National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for heavy metals removal

  1. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Laramie, WY)

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  2. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.; Padilla, Dennis D.; Wingo, Robert M.; Worl, Laura A.; Johnson, Michael D.

    2003-07-22

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  3. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.

    2006-12-26

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  4. Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dash, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

  5. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  6. Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

    1993-03-01

    This paper reviews the applicable separation technologies relating to removal of heavy metals from solution and from soils in order to present the state-of-the-art in the field. Each technology is briefly described and typical operating conditions and technology performance are presented. Technologies described include chemical precipitation (including hydroxide, carbonate, or sulfide reagents), coagulation/flocculation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, extraction with chelating agents, complexation, electrochemical operation, cementation, membrane operations, evaporation, adsorption, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification. Several case histories are described, with a focus on waste reduction techniques and remediation of lead-contaminated soils. The paper concludes with a short discussion of important research needs in the field.

  7. High-Performance, Superparamagnetic, Nanoparticle-Based Heavy Metal Sorbents for Removal of Contaminants from Natural Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Cynthia L.; Addleman, Shane; Cinson, Anthony D.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nash, Michael A.; Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Marvin G.

    2010-06-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle based heavy metal sorbents with various surface chemistries that demonstrate an excellent affinity for the separation of heavy metals in contaminated water systems (i.e. spiked Columbia river water). The magnetic nanoparticle sorbents are prepared from an easy to synthesize iron oxide precursor, followed by a simple, one-step ligand exchange technique to introduce the organic surface functionality of interest chosen to target either specific or broader classes of heavy metals. Functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles are excellent sorbent materials for the extraction of heavy metal contaminants from environmental and clinical samples since they are easily removed from the media once bound to the contaminant by simply applying a magnetic field. These engineered magnetic nanoparticle sorbents have an inherently high active surface area (often > 100 m2/g), allowing for increased binding capacity. To demonstrate the potential sorbent performance of each of the surface modified magnetic nanoparticles, river water was spiked with Hg, Pb, Cd, Ag, Co, Cu, and Tl and exposed to low concentrations of the functionalized nanoparticles. The samples were analyzed to determine the metal content before and after exposure to the magnetic nanoparticle sorbents. In almost all cases reported here the nanoparticles were found to be superior to commercially available sorbents binding a wide range of different heavy metals with extremely high affinity. Detailed characterization of the functionalized magnetic nanoparticle sorbents including FT-IR, BET surface analysis, TGA, XPS and VSM as well as the heavy metal removal experiments are presented.

  8. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, E.C.

    1995-10-03

    An electrochemical method is described for separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500 C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode. 3 figs.

  9. Heavy metal biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  10. PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Plants Chelating agents Pb hyperaccumulation Effects of pH on metal extraction Disposal options contaminants from soils Contaminants must be in harvestable portions of the plant (Wongkongkatep et al. 2003) Chelating Agents: desorb heavy metals from soil matrix and form water-soluble metal complexes (Shen et al

  11. Heavy Metal Humor: Reconsidering Carnival in Heavy Metal Culture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gary Botts

    2013-06-05

    Bakhtin?s carnivalesque theory by analyzing comedic rhetoric performed by two comedic metal bands. Through the theories of Johan Huizinga and Mikhail Bakhtin, Chapter I: I Play Metal argues that heavy metal culture is a modern carnivalesque play...

  12. Treatability of Stormwater Heavy Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 Treatability of Stormwater Heavy Metals or Breaking the Irreducible Concentration Barrier R. Pitt Technologies for Urban Stormwater Conducted by the University of Alabamay y from 1999 to 2003 · Examined the characteristics and treatability of stormwater heavy metals at selected source areas and at outfalls. · Conducted

  13. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Neill, Malcolm A. (Winterville, GA); Pellerin, Patrice J. M. (Montpellier, FR); Warrenfeltz, Dennis (Athens, GA); Vidal, Stephane (Combaillaux, FR); Darvill, Alan G. (Athens, GA); Albersheim, Peter (Athens, GA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations.

  14. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

  15. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  16. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE HEAVY METAL SALTS (selected)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    (s): ___________________________________________________ Chemical(s): heavy metal salts: acetates, chlorides, sulfates, nitrates, anhydrides, oxides, hydroxides, etc., of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, osmium, silver, and uranium. Specific

  17. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, S.; Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-07-27

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption process, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gases from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or passivating the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  18. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  19. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-05-03

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  20. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-01-06

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  1. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-03-15

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  2. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman; Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-03-29

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  3. Regenerative process for removal of mercury and other heavy metals from gases containing H.sub.2 and/or CO

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jadhav, Raja A. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-07-07

    A method for removal of mercury from a gaseous stream containing the mercury, hydrogen and/or CO, and hydrogen sulfide and/or carbonyl sulfide in which a dispersed Cu-containing sorbent is contacted with the gaseous stream at a temperature in the range of about 25.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. until the sorbent is spent. The spent sorbent is contacted with a desorbing gaseous stream at a temperature equal to or higher than the temperature at which the mercury adsorption is carried out, producing a regenerated sorbent and an exhaust gas comprising released mercury. The released mercury in the exhaust gas is captured using a high-capacity sorbent, such as sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, at a temperature less than about 100.degree. C. The regenerated sorbent may then be used to capture additional mercury from the mercury-containing gaseous stream.

  4. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).

  5. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-23

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

  6. Situ formation of apatite for sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM)

    2003-07-15

    Methods for in situ formation in soil of a permeable reactive barrier or zone comprising a phosphate precipitate, such as apatite or hydroxyapatite, which is capable of selectively trapping and removing radionuclides and heavy metal contaminants from the soil, while allowing water or other compounds to pass through. A preparation of a phosphate reagent and a chelated calcium reagent is mixed aboveground and injected into the soil. Subsequently, the chelated calcium reagent biodegrades and slowly releases free calcium. The free calcium reacts with the phosphate reagent to form a phosphate precipitate. Under the proper chemical conditions, apatite or hydroxyapatite can form. Radionuclide and heavy metal contaminants, including lead, strontium, lanthanides, and uranium are then selectively sequestered by sorbing them onto the phosphate precipitate. A reducing agent can be added for reduction and selective sequestration of technetium or selenium contaminants.

  7. Contribution of Sulfonate Groups and Alginate to Heavy Metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Contribution of Sulfonate Groups and Alginate to Heavy Metal Biosorption by the Dry Biomass of heavy metal complexation by the dry biomass of the brown seaweed Sargassum fluitans was investigated. However, sulfonate groups can also contribute, to a lower extent, to heavy metal binding, particularly

  8. Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M.

    1996-10-01

    Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Metal Cutting for Large Component Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulick, Robert M.

    2008-01-15

    Decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of large components mainly consisting of the reactor vessel, steam generators and pressurizer. In order to remove and package these large components nozzles must be cut from the reactor vessel to precise tolerances. In some cases steam generators must be segmented for size and weight reduction. One innovative technology that has been used successfully at several commercial nuclear plant decommissioning is diamond wire sawing. Diamond wire sawing is performed by rotating a cable with diamond segments attached using a flywheel approximately 24 inches in diameter driven remotely by a hydraulic pump. Tension is provided using a gear rack drive which also takes up the slack in the wire. The wire is guided through the use of pulleys keeps the wire in a precise location. The diamond wire consists of 1/4 inch aircraft cable with diamond beads strung over the cable separated by springs and brass crimps. Standard wire contains 40 diamond beads per meter and can be made to any length. Cooling the wire and controlling the spread of contamination presents significant challenges. Under normal circumstances the wire is cooled and the cutting kerf cleaned by using water. In some cases of reactor nozzle cuts the use of water is prohibited because it cannot be controlled. This challenge was solved by using liquid Carbon Dioxide as the cooling agent. The liquid CO{sub 2} is passed through a special nozzle which atomizes the liquid into snowflakes which is introduced under pressure to the wire. The snowflakes attach to the wire keeping it cool and to the metal shavings. As the CO{sub 2} and metal shavings are released from the wire due to its fast rotation, the snowflakes evaporate leaving only the fine metal shavings as waste. Secondary waste produced is simply the small volume of fine metal shavings removed from the cut surface. Diamond wire sawing using CO{sub 2} cooling has been employed for cutting the reactor nozzles at San Onofre Unit 1 and at Connecticut Yankee. These carbon steel nozzles ranged up to 54 inch diameter with a 15 inch thick wall and an interior stainless cladding. Diamond wire sawing using traditional water cooling has been used to segment the reactor head at Rancho Seco and for cutting reactor nozzles and control rod drive tubes at Dairyland Power's Lacrosse BWR project. Advantages: - ALARA: All cutting is preformed remotely significantly reducing dose. Stringing of wires is accomplished using long handle tools. - Secondary waste is reduced to just the volume of material cut with the diamond wire. - The potential for airborne contamination is eliminated. Due to the flexibility of the wire, any access restrictions and interferences can be accommodated using pulleys and long handle tools. - The operation is quiet. Disadvantages: - With Liquid Carbon Dioxide cooling and cleaning, delivery of the material must be carefully planned. The longer the distance from the source to the cut area, the greater the chance for pressure drop and subsequent problems with line freezing. - Proper shrouding and ventilation are required for environmental reasons. In each case, the metal structures were cut at a precise location. Radiation dose was reduced significantly by operating the equipment from a remote location. The cuts were very smooth and completed on schedule. Each project must be analyzed individually and take into account many factors including access, radiological conditions, environmental conditions, schedule requirements, packaging requirements and size of cuts.

  10. Process for removing metal carbonyls from gaseous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyd, R.L.; Pignet, T.P.

    1988-04-26

    A process for removing metal carbonyl contaminates from a gaseous stream is described containing such contaminates and which is free from sulfur contaminates, which process comprises contacting the gaseous stream with a zinc sulfide absorbent to thereby remove metal carbonyl contaminates from the gaseous stream, and separating the gaseous stream from the zinc sulfide absorbent.

  11. Thermal and hydrometallurgical recovery methods of heavy metals from municipal solid waste fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo?ová, L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • MSW fly ash was thermally and hydrometallurgically treated to remove heavy metals. • More than 90% of easy volatile heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were removed thermally. • More than 90% of Cd, Cr, Cu an Zn were removed by alkaline – acid leaching. • The best results were obtained for the solution of 3 M NaOH and 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050 °C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200 °C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel.

  12. High-Level Treatment of Stormwater Heavy Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    11/1/2008 1 High-Level Treatment of Stormwater Heavy Metals R. Pitt1, S. Clark2, P.D. Johnson1, R M for Urban Stormwater Conducted by the University of Alabama from 1999 to 2003 · Examined the characteristics and treatability of stormwater heavy metals. · Conducted detailed laboratory and field tests for the control

  13. Contamination of heavy metals in mangroves: A comparison between Cao Martn Pea and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Contamination of heavy metals in mangroves: A comparison between Caño that contamination of heavy metals in mangroves decrease their chlorophyll levels and how heavy metals contamination has affected them. The images utilized

  14. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, J.R.; Ashton, W.B.; Rapoport, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs.

  15. Removal of field and embedded metal by spin spray etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contolini, R.J.; Mayer, S.T.; Tarte, L.A.

    1996-01-23

    A process of removing both the field metal, such as copper, and a metal, such as copper, embedded into a dielectric or substrate at substantially the same rate by dripping or spraying a suitable metal etchant onto a spinning wafer to etch the metal evenly on the entire surface of the wafer. By this process the field metal is etched away completely while etching of the metal inside patterned features in the dielectric at the same or a lesser rate. This process is dependent on the type of chemical etchant used, the concentration and the temperature of the solution, and also the rate of spin speed of the wafer during the etching. The process substantially reduces the metal removal time compared to mechanical polishing, for example, and can be carried out using significantly less expensive equipment. 6 figs.

  16. Heavy Metal Tolerance in Plants J.ANTONOVIOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonovics, Janis

    #12;Heavy Metal Tolerance in Plants J.ANTONOVIOS Department of Biology. University of Stirling.K. I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I1. Ecology of Metal Tolerance . . . . . . . . . 4 A on Contaminated Soils . . 19 1. Metal Concentration and Type . . . . . . . 19 2. Other Soil Factors

  17. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  18. Heavy Metals in Glass Beads Used in Pavement Markings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangalgiri, Kiranmayi

    2012-07-16

    mL bottle reactor and 100 mL of glycine solution was added to it. The reactors were capped and attached to a rotary shaker (Barnstead? Thermolyne LABQUAKE?) with zip ties. The system was rotated at 8 rpm at a temperature of 37 ? 5?C... May 2012 Major Subject: Civil Engineering Heavy Metals in Glass Beads Used in Pavement Markings Copyright 2012 Kiranmayi Prakash Mangalgiri HEAVY METALS IN GLASS BEADS USED IN PAVEMENT MARKINGS...

  19. Heavy metal characterization of municipal solid waste compost 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worsham, Michael Craig

    1992-01-01

    Committee: Dr. Bill Batchelor Dr. Kirk W. Brown Waste incineration and composting create solid residues which are later applied to or buried under soils. Although incinerator ash has been studied extensively for heavy metal content, much less is known... Digestion of Sediments, Sludges, and Soils does not fully recover all heavy metals in MSW compost. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) of undigested solid residues remaining after Method 3050 digestion of MSW compost showed that residues contained...

  20. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Sandeep K. [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goloubinoff, Pierre [Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Christen, Philipp [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: christen@bioc.uzh.ch

    2008-07-25

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

  1. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to exposure additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  2. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-04-11

    A process is described for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal. 2 figures.

  3. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  4. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.T.

    1994-12-06

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO[sub x] and optionally SO[sub 2] from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe[sup 2+]) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution. 26 figures.

  5. Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration of heavy metals using lecithin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmadi, Saman Nameghi

    1992-01-01

    X Distribution by Unit Operation I2). Prec. Complex. Chrom. ftfctafs rfefufs fhazanafant) CI)aaida X X X X X Table 2. continued 38. Painting 39. Electrostatic paint. 40. Electropainting 41. Vacuum metalizing 42. Assembly 43. Calibration...MICELLAR ENHANCED ULTRAFILTRATION OF HEAVY METALS USING LECITHIN A Thesis by Saman Nameghi Ahmadi Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  6. Heavy metals in composted municipal solid wastes for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Heavy metals in composted municipal solid wastes for amendment of agricultural soils/ Métaux lourds dans le compost de déchets municipaux pour application agricole Valérie Duchesneau, #4634809 EVS4904 métaux lourds des compostes de déchets municipaux? http://www.ecometiers.com/fiche/images/43.jpg La

  7. Heavy Metal Stress. Activation of Distinct Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirt, Heribert

    Heavy Metal Stress. Activation of Distinct Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways by Copper, Vienna Biocenter, A­1030 Vienna, Austria Excessive amounts of heavy metals adversely affect plant growth and development. Whereas some regions naturally contain high levels of heavy metals, anthropogenic release

  8. The removal of precious metals by conductive polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Stark, P.C.; Trujillo, S.M.; Aguino, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    The growing demand for platinum-group metals (PGM) for several applications within the DOE complex and in industry, the need for modern and clean processes and the increasing volume of low grade material for secondary PGM recovery have a direct impact on the industrial practice of recovering and refining of precious metals. PGM recovery have a direct impact on the industrial practice of recovering and refining of precious metals. With precipitation-dissolution methods being the most common method of recovery, there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. Here at Los Alamos there is an integrated program in ligand-design and separation`s chemistry for recovery of actinide and toxic metals from variety of process streams. In the present investigations, a novel hollow fiber membrane (CPI) is characterized and its selectivity for PGM reported. In addition, a continuous single unit operation is proposed for the removal, concentration and recovery of platinum from catalytic and electroplating process streams is proposed.

  9. Synthesis of Functionalized Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles from a Common Precursor and their Application as Heavy Metal and Actinide Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Marvin G.; Warner, Cynthia L.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Davidson, Joseph D.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Nash, Michael A.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2009-10-12

    We describe the use of a simple and versatile technique to generate a series of ligand stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles containing different ? functionalities with specificities toward heavy metals and actinides at the periphery of the stabilizing ligand shell from a common, easy to synthesize precursor nanoparticle. The resulting nanoparticles are designed to contain affinity ligands that make them excellent sorbent materials for a variety of heavy metals from contaminated aqueous systems such as river water and ground water as well as actinides from clinical samples such as blood and urine. Functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles make ideal reagents for extraction of heavy metal and actinide contaminants from environmental and clinical samples since they are easily removed from the media once bound to the contaminant by simply applying a magnetic field. In addition, these engineered nanomaterials have an inherently high active surface area (often > 100 m2/g) making them ideal sorbent materials for these types of applications

  10. Heavy metals emission from controlled combustion of PVC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Ayyoubi, Mohammed A.

    1989-01-01

    such as direct heating and uv radiation exposure e (IZ). The PVC polymer chain contains weak sites that represent the initiating sites of chemical deter ioration. These sites are formed during polymerization of the vinyl chloride monomer. Thus attempts...HEAVY METALS EMISSION FROM CONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF PVC A Thesis by MOHAMMED A. EL-AYYOUBI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Ag M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degas ee of' MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  11. Pesticide and heavy metal residues in Louisiana river otter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, Debra Lynn

    1977-01-01

    selected for investigation on the basis of their hazard to mammals, in terms of toxicitv and persistence, and the extent of their occurrence in the Louisiana environment. Pesticides and heavy metals were the ma]or categories of pollutants reviewed...- bly the most persistent of pesticides (Macek 1970, Edwards 1973), Ag- ricultural and domestic usage in local and upstream areas can be expect- 10 ed to result in pollution of the aquatic environment in Louisiana. Res- idues of several...

  12. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek metal coating removal system consists of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER(R), and VAC-PAC(R). The system is designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M ROTO-PEEN tungsten carbide cutters, while the CORNER-CUTTER(R) uses solid needles for descaling activities. These are used with the VAC-PAC(R) vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended, since the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may skew the results. It is feasible that dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  13. SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALS: REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the high pressure pump and transfer pump, and replacement of the cartridge filter and RO membrane elements) ranged from 0.75 to 2.001,000 gal of feed water...

  14. Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WASTES; ION EXCHANGE; MEMBRANES; PRECIPITATION; VITRIFICATION; COMPLEXES; ELEMENTS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; KINETICS; LIQUID WASTES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; REACTION KINETICS;...

  15. SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALS: REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmall ReactorRaymond Davis,Robert Curl,SHelp JournalsOpen

  16. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  17. Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dippner, Joachim W.

    Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using 2003; accepted 10 October 2003 Abstract Heavy metal concentrations from annual sampling in the period metals; Baltic Sea; EOF analysis 1. Introduction The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water

  18. Removal Efficiencies of a Bioretention System for Trace Metals, PCBs, PAHs, and Dioxins in a Semiarid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Removal Efficiencies of a Bioretention System for Trace Metals, PCBs, PAHs, and Dioxins (concentration or load reductions) were demonstrated for total Hg, polychlori- nated biphenols (PCBs) and dioxins); Metals; Mercury; Dioxins; Stormwater. Introduction Stormwater runoff from streets and parking lots

  19. Composites for removing metals and volatile organic compounds and method thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2006-12-12

    Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel/solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The targeted metals and organics are removed by passing the aqueous or vapor phase through the composite which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The composites adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific functionalization of the aerogels tailored towards specific metals and/or organics. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of or the targeted metals and/or organics can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

  20. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Soil and Cassava Plant on Sewage Sludge Dump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igbozuruike, Chris Washington Ifeanyi Mr.; Opara-Nadi, Achilihu Oliver Prof; Okorie, Ikechukwu Kennedy DR

    2009-01-01

    1998). Effects of sewage sludge pre-treatment on microbialfrom this work indicate that sewage sludge especiallyuntreated sewage sludge increased the soil heavy metal

  1. Short Communication Kinetics and thermodynamics of heavy metal ions sequestration onto novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Jian Ru

    Short Communication Kinetics and thermodynamics of heavy metal ions sequestration onto novel biomasses had been chosen and utilized by researchers to sequester toxic heavy metal ions from industrial seeds {Cu(II)} (Chowdhury and Saha, 2011) and Mustard oil cake {Ni(II)} (Khan et al., 2012). Adsorbents

  2. Heavy Metals contamination in two bioluminescent bays of Puerto Rico Yadira Soto Viruet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 Heavy Metals contamination in two bioluminescent bays of Puerto Rico Yadira Soto Viruet #802 characteristics. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the presence of heavy metals of pesticides for agriculture, untreated wastewater and variety of industrial activities (power plants, oil

  3. HEAVY METALS IN THE NORTHERN FUR SEAL, CALLORHINUS URSIN US, AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HEAVY METALS IN THE NORTHERN FUR SEAL, CALLORHINUS URSIN US, AND HARBOR SEAL, PHOCA VITULINA Calillnnia harbor seal and 170 ppm in a fur seal taken oil the Washington coast. Concentrations of cadmium of mercury were from southern California seals. Heavy metals are persistent contaminants that ultimately end

  4. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic modeling of extraction of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by chelation in supercritical carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uyansoy, Hakki

    1995-01-01

    Wastewater streams containing heavy metals are common in industry. To prevent the contamination of clean water sources, the Clean Water Act specifies limits on the heavy metal concentrations of industrial waste water. This ...

  5. Selected heavy metals in tissues of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded along thr Texas and Florida Gulf coasts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haubold, Elsa Maria

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements with global distribution. Industrial application of some heavy metals has led to ecosystem contamination and accumulation of unsafe levels in the food chain, even for those ...

  6. Multipollutant Removal with WOWClean® System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero, M.

    2010-01-01

    from the flue gas of a power plant and demonstrate the technology. The system integrates proven emission reduction techniques into a single, multi-pollutant reduction system and is designed to remove Mercury, SOx, NOx, particulates, heavy metals...

  7. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in high precision manufacturing environments: Fuel injector nozzle drilling (automotive industry) Ceramic hole drilling (electronics industry) Precious metal...

  8. Method for removal of metal atoms from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Torres, deceased, Agapito P. (late of Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Kaleen, AU)

    1992-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells were also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  9. Method and device for electroextraction of heavy metals from technological solutions and wastewater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khalemsky, Aron Mikhailov; Payusov, Sergei Abramovic; Kelner, Leonid; Jo, Jae

    2005-05-03

    The basic principles of the method for heavy metals electroextraction from technological solutions and wastewater includes pretreating to remove Chromium-6 and high concentrations of heavy metals and periodically treating in a six-electrode bipolar cylindrical electroreactor made of non-conducting material to achieve lower accepted levels of impurities. Six cylindrical steel electrodes form two triode stacks and are fed with three-phase alternating current of commercial frequency (50-60 Hz), which can be pulsed. Each phase of the three-phase current is connected to three electrodes of one triode stack or in parallel to two triode stacks. The parallel connection of three-phase current to two triode stacks is performed so that the same phase of the three phase current is connected in parallel with each two opposite electrodes of six electrodes located along the periphery, or with two adjacent electrodes. A bipolar stationary aluminum electrode is situated in the inter-electrode space. In one of the embodiments, the bipolar electrode is made of a perforated heat-resistant plastic container filled with secondary aluminum and duralumin scrap. In another embodiment, the bipolar electrode of aluminum or duralumin scrap may be made without a perforated container and is placed in the inter-electrode space as a bulk scrap. In this case, to prevent shorts, each of six steel electrodes is placed in isolated perforated plastic shell with holes of 5 mm in diameter. Non-ferrous metals are extracted in a form of ferrite-chromites, and aluminates as well as hydroxyl salts deposited in the inter-electrode space without electrolysis deposits on electrodes. Deposits are separated from solution by known methods of filtration.

  10. Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions by ETS-4 microporous titano-silicate: effect of contact time, titano-silicate mass and initial metal concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, C. B.; Otero, M.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A. C. [CESAM and Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lin, Z.; Silva, C. M.; Rocha, J. [CICECO and Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the environment and therefore is extremely important develop new, simple and reliable techniques for its removal from aqueous solutions. A recent line of research within this context is the application of microporous materials. The use of these materials for removing heavy metals from solutions may become a potential clean-up technology in the field of wastewater treatment. In this work it is reported the application of microporous titano-silicate ETS-4 as ion exchanger to remove Hg{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. Under batch conditions, we studied the effect of contact time, titano-silicate mass and initial Hg{sup 2+} concentration. Only 5 mf of ETS-4 are required to purify 2 litres of water with 50 {mu}g L{sup -1} of metal. Under the experimental conditions, the initial Hg{sup 2+} concentration and ETS-4 mass have strong influence on the sorption process, and it is proved that 24 h are almost always sufficient to attain ion exchange equilibrium. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to fit equilibrium experimental results. The kinetics of mercury removal was reliably described by a pseudo second-order model. On the whole, ETS-4 shows considerable potential to remove Hg{sup 2+} from wastewaters. (authors)

  11. Removal and recovery of metal ions from process and waste streams using polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Kraus, K.M.; Thompson, J.A.

