and materials characterization including thermal testing. Ion beam-assisted deposition, beam sharing through advanced digital rastering, substrate pivoting, hearth calorimetry, infrared imaging, fiber optic-enabled optical emission spectroscopy and careful thermal management were used to achieve all the milestones outlined in the FY02 LDRD proposal.

  18. Evaluating High Efficiency Motor Retrofit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, T. A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the petrochemical and refining Industries, and most manufacturing plants, the reliable operation of AC motors always has been crucial to the continuous operation of the process. Now, the cost of operating these motors has also become a...

  19. HIGH-EFFICIENCY MQW ELECTROABSORPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    ¯ers, and mode trans- formers. We have fabricated InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum well EAMs with a band- width above 25-compensated InGaAsP quantum wells (10.4 nm wide, 0.37% tensile strain), 11 InGaAsP barriers (7.6 nm wide , 0¯ers, and mode transformers. EAMs are based on the electroabsorption e®ect, i.e., on the change of the absorption

  20. High efficiency diamond solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic device and method of making same. A layer of p-doped microcrystalline diamond is deposited on a layer of n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond such as by providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a first atmosphere containing about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 99% by volume H.sub.2 with dopant quantities of a boron compound, subjecting the atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer on the substrate, providing a second atmosphere of about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 89% by volume Ar and about 10% by volume N.sub.2, subjecting the second atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond layer on the p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer. Electrodes and leads are added to conduct electrical energy when the layers are irradiated.