    1999-06-13

    Polymer Filtration (PF) is an innovative, selective metal removal technology. Chelating, water-soluble polymers are used to selectively bind the desired metal ions and ultrafiltration is used to concentrate the polymer-metal complex producing a permeate with low levels of the targeted metal ion. When applied to the treatment of industrial metal-bearing aqueous process streams, the permeate water can often be reused within the process and the metal ions reclaimed. This technology is applicable to many types of industrial aqueous streams with widely varying chemistries. Application of PF to aqueous streams from nuclear materials processing and electroplating operations will be described.

  12. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PolyPlus Battery Company has developed the protected lithium electrode (PLE), an invention that enables the use of lithium metal as an electrode in a secondary battery....

  13. Heavy metals and lead isotopes in sdB stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. O'Toole; U. Heber

    2006-12-19

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of high-resolution ultraviolet echelle spectra of five subdwarf B stars obtained with HST-STIS The goal of our observations was to test the hypothesis that pulsations in sdBs are correlated to the surface abundances of iron-group elements. We study two pulsators and three non-pulsators and determined abundances for 25 elements including the iron group and even heavier elements such as tin and lead using LTE spectrum synthesis techniques. We find strong enrichments of heavy elements up to 2.9dex with respect to solar which are probably caused by atomic diffusion processes. No clear-cut correlation between pulsations and metal abundances becomes apparent. Abundances for lead isotopes are derived from very high resolution spectra using an UV line of triply ionised lead. As Pb terminates the s-process sequence Pb isotopic abundance ratios yield important constraints. It is very difficult to measure them in hot stars. For the first time we were able to measure them in two subluminous B stars and conclude that the 207Pb/208Pb is solar.

  14. Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabpai, S. [Suphan Buri Campus Establishment Project, Kasetsart University, 50 U Floor, Administrative Building, Paholyothin Road, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: s.prabpai@hotmail.com; Charerntanyarak, L. [Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: lertchai@kku.ac.th; Siri, B. [Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonmee@kku.ac.th; Moore, M.R. [The University of Queensland, The National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plans, Brisbane, Queensland 4108 (Australia)], E-mail: m.moore@uq.edu.au; Noller, Barry N. [The University of Queensland, Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: b.noller@uq.edu.au

    2009-08-15

    The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

  15. Process for sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment of hexavalent chromium and other heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wikoff, Penny M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Beller, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Carpenter, Charles J. (Lynn Haven, FL)

    1991-01-01

    433 of 9384 ) United States Patent 5,000,859 Suciu ,   et al. March 19, 1991 Process for sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment of hexavalent chromium and other heavy metals

  16. Pint-sized plants pack a punch in fight against heavy metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, V.

    1996-05-01

    USDA researchers are experimenting with plants that naturally scavenge heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc from the soil. Known as hyperaccumulators, the plants can store up to 2.5% of their dry weight in heavy metals in leaves without yield reductions. They can be grown, harvested, and dried. The dried material is then burned, and the metal ore can be recovered. As well as discussing the history of hyperaccumulators, this article focuses on the plant pennycress and work on improving its metal uptake.

  17. The removal of precious metals by conductive polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    The growing demand for platinum-group metals (PGM) within the DOE complex and in industry, the need for modern and clean processes, and the increasing volume of low-grade material for secondary PGM recovery has a direct impact on the industrial practice of recovering and refining precious metals. There is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques, since the currently used method of precipitation-dissolution is inadequate. Los Alamos has an integrated program in ligand-design and separations chemistry which has developed and evaluated a series of water- soluble metal-binding polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from variety of process streams. A natural extension of this work is to fabricate these metal-selective polymers into membrane based separation unites, i.e., hollow-fiber membranes. In the present investigation, the material for a novel hollow-fiber membrane is characterized and its selectivity for PGM reported. Energy and waste savings and economic competitiveness are also described.

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    397 ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES C thin evaporated foils of heavy rare earths (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in three different chemical of high energy incident electrons (75 keV) transmitted through thin foils of yttric rare earth elements

  19. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  20. CHANGING THE LANDSCAPE--LOW-TECH SOLUTIONS TO THE PADUCAH SCRAP METAL REMOVAL PROJECT ARE PROVIDING SAFE, COST-EFFECTIVE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SCRAP YARDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Dan; Eyman, Jeff

    2003-02-27

    Between 1974 and 1983, contaminated equipment was removed from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) process buildings as part of an enrichment process upgrade program. The upgrades consisted of the dismantlement, removal, and on-site storage of contaminated equipment, cell components, and scrap material (e.g., metal) from the cascade facilities. Scrap metal including other materials (e.g., drums, obsolete equipment) not related to this upgrade program have thus far accumulated in nine contiguous radiologically-contaminated and non-contaminated scrap yards covering 1.05E5 m2 (26 acres) located in the northwestern portion of the PGDP. This paper presents the sequencing of field operations and methods used to achieve the safe removal and disposition of over 47,000 tonnes (53,000 tons) of metal and miscellaneous items contained in these yards. The methods of accomplishment consist of mobilization, performing nuclear criticality safety evaluations, moving scrap metal to ground level, inspection and segregation, sampling and characterization, scrap metal sizing, packaging and disposal, and finally demobilization. Preventing the intermingling of characteristically hazardous and non-hazardous wastes promotes waste minimization, allowing for the metal and materials to be segregated into 13 separate waste streams. Low-tech solutions such as using heavy equipment to retrieve, size, and package scrap materials in conjunction with thorough planning that integrates safe work practices, commitment to teamwork, and incorporating lessons learned ensures that field operations will be conducted efficiently and safely.

  1. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1996-04-02

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines. 13 figs.

  2. Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals from bottom and fly ashes in Korea and Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Young-Sook; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun . E-mail: woklee@kangwon.ac.kr

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the leaching characteristics of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, etc., in Korean and Japanese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash. The rate of leaching of heavy metal was measured by KSLT and JTL-13, and the amount of heavy metals leached was compared with the metal content in each waste component. Finally, bio-availability testing was performed to assess the risks associated with heavy metals leached from bottom ash and fly ash. From the results, the value of neutralization ability in Japanese fly ash was four times higher than that in Korean fly ash. The reason was the difference in the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} in fly ash. The amount of lead leached exceeded the regulatory level in both Japanese and Korean fly ash. The rate of leaching was relatively low in ash with a pH in the range of 6-10. The bio-availability test in fly ash demonstrated that the amount of heavy metals leached was Pb > Cd > Cr, but the order was changed to Pb > Cr > Cd in the bottom ash. The leaching concentration of lead exceeded the Japanese risk level in all fly ashes from the two countries, but the leaching concentration of cadmium exceeded the regulatory level in Korean fly ash only.

  3. Method for fixating sludges and soils contaminated with mercury and other heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Broderick, Thomas E.; Roth, Rachel L.; Carlson, Allan L.

    2005-06-28

    The invention relates to a method, composition and apparatus for stabilizing mercury and other heavy metals present in a particulate material such that the metals will not leach from the particulate material. The method generally involves the application of a metal reagent, a sulfur-containing compound, and the addition of oxygen to the particulate material, either through agitation, sparging or the addition of an oxygen-containing compound.

  4. Process for the enhanced capture of heavy metal emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biswas, Pratim (Chesterfield, MO); Wu, Chang-Yu (Gainsville, FL)

    2001-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming a sorbent-metal complex. The process includes oxidizing a sorbent precursor and contacting the sorbent precursor with a metallic species. The process further includes chemically reacting the sorbent precursor and the metallic species, thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex. In one particular aspect of the invention, at least a portion of the sorbent precursor is transformed into sorbent particles during the oxidation step. These sorbent particles then are contacted with the metallic species and chemically reacted with the metallic species, thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex. Another aspect of the invention is directed to a process for forming a sorbent metal complex in a combustion system. The process includes introducing a sorbent precursor into a combustion system and subjecting the sorbent precursor to an elevated temperature sufficient to oxidize the sorbent precursor and transform the sorbent precursor into sorbent particles. The process further includes contacting the sorbent particles with a metallic species and exposing the sorbent particles and the metallic species to a complex-forming temperature whereby the metallic species reacts with the sorbent particles thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex under UV irradiation.

  5. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy...

  6. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy...

  7. Mercury Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Commercial and Laboratory Prepared Metal Oxide Nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Ishan

    2010-10-12

    Five commercial metal oxide nanoparticles (CuO, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2 and Al2O3) have been individually screened for mercury removal in a batch reactor under bicarbonate buffered and non-buffered aqueous solutions (DI water). Copper oxide...

  8. Proceedings of Soil Decon `93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document.

  9. Cone Penetrometer for Subsurface Heavy Metals Detection. Semiannual report, November 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisanti, Ames A.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Foster, H.J.; Eylands, Kurt E.; Crocker, Charlene R.

    1997-12-31

    Surface and subsurface contamination of soils by heavy metals, including Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Cd, has become an area of concern for many industrial and government organizations (1). Conventional sampling and analysis techniques for soil provide a high degree of sensitivity and selectivity for individual analytes. However, obtaining a representative sampling and analysis from a particular site using conventional techniques is time consuming and costly (2). Additionally, conventional methods are difficult to implement in the field for in situ and/or real-time applications. Therefore, there is a need for characterization and monitoring techniques for heavy metals in soils which allow cost-effective, rapid, in situ measurements. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to successfully measure metals content in a variety of matrices (3-15) including soil (16,17). Under the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) Industry Program, Science {ampersand} Engineering Associates (SEA) is developing a subsurface cone penetrometer (CPT) probe for heavy metals detection that employs LIBS (18). The LIES-CPT unit is to be applied to in situ, real-time sampling and analysis of heavy metals in soil. As part of its contract with DOE FETC, SEA is scheduled to field test its LIBS-CPT system in September 1997.

  10. Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Alan D. (Albany, OR); Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR)

    1995-01-01

    A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

  11. AMOUNT AND LEACHING POTENTIAL OF HEAVY METALS IN BARK MULCH AND COMPOST USED ON THE UNIVERSITY OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Executive Summary This project was to ascertain if heavy metals are present in leachate runoff from bark of metals into aquatic habitat, and to examine alternative strategies to reduce the impact of leachate heavy only in the 30 g bark mulch #12;iv sample in 0.35 L rainwater. Soil/compost leachate was above

  12. Heavy MetalMineral Associations in Coeur d'Alene River Sediments: A Synchrotron-Based Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heavy Metal­Mineral Associations in Coeur d'Alene River Sediments: A Synchrotron-Based Analysis. Heavy metal concentrations in sediments of the Coeur d'Alene watershed have been shown to be inversely proportional to the sediment size fraction; thus, analysis on a very small scale is essential to determine

  13. Metallomics of two microorganisms relevant to heavy metal bioremediation reveal fundamental differences in metal assimilation and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, Andrew [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Menon, Angeli [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Scott, Israel [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Poole, Farris [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Vaccaro, Brian [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Thorgersen, Michael P [ORNL] [ORNL; Geller, Jil [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry C [ORNL] [ORNL; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Adams, Michael W. W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01

    Although as many as half of all proteins are thought to require a metal cofactor, the metalloproteomes of microorganisms remain relatively unexplored. Microorganisms from different environments are likely to vary greatly in the metals that they assimilate, not just among the metals with well-characterized roles but also those lacking any known function. Herein we investigated the metal utilization of two microorganisms that were isolated from very similar environments and are of interest because of potential roles in the immobilization of heavy metals, such as uranium and chromium. The metals assimilated and their concentrations in the cytoplasm of Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough (DvH) and Enterobacter cloacae strain Hanford (EcH) varied dramatically, with a larger number of metals present in Enterobacter. For example, a total of 9 and 19 metals were assimilated into their cytoplasmic fractions, respectively, and DvH did not assimilate significant amounts of zinc or copper whereas EcH assimilated both. However, bioinformatic analysis of their genome sequences revealed a comparable number of predicted metalloproteins, 813 in DvH and 953 in EcH. These allowed some rationalization of the types of metal assimilated in some cases (Fe, Cu, Mo, W, V) but not in others (Zn, Nd, Ce, Pr, Dy, Hf and Th). It was also shown that U binds an unknown soluble protein in EcH but this incorporation was the result of extracellular U binding to cytoplasmic components after cell lysis.

  14. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

    1998-04-28

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

  15. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

  16. Voltage oxide removal for plating: A new method of electroplating oxide coated metals in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutfeld, R. J. von; West, A. C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    A novel in situ method for electroplating oxide coated metals is described. Termed VORP, for voltage oxide removal for plating, the process utilizes a voltage pulse {approx}20-200 V, {approx}2 ms in duration, applied between working and counterelectrodes while both are immersed in a copper electrolyte. The pulse is almost immediately followed by galvanostatic plate-up. Adherent copper deposits up to {approx}4 {mu}m in height on stainless steel 316 coupons have been obtained. Temperature testing up to 260 deg. C in air does not affect the copper adhesion. A preliminary model for oxide removal is proposed utilizing concepts of dielectric breakdown.

  17. Novel Sorbent-Based Process for High Temperature Trace Metal Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhan Alptekin

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel sorbent can effectively remove trace metal contaminants (Hg, As, Se and Cd) from actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams at high temperature (above the dew point of the gas). The performance of TDA's sorbent has been evaluated in several field demonstrations using synthesis gas generated by laboratory and pilot-scale coal gasifiers in a state-of-the-art test skid that houses the absorbent and all auxiliary equipment for monitoring and data logging of critical operating parameters. The test skid was originally designed to treat 10,000 SCFH gas at 250 psig and 350 C, however, because of the limited gas handling capabilities of the test sites, the capacity was downsized to 500 SCFH gas flow. As part of the test program, we carried out four demonstrations at two different sites using the synthesis gas generated by the gasification of various lignites and a bituminous coal. Two of these tests were conducted at the Power Systems Demonstration Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama; a Falkirk (North Dakota) lignite and a high sodium lignite (the PSDF operator Southern Company did not disclose the source of this lignite) were used as the feedstock. We also carried out two other demonstrations in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) using synthesis gas slipstreams generated by the gasification of Sufco (Utah) bituminous coal and Oak Hills (Texas) lignite. In the PSDF tests, we showed successful operation of the test system at the conditions of interest and showed the efficacy of sorbent in removing the mercury from synthesis gas. In Test Campaign No.1, TDA sorbent reduced Hg concentration of the synthesis gas to less than 5 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and achieved over 99% Hg removal efficiency for the entire test duration. Unfortunately, due to the relatively low concentration of the trace metals in the lignite feed and as a result of the intermittent operation of the PSDF gasifier (due to the difficulties in the handling of the low quality lignite), only a small fraction of the sorbent capacity was utilized (we measured a mercury capacity of 3.27 mg/kg, which is only a fraction of the 680 mg/kg Hg capacity measured for the same sorbent used at our bench-scale evaluations at TDA). Post reaction examination of the sorbent by chemical analysis also indicated some removal As and Se (we did not detect any significant amounts of Cd in the synthesis gas or over the sorbent). The tests at UNDEERC was more successful and showed clearly that the TDA sorbent can effectively remove Hg and other trace metals (As and Se) at high temperature. The on-line gas measurements carried out by TDA and UNDEERC separately showed that TDA sorbent can achieve greater than 95% Hg removal efficiency at 260 C ({approx}200g sorbent treated more than 15,000 SCF synthesis gas). Chemical analysis conducted following the tests also showed modest amounts of As and Se accumulation in the sorbent bed (the test durations were still short to show higher capacities to these contaminants). We also evaluated the stability of the sorbent and the fate of mercury (the most volatile and unstable of the trace metal compounds). The Synthetic Ground Water Leaching Procedure Test carried out by an independent environmental laboratory showed that the mercury will remain on the sorbent once the sorbent is disposed. Based on a preliminary engineering and cost analysis, TDA estimated the cost of mercury removal from coal-derived synthesis gas as $2,995/lb (this analysis assumes that this cost also includes the cost of removal of all other trace metal contaminants). The projected cost will result in a small increase (less than 1%) in the cost of energy.

  18. FULL-SCALE TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR METAL REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, E; John Gladden, J

    2007-03-22

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River National Laboratory. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, and water routinely failed toxicity tests. These conditions necessitated treatment of nearly one million gallons of water per day plus storm runoff. Washington Savannah River Company personnel explored options to bring process and runoff waters into compliance with the permit conditions, including source reduction, engineering solutions, and biological solutions. A conceptual design for a constructed wetland treatment system (WTS) was developed and the full-scale system was constructed and began operation in 2000. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 48 hours. Copper, mercury, and lead removal efficiencies are very high, all in excess of 80% removal from water passing through the wetland system. Zinc removal is 60%, and nickel is generally unaffected. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of metals in the A-01 WTS sediments generally decrease with depth and along the flow path through the wetland. Sequential extraction results indicate that most metals are tightly bound to wetland sediments.

  19. Qualitative evaluation of heavy metals in soils using portable XRF instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCain, R.G.

    1993-10-01

    Portable isotope-source energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers can provide rapid on site screening for heavy metals in soils. Their use generally involves empirical calibration to a suite of representative soil samples spiked with a range of concentrations of the analytes of interest. In most cases, only a limited number of analytes can be measured with this approach, because of constraints imposed by the operational software and costs associated with preparing the calibration suite. A simple approach is described that provides a qualitative indication of anomalous concentrations of heavy metals based on numeric comparison of gross count rates to background values. This approach can rapidly identify contaminated soils and does not depend on a suite of calibration samples. Direct measurements can be made to rapidly map soil contamination without sample collection, and the method can also be applied to other surfaces such as concrete.

  20. Uranium and other heavy metals in soil and vegetation from the Hanford environs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, K.R.; Kinnison, R.R.

    1982-11-01

    Strong winds that could transport contaminated dust and other materials offsite from the Hanford 300 Area typically blow from the west or southwest. Samples were collected from an offsite study area located across the Columbia River and downwind from the 300 Area to estimate the concentrations of uranium and other heavy metals in soils and vegetation. Results were compared to similar measurements collected at control sites located both on and off the Hanford Site. These comparisons were used to test hypotheses that uranium and other heavy metals had been transported offsite by wind-blown dust or other materials. The conclusion from this study was that operations at the 300 Area have not resulted in a detectable impact on the offsite environs across the river. The concentration of uranium in soil samples from the study area was statistically greater than comparable samples from control sites, but there was no evidence that the uranium in the study-area samples was other than naturally occurring. There was no statistical difference in the concentration of lead, silver, zinc or copper in soil samples from the study area as compared to the control sites. No statistically significant differences in uranium or other heavy metals were noted among vegetation samples from the various sampling sites.

  1. Quantitative analysis of heavy metals emission during the combustion and baling of polyvinyl chloride insulated copper wire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickard, David Paul

    1996-01-01

    was conducted and compared to the airborne dust samples collected during the baling process. From these results, occupational exposures to heavy metals during the reclamation of PVC insulated copper wire were assessed. Bulk ash and dust samples were ?aken...

  2. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Alexeff, Igor (Oak Ridge, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Clinton, TN)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to "float" in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields.

  3. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1987-08-10

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to ''float'' in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields. 6 figs.

  4. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Removal of Xe and Kr from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-08-07

    Removal of Xenon (Xe) and Krypton (Kr) from in parts per million (ppm) levels were demonstrated for the first time using two well known metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC. Results of an activated carbon were also included for comparison. Ni/DOBDC has higher Xe/Kr selectivities than those of the activated carbon. Moreover, results show that the Ni/DOBDC and HKUST-1 can selectively adsorb Xe and Kr from air even at 1000 ppm concentration. This shows a promising future for MOFs in a radioactive nuclides separation from spent fuel.

  5. Compost Science & Utilization, (2005), Vol. 13, No. 1, 60-64 Heavy Metal Accumulation in a Sandy Soil and in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    2005-01-01

    that have been amended with MSW (municipal solid waste), biosolids (BS), food processing residuals, manures of five pollutant metals in compost made from waste materials (FDEP 1989). Maximum permissible conCompost Science & Utilization, (2005), Vol. 13, No. 1, 60-64 Heavy Metal Accumulation in a Sandy

  6. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  7. Engineered Natural Geosorbents for In Situ Immobilization of DNAPLs and Heavy Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter J. Weber; Gordon M. Fair; Earnest Boyce

    2006-12-01

    Extensive subsurface contamination by dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) organic solvents and heavy metals is common place at many DOE facilities. Poor performances and excessive costs have made traditional technologies and approaches less than satisfactory for remediation of such sites. It is increasingly apparent that marginal improvements in conventional methods and approaches will not suffice for clean up of many contaminated DOE sites. Innovative approaches using new and/or existing technologies in more efficient and cost-effective ways are thus urgently required.

  8. Sintering atmosphere effects on the ductility of W-Ni-Fe heavy metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, R.M.; Churn, K.S.

    1984-04-01

    Residual porosity has a strong negative effect on the ductility of tungsten-nickel-iron heavy metals. This investigation examined the sintering atmosphere role in stabilizing detrimental residual pore structures. Experiments are reported on alloys containing 93, 95, or 97 wt pct W with Ni:Fe ratios of 7:3. The negative effect of prolonged sintering is attributed to pore coarsening involving trapped gas. Calculated pore growth rates for hydrogen filled pores suggest that pore coarsening involves both ripening and coalescence driven by tungsten grain growth. A change in sintering atmosphere from hydrogen to argon midway through the sintering cycle can aid pore degassing and increase ductility and strength.

  9. Use of MgO doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation for removing arsenic from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C; Holt-Larese, Kathleen C; Bontchev, Ranko

    2013-08-13

    Systems and methods for use of magnesium hydroxide, either directly or through one or more precursors, doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, for removing arsenic from drinking water, including water distribution systems. In one embodiment, magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH).sub.2 (a strong adsorbent for arsenic) doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is used to adsorb arsenic. The complex consisting of arsenic adsorbed on Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is subsequently removed from the water by conventional means, including filtration, settling, skimming, vortexing, centrifugation, magnetic separation, or other well-known separation systems. In another embodiment, magnesium oxide, MgO, is employed, which reacts with water to form Mg(OH).sub.2. The resulting Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, then adsorbs arsenic, as set forth above. The method can also be used to treat human or animal poisoning with arsenic.

  10. Method for hydrocracking a heavy polynuclear hydrocarbonaceous feedstock in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method for hydrocracking a heavy polynuclear hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, the method comprising: mixing the feedstock with a heavy naphtha fraction which has an initial boiling point from about 100.degree. to about 160.degree. C. with a boiling point difference between the initial boiling point and the final boiling point of no more than about 50.degree. C. to produce a mixture; thereafter contacting the mixture with partially spent molten metal halide and hydrogen under temperature and pressure conditions so that the temperature is near the critical temperature of the heavy naphtha fraction; separating at least a portion of the heavy naphtha fraction and lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the partially spent molten metal halide, unreacted feedstock and reaction products; thereafter contacting the partially spent molten metal halide, unreacted feedstock and reaction products with hydrogen and fresh molten metal halide in a hydrocracking zone to produce additional lighter hydrocarbon fuels and separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide.

  11. Metagenomic insights into evolution of a heavy metal-contaminated groundwater microbial community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemme, Christopher [University of Oklahoma; Deng, Ye [University of Oklahoma; Gentry, Terry [Texas A& M University; Fields, Matthew Wayne [Miami University, Oxford, OH; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Barua, Soumitra [University of Oklahoma; Barry, Kerry [Joint Genome Institute; Green-Tringe, Susannah [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Watson, David B [ORNL; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma; Hazen, Terry [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Rubin, Edward M. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman

    2010-02-01

    Understanding adaptation of biological communities to environmental change is a central issue in ecology and evolution. Metagenomic analysis of a stressed groundwater microbial community reveals that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of heavy metals, nitric acid and organic solvents (~50 years) has resulted in a massive decrease in species and allelic diversity as well as a significant loss of metabolic diversity. Although the surviving microbial community possesses all metabolic pathways necessary for survival and growth in such an extreme environment, its structure is very simple, primarily composed of clonal denitrifying - and -proteobacterial populations. The resulting community is overabundant in key genes conferring resistance to specific stresses including nitrate, heavy metals and acetone. Evolutionary analysis indicates that lateral gene transfer could have a key function in rapid response and adaptation to environmental contamination. The results presented in this study have important implications in understanding, assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities on microbial communities ranging from human health to agriculture to environmental management, and their responses to environmental changes.

  12. Metagenomic insights into evolution of heavy metal-contaminated groundwater microbial community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemme, C.L.; Deng, Y.; Gentry, T.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wu, L.; Barua, S.; Barry, K.; Green-Tringe, S.; Watson, D.B.; He, Z.; Hazen, T.C.; Tiedje, J.M.; Rubin, E.M.; Zhou, J.

    2010-07-01

    Understanding adaptation of biological communities to environmental change is a central issue in ecology and evolution. Metagenomic analysis of a stressed groundwater microbial community reveals that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of heavy metals, nitric acid and organic solvents ({approx}50 years) has resulted in a massive decrease in species and allelic diversity as well as a significant loss of metabolic diversity. Although the surviving microbial community possesses all metabolic pathways necessary for survival and growth in such an extreme environment, its structure is very simple, primarily composed of clonal denitrifying {gamma}- and {beta}-proteobacterial populations. The resulting community is overabundant in key genes conferring resistance to specific stresses including nitrate, heavy metals and acetone. Evolutionary analysis indicates that lateral gene transfer could have a key function in rapid response and adaptation to environmental contamination. The results presented in this study have important implications in understanding, assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities on microbial communities ranging from human health to agriculture to environmental management, and their responses to environmental changes.

  13. Volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides from soil heated in an induction ``cold`` crucible melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloy, A.S.; Belov, V.Z.; Trofimenko, A.S. [Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, S.A.; Stefanovsky, S.V. [SIA Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gombert, D.; Knecht, D.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of heavy metals and radionuclides during high-temperature treatment is very important for the design and operational capabilities of the off-gas treatment system, as well as for a better understanding of the nature and forms of the secondary waste. In Russia, a process for high-temperature melting in an induction heated cold crucible system is being studied for vitrification of Low Level Waste (LLW) flyash and SYNROC production with simulated high level waste (HLW). This work was done as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) funded research project for thermal treatment of mixed low level waste (LLW). Soil spiked with heavy metals (Cd, Pb) and radionuclides (Cs-137, U-239, Pu-239) was used as a waste surrogate. The soil was melted in an experimental lab-scale system that consisted of a high-frequency generator (1.76 MHz, 60 kW), a cold crucible melter (300 mm high and 90 mm in diameter), a shield box, and an off-gas system. The process temperature was 1,350--1,400 C. Graphite and silicon carbide were used as sacrificial conductive materials to start heating and initial melting of the soil batch. The off-gas system was designed in such a manner that after each experiment, it can be disconnected to collect and analyze all deposits to determine the mass balance. The off-gases were also sampled during an experiment to analyze for hydrogen, NO{sub x}, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and chlorine formation. This paper describes distribution and mass balance of metals and radionuclides in various parts of the off-gas system. The leach rate of the solidified blocks identified by the PCT method is also reported.

  14. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C.

    2008-02-15

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  15. Placental concentrations of heavy metals in a mother-child cohort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amaya, E., E-mail: eamayag@ugr.es [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Gil, F. [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)] [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Freire, C. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain) [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Olmedo, P. [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)] [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez-Rodriguez, M. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)] [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez, M.F.; Olea, N. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain) [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Heavy metals are environmental contaminants with properties known to be toxic for wildlife and humans. Despite strong concerns about their harmful effects, little information is available on intrauterine exposure in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate prenatal exposure to As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, and Pb and its association with maternal factors in a population-based mother-child cohort in Southern Spain. Between 2000 and 2002, 700 pregnant women were recruited and 137 placentas from the cohort were randomly selected and analyzed for the selected metals by atomic absorption. Maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were obtained by questionnaire after delivery. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression were performed. Cd and Mn concentrations were detected in all placentas, while Cr, Pb, and Hg were found in 98.5%, 35.0%, and 30.7% of samples, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed for Pb (mean: 94.80 ng/g wet weight of placenta), followed by Mn (63.80 ng/g), Cr (63.70 ng/g), Cd (3.45 ng/g), and Hg (0.024 ng/g). Arsenic was not detected in any sample. Gestational age and smoking during pregnancy were associated with placental Cd concentrations, while no factor appeared to influence concentrations of Cr, Hg, Mn, or Pb. In comparison to results of European studies, these concentrations are in a low-intermediate position. Studies are required to investigate the factors contributing to early exposure to heavy metals and to determine how placental transfer of these toxic compounds may affect children's health.

  16. Method for gas bubble and void control and removal from metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Siclen, Clinton D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A method for enhancing the diffusion of gas bubbles or voids attached to impurity precipitates, and biasing their direction of migration out of the host metal (or metal alloy) by applying a temperature gradient across the host metal (or metal alloy). In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the impurity metal is insoluble in the host metal and has a melting point lower than the melting point of the host material. Also, preferably the impurity metal is lead or indium and the host metal is aluminum or a metal alloy.

  17. Method for gas bubble and void control and removal from metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siclen, C.D. Van; Wright, R.N.

    1996-02-06

    A method is described for enhancing the diffusion of gas bubbles or voids attached to impurity precipitates, and biasing their direction of migration out of the host metal (or metal alloy) by applying a temperature gradient across the host metal (or metal alloy). In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the impurity metal is insoluble in the host metal and has a melting point lower than the melting point of the host material. Also, preferably the impurity metal is lead or indium and the host metal is aluminum or a metal alloy. 2 figs.

  18. An ecological study examining the correlation of end-stage renal disease and ground water heavy metal content in Texas counties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Scott Alan

    1999-01-01

    An ecological study was conducted to examine the correlation of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the ground water heavy metal level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and the cumulative level of all four metals in Texas counties. The heavy meal...

  19. Metal MEMS Tools for Beating-heart Tissue Removal Andrew H. Gosline, Member, IEEE, Nikolay V. Vasilyev, Arun Veeramani, MingTing Wu, Greg Schmitz,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dupont, Pierre

    Metal MEMS Tools for Beating-heart Tissue Removal Andrew H. Gosline, Member, IEEE, Nikolay V. del Nido and Pierre E. Dupont, Fellow, IEEE Abstract-- A novel robotic tool is proposed to enable the surgical removal of tissue from inside the beating heart. The tool is manufactured using a unique metal

  20. Studies on the content of heavy metals in Aries River using ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voica, Cezara Kovacs, Melinda Feher, Ioana

    2013-11-13

    Among the industrial branches, the mining industry has always been an important source of environmental pollution, both aesthetically and chemically. Through this paper results of ICP-MS characterization of Aries River Basin are reported. Mining activities from this area has resulted in contamination of environment and its surrounding biota. This is clearly evidenced in analyzed water samples, especially from Baia de Aries site where increased amount of trace elements as Cr, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Pb and U were founded. Also in this site greater amount of rare earth elements was evidenced also. Through monitoring of Aries River from other non-mining area it was observed that the quantitative content of heavy metals was below the maximum permissible levels which made us to conclude that the water table wasn't seriously affected (which possibly might be attributed to the cessation of mining activities in this area from a few years ago)

  1. New Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Heavy Elements in Four Metal-Poor Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roederer, Ian U; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Beers, Timothy C; Cowan, John J; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Thompson, Ian B

    2012-01-01

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements hea...

  2. Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs widely in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, J. Barry

    Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs widely in our environment. The chief sources of exposure are from (1) Lead paint ­ commonly present in house interiors (2) Leaded gasoline ­ soils along major roadways are strongly enriched in lead

  3. Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties in reclaimed mine areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties elements bioavailability and biological (dehydrogenase activity) and physico-chemical properties of mine areas affected by hard coal, sand, lignite and sulphur mining, there is no risk of trace element

  4. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway Aivo Lepland a,*, Thorbjrn J. Andersen b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alve, Elisabeth

    Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway Aivo Lepland a,d , Anders Rindby e a Geological Survey of Norway, Leiv Eirikssons vei 39, 7491 Trondheim, Norway b Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, P.O. Box 3930 Ullevål Stadion, 0806 Oslo, Norway d Department

  5. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  6. Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roedel, Erik Q., E-mail: Erik.Roedel@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Cafasso, Danielle E., E-mail: Danielle.Cafasso@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Lee, Karen W.M., E-mail: Karen.W.Lee@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Pierce, Lisa M., E-mail: Lisa.Pierce@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals. -- Highlights: ? Intratracheal instillation of W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe induces lung inflammation in rats. ? W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe alter expression of oxidative stress and toxicity genes. ? W–Ni–Co induces a greater oxidative burst response than W–Ni–Fe in lung macrophages.

  7. Removal of metal oxide defects through improved semi-anisotropic wet etching process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dave, Neha H. (Neha Hemang)

    2012-01-01

    Data recently collected from an industrial thin film manufacturer indicate that almost 8% of devices are rejected due to excess metal, or unwanted metal on the device surface. Experimentation and analysis suggest that ...

  8. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A Lesch

    2010-06-30

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary building units bound by DOBDC resulting in 1D hexagonal pores about 11 angstroms in diameter. Surface areas range from 800 to 1500 sq m/g for the different MOFs. Mg/DOBDC outperformed all MOF and zeolite materials evaluated to date, with about 25 wt% CO{sub 2} captured by this MOF at flue gas conditions ({approx}0.13 atm CO{sub 2} pressure, 311K). In simulated flue gas without oxygen, the zero-length (ZLC) system was very useful in quickly simulating the effect of long term exposure to impurities on the MOFs. Detailed adsorption studies on MOF pellets have shown that water does not inhibit CO{sub 2} adsorption for MOFs as much as it does for typical zeolites. Moreover, some MOFs retain a substantial CO{sub 2} capacity even with a modest water loading at room temperature. Molecular modeling was a key activity in three areas of our earlier DOE/NETL-sponsored MOF-based research on CC. First, the team was able to effectively simulate CO{sub 2} and other gas adsorption isotherms for more than 20 MOFs, and the knowledge obtained was used to help predict new MOF structures that should be effective for CO{sub 2} adsorption at low pressure. The team also showed that molecular modeling could be utilized to predict the hydrothermal stability of a given MOF. Finally, the team showed that low moisture level exposure actually enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of a particular MOF, HKUST-1.

  9. H[sub 2]S-removal and sulfur-recovery processes using metal salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, S.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    Scrubbing a sour gas stream with a solution of copper sulfate allows the clean-up temperature to be increased from ambient to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. The copper ion in solution reacts with the H[sub 2]S to produce insoluble CuS. The choice of copper sulfate was set by the very low solubility of CuS and the very rapid kinetics of the Cus formation. Since the copper sulfate solutions used are acidic, CO[sub 2] will not be co-absorbed. In a subsequent step the solid CuS is oxidized by a solution of ferric sulfate. The copper sulfate is regenerated, and elemental sulfur is formed together with ferrous sulfate. The ferrous sulfate is reoxidized to ferric sulfate using air. Since the copper sulfate and ferric solutions are regenerated, the overall reaction in this process is the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen to form sulfur. The use of copper sulfate has the further advantage that the presence of sulfuric acid, even as concentrated as 1 molar, does not inhibit the sorption of H[sub 2]S. Furthermore, the absorption reaction remains quite favorable thermodynamically over the temperature range of interest. Because the reaction goes to completion, only a single theoretical stage is required for complete H[sub 2]S removal and cocurrent gas/liquid contacting may be employed. The formation of solids precludes the use of a packed column for the contacting device. However, a venturi scrubber would be expected to perform satisfactorily. The kinetics of the oxidation of metal sulfides, in particular zinc and copper sulfide, is reported in the literature to be slow at near-ambient temperatures. The proposed process conditions for the oxidation step are different from those reported in the literature, most notably the higher temperature. The kinetics of the reaction must be studied at high temperatures and corresponding pressures. An important goal is to obtain sulfur of high purity, which is a salable product.

  10. H{sub 2}S-removal and sulfur-recovery processes using metal salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, S.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-11-01

    Scrubbing a sour gas stream with a solution of copper sulfate allows the clean-up temperature to be increased from ambient to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. The copper ion in solution reacts with the H{sub 2}S to produce insoluble CuS. The choice of copper sulfate was set by the very low solubility of CuS and the very rapid kinetics of the Cus formation. Since the copper sulfate solutions used are acidic, CO{sub 2} will not be co-absorbed. In a subsequent step the solid CuS is oxidized by a solution of ferric sulfate. The copper sulfate is regenerated, and elemental sulfur is formed together with ferrous sulfate. The ferrous sulfate is reoxidized to ferric sulfate using air. Since the copper sulfate and ferric solutions are regenerated, the overall reaction in this process is the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen to form sulfur. The use of copper sulfate has the further advantage that the presence of sulfuric acid, even as concentrated as 1 molar, does not inhibit the sorption of H{sub 2}S. Furthermore, the absorption reaction remains quite favorable thermodynamically over the temperature range of interest. Because the reaction goes to completion, only a single theoretical stage is required for complete H{sub 2}S removal and cocurrent gas/liquid contacting may be employed. The formation of solids precludes the use of a packed column for the contacting device. However, a venturi scrubber would be expected to perform satisfactorily. The kinetics of the oxidation of metal sulfides, in particular zinc and copper sulfide, is reported in the literature to be slow at near-ambient temperatures. The proposed process conditions for the oxidation step are different from those reported in the literature, most notably the higher temperature. The kinetics of the reaction must be studied at high temperatures and corresponding pressures. An important goal is to obtain sulfur of high purity, which is a salable product.

  11. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang; Zou Luquan; Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping; Qian Guangren

    2011-02-15

    This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

  12. PREDICTING METAL BIOSORPTION PERFORMANCE , Diniz V.b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    PREDICTING METAL BIOSORPTION PERFORMANCE Naja G.a , Diniz V.b , Volesky B.b a Department 2B2. ABSTRACT Heavy metals can be removed from solutions and recovered using physico seaweed biomass is well known for its outstanding metal biosorption performance. Biosorption of Cu2+ , Zn2

  13. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  14. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

    1997-10-14

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtle

    2001-08-01

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}.

  16. Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1999-03-31

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

  17. Heavy metal inventory and fuel sustainability of recycling TRU in FBR design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-06

    Nuclear fuel materials from spent fuel of light water reactors have a potential to be used for destructive devices with very huge energy release or in the same time, it can be utilized as a peaceful energy or civil applications, for generating electricity, desalination of water, medical application and others applications. Several research activities showed some recycled spent fuel can be used as additional fuel loading for increasing fuel breeding capability as well as improving intrinsic aspect of nuclear non-proliferation. The present investigation intends to evaluate the composition of heavy metals inventories and fuel breeding capability in the FBR design based on the loaded fuel of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel (SF) of 33 GWd/t with 5 years cooling time by adopting depletion code of ORIGEN. Whole core analysis of FBR design is performed by adopting and coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes. Nuclear data library, JFS-3-J-3.2R which is based on the JENDL 3.2 has been used for nuclear data analysis. JSFR design is the basis design reference which basically adopted 800 days cycle length for 4 batches system. Higher inventories of plutonium of MOX fuel and TRU fuel types at equilibrium composition than initial composition have been shown. Minor actinide (MA) inventory compositions obtain a different inventory trends at equilibrium composition for both fuel types. Higher Inventory of MA is obtained by MOX fuel and less MA inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium composition than initial composition. Some different MA inventories can be estimated from the different inventory trend of americium (Am). Higher americium inventory for MOX fuel and less americium inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium condition. Breeding ratio of TRU fuel is relatively higher compared with MOX fuel type. It can be estimated from relatively higher production of Pu-238 (through converted MA) in TRU fuel, and Pu-238 converts through neutron capture to produce Pu-239. Higher breeding ratio of MOX fuel and TRU fuel types at equilibrium condition are estimated from converted fertile material during reactor operation into fissile material of plutonium such as converted uranium fuel (converted U-238 into Pu-239) or additional converted fuel from MA into Pu-238 and changes into Pu-239 by capturing neutron. Loading LWR SF gives better fuel breeding capability and increase inventory of MA for doping material of MOX fuel; however, it requires more supply MA inventory for TRU fuel type.

  18. Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty Trucks Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty...

  19. The Practice of Perception: Multi-Functionality and Time in the Musical Experiences of a Heavy Metal Drummer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Harris M.

    1997-01-01

    stream_source_info Berger--The Practice of Perception.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 80905 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Berger--The Practice of Perception.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset...=ISO-8859-1 The Practice of Perception: Multi-Functionality and Time in the Musical Experiences of a Heavy Metal Drummer Author(s): Harris M. Berger Source: Ethnomusicology, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Autumn, 1997), pp. 464-488 Published by: University...

  20. Analysis of palladium coatings to remove hydrogen isotopes from zirconium fuel rods in Canada deuterium uranium-pressurized heavy water reactors; Thermal and neutron diffusion effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stokes, C.L.; Buxbaum, R.E. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports that, in pressurized heavy water nuclear reactors of the type standardly used in Canada (Canada deuterium uranium-pressurized heavy water reactors), the zirconium alloy pressure tubes of the core absorb deuterium produced by corrosion reactions. This deuterium weakens the tubes through hydrogen embrittlement. Thin palladium coatings on the outside of the zirconium are analyzed as a method for deuterium removal. This coating is expected to catalyze the reaction D{sub 2} + 1/2O{sub 2} {r reversible} D{sub 2}O when O{sub 2} is added to the annular (insulating) gas in the tubes. Major reductions in the deuterium concentration and, hence, hydrogen embrittlement are predicted. Potential problems such as plating the tube geometry, neutron absorption, catalyst deactivation, radioactive waste production, and oxygen corrosion are shown to be manageable. Also, a simple set of equations are derived to calculate the effect on diffusion caused by neutron interactions. Based on calculations of ordinary and neutron flux induced diffusion, a palladium coating of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} m is recommended. This would cost approximately $60,000 per reactor unit and should more than double reactor lifetime. Similar coatings and similar interdiffusion calculations might have broad applications.

  1. Methods for producing hydrogen (BI) sulfide and/or removing metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Truex, Michael J [Richland, WA; Peyton, Brent M [Pullman, WA; Toth, James J [Kennewick, WA

    2002-05-14

    The present invention is a process wherein sulfide production by bacteria is efficiently turned on and off, using pH adjustment. The adjustment of pH impacts sulfide production by bacteria by altering the relative amounts of H.sub.2 S and HS-- in solution and thereby control the inhibition of the bacterial metabolism that produces sulfide. This process can be used to make a bioreactor produce sulfide "on-demand" so that the production of sulfide can be matched to its use as a metal precipitation reagent. The present invention is of significance because it enables the use of a biological reactor, a cost effective sulfide production system, by making the biological reactor produce hydrogen sulfide "on demand", and therefore responsive to production schedules, waste stream generation rate, and health and safety requirements/goals.

  2. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background.

  3. Applicability of a field-portable toxic heavy metal detector, using a radioisotope-tagged metalloprotein, to DOE environmental remediation and waste minimization initiatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randles, K.E.; Bragg, D.J.; Bodette, D.E.; Lipinski, R.J.; Luera, T.F.

    1998-08-01

    A system based on the metal-binding kidney protein, metallothionein, bound with a trace quantity of radioactive metal, has been shown to be capable of detecting parts-per-million (ppm) to parts-per-billion (ppb) concentrations of some heavy metals in liquid solution. The main objective of this study was to determine if this type of system has adequate sensitivity and selectivity for application in detecting a number of metallic species of concern to DOE, such as mercury, lead, and chromium. An affinity-displacement study is reported here using the heavy metal radiotracers {sup 65}Zn and {sup 109}Cd bound to metallothionein immobilized on an Affi-Gel 10 filter support. When a heavy metal solution with a greater affinity than the tracer for the protein is poured through the filter the radiotracer is displaced by a mechanism similar to ion exchange. The main objective of this study was to verify previous internal experimental parameters and results, and to determine the specific affinities of metallothionein for the metallic species of most concern to DOE.

  4. Accumulation of several heavy metals and lanthanides in mushrooms (Agaricales) from the Chicago region.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aruguete, D. M.; Aldstadt, J. H., III; Mueller, G. M.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago; Field Museum of Natural History

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the differences in metal uptake in sporocarps of ectomycorrhizae-forming fungi relative to (1) fungal species; (2) collection location; (3) differential metal uptake and variation within single-species, single-area populations; and (4) mobile metal content of soil substrate for the fungi. In addition, this study examined levels of some of the lanthanides in these mushrooms, as lanthanide uptake in higher fungi has not been quantified to date. In 1995 and 1996, sporocarps from three species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Amanita flavorubescens, Amanita rubescens, and Russula pectinatoides) were collected from Cowles Bog, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (near an industrial area) and the Palos forest preserves (near a residential area). Soil was also collected from the Cowles Bog plots; metals were extracted from the soil, either with local Lake Michigan water or with nitric acid. These two extractions were meant to simulate the natural soil equilibrium concentrations of soluble metals and the maximum possible effects of any fungal chelating chemicals, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to analyze soil extracts and nitric acid digests of whole sporocarps for the target analytes. The metals found at elevated levels in the mushrooms included four of environmental interest (Ag, Cd, Ba, and Pb) and three lanthanides (La, Ce, and Nd). Significant differences in uptake of metals were observed between A. rubescens and R. pectinatoides, while A. rubescens and A. flavorubescens were not significantly different. With regard to location, more cadmium was found in Cowles Bog collections of A. rubescens, while Palos forest A. rubescens had more of the lanthanides and barium. Significant specimen-to-specimen variation occurred in all populations examined. Correlation analysis between pairs of trace elements within each sporocarp population revealed strong positive correlations between the lanthanides. Sporocarps concentrated more metal than was made available by the lake water extraction of soil and less metal than was made available by the nitric acid extraction of soil.

  5. NEW DETECTIONS OF ARSENIC, SELENIUM, AND OTHER HEAVY ELEMENTS IN TWO METAL-POOR STARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roederer, Ian U.

    We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain new high-quality spectra covering the 1900 ?? ? 2360 Å wavelength range for two metal-poor stars, HD 108317 and HD 128279. We ...

  6. MOVEMENT OF HEAVY METALS THROUGH UNDISTURBED AND HOMOGENIZED SOIL COLUMNS Vincent J. Camobreco , Brian K. Richards , Tammo S. Steenhuis , John H. Peverly , and Murray B. McBride1 1* 1 2 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    161:740-750 1996 ABSTRACT Soils accumulate heavy metals when sewage sludge is applied to land OF HEAVY METALS ..." 2 INTRODUCTION The application of sewage sludge to land is, in principle, an effective for disposal or intended beneficial use. Because of the concern over the environmental danger that these sludge

  7. Method for mobilization of hazardous metal ions in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugan, Patrick R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfister, Robert M. (Powell, OH)

    1995-01-01

    A microbial process for removing heavy metals such as bismuth, cadmium, lead, thorium, uranium and other transuranics from soils and sediments, utilizing indigenous, or isolates of indigenous, microorganisms and reducing agents, such as cysteine or sodium thioglycollate, or complexing agents such as the amino acid glycine, to effect the mobilization or release of the metals from the soil particles.

  8. MOLYBDENUM, RUTHENIUM, AND THE HEAVY r-PROCESS ELEMENTS IN MODERATELY METAL-POOR MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Ruth C. [Astrophysical Advances, 607 Marion Place, Palo Alto, CA 94301 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The ratios of elemental abundances observed in metal-poor stars of the Galactic halo provide a unique present-day record of the nucleosynthesis products of its earliest stars. While the heaviest elements were synthesized by the r- and s-processes, dominant production mechanisms of light trans-ironic elements were obscure until recently. This work investigates further our 2011 conclusion that the low-entropy regime of a high-entropy wind (HEW) produced molybdenum and ruthenium in two moderately metal-poor turnoff stars that showed extreme overabundances of those elements with respect to iron. Only a few, rare nucleosynthesis events may have been involved. Here we determine abundances for Mo, Ru, and other trans-Fe elements for 28 similar stars by matching spectral calculations to well-exposed near-UV Keck HIRES spectra obtained for beryllium abundances. In each of the 26 turnoff stars with Mo or Ru line detections and no evidence for s-process production (therefore old), we find Mo and Ru to be three to six times overabundant. In contrast, the maximum overabundance is reduced to factors of three and two for the neighboring elements zirconium and palladium. Since the overproduction peaks sharply at Mo and Ru, a low-entropy HEW is confirmed as its origin. The overabundance level of the heavy r-process elements varies significantly, from none to a factor of four, but is uncorrelated with Mo and Ru overabundances. Despite their moderate metallicity, stars in this group trace the products of different nucleosynthetic events: possibly very few events, possibly events whose output depended on environment, metallicity, or time.

  9. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; K.A. Lokhandwala; Membrane Group; Module Group; Systems Group

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  10. Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs widely in our environment. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, J. Barry

    Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs widely in our environment. The chief sources of exposure are from (1) Lead paint ­ commonly present in house interiors (2) Leaded gasoline ­ soils along major roadways are strongly enriched in lead

  11. Heavy metal contamination in highway soils. Comparison of Corpus Christi, Texas and Cincinnati, Ohio shows organic matter is key to mobility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, J. Barry

    Heavy metal contamination in highway soils. Comparison of Corpus Christi, Texas and Cincinnati and Cincinnati, Ohio was measured to as- sess the degree of contamination such soils contain and the likelihood that this contamination can be remobilized. High values of Ba, Cu, Pb, and Zn can be attributed to anthropogenic effects

  12. Investigating Heavy Metal Contamination of the Puget Sound Environment with New Isotopic Tracers Rachel Weber, Senior, Earth and Space Sciences, Mary Gates Scholar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winglee, Robert M.

    Sciences Tacoma Smelter Background The Tacoma Smelter operated for approximately 100 years at the southern to calibrate isotopic tracers of heavy metals emitted by the Tacoma Smelter. Preliminary data from lead isotope a clear isotopic fingerprint of Tacoma Smelter Pb. The analytical error is smaller than the data points

  13. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: Interspecific and locational differences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Donio, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. - Highlights: • Cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium levels differed among 10 fish species from the Aleutians. • Mean Arsenic was as high as 19,500 ppb (flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). • Mercury levels increased significantly with fish size for several species. • Metal levels were generally below adverse effects levels for fish and their predators. • Mercury and arsenic might pose a risk to human consumers, and require further examination.

  14. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-04-10

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dew point and Btu value, and the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. The BP-Amoco gas processing plant in Pascagoula, MS was finalized as the location for the field demonstration. Detailed drawings of the MTR membrane skid (already constructed) were submitted to the plant in February, 2000. However, problems in reaching an agreement on the specifications of the system compressor delayed the project significantly, so MTR requested (and was subsequently granted) a no-cost extension to the project. Following resolution of the compressor issues, the goal is to order the compressor during the first quarter of 2002, and to start field tests in mid-2002. Information from potential users of the membrane separation process in the natural gas processing industry suggests that applications such as fuel gas conditioning and wellhead gas processing are the most promising initial targets. Therefore, most of our commercialization effort is focused on promoting these applications. Requests for stream evaluations and for design and price quotations have been received through MTR's web site, from direct contact with potential users, and through announcements in industry publications. To date, about 90 commercial quotes have been supplied, and orders totaling about $1.13 million for equipment or rental of membrane units have been received.

  15. Continuous sulfur removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, deceased, Vinod (late of Concord, MA); Ryu, Jae (Cambridge, MA)

    1994-01-01

    A continuous process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream using a membrane comprising a metal oxide deposited on a porous support is disclosed.

  16. HST Observations of Heavy Elements in Metal-Poor Galactic Halo Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John J. Cowan; Christopher Sneden; Timothy C. Beers; James E. Lawler; Jennifer Simmerer; James W. Truran; Francesca Primas; Jason Collier; Scott Burles

    2005-02-28

    We present new abundance determinations of neutron-capture elements Ge, Zr, Os, Ir, and Pt in a sample of 11 metal-poor (-3.1 56) elements. However, the large (and correlated) scatters of [Eu,Os,Ir,Pt/Fe] suggests that the heaviest neutron-capture r-process elements are not formed in all supernovae. In contrast, the Ge abundances of all program stars track their Fe abundances, very well. An explosive process on iron-peak nuclei (e.g., the alpha-rich freeze-out in supernovae), rather than neutron capture, appears to have been the dominant synthesis mechanism for this element at low metallicities -- Ge abundances seem completely uncorrelated with Eu.

  17. Single-layer transition metal sulfide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-31

    Transition Metal Sulfides (TMS), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2), are the petroleum industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feedstocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels. We have developed an improved synthesis technique to produce SLTMS catalysts, such as molybdenum disulfide, with potentially greater activity and specificity than those currently available. Applications for this technology include heavy feed upgrading, in-situ catalysis, bio-fuel conversion and coal liquefaction.

  18. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  19. Functional Mesoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks for the Capture of Heavy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find whatGasEnergyfeatureClean Energy(EIA)FrontiersMetal

  20. [Task 1.] Biodenitrification of low nitrate solar pond waters using sequencing batch reactors. [Task 2.] Solidification/stabilization of high strength and biodenitrified heavy metal sludges with a Portland cement/flyash system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, L.; Cook, N.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mosher, J.; Terry, S.; Canonico, S.

    1995-09-22

    Process wastewater and sludges were accumulated on site in solar evaporation ponds during operations at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant (DOE/RF). Because of the extensive use of nitric acid in the processing of actinide metals, the process wastewater has high concentrations of nitrate. Solar pond waters at DOE/RF contain 300-60,000 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L. Additionally, the pond waters contain varying concentrations of many other aqueous constituents, including heavy metals, alkali salts, carbonates, and low level radioactivity. Solids, both from chemical precipitation and soil material deposition, are also present. Options for ultimate disposal of the pond waters are currently being evaluated and include stabilization and solidification (S/S) by cementation. Removal of nitrates can enhance a wastes amenability to S/S, or can be a unit operation in another treatment scheme. Nitrate removal is also a concern for other sources of pollution at DOE/RF, including contaminated groundwater collected by interceptor trench systems. Finally, nitrate pollution is a problem at many other DOE facilities where actinide metals were processed. The primary objective of this investigation was to optimize biological denitrification of solar pond waters with nitrate concentrations of 300--2,100 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L to below the drinking water standard of 45 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L (10 mg N/L). The effect of pH upon process stability and denitrification rate was determined. In addition, the effect Cr(VI) on denitrification and fate of Cr(VI) in the presence of denitrifying bacteria was evaluated.

  1. Simultaneous demetalization and hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belinko, K.; Packwood, R.H.; Patmore, D.J.; Ranganathan, R.

    1983-03-15

    A process is described for the simultaneous demetalization and hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils. The process permits the recovery of metals such as vanadium and nickel in an economic manner by passing a slurry of a heavy hydrocarbon oil and carbonaceous additive particles, such as coal, in the presence of hydrogen through a confined vertical hydrocracking zone at high temperatures and pressures. A mixed effluent containing a gaseous phase and a liquid phase is removed from the top of a hydrocracking zone, while there is removed from the bottom of the hydrocracking zone a portion of the hydrocracking zone contents containing carbonaceous remains of the additive particles to which is adsorbed the metal residues from the feedstock. The effluent removed from the top of the hydrocracking zone can be subsequently fed directly to a catalytic hydrocracking unit.

  2. Use of Sequential Injection Analysis to construct a Potentiometric Electronic Tongue: Application to the Multidetermination of Heavy Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mimendia, Aitor; Merkoci, Arben; Valle, Manel del; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-23

    An automated potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) was developed for the quantitative determination of heavy metal mixtures. The Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) technique was used in order to automate the obtaining of input data, and the combined response was modeled by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The sensor array was formed by four sensors: two based on chalcogenide glasses Cd sensor and Cu sensor, and the rest on poly(vinyl chloride) membranes Pb sensor and Zn sensor. The Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) sensors were first characterized with respect to one and two analytes, by means of high-dimensionality calibrations, thanks to the use of the automated flow system; this characterization enabled an interference study of great practical utility. To take profit of the dynamic nature of the sensor's response, the kinetic profile of each sensor was compacted by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the extracted coefficients were used as inputs for the ANN in the multidetermination applications. In order to identify the ANN which provided the best model of the electrode responses, some of the network parameters were optimized. Finally analyses were performed employing synthetic samples and water samples of the river Ebro; obtained results were compared with reference methods.

  3. Three dimensional electrode for the electrolytic removal of contaminants from aqueous waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spiegel, Ella F. (Louisville, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Efficient and cost-effective electrochemical devices and processes for the remediation of aqueous waste streams. The invention provides electrolytic cells having a high surface area spouted electrode for removal of heavy metals and oxidation of organics from aqueous environments. Heavy metal ions are reduced, deposited on cathode particles of a spouted bed cathode and removed from solution. Organics are efficiently oxidized at anode particles of a spouted bed anode and removed from solution. The method of this inventions employs an electrochemical cell having an anolyte compartment and a catholyte compartment, separated by a microporous membrane, in and through which compartments anolyte and catholyte, respectively, are circulated. A spouted-bed electrode is employed as the cathode for metal deposition from contaminated aqueous media introduced as catholyte and as the anode for oxidation of organics from contaminated aqueous media introduced as anolyte.

  4. AN INVESTIGATION OF METHODS FOR THE SELECTIVE REMOVAL AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSITION METALS ASSOCIATED WITH SOLIDS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valin, Reed Van

    2012-01-01

    of different analytical extraction methods for nondetritalstrong metal extraction methods were studied individually.of the individual extraction method studies. INTRODUCTION

  5. Method of improving fuel cell performance by removing at least one metal oxide contaminant from a fuel cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung (Los Alamos, NM); Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-08-18

    A method of removing contaminants from a fuel cell catalyst electrode. The method includes providing a getter electrode and a fuel cell catalyst electrode having at least one contaminant to a bath and applying a voltage sufficient to drive the contaminant from the fuel cell catalyst electrode to the getter electrode. Methods of removing contaminants from a membrane electrode assembly of a fuel cell and of improving performance of a fuel cell are also provided.

  6. Solidification/Stabilization of High Nitrate and Biodenitrified Heavy Metal Sludges with a Portland Cement/Flyash System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canonico, J.S.

    1995-07-26

    Pond 207C at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) contains process wastewaters characterized by high levels of nitrates and other salts, heavy metal contamination, and low level alpha activity. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of treating a high-nitrate waste, contaminated with heavy metals, with a coupled dewateriug and S/S process, as well as to investigate the effects of biodenitrification pretreatment on the S/S process. Pond 207C residuals served as the target waste. A bench-scale treatability study was conducted to demonstrate an S/S process that would minimize final product volume without a significant decrease in contaminant stabilization or loss of desirable physical characteristics. The process formulation recommended as a result a previous S/S treatability study conducted on Pond 207C residuals was used as the baseline formulation for this research. Because the actual waste was unavailable due to difficulties associated with radioactive waste handling and storage, a surrogate waste, of known composition and representative of Pond 207C residuals, was used throughout this research. The contaminants of regulatory concern added to the surrogate were cadmium, chromium, nickel, and silver. Product volume reduction was achieved by dewatering the waste prior to S/S treatment. The surrogate was dewatered by evaporation at 60 to 80 C to total solids contents from 43% to 78% by weight, and treated with Portland cement and fly ash. Two cement to flyash ratios were tested, 2:1 and 1:2, by weight. Contaminant leachability testing was conducted with a 0.5 water to pozzolan (the cement/flyash mixture) ratio and both cement to flyash ratios. Each product was tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and for contaminant leachability by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). At the highest solids content achieved by dewatering, 78% solids by weight, the predicted final waste form volume f or Pond 207C residuals after S/S processing was reduced by over 60 A when compared to the baseline process. All tested process formulations produced final waste forms with an average UCS of 100 psi or greater. Percent fixation of Chrome (VI) increased at higher solids contents. Fixation of nickel varied from over 87% to 69%, and cadmium fixation was greater than 99% at every solids content tested. Silver TCLP extract concentrations were below detection limits in all cases except for one anomalous measurement. Final product volume reduction was not achieved with coupled dewatering and S/S processing after biodenitrification pretreatment. The waste slurry became too viscous to mix with reagents after dewatering to approximately 55% solids. Fixation of contaminant constituents and final product UCSs were similar to the results of S/S processing without biodenitrification. Due to the lack of volume reduction, biodenitrification was not successful as a pretreatment for S/S processing under the test conditions of this research.

  7. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

  8. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1997-04-22

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

  9. In-situ method to remove iron and other metals from solution in groundwater down gradient from permeable reactive barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Clay E. (Grand Junction, CO); Morrison, Stanley J. (Grand Junction, CO)

    2001-07-03

    This invention is directed to a process for treating the flow of anaerobic groundwater through an aquifer with a primary treatment media, preferably iron, and then passing the treated groundwater through a second porous media though which an oxygenated gas is passed in order to oxygenate the dissolved primary treatment material and convert it into an insoluble material thereby removing the dissolved primary treatment material from the groundwater.

  10. In Situ Tracer method for establishing the presence and predicting the activity of heavy metal-reducing microbes in the subsurface. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatfield, K.

    2003-07-01

    Tracer method to establish presence and distribution of chromium reducing microbes. The primary objective of this research was to establish an in situ tracer method for detecting the presence. distribution. and activity of subsurface heavy metal-reducing microorganisms. Research focused on microbial systems responsible for the reduction of chromium and a suite of biotracers coupled to the reduction process. The tracer method developed may be used to characterize sites contaminated with chromium or expedite bioremediation: and although research focused on chromium. the method can be easily extended to other metals, organics, and radionuclides. This brief final report contains three major sections. The first identifies specific products of the research effort such as students supported and publications. The second section briefly presents major research findings, while the last section summarizes the overall research effort.

  11. Continuous sulfur removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.; Ryu, J.

    1994-04-26

    A continuous process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream using a membrane comprising a metal oxide deposited on a porous support is disclosed. 4 figures.

  12. Method for mobilization of hazardous metal ions in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugan, P.R.; Pfister, R.M.

    1995-06-27

    A microbial process is revealed for removing heavy metals such as bismuth, cadmium, lead, thorium, uranium and other transuranics from soils and sediments. The method utilizes indigenous, or isolates of indigenous, microorganisms and reducing agents, such as cysteine or sodium thioglycollate, or complexing agents such as the amino acid glycine, to effect the mobilization or release of the metals from the soil particles. 5 figs.

  13. Analytical and experimental investigations of the behavior of thermal neutrons in lattices of uranium metal rods in heavy water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simms, Richard

    1963-01-01

    Measurements of the intracellular distribution of the activation of foils by neutrons were made in lattices of 1/4-inch diameter, 1.03% U-235, uranium rods moderated by heavy water, with bare and cadmium-covered foils of ...

  14. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA); Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  15. Locating experiential richness in doom metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piper, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    as Trouble) (1984), Metal Blade. Witchfinder General.Death Penalty (1982), Heavy Metal Records.the Balinese Death/ Thrash Metal Scene. ” Popular Music 22,

  16. The distribution of potentially toxic heavy metals in the sediments of San Antonio Bay and the northwest Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trefry, John Harold

    1974-01-01

    from 48 locations in the northwest Gulf of Mexico, including San Antonio Bay and the Mississippi River Delta, were acid leached and analyzed for iron, manganese, lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and nickel by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. HNO... and HNO -HC1 solutions leached 60-70% of the iron and 60 to more than 90% of the other metals from the sediments Hcavy metal concentrations in the acid lese'hable frac- tion of the sediments were normalized against the acid lcachable iron...

  17. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1997--June 19, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kochian, L.

    1997-11-01

    This laboratory has been involved in a collaborative project focusing on a range of issues related to the phytoremediation of heavy metal-and radionuclide- contaminated soils. While much of the research has been fundamental in nature, involving physiological and molecular characterizations of the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation in plants, the laboratory is also investigating more practical issues related to phytoremediation. A central issue in this latter research has been the identification of amendments capable of increasing the bioavailability and subsequent phytoextraction of radionuclides. The results described here detail these efforts for uranium and Cs-137. A study was also conducted on a Cs-137 contaminated site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which allowed application of the laboratory and greenhouse results to a field setting.

  18. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 085111 (2015) Electronic and structural ground state of heavy alkali metals at high pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, James

    2015-01-01

    ~ao Paulo 13083-970, Brazil 4 Instituto de F´isica Gleb Wataghin, UNICAMP, Campinas, S~ao Paulo 13083-859, Brazil (Received 21 December 2014; published 17 February 2015) Alkali metals display unexpected Rb and Cs order in an orthorhombic phase with 52 and 84 atoms in the unit cell at 15 and 4.2 GPa

  19. THE ORIGINS OF LIGHT AND HEAVY R-PROCESS ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED BY CHEMICAL TAGGING OF METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-11-01

    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration ?-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A > 130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] ? +1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  20. Estimation of the formation rates of polyatomic species of heavy metals in plutonium analyses using a multicollector ICP-MS with a desolvating nebulizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitroshkov, Alexandre V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olsen, Khris B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomas, Linda M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The analyses of IAEA and environmental samples for Plutonium isotopic content are conducted normally at very low concentrations of Pu–usually in the range of part per trillion level and even more often at the parts per quadrillion level. To analyze such low concentrations, the interferences in the analytical solution must be reduced as much as possible. Polyatomic interferences (PIs), formed by the heavy metals (HMs) from Hf to Bi are known to create the problems for Pu isotopic analyses, because even the relatively high resolution of a modern multicollector ICP-MS is not enough to separate Pu isotopes from this PIs in most of the cases. Desolvating nebulizers (DSN) (e.g. APEX and AridusII) reduce significantly the formation of PIs compare to the use of wet plasma. The purpose of this work was to investigate the rate of formation of PIs, produced by HMs, when high resolution MC ICP-MS with desolvating nebulizer was used for Pu isotopic analyses and to estimate the influence of the metals present in the sample on the results of analyses. The NU Plasma HR Multicollector and AridusII desolvating nebulizer were used in this investigation. This investigation was done for all Pu isotopes normally analyzed by ICP-MS, including ²??Pu, with the exception of ²³?Pu, which most of the time can’t be analyzed by ICP-MS, because of the overwhelming presence of ²³?U in the solutions. The PI formation rates were determined and reported for all 12 HMs from Hf to Bi. Selected IAEA samples were scanned for the presence of HMs and the influence of HMs on the results of Pu isotopic analyses was evaluated. It was found that the implemented separation procedure provides sufficient separation of HM from Pu, although the effect of PIs on the measurement of low level isotopes like ²?¹Pu and ²?²Pu in some cases can still be observed.

  1. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Pag...

  2. Slag capture and removal during laser cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Clyde O. (Newington, CT)

    1984-05-08

    Molten metal removed from a workpiece in a laser cutting operation is blown away from the cutting point by a gas jet and collected on an electromagnet.

  3. Drum lid removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pella, Bernard M. (Martinez, GA); Smith, Philip D. (North Augusta, SC)

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  4. A novel process for upgrading heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, F.T.T.; Rintjema, R.T. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Canada has extensive reserves of high sulfur heavy oils. These heavy oils are recovered primarily by steam injection techniques. As a result, the heavy oils are obtained as emulsions at well-heads. The heavy oils, being high in sulfur and metals, and low in hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio, require upgrading such as desulfurization and hydrocracking before it can be used in conventional refineries. Conventional emulsion treatment and desulfurization technology require multistage processing. Thus, alternative technologies for processing heavy oil emulsions would be attractive. The authors have recently developed a novel single stage process for upgrading emulsions via activation of water to provide hydrogen in situ for catalytic desulfurization and hydrocracking. Current work is focused on the desulfurization aspect of upgrading, using benzothiophene as the model sulfur compound and molybdic acid as the catalyst. At 340 C and a CO loading pressure of 600 psi, up to 86% sulfur removal was obtained. As well, in situ generated H{sub 2} was found to be more active than externally supplied molecular H{sub 2}. A likely pathway for desulfurization of benzothiophene was via the initial hydrogenation of benzothiophene to dihydrobenzothiophene followed by hydrogenolysis to give ethylbenzene and H{sub 2}S.

  5. Economic feasibility of biochemical processes for the upgrading of crudes and the removal of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals from crude oil -- Benchmark cost establishment of biochemical processes on the basis of conventional downstream technologies. Final report FY95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1996-08-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between biodegraded and biotreated oils. The downstream biotechnological crude oil processing research performed thus far is of laboratory scale and has focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of downstream processing with different types of biocatalysts under a variety of processing conditions. Quantitative economic analysis is the topic of the present project which investigates the economic feasibility of the various biochemical downstream processes which hold promise in upgrading of heavy crudes, such as those found in California, e.g., Monterey-type, Midway Sunset, Honda crudes, and others.

  6. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  7. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  8. Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Semiannual report, Apr 1, 1998--Oct 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

    1998-10-31

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823--900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures. The sorbents consisting of cerium oxide and copper oxide impregnated on alumina have been prepared and characterized. Their sulfation performance has been investigated in a TGA setup, studying mainly the effects of temperature and sorbent composition. The results of the sulfation experiments have been evaluated and presented in this report. A study to model the sulfation selectivity of the two constituents of the sorbents is also underway.

  9. The Role of the Flexicoking Process in Heavy Oil Processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    conversion, the FLEXICOKING process can also be used as the primary technology for Stand Alone Energy Centers upgrading low quality, high metals, heavy crudes. These efficient energy centers can be located either at a heavy oil production field or integrated...

  10. Searching for Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevil Salur

    2008-09-09

    Jet quenching measurements using leading particles and their correlations suffer from known biases, which can be removed via direct reconstruction of jets in central heavy ion collisions. In this talk, we discuss several modern jet reconstruction algorithms and background subtraction techniques that are appropriate to heavy ion collisions.

  11. Electrochemically assisted paint removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, R.; Hydock, D.M.; Burleigh, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    A method to remove paint coatings from metal and other electronically conductive substrates is being studied. In particular, the remediation of objects coated with lead based paints is the focus of research. The approach also works very well with automotive coatings and may be competitive with sandblasting. To achieve debonding of the coating, the deteriorated or artifically damaged surface of the object is cathodically polarized. The object can be immersed in a benign aqueous electrolyte for treatment, or the electrolyte can be retained in an absorbent pad covering the surface to be treated.

  12. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, L.P.; Killey, D.R.W.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, P.C.F.

    1992-09-01

    A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully.

  13. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  14. Magnetic fluctuations and heavy electron superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    A magnetic fluctuation self-energy based on neutron scattering data is used to calculate mass renormalizations, and superconducting critical temperatures and order parameters, for various heavy electron metals.

  15. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the precipitate readily enables removal of asphaltenes. Thus, an upgraded crude low in heavy metal, sulfur and nitrogen is more conducive for further purification.

  16. Summary of Heavy Ion Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean Gavin

    1994-09-20

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you! I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF `94 in the parallel sessions.

  17. Heavy oil upgrading via fluidized bed processing and hydrogenation processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, F.N. Jr. [California Synfuels Research Corp., Palos Verdes, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    California is the second largest crude oil producer in the lower 48 states. Nearly half of its production is heavy oil, difficult to transport and costly to refine. Given better methods of processing, production could be expanded. Likewise, huge worldwide reserves of heavy oils could be better exploited if more attractive processing methods were available. Midway Sunset crude at 11.8 API gravity, is a fairly difficult crude to process. It has about 1.5 percent sulfur, a very high nitrogen content, in the range of 0.7--0.8%, and metals of approximately 120--170 ppm, vanadium plus nickel. The authors will be reporting here results of the pilot plant testing to see whether non-catalytic fluid bed cracking technology, operated at low conversion, followed by hydrogenation would be economically attractive. Results suggest that this approach is competitive with delayed coking and with atmospheric resid desulfurization. This approach successfully combines carbon removal and hydrogen addition techniques for heavy oil upgrading. Comparative yields, product quality and economic considerations are reviewed in this study.

  18. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  19. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (12833 S. 82nd Ct., Palos Park, IL 60464); Sinha, Shome N. (5748 Drexel, 2A, Chicago, IL 60637)

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  20. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  1. Removing Stains from Washable Fabrics. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beard, Ann Vanderpoorten

    1988-01-01

    unique treatment be cause of chemical make-up or physical characteristics. (Examples: chewing gum, iodine, lead pencil) Stain Removal Products Bleaches Chlorine bleaches contain a hypochlorite com pound. Do not use them on wool, silk, polyurethane... foam, spandex or blends of these fibers; on finishes which are embossed or flame retardant; or on fabrics labeled no chlorine bleach. Avoid contact with metal. Always follow package instructions for dilu tion. Liquid chlorine bleaches lose strength...

  2. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  3. Reversible photodeposition and dissolution of metal ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Nancy S. (Boulder, CO); Koval, Carl A. (Golden, CO); Noble, Richard D. (Boulder, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A cyclic photocatalytic process for treating waste water containing metal and organic contaminants. In one embodiment of the method, metal ions are photoreduced onto the photocatalyst and the metal concentrated by resolubilization in a smaller volume. In another embodiment of the method, contaminant organics are first oxidized, then metal ions removed by photoreductive deposition. The present invention allows the photocatalyst to be recycled until nearly complete removal of metal ions and organic contaminants is achieved.

  4. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  5. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, S.; Johnson, D.R.

    1999-04-26

    The objective of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is to develop the enabling materials technology for the clean, high-efficiency diesel truck engines of the future. The development of cleaner, higher-efficiency diesel engines imposes greater mechanical, thermal, and tribological demands on materials of construction. Often the enabling technology for a new engine component is the material from which the part can be made. The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE), and the diesel engine companies in the United States, materials suppliers, national laboratories, and universities. A comprehensive research and development program has been developed to meet the enabling materials requirements for the diesel engines of the future. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications.

  6. Arsenic removal in conjunction with lime softening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandaker, Nadim R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Teter, David M.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2004-10-12

    A method for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising adding lime to the aqueous medium, and adding one or more sources of divalent metal ions other than calcium and magnesium to the aqueous medium, whereby dissolved arsenic in the aqueous medium is reduced to a lower level than possible if only the step of adding lime were performed. Also a composition of matter for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising lime and one or more sources of divalent copper and/or zinc metal ions.

  7. Heavy loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metz, D.

    1982-01-01

    The extreme pressures on the roof and walls of an earth-sheltered residential home are discussed and the need for careful planning is stressed. Pertinent terms are defined. Footings and wall structure (reinforced concrete walls and concrete block walls) are described. Roofing systems are discussed in detail and illustrated: (1) poured-in-place concrete roof slabs; (2) pre-cast concrete planks; and (3) heavy timber roofs. Insulation of earth-sheltered homes is reviewed in terms of using: (1) urethanes; (2) extruded polystyrene; and (3) expanded polystyrene. Advantages, disadvantages, R-factors, costs, and installation are discussed. (MJJ)

  8. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  9. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

    1985-03-04

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  10. The Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Pollutant Removal and Formation in Aquatic Environment: From Stormwater to Drinking Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Meng-Horng

    2012-01-01

    W. ; Stanley, S. J. , URBAN STORMWATER QUALITY - SUMMARY OFhydrocarbons in urban stormwater in Queensland, Australia.Heavy metals and PAHs in stormwater runoff from the Skyway

  11. Development of peptoid-based ligands for the removal of cadmium from biological media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Abigail S.; Zhou, Effie Y.; Francis, Matthew B.

    2015-05-14

    Cadmium poisoning poses a serious health concern due to cadmium's increasing industrial use, yet there is currently no recommended treatment. The selective coordination of cadmium in a biological environment—i.e. in the presence of serum ions, small molecules, and proteins—is a difficult task. To address this challenge, a combinatorial library of peptoid-based ligands has been evaluated to identify structures that selectively bind to cadmium in human serum with minimal chelation of essential metal ions. Eighteen unique ligands were identified in this screening procedure, and the binding affinity of each was measured using metal titrations monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. To evaluate the significance of each chelating moiety, sequence rearrangements and substitutions were examined. Analysis of a metal–ligand complex by NMR spectroscopy highlighted the importance of particular residues. Depletion experiments were performed in serum mimetics and human serum with exogenously added cadmium. These depletion experiments were used to compare and demonstrate the ability of these peptoids to remove cadmium from blood-like mixtures. In one of these depletion experiments, the peptoid sequence was able to deplete the cadmium to a level comparable to the reported acute toxicity limit. Evaluation of the metal selectivity in buffered solution and in human serum was performed to verify minimal off-target binding. These studies highlight a screening platform for the identification of metal–ligands that are capable of binding in a complex environment. They additionally demonstrate the potential utility of biologically-compatible ligands for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning.

  12. Development of peptoid-based ligands for the removal of cadmium from biological media

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knight, Abigail S.; Zhou, Effie Y.; Francis, Matthew B.

    2015-05-14

    Cadmium poisoning poses a serious health concern due to cadmium's increasing industrial use, yet there is currently no recommended treatment. The selective coordination of cadmium in a biological environment—i.e. in the presence of serum ions, small molecules, and proteins—is a difficult task. To address this challenge, a combinatorial library of peptoid-based ligands has been evaluated to identify structures that selectively bind to cadmium in human serum with minimal chelation of essential metal ions. Eighteen unique ligands were identified in this screening procedure, and the binding affinity of each was measured using metal titrations monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. To evaluate themore »significance of each chelating moiety, sequence rearrangements and substitutions were examined. Analysis of a metal–ligand complex by NMR spectroscopy highlighted the importance of particular residues. Depletion experiments were performed in serum mimetics and human serum with exogenously added cadmium. These depletion experiments were used to compare and demonstrate the ability of these peptoids to remove cadmium from blood-like mixtures. In one of these depletion experiments, the peptoid sequence was able to deplete the cadmium to a level comparable to the reported acute toxicity limit. Evaluation of the metal selectivity in buffered solution and in human serum was performed to verify minimal off-target binding. These studies highlight a screening platform for the identification of metal–ligands that are capable of binding in a complex environment. They additionally demonstrate the potential utility of biologically-compatible ligands for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning.« less

  13. EXELFS of Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Y.; Alamgir, F.M.; Schwarz, R.B.; Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    1999-11-30

    The feasibility of using extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) obtained from {approximately}1 nm regions of metallic glasses to study their short-range order has been examined. Ionization edges of the metallic glasses in the electron energy-loss spectrum (EELS) have been obtained from PdNiP bulk metallic glass and Ni{sub 2}P polycrystalline powder in a transmission electron microscope. The complexity of EXELFS analysis of L- and M-ionization edges of heavy elements (Z>22, i.e. Ni and Pd) is addressed by theoretical calculations using an ab initio computer code, and its results are compared with the experimental data.

  14. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, Kurt Edward (Avella, PA); Kolsun, George J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  15. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  16. Heavy Metal Islands | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    moving surface atoms and can grow slowly over hours. At temperatures well below freezing, lead atoms are systematically deposited onto a thick piece of silicon wafer, forming...

  17. EROSION MECHANISM IN DUCTILE METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., Robert

    2013-01-01

    England. Mayvflle, fL A. , "Mechanism of fV1aterial RemovalSubmitted to WEAR EROSION MECHANISM IN DUCTILE METALS Robertmetals. ace and erosion rate mechanism is a signifi- mic in

  18. Metal impacts on microbial biomass in the anoxic sediments of a contaminated lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gough, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    1997), Toxicity of heavy metals (Ni,Zn) to Desulfovibrioin the determination of metal partitioning in sediments by aTechnol. , 20(8), 836-840. Metals and sediment microbial

  19. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Reynolds, John G.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2004-02-24

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  20. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Theodore F. (Tracy, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Fox, Glenn A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  1. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  2. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  3. Coated metal articles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R. (Van Buren Township, IN); Eubank, Lowell D. (Wilmington, DE)

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  4. Peroxotitanates for Biodelivery of Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, David; Elvington, M.

    2009-02-11

    Metal-based drugs are largely undeveloped in pharmacology. One limiting factor is the systemic toxicity of metal-based compounds. A solid-phase, sequestratable delivery agent for local delivery of metals could reduce systemic toxicity, facilitating new drug development in this nascent area. Amorphous peroxotitanates (APT) are ion exchange materials with high affinity for several heavy metal ions, and have been proposed to deliver or sequester metal ions in biological contexts. In the current study, we tested a hypothesis that APT are able to deliver metals or metal compounds to cells. We exposed fibroblasts (L929) or monocytes (THP1) to metal-APT materials for 72 h in vitro, then measured cellular mitochondrial activity (SDH-MTT method) to assess the biological impact of the metal-APT materials vs. metals or APT alone. APT alone did not significantly affect cellular mitochondrial activity, but all metal-APT materials suppressed the mitochondrial activity of fibroblasts (by 30-65% of controls). The concentration of metal-APT materials required to suppress cellular mitochondrial activity was below that required for metals alone, suggesting that simple extracellular release of the metals from the metal-APT materials was not the primary mechanism of mitochondrial suppression. In contrast to fibroblasts, no metal-APT material had a measurable effect on THP1 monocyte mitochondrial activity, despite potent suppression by metals alone. This latter result suggested that 'biodelivery' by metal-APT materials may be cell type-specific. Therefore, it appears that APT are plausible solid phase delivery agents of metals or metal compounds to some types of cells for potential therapeutic effect.

  5. The erosion of metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, David Richard

    1980-10-21

    The study of the erosion of metallic surfaces by solid particles has been an area of dispute recently (1980) especially concerning the importance of target melting as a mechanism for the removal of material. In addition, erosion by particles at a...

  6. Tritium emission reduction at Darlington tritium removal facility using a Bubbler System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyanam, K.; Leilabadi, A.; El-Behairy, O.; Williams, G. I. D.; Vogt, H. K. [Ontario Power Generation, Darlington Nuclear, PO Box 4000, Bowmanville, ON L1C 3Z8 (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station operates a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) to reduce and maintain low tritium levels in the Moderator and Heat Transport heavy water systems of Ontario's CANDU fleet by extracting, concentrating, immobilizing and storing as a metal tritide. Minimizing tritium releases to the environment is of paramount importance to ensure that dose to the public is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and to maintain credibility with the Public. Tritium is removed from the Cryogenic Distillation System to the Tritium Immobilization System (TIS) glove box via a transfer line that is protected by a rupture disc and relief valve. An overpressure event in 2003 had caused the rupture disc to blow, resulting in the release of a significant quantity of elemental tritium into the relief valve discharge line, which ties into the contaminated exhaust system. As a result of a few similar events occurring over a number of years of TRF operation, the released elemental tritium would have been converted to tritium oxide in the presence of a stagnant moist air environment in the stainless steel discharge line. A significant amount of tritium oxide hold-up in the discharge line was anticipated. To minimize any further releases to the environment, a Bubbler System was designed to remove and recover the tritium from the discharge line. This paper summarizes the results of several Bubbler recovery runs that were made over a period of a month. Approximately 3500 Ci of tritium oxide and 230 Ci of elemental tritium were removed and collected. The tritium contained in the water produced from the Bubbler system was later safely recovered in the station's downgraded D{sub 2}O clean-up and recovery system. (authors)

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  8. Quantifying AGN-Driven Metal-Enhanced Outflows in Chemodynamical Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Philip

    2015-01-01

    We show the effects of AGN-driven outflows on the ejection of heavy elements using our cosmological simulations, where super-massive black holes originate from the first stars. In the most massive galaxy, we have identified two strong outflows unambiguously driven by AGN feedback. These outflows have a speed greater than $\\sim 8000$ km\\,s$^{-1}$ near the AGN, and travel out to a half Mpc with $\\sim 3000$ km\\,s$^{-1}$. These outflows remove the remaining gas ($\\sim 3$ per cent of baryons) and significant amounts of metals ($\\sim 2$ per cent of total produced metals) from the host galaxy, chemically enriching the circumgalactic medium (CGM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM). 17.6 per cent of metals from this galaxy, and 18.4 per cent of total produced metals in the simulation, end up in the CGM and IGM, respectively. The metallicities of the CGM and IGM are higher with AGN feedback, while the mass--metallicity relation of galaxies is not affected very much. We also find `selective' mass-loss where iron is more...

  9. Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganesan, Kumar (Butte, MT)

    2008-01-01

    A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

  10. Metallization of electronic insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An electroplated element is formed to include an insulating substrate, a conducting polymer polymerized in situ on the substrate, and a metal layer deposited on the conducting polymer. In one application a circuit board is formed by polymerizing pyrrole on an epoxy-fiberglass substrate in a single step process and then electrodepositing a metal over the resulting polypyrrole polymer. No chemical deposition of the metal is required prior to electroplating and the resulting layer of substrate-polymer-metal has excellent adhesion characteristics. The metal deposition is surprisingly smooth and uniform over the relatively high resistance film of polypyrrole. A continuous manufacturing process is obtained by filtering the solution between successive substrates to remove polymer formed in the solution, by maintaining the solution oxidizing potential within selected limits, and by adding a strong oxidant, such as KMnO.sub.4 at periodic intervals to maintain a low sheet resistivity in the resulting conducting polymer film.

  11. Removal of mercury from waste gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muster, U.; Marr, R.; Pichler, G.; Kremshofer, S.; Wilferl, R.; Draxler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Waste and process gases from thermal power, incineration and metallurgical plants or those from cement and alkali chloride industries contain metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Widespread processes to remove the major amount of mercury are absorption and adsorption. Caused by the lowering of the emission limit from 200 to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] by national and European legislators, considerable efforts were made to enhance the efficiency of the main separation units of flue gas cleaning plants. Specially impregnated ceramic carriers can be used for the selective separation of metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Using the ceramic reactor removal rates lower than 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] of gaseous mercury and its compounds can be achieved. The ceramic reactor is active, regenerable and stable for a long term operation. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  13. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-12-13

    A method is described for depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates. 1 figure.

  14. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-12-13

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The study of metal contamination in urban topsoils of Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE The study of metal contamination in urban topsoils of Mexico City using GIS Mari distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ba, Co, Cr, Ni and V) in the urban environments of Mexico City using- politan area of Mexico City. Keywords Heavy metals Á GIS Á Mexico City Á Urban topsoils Á Pollution Á

  16. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, Weifang (Livermore, CA); Stewart, Kenneth D. (Valley Springs, CA)

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  17. Progress on the Los Alamos heavy-ion injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.C.; Riepe, K.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Heavy-ion fusion using an induction linac requires injection of multiple high-current beams from a pulsed electrostatic accelerator at as high a voltage as practical. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a 16-beam, 2-MeV, pulsed electrostatic accelerator for Al/sup +/ ions. The ion source will use a pulsed metal vapor arc plasma. A biased grid will control plasma flux into the ion extraction region. This source has achieved a normalized emittance of epsilon/sub n/ < 3.10/sup -7/..pi..-m-rad with Al/sup +/ ions. An 800 kV Marx prototype with a laser fired diverter is being assembled. The ceramic accelerating column sections have been brazed and leak tested. Voltage hold off on a brazed sample was more than doubled by selective removal of the Ticusil braze fillet extending along the ceramic. A scaled test module held 250 kV for 50 ..mu..s, giving confidence that the full module can hold 175 kV per section. The pressure vessel should be received in June 1986. High-voltage testing of a 1 MV column will begin by early 1987.

  18. "Monitoring the Effectiveness of Best Management Practice in Removing Pollutants from Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    ..............................................................................................................81 ii #12;Acronyms Heavy Metals: As: Arsenic; Cd: Cadmium; Cr: Chromium; Cu: Copper; Hg: Mercury; Pb- 4-P: Phosphorus as phosphate DO: Dissolved Oxygen BOD: Biological Oxygen Demand FC: Fecal Coliform

  19. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Meyer

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energyâ??s Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process â?? High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  20. A study of plasma etching for use on active metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimoto, Keane T. (Keane Takeshi), 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Active metals can be used as a getter pump, removing impurities in ultra-pure high vacuum environments. To relieve the difficulties involved with the transportation, storage and handling of these metals, a process is being ...

  1. Methods of removing a constituent from a feed stream using adsorption media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-05-24

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  2. Arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  3. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.

    1994-10-04

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith. 8 figs.

  4. Comparing Metal Leaching and Toxicity from High pH, Low pH, and High Ammonia Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Fagan, Lisa Anne; Drake, Meghan M; Ruther, Rose Emily; Fisher, L. Suzanne; Amonette, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work with both class F and class C fly ash indicated minimal leaching from most fly ashes tested. However, the addition of NOx removal equipment might result in higher levels of ammonia in the fly ash. We have recently been testing fly ash with a wide range of pH (3.7-12.4) originating from systems with NOx removal equipment. Leaching experiments were done using dilute CaCl2 solutions in batch and columns and a batch nitric acid method. All methods indicated that the leaching of heavy metals was different in the highest ammonia sample tested and the high pH sample. However, toxicity testing with the Microtox system has indicated little potential toxicity in leachates except for the fly ash at the highest pH (12.4). When the leachate from the high pH fly ash was neutralized, toxicity was eliminated.

  5. Comparing metal leaching and toxicity from high pH, low pH, and high ammonia fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Ruther, Rose; Fisher, L. S.; Amonette, James E.

    2007-07-01

    Previous work with both class F and class C fly ash indicated minimal leaching from most fly ashes tested. However, the addition of NOx removal equipment might result in higher levels of ammonia in the fly ash. We have recently been testing fly ash with a wide range of pH (3.7–12.4) originating from systems with NOx removal equipment. Leaching experiments were done using dilute CaCl2 solutions in batch and columns and a batch nitric acid method. All methods indicated that the leaching of heavy metals was different in the highest ammonia sample tested and the high pH sample. However, toxicity testing with the Microtox* system has indicated little potential toxicity in leachates except for the fly ash at the highest pH (12.4). When the leachate from the high pH fly ash was neutralized, toxicity was eliminated.

  6. Bioavailability of Cadmium and Zin to Two Earthworm Species in High-metal Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    ability of chemical extraction methods to estimate plant-ability of chemical-extraction methods to estimate plant-heavy metals, these extraction methods have some limitations

  7. Condensate removal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maddox, James W. (Newport News, VA); Berger, David D. (Alexandria, VA)

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  8. Nucleic acids encoding metal uptake transporters and their uses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Julian I. (La Jolla, CA); Antosiewicz, Danuta M. (Warsaw, PL); Schachtman, Daniel P. (Tranmere, AU); Clemens, Stephan (San Diego, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides LCT1 nucleic acids which encode metal ion uptake transporters. The invention also provides methods of modulating heavy metal and alkali metal uptake in plants. The methods involve producing transgenic plants comprising a recombinant expression cassette containing an LCT1 nucleic acid linked to a plant promoter.

  9. ONDES DE SPIN MAGNETISM IN THE LIGHT RARE EARTH 'METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ONDES DE SPIN MAGNETISM IN THE LIGHT RARE EARTH 'METALS A. R. MACKINTOSH H. C. Mrsted Institute terres rares Ikgeres. Abstract. -The magnetic properties of the light rare earth metals are reviewed the last decade, the magnetism of the heavy rare earth metals is now rather well understood. The magnetic

  10. Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1984-04-06

    The present invention in one aspect comprises a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous-derived liquids by contacting said liquid with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene polymer (i.e. PS-DVB) having catechol ligands anchored to said polymer, said contacting being at an elevated temperature. In another aspect, the invention is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene polymer by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid in accordance with the aspect described above which regenerating process comprises: (a) treating said spent catecholated polystyrene polymer with an aqueous solution of at least one member selected from the group consisting of carbonates and bicarbonates of ammonium, alkali metals, and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10, and said treating being at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C; (b) separating the solids and liquids from each other. In a preferred embodiment the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step: (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution which includes at least one lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (c) and (d) are added. Steps (c) and (d) comprise: (c) treating the solids with an aqueous alcoholic solution of at least one ammonium, alkali or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100/sup 0/C; and (d) separating the solids from the liquids.

  11. Metal-induced conformational changes in ZneB suggest an active role of membrane fusion proteins in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroud, Robert

    Metal-induced conformational changes in ZneB suggest an active role of membrane fusion proteins division (RND)-based efflux complexes mediate multidrug and heavy-metal resistance in many Gram- negative the role of MFPs in RND-driven efflux systems, we chose ZneB, the MFP component of the ZneCAB heavy-metal

  12. Method for removal of explosives from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Torres, deceased, Agapito P. (late of Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Giralang, AU)

    1994-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells was also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  13. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  14. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, John E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  15. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  16. Quick Stain Removal Guide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Pamela J.

    1998-07-29

    and dryer. ? Use the hottest wash temperature recommended on the garment care label. ? Use the right wash and dry cycle for the fabric. ? Avoid using chlorine bleach on silk, wool or spandex or on non-colorfast garments. ? Remove clothes... color-safe bleach or fabric softener. Bleaches are strong cleaning agents. Follow the in- structions on the containers. Use chlorine bleach on colorfast fabrics; it is most effective if added 5 to 6 minutes into the wash cycle. It is best...

  17. Continuum Study of Heavy Quark Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Neuhaus

    2015-04-28

    We report on a lattice investigation of heavy quark momentum diffusion within the pure SU(3) plasma above the deconfinement transition with the quarks treated to leading order in the heavy mass expansion. We measure the relevant "colour-electric" Euclidean correlator and based on several lattice spacing's perform the continuum extrapolation. This is necessary not only to remove cut-off effects but also the analytic continuation for the extraction of transport coefficients is well-defined only when a continuous function of the Euclidean time variable is available. We pay specific attention to scale setting in SU(3). In particular we present our determination for the critical temperature $T_c=1/({N_\\tau}a) $ at values of $N_\\tau \\le 22$.

  18. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.more »For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.« less

  19. Heavy-flavor transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Beraudo

    2015-10-29

    The formation of a hot deconfined medium (Quark-Gluon Plasma) in high-energy nuclear collisions affects heavy-flavor observables. In the low/moderate-pT range transport calculations allow one to simulate the propagation of heavy quarks in the plasma and to evaluate the effect of the medium on the final hadronic spectra: results obtained with transport coefficients arising from different theoretical approaches can be compared to experimental data. Finally, a discussion of possible effects on heavy-flavor observables due to the possible formation of a hot-medium in small systems (like in p-A collisions) is presented.

  20. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Woodward, Charlene A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  1. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Woodward, Charlene A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  2. Effects of service exposure of 2{1/4}Cr pressure vessel steel in a heavy oil hydrocracker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doucet, A.B. [Texaco Research and Development, Port Arthur, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Test blocks of 2{1/4} Cr steel, removed after 5 and 9 years exposure to the process environment within a heavy oil hydrocracking reactor, were investigated for signs of aging in terms of degradation of mechanical properties, increased susceptibility to temper embrittlement and hydrogen attack. The test blocks were of thick section (21.6 cm) and were weld overlayed on all sides with 316 stainless steel. In addition, each test block contained a through thickness weld. The test blocks were placed in the reactor before start-up to provide long term exposure data for the hot wall exchangers associated with this reactor. Mechanical testing of base and weld metal revealed no signs of degradation of tensile properties as a result of service exposure. Impact testing did reveal slight levels of embrittlement, however, the impact properties are still well in excess of the specified minimum levels. Metallographic examination did uncover significant debonding of the overlay/base metal interface and shallow hydrogen induced cracking initiating at the interface and propagating into the base metal. Both the debonding and cracking are attributed to the test block configuration and are not related to high temperature hydrogen attack.

  3. Heavy Hybrid mesons Masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Iddir; L. Semlala

    2006-11-25

    We estimate the ground state masses of the heavy hybrid mesons using a phenomenological QCD-type potential. 0^{- -},1^{- -},0^{- +},1^{- +} and 0^{+ -} J^{PC} states are considered.

  4. HEAVY ION INERTIAL FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keefe, D.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerators as Drivers for Inertially Confined Fusion, W.B.LBL-9332/SLAC-22l (1979) Fusion Driven by Heavy Ion Beams,OF CALIFORNIA f Accelerator & Fusion Research Division

  5. HEAVY QUARKS JETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, M.

    2010-01-01

    i'iAsm Heavy Quark Jets iBirijets. Short-distance vs long-than a few wide angle sub-jets at to draw first skelton jet

  6. Metal-ion recycle technology for metal electroplating waste waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, N.N.; Smith, B.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of a collaboration with Boeing Aerospace, the authors have begun a program to identify suitable treatments or to develop new treatments for electroplating baths. The target baths are mixed-metal or alloy baths that are being integrated into the Boeing electroplating complex. These baths, which are designed to replace highly toxic chromium and cadmium baths, contain mixtures of two metals, either nickel-tungsten, nickel-zinc, or zinc-tin. This report reviews the literature and details currently available on emerging technologies that could affect recovery of metals from electroplating baths under development by Boeing Aerospace. This literature survey summarizes technologies relevant to the recovery of metals from electroplating processes. The authors expanded the scope to investigate single metal ion recovery technologies that could be applied to metal ion recovery from alloy baths. This review clearly showed that the electroplating industry has traditionally relied on precipitation and more recently on electrowinning as its waste treatment methods. Despite the almost ubiquitous use of precipitation to remove contaminant metal ions from waste electroplating baths and rinse waters, this technology is clearly no longer feasible for the electroplating industry for several reasons. First, disposal of unstabilized sludge is no longer allowed by law. Second, these methods are no longer adequate as metal-removal techniques because they cannot meet stringent new metal discharge limits. Third, precious resources are being wasted or discarded because these methods do not readily permit recovery of the target metal ions. As a result, emerging technologies for metal recovery are beginning to see application to electroplating waste recycle. This report summarizes current research in these areas. Included are descriptions of various membrane technologies, such as reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, ion exchange and chelating polymer technology, and electrodialysis.

  7. Method of removing sulfur emissions from a fluidized-bed combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, Gerhard John (Elmhurst, IL); Jonke, Albert A. (Elmhurst, IL); Snyder, Robert B. (Naperville, IL)

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxides are impregnated within refractory support material such as alumina and introduced into a fluidized-bed process for the combustion of coal. Sulfur dioxide produced during combustion reacts with the metal oxide to form metal sulfates within the porous support material. The support material is removed from the process and the metal sulfate regenerated to metal oxide by chemical reduction. Suitable pore sizes are originally developed within the support material by heat-treating to accommodate both the sulfation and regeneration while still maintaining good particle strength.

  8. Mild hydrotreating of heavy oils with modified alumina based catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, E.P.; Campbell, C.N. [Texaco Research and Development, Port Arthur, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The decreasing demand for heavy fuels oils requires that refiners find ways for converting heavy hydrocarbon feedstocks to higher value mid-distillate products. To increase mid-distillate production, the refiner can choose from several processing options such as hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, and coking. All of these options, however, require heavy capital investments. Because of these high investment costs, refiners are continually searching for conversion processes which may be utilized in existing units. One such process is mild hydrocracking (MHC). The general objective of this work is to identify an MHC catalyst which gives a higher conversion level for heavy hydrocarbon feedstocks, especially that fraction of the feedstock that boils above 1,000 F (538 C), while maintaining the same amount of sediment production. The conventional hydrocracking catalysts that consist of acidic cracking components such as Y zeolite, though exhibiting conversion improvements over alumina based catalysts, were not suitable for processing of heavy oils in the mild hydrocracking mode because of high sediment formation. In contrast, alumina catalysts containing basic oxides (alkali metal and alkaline earth metal) not only improve heavy oil conversion but, also maintain the sediment make at the same level as alumina based catalysts. The sediment make generally decreased with increasing macroporosity.

  9. The washability of lignites for clay removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2008-07-01

    In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

  10. Methods of using adsorption media for separating or removing constituents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID)

    2011-10-25

    Methods of using an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises contacting an adsorption medium with a feed stream comprising at least one constituent and removing the at least one constituent from the feed stream. The adsorption medium comprises a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix and at least one metal hydroxide homogenously dispersed therein. The adsorption medium may comprise from approximately 15 wt % to approximately 90 wt % of the PAN and from approximately 10 wt % to approximately 85 wt % of the at least one metal hydroxide. The at least one metal hydroxide may be selected from the group consisting of ferric hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, lanthanum hydroxide, cerium hydroxide, titanium hydroxide, copper hydroxide, antimony hydroxide, and molybdenum hydroxide.

  11. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1999-06-22

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  12. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  13. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  14. Fabrication of metallic microstructures by micromolding nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA); Winter, Michael R. (Goleta, CA); Domeier, Linda A. (Danville, CA); Allan, Shawn M. (Henrietta, NY); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for fabricating metallic microstructures, i.e., microcomponents of micron or submicron dimensions. A molding composition is prepared containing an optional binder and nanometer size (1 to 1000 nm in diameter) metallic particles. A mold, such as a lithographically patterned mold, preferably a LIGA or a negative photoresist mold, is filled with the molding composition and compressed. The resulting microstructures are then removed from the mold and the resulting metallic microstructures so provided are then sintered.

  15. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  16. Simulation of integrated pollutant removal (IPR) water-treatment system using ASPEN Plus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harendra, Sivaram; Oryshcyhn, Danylo [U.S. DOE Ochs, Thomas [U.S. DOE Gerdemann, Stephen; Clark, John

    2013-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion provides an opportunity for tapping a significant water source which can be used as service water for a capture-ready power plant and its peripherals. Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have patented a process—Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR®)—that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO2 stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Water condensed from oxy-combustion flue gas via the IPR system has been analyzed for composition and an approach for its treatment—for in-process reuse and for release—has been outlined. A computer simulation model in ASPEN Plus has been developed to simulate water treatment of flue gas derived wastewater from IPR systems. At the field installation, water condensed in the IPR process contains fly ash particles, sodium (largely from spray-tower buffering) and sulfur species as well as heavy metals, cations, and anions. An IPR wastewater treatment system was modeled using unit operations such as equalization, coagulation and flocculation, reverse osmosis, lime softening, crystallization, and pH correction. According to the model results, 70% (by mass) of the inlet stream can be treated as pure water, the other 20% yields as saleable products such as gypsum (CaSO4) and salt (NaCl) and the remaining portion is the waste. More than 99% of fly ash particles are removed in the coagulation and flocculation unit and these solids can be used as filler materials in various applications with further treatment. Results discussed relate to a slipstream IPR installation and are verified experimentally in the coagulation/flocculation step.

  17. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerle, James E. (Plum Borough, PA); Reed, William H. (Monroeville, PA); Berkey, Edgar (Murrysville, PA)

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  18. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  19. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The roto peen scaler allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy duty flexible flap. The peens are coupled with a commercially available piece of equipment that is used to scabble or remove the concrete. The scabbled debris is then collected into 55 gallon drums by means of a vacuum system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  20. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  1. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  2. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for treating wastewater exist in a number of industries, including petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and chemical manufacturing. The sustainable low- energy approach to water...

  3. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technology (HSPT) (Completed). * Demonstrate targeted mechanical properties, including static tensile (yield strength: 950MPa and elongation of 13.1%), fracture toughness of K Ic...

  4. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tool, milling operations where the cutting tool rotates against the workpiece, and drilling operations where holes are produced or refined. However, traditional machining...

  5. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to TappingWORK BREAKDOWNEnergy how toEM&High impactHigh

  6. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to TappingWORK BREAKDOWNEnergy how toEM&High impactHighAndy

  7. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢HelpHighJian

  8. Metal Organic Clathrates for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter ByMentor-ProtegeFrom the Director

  9. Metal Oxide Thin Films Deposited from Metal Organic Precursors in Supercritical CO2 Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    Metal Oxide Thin Films Deposited from Metal Organic Precursors in Supercritical CO2 Solutions and oxidizing agents are delivered in liquid and supercritical CO2. A cyclic deposition process is presented properties of supercritical CO2 can aid in the delivery of precursors and in the removal of byproducts

  10. Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

    2000-04-11

    Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

  11. Heavy Quark Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul B. Mackenzie

    1992-12-14

    Lattice calculations of heavy quark systems provide very good measures of the lattice spacing, a key element in recent determinations of the strong coupling constant using lattice methods. They also provide excellent testing grounds for lattice methods in general. I review recent phenomenological and technical developments in this field.

  12. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  13. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neu, M.P.

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pK{sub a}s and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 5.94, log{beta}{sub 120} = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 9.34, log{beta}{sub l20} = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is log{beta}{sub 110} = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of {sup 242}Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  14. Development of a Heavy Water Detritiation Plant for PIK Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseev, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Fedorchenko, O.A.; Konoplev, K.A.; Vasyanina, T.V.; Arkhipov, E.A.; Uborsky, V.V

    2005-07-15

    The research reactor PIK should be supplied with a Detritiation Plant (DP) to remove tritium from heavy water in order to reduce operator radiation dose and tritium emissions. The original design of the reactor PIK Detritiation Plant was completed several years ago. A number of investigations have been made to obtain data for the DP design. Nowadays the design of the DP is being revised on a basis of our investigations. The Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process will be used at the Detritiation Plant instead of Vapor Phase Catalytic Exchange. The experimental industrial plant for hydrogen isotope separation on the basis of the CECE process is under operation in Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. The plant was updated to provide a means for heavy water detritiation. Very high detritiation factors have been achieved in the plant. The use of the CECE process will allow the development of a more compact and less expensive detritiation plant for heavy water reactor PIK.

  15. Method and apparatus for melting metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Alan F.; Schechter, Donald E.; Morrow, Marvin Stanley

    2006-03-14

    A method and apparatus for melting metals uses microwave energy as the primary source of heat. The metal or mixture of metals are placed in a ceramic crucible which couples, at least partially, with the microwaves to be used. The crucible is encased in a ceramic casket for insulation and placed within a microwave chamber. The chamber may be evacuated and refilled to exclude oxygen. After melting, the crucible may be removed for pouring or poured within the chamber by dripping or running into a heated mold within the chamber. Apparent coupling of the microwaves with softened or molten metal produces high temperatures with great energy savings.

  16. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Johnson

    2000-01-31

    The objectives are to Provide Key Enabling Materials Technologies to Increase Energy Efficiency and Reduce Exhaust Emissions. The following goals are listed: Goal 1: By 3rd quarter 2002, complete development of materials enabling the maintenance or improvement of fuel efficiency {ge} 45% of class 7-8 truck engines while meeting the EPA/Justice Department ''Consent Decree'' for emissions reduction. Goal 2: By 4th quarter 2004, complete development of enabling materials for light-duty (class 1-2) diesel truck engines with efficiency over 40%, over a wide range of loads and speeds, while meeting EPA Tier 2 emission regulations. Goal 3: By 4th quarter 2006, complete development of materials solutions to enable heavy-duty diesel engine efficiency of 50% while meeting the emission reduction goals identified in the EPA proposed rule for heavy-duty highway engines.''

  17. Viscous heavy brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    House, R.F.; Hoover, L.D.

    1984-07-10

    Hydroxyethyl cellulose and a sequestrant are added to a heavy brine containing one or more salts selected from calcium chloride, calcium bromide, and zinc bromide to increase the viscosity of the brine. Preferably the brine contains zinc bromide, has a density in the range from about 14.2-19.2 pounds per gallon, and the sequestrant is a polyphosphonic acid or water soluble salt thereof.

  18. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  19. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  20. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion &...

  1. In-situ metal speciation in soils using synchrotron based techniques David McNear1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    In-situ metal speciation in soils using synchrotron based techniques David McNear1 , Markus Gräfe1 remediation and legislative strategies. To provide an accurate description of the fate of metal contaminants the physicochemical properties of the contaminating heavy metals, is a valuable alternative for more expensive

  2. Trace metal concentration and fish size: Variation among fish species in a Mediterranean river

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García-Berthou, Emili

    Trace metal concentration and fish size: Variation among fish species in a Mediterranean river 29 April 2014 Accepted 12 May 2014 Keywords: Bioaccumulation Heavy metals Llobregat River Mediterranean Cyprinid fish a b s t r a c t Concentration of trace metals (Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb

  3. Metal Enrichment in the Reionization Epoch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The presence of elements heavier than helium ("metals") is of fundamental importance for a large number of astrophysical processes occurring in planet, star and galaxy formation; it also affects cosmic structure formation and evolution in several ways. Even a small amount of heavy elements can dramatically alter the chemistry of the gas, opening the path to complex molecules. Metals might enhance the ability of the gas to radiate away its thermal energy, thus favoring the formation of gravitationally bound objects; they can also condensate in a solid phase (dust grains), partly or totally blocking radiation from luminous sources. Finally, they represent useful tracers of energy deposition by stars and probe the physical properties of the environment by absorption or emission lines. Last, but certainly not least, life -- as we know it on Earth -- is tightly related to the presence of at least some of the heavy elements. In this pedagogical review I will concentrate on the connection between early metal enrichm...

  4. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials: Recent Progress and Future Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

    2001-05-14

    The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program provides enabling materials technology for the U.S. DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program is based on an industry assessment and the technology roadmap for the OHVT. A five-year program plan was published in 2000. Major efforts in the program are materials for diesel engine fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, and air handling. Additional efforts include diesel engine valve-train materials, structural components, and thermal management. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications. Selected technical issues and planned and ongoing projects as well as brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.

  5. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient engine system was capable of meeting 2010 emissions requirements through the application of NOx and particulate matter reduction techniques proven earlier in the program.

  6. Heavy Quarkonium Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Brambilla; M. Krämer; R. Mussa; A. Vairo; G. Bali; G. T. Bodwin; E. Braaten; E. Eichten; S. Eidelman; S. Godfrey; A. Hoang; M. Jamin; D. Kharzeev; M. P. Lombardo; C. Lourenco; A. B. Meyer; V. Papadimitriou; C. Patrignani; M. Rosati; M. A. Sanchis-Lozano; H. Satz; J. Soto; D. Z. Besson; D. Bettoni; A. Böhrer; S. Boogert; C. -H. Chang; P. Cooper; P. Crochet; S. Datta; C. Davies; A. Deandrea; R. Faustov; T. Ferguson; R. Galik; F. A. Harris; O. Iouchtchenko; O. Kaczmarek; F. Karsch; M. Kienzle; V. V. Kiselev; S. R. Klein; P. Kroll; A. Kronfeld; Y. -P. Kuang; V. Laporta; Jungil Lee; A. Leibovich; J. P. Ma; P. Mackenzie; L. Maiani; M. L. Mangano; A. Meyer; X. H. Mo; C. Morningstar; A. Nairz; J. Napolitano; S. Olsen; A. Penin; P. Petreczky; F. Piccinini; A. Pineda; A. D. Polosa; L. Ramello; R. Rapp; J. -M. Richard; V. Riquer; S. Ricciardi; E. Robutti; O. Schneider; E. Scomparin; J. Simone; T. Skwarnicki; G. Stancari; I. W. Stewart; Yu. Sumino; T. Teubner; J. Tseng; R. Vogt; P. Wang; B. Yabsley; C. Z. Yuan; F. Zantow; Z. G. Zhao; A. Zieminski

    2005-07-26

    This report is the result of the collaboration and research effort of the Quarkonium Working Group over the last three years. It provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in heavy-quarkonium theory and experiment, covering quarkonium spectroscopy, decay, and production, the determination of QCD parameters from quarkonium observables, quarkonia in media, and the effects on quarkonia of physics beyond the Standard Model. An introduction to common theoretical and experimental tools is included. Future opportunities for research in quarkonium physics are also discussed.

  7. Light is Heavy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Mark, M B

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's relativity theory appears to be very accurate, but at times equally puzzling. On the one hand, electromagnetic radiation must have zero rest mass in order to propagate at the speed of light, but on the other hand, since it definitely carries momentum and energy, it has non-zero inertial mass. Hence, by the principle of equivalence, it must have non-zero gravitational mass, and so, light must be heavy. In this paper, no new results will be derived, but a possibly surprising perspective on the above paradox is given.

  8. Sandia Energy - Heavy Duty

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy & Drilling TechnologyHeavy Duty Home Transportation

  9. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2008-01-01

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  10. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2013-05-28

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    2008-06-10

    A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

  12. Creation and Testing of the ACES Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Creation and Testing of the ACES Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Test Schedule for Representative Measurement of Heavy-Duty Engine Emissions Creation and Testing of the ACES Heavy...

  13. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection 2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated...

  14. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  15. Removal - An alternative to clearance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feinhals, J.; Kelch, A.; Kunze, V.

    2007-07-01

    This presentation shows the differences between the application of clearance and removal, both being procedures for materials leaving radiation protection areas permanently. The differentiation will be done on the basis of the German legislation but may be also applicable for other national legislation. For clearance in Germany two basic requirements must be given, i.e. that the materials are activated or contaminated and that they result from the licensed use or can be assigned to the scope of the license. Clearance needs not to be applied to objects in Germany which are to be removed only temporarily from controlled areas with the purpose of repair or reuse in other controlled areas. In these cases only the requirements of contamination control apply. In the case of removal it must either be proved by measurements that the relevant materials are neither activated nor contaminated or that the materials result from areas where activation or contamination is impossible due to the operational history considering operational procedures and events. If the material is considered neither activated nor contaminated there is no need for a clearance procedure. Therefore, these materials can be removed from radiation protection areas and the removal is in the responsibility of the licensee. Nevertheless, the removal procedure and the measuring techniques to be applied for the different types of materials need an agreement from the competent authority. In Germany a maximum value of 10% of the clearance values has been established in different licenses as a criterion for the application of removal. As approximately 2/3 of the total mass of a nuclear power plant is not expected to be contaminated or activated there is a need for such a procedure of removal for this non contaminated material without any regulatory control especially in the case of decommissioning. A remarkable example is NPP Stade where in the last three years more than 8600 Mg were disposed of by removal and only 315 Mg were released by clearance, even before the decommissioning licensing procedure was finished. (authors)

  16. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  17. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  18. Searching for Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salur, Sevil

    2008-01-01

    measurements with full jet reconstruction in heavy ionDirect measurement of jets in s N N = 200 GeV Heavy Ion5–12, 2008 Searching for Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions Sevil

  19. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF HEAVY METALS BEHAVIOUR DURING MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is a porous medium of varying height and is made up of spherical particles of solid waste. The solid moves Me´tallurgie (LSG2M) Nancy, France T he incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) contributes occurring during waste combustion. Second, results from the bed model were taken as boundary conditions

  20. Metals and Ceramics Division Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    -6066 Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the Department of Energy Under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 #12;CONTENTS with the capability of producing a prototype plunger of complex geometry by low-pressure injection molding

  1. Metals and Ceramics Division Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    -6066 Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the Department of Energy Under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 #12;CONTENTSTek for injection molding trials. T

  2. Metals and Ceramics Division Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    by UT-Battelle, LLC for the Department of Energy Under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 #12;CONTENTS Materials prototype plungers previously prepared by low-pressure injection molding were sintered. The cermet

  3. Metagenomic Insights into Evolution of a Heavy Metal-Contaminated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    could be a key mechanism in rapidly responding and adapting to environmental contamination. The results presented in this study have important implications in understanding,...

  4. Metals and Ceramics Division Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    (NIST) IEA Annex on Materials for Transportation Applications (ORNL) IEA ­ Rolling Contact Fatigue (ORNL

  5. Metals and Ceramics Division Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Standards IEA ­ Rolling Contact Fatigue (ORNL) IEA Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research

  6. Metals and Ceramics Division Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    of Michigan) Advanced Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels for High-Temperature Components (ORNL and Caterpillar. Initial sintering results indicated the shrinkage and densification behavior was essentially identical

  7. Metals and Ceramics Division Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    of Energy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation cracks. This project has tested commercially available cast alloys, as well as developed new, modified is part of a broader CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) project (ORNL99

  8. United abominations: Density functional studies of heavy metal chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoendorff, George

    2012-04-02

    Carbonyl and nitrile addition to uranyl (UO{sup 2}{sup 2+}) are studied. The competition between nitrile and water ligands in the formation of uranyl complexes is investigated. The possibility of hypercoordinated uranyl with acetone ligands is examined. Uranyl is studied with diactone alcohol ligands as a means to explain the apparent hypercoordinated uranyl. A discussion of the formation of mesityl oxide ligands is also included. A joint theory/experimental study of reactions of zwitterionic boratoiridium(I) complexes with oxazoline-based scorpionate ligands is reported. A computational study was done of the catalytic hydroamination/cyclization of aminoalkenes with zirconium-based catalysts. Techniques are surveyed for programming for graphical processing units (GPUs) using Fortran.

  9. ORIGINAL PAPER Production of glassceramics from heavy metal gypsum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    (973 K, 2 h) and a crystallization stage (1,173 K, 1 h). The main crystalline phase of the obtained is a product of the stainless steel pickling waste liquor disposed by the lime neutralization precipita- tion properties and randomly oriented crystals with some resi- dual glass with

  10. Metagenomic Insights into Evolution of a Heavy Metal-Contaminated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTechelement methodbyoxideLagrangeLarsen and

  11. Metagenomic Insights into Evolution of a Heavy Metal-Contaminated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTechelement methodbyoxideLagrangeLarsen andGroundwater

  12. Heavy oil hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.E.; Nongbri, G.; Clausen, G.A. [Texaco R& D, Port Arthur, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Many of the crude oils available worldwide are classified as heavy oils (API gravity less than 20). In addition, many of the heavier crude oils are also high in sulfur content. Both the low gravity and high sulfur content make these crude oils difficult to process in many refineries and additional processing equipment is required. Often, deasphalting of the vacuum residuum is one of the processing routes chosen. However, the deasphalted oil (DAO) is often of poor quality and presents problems in processing in existing refinery units. Fixed bed hydrotreater and hydrocracker catalysts are quickly fouled and fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) reach regenerator temperature limits with only small amounts of DAO in the feed. Use of the T-STAR ebullated bed process to hydrocrack and upgrade the DAO is an excellent route for making the DAO more palatable to refinery units.

  13. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); McDowell, W. J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  14. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1987-10-23

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  15. Experimental Study of In Situ Combustion with Tetralin and Metallic Catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer-Ikuku, Emuobonuvie

    2010-01-16

    Experimental studies showed the feasibility of adding metallic catalysts and tetralin for the upgrade and increased recovery of heavy oil during the in situ combustion process. Further experimental studies also showed the applicability of in situ...

  16. UNIVERSITY OF SUSSEX Removal expenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    scale: first year of employment: 100% second year of employment: 50% third year of employment: 25 be payable to staff whose contract is for one year or more. However, new staff employed on a contract of less than one year who contract is subsequently extended beyond one year will then be eligible for removal

  17. Passive shut-down heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hundal, Rolv (Greensburg, PA); Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1988-01-01

    An improved shut-down heat removal system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor of the type having a vessel for holding hot and cold pools of liquid sodium is disclosed herein. Generally, the improved system comprises a redan or barrier within the reactor vessel which allows an auxiliary heat exchanger to become immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool whenever the reactor pump fails to generate a metal-circulating pressure differential between the hot and cold pools of sodium. This redan also defines an alternative circulation path between the hot and cold pools of sodium in order to equilibrate the distribution of the decay heat from the reactor core. The invention may take the form of a redan or barrier that circumscribes the inner wall of the reactor vessel, thereby defining an annular space therebetween. In this embodiment, the bottom of the annular space communicates with the cold pool of sodium, and the auxiliary heat exchanger is placed in this annular space just above the drawn-down level that the liquid sodium assumes during normal operating conditions. Alternatively, the redan of the invention may include a pair of vertically oriented, concentrically disposed standpipes having a piston member disposed between them that operates somewhat like a pressure-sensitive valve. In both embodiments, the cessation of the pressure differential that is normally created by the reactor pump causes the auxiliary heat exchanger to be immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool. Additionally, the redan in both embodiments forms a circulation flow path between the hot and cold pools so that the decay heat from the nuclear core is uniformly distributed within the vessel.

  18. Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinton, Jeffrey

    Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging a well-recognized case of heavy metal pollution at Foundry Cove (FC), Hudson River, New York. This tidal on metal con- centrations in Foundry Cove (FC), in the Hudson River, just south of Cold Spring, NY. Waste

  19. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  20. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  1. Removal of arsenic compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  2. Industrial lead paint removal specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader as to some of the pertinent rules and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) that may effect an industrial lead paint removal project. The paper discusses a recommended schedule of procedures and preparations to be followed by the lead paint removal specification writer when analyzing the possible impact of the project on the environment, the public and workers. Implications of the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) along with hazardous waste handling, manifesting, transporting and disposal procedures are discussed with special emphasis placed as to their impact on the writer and the facility owner. As the rules and regulations are highly complex, the writer has attempted to explain the methodology currently being used in state-of-the-art industrial lead abatement specifications.

  3. LCLS Heavy Met Outgassing Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishiyama, K. I.

    2010-12-01

    A Heavy Met that is 95% tungsten, 3% nickel and 2% iron and sintered to 100% density and is Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) compatible is proposed for use as the X-ray slit in the Front End Enclosure and the Fixed Mask for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The Heavy Met was tested in the LLNL Vacuum Sciences and Engineering Lab (VSEL) to determine its outgassing rate and its overall compatibility with the vacuum requirements for LCLS.

  4. Heavy Flavour in a Nutshell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Lambert

    2011-05-06

    Moriond QCD brings together particle physicists of varied interests. This review and introduction to heavy flavour physics is aimed at those not in the heavy-flavour field to describe the motivation and methodology of precision flavour physics, and introduce the most tantalising searches for new physics. The LHC experiments are expected to make great inroads into constraining the new physics parameter space and discover the new physics which I will argue \\emph{must} be present to describe our observed universe.

  5. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs thermally recoverable by steam drive which are equal to or greater than 2500 feet deep and contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range. Data were collected from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

  6. Heat-driven spin transport in a ferromagnetic metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yadong; Yang, Bowen; Tang, Chi; Jiang, Zilong; Shi, Jing; Schneider, Michael; Whig, Renu

    2014-12-15

    As a non-magnetic heavy metal is attached to a ferromagnet, a vertically flowing heat-driven spin current is converted to a transverse electric voltage, which is known as the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (SSE). If the ferromagnet is a metal, this voltage is also accompanied by voltages from two other sources, i.e., the anomalous Nernst effect in both the ferromagnet and the proximity-induced ferromagnetic boundary layer. By properly identifying and carefully separating those different effects, we find that in this pure spin current circuit the additional spin current drawn by the heavy metal generates another significant voltage by the ferromagnetic metal itself which should be present in all relevant experiments.

  7. Process for removing carbonyl sulfide from gaseous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tellis, C.

    1981-11-10

    This invention relates to a process for reducing the carbonyl sulfide content of a gaseous stream which has a concentration of carbonyl sulfide of from at least 1 to about 100 parts per million, by volume, which comprises providing an absorbent bed wherein the absorbent comprises zinc oxide and contains no more than 5%, by weight, of an oxide of an alkli or alkaline earth metal, and contacting said process stream with said adsorbent bed at a temperature of from about ambient to 250/sup 0/ C. For a period of time sufficient to remove at least 90% of the carbonyl sulfide content of said gaseous stream.

  8. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium

  9. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J. (Woodridge, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A liquid--liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers.

  10. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-03-07

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

  11. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

  12. Nanopore reactive adsorbents for the high-efficiency removal of waste species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Arthur Jing-Min; Zhang, Yuehua

    2005-01-04

    A nanoporous reactive adsorbent incorporates a relatively small number of relatively larger reactant, e.g., metal, enzyme, etc., particles (10) forming a discontinuous or continuous phase interspersed among and surrounded by a continuous phase of smaller adsorbent particles (12) and connected interstitial pores (14) therebetween. The reactive adsorbent can effectively remove inorganic or organic impurities in a liquid by causing the liquid to flow through the adsorbent. For example, silver ions may be adsorbed by the adsorbent particles (12) and reduced to metallic silver by reducing metal, such as ions, as the reactant particles (10). The column can be regenerated by backwashing with the liquid effluent containing, for example, acetic acid.

  13. IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE PROTEIN FOR REMOVAL OF ENVIRONMENTALLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppsala Universitet

    IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE PROTEIN FOR REMOVAL OF ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Pharem Biotech products and technologies for removing environmental hazardous substances in our everyday life. The products can be applied in areas from the private customer up to the global corporate perspective

  14. Mexico HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home content Four-Year Plan Mexico HEU Removal Mexico HEU Removal Location Mexico United States 24 24' 35.298" N, 102...

  15. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecial ReportProposal to changeNovemberEnergyMessage fromMetal

  16. Nuclear & Radiological Material Removal | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    & Radiological Material Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation...

  17. Quick Stain Removal Guide (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Pamela J.

    2001-08-22

    -5191S de la Oficina de Extensi?n, Etiquetas de Instrucciones y su Ropa). Lleve las prendas de vestir de lavado en seco a tintorer?as profe- sionales. Siga estas pautas para las prendas de vestir lavables: Sepa de qu? es la mancha. Si no sabe, intente...). The Soap and Detergent Association, Marzo/Abril. NY: New York. Laundering Facts. (1991). The Soap and Detergent Association. NY: New York. Beard, A.V. (1989). Removing stains from washable fabrics. Servicio de Extensi?n Agr?cola de Texas. TX: College...

  18. Section 46: Removal of Waste

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-ThroughputUpcomingmagnetoresistanceand Governmentm D m r e DFigureEffects ofRemoval

  19. Heavy Quark Photoproduction in Ultra-peripheral Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer R. Klein; Joakim Nystrand; Ramona Vogt

    2002-08-09

    Heavy quarks are copiously produced in ultra-peripheral heavy ion collisions. In the strong electromagnetic fields, c c-bar and b b-bar are produced by photonuclear and two-photon interactions; hadroproduction can occur in grazing interactions. We present the total cross sections, quark transverse momentum and rapidity distributions, as well as the Q Q-bar invariant mass spectra from the three production channels. We consider AA and pA collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider. We discuss techniques for separating the three processes and describe how the AA to pA production ratios might be measured accurately enough to study nuclear shadowing.

  20. Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA); Frost, David G. (Maynard, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

  1. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  2. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014:...

  3. Use of equilibrium and initial metal concentrations in determining Freundlich isotherms for soils and sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Cynthia

    and sediments Cynthia A. Coles a,, Raymond N. Yong b,1 a Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial Available online 27 March 2006 Abstract Batch equilibrium test results of Pb and Cd retention by kaolinite; Initial metal concentration; Transport prediciton models; Goodness of fit 1. Introduction Heavy metal

  4. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Russick, Edward M. (Rio Rancho, NM); McElhanon, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Saunders, Randall S. (late of Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  5. Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muraviev, E. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

    1995-01-01

    A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

  6. Detroit Edison's Fermi 1 - Preparation for Reactor Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindle, Danny [Sargent and Lundy Engineers, LLC, 55 E. Monroe Street, Chicago, IL 60603 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    This paper is intended to provide information about the ongoing decommissioning tasks at Detroit Edison's Fermi 1 plant, and in particular, the work being performed to prepare the reactor for removal and disposal. In 1972 Fermi 1 was shutdown and the fuel returned to the Atomic Energy Commission. By the end of 1975, a retirement plan was prepared, the bulk sodium removed, and the plant placed in a safe store condition. The plant systems were left isolated with the sodium containing systems inert with carbon dioxide in an attempt to form a carbonate layer, thus passivating the underlying reactive sodium. In 1996, Detroit Edison determined to evaluate the condition of the plant and to make recommendations in relation to the Fermi 1 future plans. At the end of 1997 approval was obtained to remove the bulk asbestos and residual alkali-metals (i.e., sodium and sodium potassium (NaK)). In 2000, full nuclear decommissioning of the plant was approved. To date, the bulk asbestos insulation has been removed, and the only NaK remaining is located in six capillary instrument tubes. The remaining sodium is contained within the reactor, two of the three primary loops, and miscellaneous removed pipes and equipment to be processed. The preferred method for removing or reacting sodium at Fermi 1 is by injecting superheated steam into a heated, nitrogen inert system. The byproducts of this reaction are caustic sodium hydroxide, hydrogen gas, and heat. The decision was made to separate the three primary loops from the reactor for better control prior to processing each loop and the reactor separately. The first loop has already been processed. The main focus is now to process the reactor to allow removal and disposal of the Class C waste prior to the anticipated June 2008 closure of the Barnwell radioactive waste disposal facility located in South Carolina. Lessons learnt are summarized and concern: the realistic schedule and adherence to the schedule, time estimates, personnel accountability, back up or fill in work, work packages, condensation control, radiological contamination control, and organization of the waste stream.

  7. On the effects of heavy sea quarks at low energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattia Bruno; Jacob Finkenrath; Francesco Knechtli; Bjoern Leder; Rainer Sommer

    2014-10-30

    We present a factorisation formula for the dependence of light hadron masses and low energy hadronic scales on the mass $M$ of a heavy quark: apart from an overall factor $Q$, ratios such as $r_0(M)/r_0(0)$ are computable in perturbation theory at large $M$. The mass-independent factor $Q$ is obtained from the theory in the limit $M\\to0$ and the decoupled theory with the heavy quark removed. The perturbation theory part is stable concerning different loop orders and our non-perturbative results match on quantitatively to the perturbative prediction. Upon taking ratios of different hadronic scales at the same mass, the perturbative function drops out and the ratios are given by the decoupled theory up to $M^{-2}$ corrections. Our present numerical results are obtained in a model calculation where there are no light quarks and a heavy doublet of quarks is decoupled. They are limited to masses a factor two below the charm. This is not large enough to see the $M^{-2}$ scaling predicted by the theory, but it is sufficient to verify - in the continuum limit - that the sea quark effects of quarks with masses around the charm mass are very small.

  8. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam F. (Los Angeles, CA); Vajo, John J. (West Hills, CA); Cumberland, Robert W. (Malibu, CA); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Salguero, Tina T. (Encino, CA)

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  9. The Interactions of Zinc Thiolate Complexes and Exogenous Metal Species: Investigations of Thiolate Bridging and Metal Exchange 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almaraz, Elky

    2010-07-14

    Small molecule Zn(II) complexes containing N- and S- donor environments may serve as appropriate models for mimicking Zn protein sites, and thus, their reactions with heavy metal ions such as Pt(II) and W(0) may provide insight into possible adduct...

  10. Sodium removal process development for LMFBR fuel subassemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, C.R.; Taylor, G.R.

    1981-10-01

    Two 37-pin scale models of Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant fuel subassemblies were designed, fabricated and used at Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division in the development and proof-testing of a rapid water-based sodium removal process for the ORNL Hot Experimental Facility, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Cycle. Through a series of development tests on one of the models, including five (5) sodium wettings and three (3) high temperature sodium removal operations, optimum process parameters for a rapid water vapor-argon-water rinse process were identified and successfully proof-tested on a second model containing argon-pressurized, sodium-corroded model fuel pins simulating the gas plenum and cladding conditions expected for spent fuel pins in full scale subassemblies. Based on extrapolations of model proof test data, preliminary process parameters for a water vapor-nitrogen-water rinse process were calculated and recommended for use in processing full scale fuel subassemblies in the Sodium Removal Facility of the Fuel Receiving Cell, ORNL HEF.

  11. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Stegen, Gary E. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  12. Fuel removal, transport, and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) which damaged the core of the reactor resulted in numerous scientific and technical challenges. Some of those challenges involve removing the core debris from the reactor, packaging it into canisters, loading canisters into a rail cask, and transporting the debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for storage, examination, and preparation for final disposal. This paper highlights how some challenges were resolved, including lessons learned and benefits derived therefrom. Key to some success at TMI was designing, testing, fabricating, and licensing two rail casks, which each provide double containment of the damaged fuel. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  14. COORDINATION CHEMISTRY OF METAL SURFACES AND METAL COMPLEXES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muetterties, E.L.

    2013-01-01

    4, 1980 Catalysis~ COORDINATION CHEMISTRY OF METAL SURFACESAND METAL COMPLEXES Earl L. Muetterties December 1979 TWO-10308 COORDINATION CHEt1ISTRY OF METAL SURFACES AND METAL

  15. Hymenaea courbaril Marine construction, heavy construction,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FSC Jatoba Hymenaea courbaril Marine construction, heavy construction, light construction, interior construction, furniture FSC Pine Pinus spp. Marine construction, heavy construction, light construction, interior construction, panel products, furniture FSC Larch Larix spp. (European Larch, Larix decidua

  16. Title Quantum Optics and Heavy Ion Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy J. Glauber

    2006-04-10

    I shall try to say a few words about two particular ways in which my own work has a certain relation to your work with heavy ions. My title is therefore "Quantum Optics and Heavy Ion Physics".

  17. The Search for Heavy Elements

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  18. Heavy quark physics from LEP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dornan, P.J. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-01-01

    A review of some of the latest results on heavy flavor physics from the LEP Collaborations is presented. The emphasis is on B physics, particularly new results and those where discrepancies is given of the many techniques which have been developed to permit these analyses.

  19. DIESEL/HEAVY The diesel/heavy equipment certificate offers training in maintenance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    DIESEL/HEAVY EQUIPMENT The diesel/heavy equipment certificate offers training in maintenance and repair of heavy equipment and trucks. Students will learn to work on electrical and air systems, diesel · Small Engines · Automotive Maintenance · Welding · Training for entry level heavy diesel equipment

  20. Industrially challenging separations via adsorption in metal-organic frameworks : a computational exploration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennox, Matthew James

    2015-06-29

    In recent years, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been identified as promising adsorbents in a number of industrially relevant, yet challenging, separations, including the removal of propane from propane/propylene ...

  1. 3, 37453768, 2003 Heavy hydrogen in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 3, 3745­3768, 2003 Heavy hydrogen in the stratosphere T. R¨ockmann et al. Title Page Abstract/3745/ © European Geosciences Union 2003 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Heavy hydrogen Heavy hydrogen in the stratosphere T. R¨ockmann et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  2. Comparing Emissions Benefits from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling Comparing Emissions Benefits from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  3. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  4. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  5. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination.

  6. Process for particulate removal from coal liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rappe, Gerald C. (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01

    Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

  7. Mass and magnetic dipole moment of negative parity heavy baryons with spin--3/2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azizi, K

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the mass and residue of the heavy spin--3/2 negative parity baryons with single heavy bottom or charm quark by the help of a two-point correlation function. We use the obtained results to investigate the diagonal radiative transitions among the baryons under consideration. In particular, we compute corresponding transition form factors via light cone QCD sum rules which are then used to obtain the magnetic dipole moments of the heavy spin--3/2 negative parity baryons. We remove the pollutions coming from the positive parity spin--3/2 and positive/negative parity spin--1/2 baryons by constructing sum rules for different Lorentz structures. We compare the results obtained with the existing theoretical predictions.

  8. Mass and magnetic dipole moment of negative parity heavy baryons with spin--3/2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Azizi; H. Sundu

    2015-06-28

    We calculate the mass and residue of the heavy spin--3/2 negative parity baryons with single heavy bottom or charm quark by the help of a two-point correlation function. We use the obtained results to investigate the diagonal radiative transitions among the baryons under consideration. In particular, we compute corresponding transition form factors via light cone QCD sum rules which are then used to obtain the magnetic dipole moments of the heavy spin--3/2 negative parity baryons. We remove the pollutions coming from the positive parity spin--3/2 and positive/negative parity spin--1/2 baryons by constructing sum rules for different Lorentz structures. We compare the results obtained with the existing theoretical predictions.

  9. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  10. NO HEAVY-ELEMENT DISPERSION IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Judith G., E-mail: jlc@astro.caltech.edu [Palomar Observatory, Mail Stop 249-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-10-20

    Although there have been recent claims that there is a large dispersion in the abundances of the heavy neutron capture elements in the old Galactic globular cluster M92, we show that the measured dispersion for the absolute abundances of four of the rare earth elements within a sample of 12 luminous red giants in M92 ({<=}0.07 dex) does not exceed the relevant sources of uncertainty. As expected from previous studies, the heavy elements show the signature of the r-process. Their abundance ratios are essentially identical to those of M30, another nearby globular cluster of similar metallicity.

  11. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of...

  12. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  13. Turkey HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Turkey HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

  14. General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regarding Medical Removal Protection Benefits Pursuant to 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical...

  15. Method of making thermally removable polymeric encapsulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small, James H. (Santa Fe, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); McElhanon, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Saunders, Randall S. (late of Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable encapsulant by heating a mixture of at least one bis(maleimide) compound and at least one monomeric tris(furan) or tetrakis(furan) compound at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a gel and cooling the gel to form the thermally-removable encapsulant. The encapsulant can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C., preferably in a polar solvent. The encapsulant can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the encapsulant for component repair, modification or quality control.

  16. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)

  17. Open heavy flavor production at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. P. Suaide

    2007-02-16

    The study of heavy flavor production in relativistic heavy ion collisions is an extreme experimental challenge but provides important information on the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) created in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. Heavy-quarks are believed to be produced in the initial stages of the collision, and are essential on the understanding of parton energy loss in the dense medium created in such environment. Moreover, heavy-quarks can help to investigate fundamental properties of QCD in elementary p+p collisions. In this work we review recent results on heavy flavor production and their interaction with the hot and dense medium at RHIC.

  18. Thermal hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils with heavy oil recycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis, J.D.; Khulbe, C.P.; Pruden, B.B.

    1981-02-24

    An improved process is described for the hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils, such as oils extracted from tar sands. The heavy hydrocarbon oil feedstock in the presence of an excess of hydrogen is passed through a confined hydrocracking zone under upflow liquid conditions, and the effluent emerging from the top of the hydrocracking zone is passed into a hot separator where it is separated into a gaseous stream containing hydrogen and vaporous hydrocarbons and a liquid stream containing heavy hydrocarbons. The hot separator is maintained near the temperature of the hydrocracking zone and the effluent from the hydrocracking zone enters the separator in a lower region below the liquid level in the separator. The gaseous stream containing hydrogen and vaporous hydrocarbons is withdrawn from the top of the separator while a portion of the liquid phase in the separator is recycled to the hydrocracking zone without further treatment and in quantities sufficient to increase the superficial liquid flow velocity in the hydrocracking zone such that deposition of coke in the hydrocracking zone is substantially eliminated.

  19. The test result of diesel truck on road with use of soot removal equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshikawa, Hideo; Kowada, Minoru [Chiba Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tateo [Chiba Truck Corp. (Japan); Ikeda, Takashi

    1996-09-01

    In this study, the test results of commercialized 2 ton cargo truck on road for 6 months, are reported using the soot removal equipment at low voltage and with a short regeneration time. The equipment consists of using commercial truck battery, changing electrically neutral soot to negative charged soot. It adsorbs charged soot electrically with the metal mesh connected to positive pole and washes the soot with liquid detergent, during the cutting off of electric source. The removal of the accumulated soot was completed within two minutes, with 100% regeneration.

  20. Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

  1. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  2. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  3. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  4. TABLE OF CONTENTS Tree Maintenance and Removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    protection should be worn for all tree maintenance and removal operations. b. Training shall be providedEM 385-1-1 30 Nov 14 31-i Section 31 TABLE OF CONTENTS Tree Maintenance and Removal Section: Page ....................................................................... 31-10 31.E Other Operations and Equipment

  5. Test Plan for the overburden removal demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, P.; Thompson, D.; Winberg, M.; Skaggs, J.

    1993-06-01

    The removal of soil overburdens from contaminated pits and trenches involves using equipment that will remove a small layer of soil from 3 to 6 in. at any time. As a layer of soil is removed, overburden characterization techniques perform surveys to a depth that exceeds each overburden removal layer to ensure that the removed soil will be free of contamination. It is generally expected that no contamination will be found in the soil overburden, which was brought in after the waste was put in place. It is anticipated that some containers in the waste zone have lost their integrity, and the waste leakage from those containers has migrated by gravity downward into the waste zone. To maintain a safe work environment, this method of overburden removal should allow safe preparation of a pit or trench for final remediation. To demonstrate the soil overburden techniques, the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program has contracted vendor services to provide equipment and techniques demonstrating soil overburden removal technology. The demonstration will include tests that will evaluate equipment performance and techniques for removal of overburden soil, control of contamination spread, and dust control. To evaluate the performance of these techniques, air particulate samples, physical measurements of the excavation soil cuts, maneuverability measurements, and time versus volume (rate) of soil removal data will be collected during removal operations. To provide a medium for sample evaluation, the overburden will be spiked at specific locations and depths with rare earth tracers. This test plan will be describe the objectives of the demonstration, data quality objectives, methods to be used to operate the equipment and use the techniques in the test area, and methods to be used in collecting data during the demonstration.

  6. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  7. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

  8. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm.sup.3 and greater than 0.27g/cm.sup.3. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods.

  9. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1995-04-25

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm{sup 3} and greater than 0.27g/cm{sup 3}. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods. 8 figs.

  10. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, R.P.

    1983-08-10

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium inventory thereof further into the carbon matrix while simultaneously redispersing a portion into the regeneration system for absorption at a reduced temperature by the secondary trap.

  11. Pyroprocessing of IFR Metal Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laidler, J.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle features the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as {open_quotes}pyroprocessing{close_quotes} featuring fused-salt electrofining of the spent fuel. Electrofining of IFR spent fuel involves uranium recovery by electro-transport to a solid steel cathode. The thermodynamics of the system preclude plutonium recovery in the same way, so a liquid cadmium cathode located in the electrolyte salt phase is utilized. The deposition of Pu, Am, Np, and Cm takes place at the liquid cadmium cathode in the form of cadmium intermetallic compounds (e.g, PuCd{sub 6}), and uranium deposits as the pure metal when cadmium saturation is reached. A small amount of rare earth fission products deposit together with the heavy metals at both the solid and liquid cadmium cathodes, providing a significant degree of self-protection. A full scope demonstration of the IFR fuel cycle will begin in 1993, using fuel irradiated in EBR-II.

  12. Constitutive Expression of a High-Affinity Sulfate Transporter in Indian Mustard Affects Metal Tolerance and Accumulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    engineering. Already, transgenic plants with enhanced metal tolerance and accumulation have been created via et al., 1999; Curie et al., 2000; Hirschi et al., 2000). The purpose of this study was to test of heavy metals there is an increased demand for reduced S compounds like GSH and PCs, and genes involved

  13. Heavy flavor in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Bratkovskaya; T. Song; H. Berrehrah; D. Cabrera; J. M. Torres-Rincon; L. Tolos; W. Cassing

    2015-08-17

    We study charm production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions by using the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. The initial charm quarks are produced by the PYTHIA event generator tuned to fit the transverse momentum spectrum and rapidity distribution of charm quarks from Fixed-Order Next-to-Leading Logarithm (FONLL) calculations. The produced charm quarks scatter in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with the off-shell partons whose masses and widths are given by the Dynamical Quasi-Particle Model (DQPM), which reproduces the lattice QCD equation-of-state in thermal equilibrium. The relevant cross sections are calculated in a consistent way by employing the effective propagators and couplings from the DQPM. Close to the critical energy density of the phase transition, the charm quarks are hadronized into $D$ mesons through coalescence and/or fragmentation. The hadronized $D$ mesons then interact with the various hadrons in the hadronic phase with cross sections calculated in an effective lagrangian approach with heavy-quark spin symmetry. The nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$ and the elliptic flow $v_2$ of $D^0$ mesons from PHSD are compared with the experimental data from the STAR Collaboration for Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ =200 GeV and to the ALICE data for Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ =2.76 TeV. We find that in the PHSD the energy loss of $D$ mesons at high $p_T$ can be dominantly attributed to partonic scattering while the actual shape of $R_{AA}$ versus $p_T$ reflects the heavy-quark hadronization scenario, i.e. coalescence versus fragmentation. Also the hadronic rescattering is important for the $R_{AA}$ at low $p_T$ and enhances the $D$-meson elliptic flow $v_2$.

  14. Removable bearing arrangement for a wind turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2010-06-15

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  15. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY); Jansen, Patrick Lee (Scotia, NY), Gadre; Aniruddha Dattatraya (Rexford, NY)

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  16. Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    media. carbon dioxide capture dynamic adsorption reticular chemistry Selective removal of CO2 fromHighly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with open metal capture of CO2, which is essential for natural gas purifi- cation and CO2 sequestration, has been reported

  17. Process for recovering evolved hydrogen enriched with at least one heavy hydrogen isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanaka, John (Storrs, CT); Reilly, Jr., James J. (Bellport, NY)

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a separation means and method for enriching a hydrogen atmosphere with at least one heavy hydrogen isotope by using a solid titaniun alloy hydride. To this end, the titanium alloy hydride containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of vanadium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, iron, cobalt and nickel is contacted with a circulating gaseous flow of hydrogen containing at least one heavy hydrogen isotope at a temperature in the range of -20.degree. to +40.degree. C and at a pressure above the dissociation pressure of the hydrided alloy selectively to concentrate at least one of the isotopes of hydrogen in the hydrided metal alloy. The contacting is continued until equilibrium is reached, and then the gaseous flow is isolated while the temperature and pressure of the enriched hydride remain undisturbed selectively to isolate the hydride. Thereafter, the enriched hydrogen is selectively recovered in accordance with the separation factor (S.F.) of the alloy hydride employed.

  18. Reliable reduction of Fermi-level pinning at atomically matched metal/Ge interfaces by sulfur treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasahara, K.; Yamada, S.; Miyao, M. [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sakurai, T.; Sawano, K.; Nohira, H. [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Tokyo 158-0082 (Japan); Hamaya, K., E-mail: hamaya@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2014-04-28

    This study demonstrates that by using a sulfur (S) treatment on the Ge surface, a reduction in Fermi level pinning can reproducibly be achieved at atomically matched metal/Ge(111) interfaces. The Schottky barrier height for p-type Ge can be controlled by changing the metal work function despite the metal/Ge junctions. The results indicate that the combination of atomic-arrangement matching and S treatment can remove extrinsic factors influencing Fermi level pinning at metal/Ge interfaces.

  19. Process for reducing series resistance of solar cell metal contact systems with a soldering flux etchant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coyle, R. T. (Lakewood, CO); Barrett, Joy M. (Eldorado Springs, CO)

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for substantially reducing the series resistance of a solar cell having a thick film metal contact assembly thereon while simultaneously removing oxide coatings from the surface of the assembly prior to applying solder therewith. The process includes applying a flux to the contact assembly and heating the cell for a period of time sufficient to substantially remove the series resistance associated with the assembly by etching the assembly with the flux while simultaneously removing metal oxides from said surface of said assembly.

  20. Method for removal of random noise in eddy-current testing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Arthur J. (Schenectady, NY)

    1995-01-01

    Eddy-current response voltages, generated during inspection of metallic structures for anomalies, are often replete with noise. Therefore, analysis of the inspection data and results is difficult or near impossible, resulting in inconsistent or unreliable evaluation of the structure. This invention processes the eddy-current response voltage, removing the effect of random noise, to allow proper identification of anomalies within and associated with the structure.

  1. Removing mercury from coal emissions: options for ash-friendly technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, J.

    2009-07-01

    The article gives a brief description of techniques to remove mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants and discusses environmental considerations associated with the effect of emission controls on coal fly ash. Techniques covered include use of injected mercury sorbents (activated carbon, metal oxide catalysts, MerCAP{trademark} and MercScreen{trademark}) and fuel cleaning. Technologies currently being researched are mentioned. 8 refs.

  2. Weight and volume changing device with liquid metal transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niiyama, Ryuma

    This paper presents a weight-changing device based on the transfer of mass. We chose liquid metal (Ga-In-Tin eutectic) and a bi-directional pump to control the mass that is injected into or removed from a target object. ...

  3. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  4. Heavy-Ion Physics with CMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneta Iordanova

    2008-06-06

    This article presents a brief overview of the CMS experiment capabilities to study the hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The CERN Large Hadron Collider will provide collisions of Pb nuclei at 5.5 TeV per nucleon. The CMS heavy ion group has developed a plethora of physics analyses addressing many important aspects of heavy-ion physics in preparation for a competitive and successful program.

  5. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

    1997-01-01

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  6. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, J.A.

    1997-12-02

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  7. Sandia Energy - Heavy Duty Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy & Drilling TechnologyHeavy Duty Home

  8. Factorization for hadronic heavy quarkonium production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Wei Qiu

    2006-10-31

    We briefly review several models of heavy quarkonium production in hadronic collisions, and discuss the status of QCD factorization for these production models.

  9. Part removal of 3D printed parts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peña Doll, Mateo

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to understand the correlation between printing parameters in the FDM 3D printing process, and the force required to remove a part from the build platform of a 3D printing using a patent ...

  10. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Gus T. (Paducah, KY); Holshouser, Stephen K. (Boaz, KY); Coleman, Richard M. (Paducah, KY); Harless, Charles E. (Smithland, KY); Whinnery, III, Walter N. (Paducah, KY)

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  11. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  12. Ultrasound : an alternative solution for removing tattoos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teng, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The recent influx of tattoos has been accompanied by a rise in demand for tattoo removals. Due to the recent success of ultrasound as a noninvasive alternative for multiple medical therapies, the feasibility of ultrasound-mediated ...

  13. Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Reduction in energy and water use for the ethanol industry Ethanol is the leading biofuel in the U.S. with 13 Billion gallons produced...

  14. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  15. METAL NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH METAL-LIGAND COVALENT BONDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Xiongwu

    2012-01-01

    Formation of catalytic metal-molecule contacts. Science,of Organotransition Metal Compounds. Advances inof highly monodisperse metal nanoparticles. Journal of the

  16. Method for removing RFI from SAR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2003-08-19

    A method of removing RFI from a SAR by comparing two SAR images on a pixel by pixel basis and selecting the pixel with the lower magnitude to form a composite image. One SAR image is the conventional image produced by the SAR. The other image is created from phase-history data which has been filtered to have the frequency bands containing the RFI removed.

  17. Oil removal from water via adsorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, William Edward

    1973-01-01

    WILLIAM EDWARD JACOBS 1974 OIL REMOVAL FROM WATER VIA ADSORPTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD JACOBS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1973 Major Subject: Civil Engineering OIL REMOVAL FROM WATER VIA ADSORPTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD JACOBS Approved as to style and content by: C airman of Committee ea o Department m er Member Memb December 1973 ABSTRACT Oil...

  18. Tubular hydrogen permeable metal foil membrane and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieri, Stephen N.; Birdsell, Stephen A.; Barbero, Robert S.; Snow, Ronny C.; Smith, Frank M.

    2006-04-04

    A tubular hydrogen permeable metal membrane and fabrication process comprises obtaining a metal alloy foil having two surfaces, coating the surfaces with a metal or metal alloy catalytic layer to produce a hydrogen permeable metal membrane, sizing the membrane into a sheet with two long edges, wrapping the membrane around an elongated expandable rod with the two long edges aligned and overlapping to facilitate welding of the two together, placing the foil wrapped rod into a surrounding fixture housing with the two aligned and overlapping foil edges accessible through an elongated aperture in the surrounding fixture housing, expanding the elongated expandable rod within the surrounding fixture housing to tighten the foil about the expanded rod, welding the two long overlapping foil edges to one another generating a tubular membrane, and removing the tubular membrane from within the surrounding fixture housing and the expandable rod from with the tubular membrane.

  19. Mask-assisted seeded growth of segmented metallic heteronanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crane, Cameron C. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Tao, Jing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, Feng [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chen, Jingyi [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclines to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO? mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.

  20. Mask-assisted seeded growth of segmented metallic heteronanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-11-24

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclines to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO? mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.

  1. Mask-Assisted Seeded Growth of Segmented Metallic Heteronanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-12-04

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclinesmore »to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO? mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.« less

  2. Mask-Assisted Seeded Growth of Segmented Metallic Heteronanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-12-04

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclines to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO? mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.

  3. The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory The Heavy Ion Path to Fusion Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -consistent power plant design for a multi- beam induction linac, final focus and chamber propagationThe Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory The Heavy Ion Path to Fusion Energy Grant Logan Director Heavy-Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory Presented to FESAC Workshop on Development Paths

  4. Metal halogen electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-06-03

    An electrochemical cell is described having a metal anode selected from the group consisting of zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and, an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal having the same metal as the metal of the anode, the improvement comprising: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte consisting solely of a tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt, which salt is soluble of water and forms and substantially water immiscible liquid bromine complex at temperatures in the range of about 10/sup 0/C. to about 60/sup 0/C. and wherein the tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt is selected from asymmetric quaternary ammonium compounds.

  5. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  6. Heavy quark production at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Bishai

    2002-12-13

    Heavy quark production cross-sections, correlations and polarizations have been measured at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) using 118 pb{sup -1} of data collected from the 1992 to 1995 Run I of the Fermilab Tevatron. There is still disagreement between theoretical predictions of bottom and charm hadro-production cross-sections and the Run I results. The observed transverse momentum spectrum of the prompt J/{psi} production polarization is still not understood. Run II of the Tevatron began in July of 2001 and the CDF Run II detector [11] has collected 70 pb{sup -1} of physics quality data since January 2002. Large statistics of onia states have been collected. Exclusive B meson decay modes have been reconstructed and the SVT level 2 displaced track trigger has produced large samples of D mesons. The prompt charm and b {yields} cX fractions in both charmonium and D meson samples have been measured. Run II is now poised to greatly enhance the knowledge of heavy quark production dynamics well beyond the reach of the Run I detector.

  7. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into an insoluble salt in the sediment. In other cases, the opposite occurs--the solubility of the altered species increases, increasing the mobility of the contaminant and allowing it to be more easily flushed from the environment. Both of these kinds of transformations present opportunities for bioremediation of metals and radionuclides--either to lock them in place, or to accelerate their removal. DOE's goal is to reduce the risk and related exposure to ground water, sediment, and soil contamination at Department of Energy facilities. Subsurface bioremediation of metals and radionuclides at the site of contamination (in situ bioremediation) is not yet in widespread use. However, successful in situ applications of bioremediation to petroleum products and chlorinated solvents provide experience from which scientists can draw. Taken together, the accomplishments in these areas have led scientists and engineers to be optimistic about applying this technology to the mixtures of metals and radionuclides that are found at some of the most contaminated DOE sites. This primer examines some of the basic microbial and chemical processes that are a part of bioremediation, specifically the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. The primer is divided into six sections, with the information in each building on that of the previous. The sections include features that highlight topics of interest and provide background information on specific biological and chemical processes and reactions. The first section briefly examines the scope of the contamination problem at DOE facilities. The second section gives a summary of some of the most commonly used bioremediation technologies, including successful in situ and ex situ techniques. The third discusses chemical and physical properties of metals and radionuclides found in contaminant mixtures at DOE sites, including solubility and the most common oxidation states in which these materials are found. The fourth section is an overview of the basic microbial processes that occur in bioremediation. The fifth section looks at specific in s

  8. HOW MANY NUCLEOSYNTHESIS PROCESSES EXIST AT LOW METALLICITY?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C. J. [Landessternwarte, ZAH, Heidelberg University, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Montes, F. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Arcones, A., E-mail: cjhansen@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: cjhansen@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: montes@nscl.msu.edu, E-mail: almudena.arcones@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 2, Darmstadt D-64289 (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    Abundances of low-metallicity stars offer a unique opportunity to understand the contribution and conditions of the different processes that synthesize heavy elements. Many old, metal-poor stars show a robust abundance pattern for elements heavier than Ba, and a less robust pattern between Sr and Ag. Here we probe if two nucleosynthesis processes are sufficient to explain the stellar abundances at low metallicity, and we carry out a site independent approach to separate the contribution from these two processes or components to the total observationally derived abundances. Our approach provides a method to determine the contribution of each process to the production of elements such as Sr, Zr, Ba, and Eu. We explore the observed star-to-star abundance scatter as a function of metallicity that each process leads to. Moreover, we use the deduced abundance pattern of one of the nucleosynthesis components to constrain the astrophysical conditions of neutrino-driven winds from core-collapse supernovae.

  9. Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Print Monday, 19 December 2011 18:29 While mononuclear, polynuclear, and polymeric metal complexes are most often...

  10. WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

  11. Effect of metal on zeolite catalysts for extinction hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (US))

    1990-10-01

    This paper reports on the slow diffusivity of large molecules into the micropores which results in shape selectivity in the conversion of mixed feeds. The metals deposit on the zeolite, as the hydrogenation components further reduce this diffusivity through pore filling and pore mouth blocking, leading to ineffective catalysts for extinction hydrocracking. By using active metals at low loadings, these adverse effects can be minimized. To demonstrate this principle, experimental catalysts were compared. Unlike NiW/REX (REX = rare earth exchanged X-type zeolite), the experimental catalysts Pt and Pd on REX at 0.5 wt% levels were effective for the extinction hydrocracking of heavy gas oil blends. There was no heavy-end buildup in the recycle feed. The catalysts were active, low in aging rate, and high in selectivity for naphthas.

  12. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  13. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1994-10-11

    A new composition of matter is described which is an alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  14. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1994-01-01

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  15. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to today's large NP accelerators like GSI-FAIR, RHIC economical for 1-2 GWe baseload power plants. Heavy chambers. · Competitive economics: projected in several power plant studies and with no high levelSlide 1 Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory Briefing for the National Academy

  16. Lattice investigation of heavy meson interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Björn Wagenbach; Pedro Bicudo; Marc Wagner

    2014-11-10

    We report on a lattice investigation of heavy meson interactions and of tetraquark candidates with two very heavy quarks. These two quarks are treated in the static limit, while the other two are up, down, strange or charm quarks of finite mass. Various isospin, spin and parity quantum numbers are considered.

  17. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slide 1 Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory B. Grant Logan Director, U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory, (HIFS-VNL) - collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL by the Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories under Contract Numbers DE-AC02-05CH1123

  18. Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program Retrospective and Outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James J. Eberhardt

    1999-04-10

    OHVT Mission is to conduct, in collaboration with our heavy vehicle industry partners and their suppliers, a customer-focused national program to research and develop technologies that will enable trucks and other heavy vehicles to be more energy efficient and able to use alternative fuels while simultaneously reducing emissions.

  19. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  20. Heavy flavor physics from lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tetsuya Onogi

    2006-10-24

    I review the recent status of heavy flavor physics results from lattice QCD. In particular, I focus on the heavy-light decay constants, the bag parameters, the form factors, and the bottom quark mass. New progresses in theoretical methods are also reviewed.

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site visits. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its UNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. Additional conclusions from this evaluation include: The 12 shutdown sites use designs from 4 different suppliers involving 9 different (horizontal and vertical) dry storage systems that would require the use of 8 different transportation cask designs to remove the UNF and GTCC waste from the shutdown sites; Although there are common aspects, each site has some unique features and/or conditions; Although some regulatory actions will be required, all UNF at the initial 9 shutdown sites (Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion) is in licensed systems that can be transported, including a small amount of high-burnup fuel; Each site indicated that 2-3 years of advance time would be required for its preparations before shipments could begin; Most sites have more than one transportation option, e.g., rail, barge, or heavy haul truck, as well as constraints and preferences. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  2. Oak Ridge Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater Contamination Oak Ridge Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater Contamination May 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers...

  3. New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development January 10,...

  4. Evaluation of Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines Evaluation of Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of Particulate Emissions from...

  5. Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Authors: Qu, Xiaopeng 1 ;...

  6. Heavy photon search experiment at JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepanyan, S. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Collaboration: HPS Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) experiment in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab will search for new heavy vector boson(s), aka 'heavy photons', in the mass range of 20 MeV/c{sup 2} to 1000 MeV/c{sup 2} using the scattering of high energy, high intensity electron beams off a high Z target. The proposed measurements will cover the region of parameter space favored by the muon g-2 anomaly, and will explore a significant region of parameter space, not only at large couplings (??/? > 10{sup ?7}), but also in the regions of small couplings, down to ??/??10{sup ?10}. The excellent vertexing capability of the Si-tracker uniquely enables HPS to cover the small coupling region. Also, HPS will search for heavy photons in an alternative to the e{sup +}e{sup ?} decay mode, in the heavy photon's decay to ?{sup +}??.

  7. Gluon contribution to open heavy meson production in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Shanshan; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2015-01-01

    A sizable contribution to heavy quark production in high-energy hadronic and nuclear collisions comes from heavy quark-antiquark pair production from gluon splitting during the parton shower evolution. We investigate the effect of gluon-medium interaction on open heavy flavor spectra in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The interaction of hard gluons and heavy quarks with the hot QCD medium is simulated utilizing a Langevin transport model that simultaneously incorporates contributions from collisional and radiative processes. It is found that while the gluon splitting channel has quite important contribution to single D meson production cross section, its influence on the final heavy meson nuclear modification turns out to be quite modest due to the short average lifetime of hard gluons before splitting to heavy quark pairs during the evolution and propagation of the parton shower.

  8. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  9. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  10. Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Fractogel® Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins and Cartridges Tools for His·Tag® Fusion-MACTM Cartridges #12;2 Novagen · Fractogel Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins Ni-MACTM , Co-MACTM and u-MACTM Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins and Cartridges HI Ni2+ Ni2+ Ni2+ HISHISHI SHISHISHIS Ni2

  11. Metal roofing Shingle roofing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Metal roofing panel Shingle roofing Water & ice barrier Thermal Barrier Plywood Student: Arpit a cost benefit analysis and choose the most efficient and cost effective modification. Metal or shingle roof with only a water barrier between the plywood and the roofing panels. Metal roofing panel Shingle

  12. Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacky C. Prucz; Samir N. Shoukry; Gergis W. William

    2005-08-31

    Recent advances in the area of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's) have brought these materials to a maturity stage where the technology is ready for transition to large-volume production and commercialization. The new materials seem to allow the fabrication of higher quality parts at less than 50 percent of the weight as compared to steel, especially when they are selectively reinforced with carbon, silicon carbide, or aluminum oxide fibers. Most of the developments in the MMC materials have been spurred, mainly by applications that require high structural performance at elevated temperatures, the heavy vehicle industry could also benefit from this emerging technology. Increasing requirements of weight savings and extended durability are the main drivers for potential insertion of MMC technology into the heavy vehicle market. Critical elements of a typical tractor-trailer combination, such as highly loaded sections of the structure, engine components, brakes, suspensions, joints and bearings could be improved through judicious use of MMC materials. Such an outcome would promote the DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing the fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles and reducing their life cycle costs and pollution levels. However, significant technical and economical barriers are likely to hinder or even prevent broad applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles. The tradeoffs between such expected benefits (lower weights and longer durability) and penalties (higher costs, brittle behavior, and difficult to machine) must be thoroughly investigated both from the performance and cost viewpoints, before the transfer of MMC technology to heavy vehicle systems can be properly assessed and implemented. MMC materials are considered to form one element of the comprehensive, multi-faceted strategy pursued by the High Strength/Weight Reduction (HS/WR) Materials program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for structural weight savings and quality enhancements in heavy vehicles. The research work planed for the first year of this project (June 1, 2003 through May 30, 2004) focused on a theoretical investigation of weight benefits and structural performance tradeoffs associated with the design, fabrication, and joining of MMC components for heavy-duty vehicles. This early research work conducted at West Virginia University yielded the development of integrated material-structural models that predicted marginal benefits and significant barriers to MMC applications in heavy trailers. The results also indicated that potential applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles are limited to components identified as critical for either loadings or weight savings. Therefore, the scope of the project was expanded in the following year (June 1, 2004 through May 30, 2005) focused on expanding the lightweight material-structural design concepts for heavy vehicles from the component to the system level. Thus, the following objectives were set: (1) Devise and evaluate lightweight structural configurations for heavy vehicles. (2) Study the feasibility of using Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for critical structural components and joints in heavy vehicles. (3) Develop analysis tools, methods, and validated test data for comparative assessments of innovative design and joining concepts. (4) Develop analytical models and software for durability predictions of typical heavy vehicle components made of particulate MMC or fiber-reinforced composites. This report summarizes the results of the research work conducted during the past two years in this projects.

  13. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Heavy quark physics from SLD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messner, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report covers preliminary measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 1993-1995 runs. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag is presented. The high electron beam polarization of the SLC is employed in the direct measurement of the parity-violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} by use of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry. The lifetimes of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons have been measured by two analyses. The first identifies semileptonic decays of B mesons with high (p,p{sub t}) leptons; the second analysis isolates a sample of B meson decays with a two-dimensional impact parameter tag and reconstructs the decay length and charge using a topological vertex reconstruction method.

  15. Heavy ion medical accelerator options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, R.A.; Alonso, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper briefly explores the accelerator technology available for heavy ion medical accelerators in the mass range of 1 to 40 (protons through argon). Machines that are designed to produce the required intensities of a particular design ion, such as silicon (mass 28), can satisfy the intensity requirements for all lighter ions, and can produce beams with higher mass, such as argon, at somewhat reduced, but still useful intensity levels. They can also provide beams of radioactive ions, such as carbon-11 and neon-19, which are useful in diagnostic imaging and for directly verifiable treatments. These accelerators are all based on proven technology, and can be built at predictable costs. It is the conclusion of several design studies that they can be operated reliably in a hospital-based environment. 8 refs., 22 figs.

  16. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  17. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, R.A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Certain special treatments of superficial melanoma, however, require that beam energies as low as 70 MeV/nucleon also be available. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. For most heavy ion treatments, this corresponds to 10/sup 7/-10/sup 9/ ions/second at the patient. Because this research is best conducted in a dedicated, hospital-based facility, and because of the clinical need for ultra-high reliability, the construction of new and dedicated facilities has been proposed. Heavy ion accelerators can provide a variety of ions and energies, permitting treatment plans that exploit the properties of the ion best suited to each individual treatment, and that employ radioactive beams (such as /sup 11/C and /sup 19/Ne) to precisely confirm the dose localization. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Ecological Interactions Between Metals and Microbes That Impact Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konopka, Allan E.

    2003-06-01

    Previous work showed the correlation between bacterial biomass, population structure and the amount of lead, chromium and aromatic compounds present along a 21.6 m transect in which the concentrations of both heavy metals (Pb and Cr) and aromatic compounds varied 2-3 orders of magnitude. This work suggested that (a) biomass level was better correlated to the level of biodegradable organic C than the level of heavy metals, (b) microbial community composition differed between highly contaminated soils and uncontaminated ones, and (c) substantial microbial activity was found even in the highly contaminated soils. One confounding factor in these analyses was that the contaminated soils contained Pb, Cr, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Therefore, it was difficult to determine which factors were most important in the shifts of microbial community composition. Therefore, experiments were conducted in microcosms in which individual factors could be systematically varied. In this case, soils were used from the Seymour, IN site which had low levels of contamination, and the microbial community had little chance to adapt to heavy metals or aromatic compounds.

  19. Backward and forward modes guided by metal-dielectric-metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Backward and forward modes guided by metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides Arthur R. Davoyan by metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides Arthur R. Davoyan,a Ilya V. Shadrivov,a Sergey I.davoyan@gmail.com Abstract. We revisited the problem of the existence of plasmonic modes guided by metal- dielectric-metal

  20. Heavy-Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program Heavy-Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Caterpillar...

  1. NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation This report provides the results of an...

  2. Off-Highway Heavy Vehicle Diesel Efficiency Improvement and Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Off-Highway Heavy Vehicle Diesel Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction Off-Highway Heavy Vehicle Diesel Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction 2005 Diesel Engine...

  3. Heavy Quarks, QCD, and Effective Field Theory Thomas Mehen 72...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heavy Quarks, QCD, and Effective Field Theory Thomas Mehen 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS Heavy Quarks, Quarkonium,...

  4. Advanced Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles Advanced Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles Natural gas engine technology has evolved to meet the...

  5. SCR Systems for Heavy Duty Trucks: Progress Towards Meeting Euro...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems for Heavy Duty Trucks: Progress Towards Meeting Euro 4 Emission Standards in 2005 SCR Systems for Heavy Duty Trucks: Progress Towards Meeting Euro 4 Emission Standards in...

  6. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Measurements. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission...

  7. Integrated Virtual Lab in Supporting Heavy Duty Engine and Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Lab in Supporting Heavy Duty Engine and Vehicle Emission Rulemaking Integrated Virtual Lab in Supporting Heavy Duty Engine and Vehicle Emission Rulemaking Presentation...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Heavy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Heavy-Duty Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Heavy-Duty Engine Systems and Emissions...

  9. Design and Implementation of Silicon Nitride Valves for Heavy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Implementation of Silicon Nitride Valves for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Design and Implementation of Silicon Nitride Valves for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Poster presentation at the...

  10. Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling Expansion Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling Expansion 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  11. NAFTA Heavy Duty Engine and Aftertreatment Technology: Status...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NAFTA Heavy Duty Engine and Aftertreatment Technology: Status and Outlook NAFTA Heavy Duty Engine and Aftertreatment Technology: Status and Outlook Presentation given at DEER 2006,...

  12. Exclusive heavy quarkonium +{gamma} production from e{sup +}e...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Exclusive heavy quarkonium +gamma production from esup +esup - annihilation into a virtual photon Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exclusive heavy quarkonium...

  13. California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks Describes system for fueling truck fleet with...

  14. WORKSHOP REPORT: Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements and Gaps for Lightweight and Propulsion Materials WORKSHOP REPORT: Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements and...

  15. Fuel Efficiency and Emissions Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Emissions Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines using Model-Based Transient Calibration Fuel Efficiency and Emissions Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines using...

  16. Method for fabricating prescribed flaws in the interior of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, David K. (Ames, IA); Thompson, Donald O. (Ames, IA)

    1989-03-07

    The method for fabricating a metal body having a flaw of predetermined size and shape located therein comprises placing half of the metal powder required to make the metal body in the die of a press and pressing it to create a flat upper surface thereon. A piece of copper foil is cut to the size and shape of the desired interior crack and placed on the upper surface of the powder and centered in position. The remaining powder is then placed in the die to cover the copper foil. The powder is first cold pressed and removed from the press. The powder metal piece is then sintered in a furnace at a temperature above the melting point of the copper and below the melting point of the metal. It is then removed from the furnace, cooled to room temperature, and placed back in the die and pressed further. This procedure results in an interior flaw or crack. Modified forms of the method involve using a press-sinter-press-sinter cycle with the first sinter being below the melting point of the copper and the second sinter being above the melting point of the copper and below the melting point of the metal.

  17. Composition and process for organic and metal contaminant fixation in soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwitzgebel, Klaus (7507 Chimney Corners, Austin, TX 78731)

    1994-02-08

    A method and compositions using a first ferrous iron containing solution with the iron concentration in excess of theoretical requirements to treat a contaminated site to reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium and coprecipitate trivalent chromium with other heavy metals and using a second solution of silicate containing a destabilizing salt to form a relatively impermeable gel in the contaminated site thereby fixing metals and organics to the extent that there should be no detectable ground water contamination.

  18. The performance of 3500 MWth homogeneous and heterogeneous metal fueled core designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turski, R.; Yang, Shi-tien

    1987-11-01

    Performance parameters are calculated for a representative 3500 MWth homogeneous and a heterogeneous metal fueled reactor design. The equilibrium cycle neutronic characteristics, safety coefficients, control system requirements, and control rod worths are evaluated. The thermal-hydraulic characteristics for both configurations are also compared. The heavy metal fuel loading requirements and neutronic performance characteristics are also evaluated for the uranium startup option. 14 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. System for removal of arsenic from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2004-11-23

    Systems for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical systems for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A system for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a system for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  20. Technetium Removal Using Tc-Goethite Coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Jung, Hun Bok; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-18

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Low temperature waste forms coupled with technetium removal using an alternative immobilization process such as Fe(II) treated-goethite precipitation” to increase our understanding of 99Tc long-term stability in goethite mineral form and the process that controls the 99Tc(VII) reduction and removal by the final Fe (oxy)hydroxide forms. The overall objectives of this task were to 1) evaluate the transformation process of Fe (oxy)hydroxide solids to the more crystalline goethite (?-FeOOH) mineral for 99Tc removal and 2) determine the mechanism that limits 99Tc(IV) reoxidation in Fe(II)-treated 99Tc-goethite mineral and 3) evaluate whether there is a long-term 99Tcoxidation state change for Tc sequestered in the iron solids.