National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for heavy ion collider

  1. COMMISSIONING OF THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; AHRENS,L.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,M.; BAI,M.; CAMERON,P.; CARDONA,J.; CONNOLLY,R.; ET AL; TSOUPAS,N.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.

    2001-06-18

    This report describes in detail steps performed in bringing the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) from the commissioning into the operational stage when collisions between 60 bunches of fully striped gold ions, were routinely provided. Corrections of the few power supplies connections by the beam measurements are described. Beam lifetime improvements at injection, along the acceleration are shown. The beam diagnostic results; like Schottky detector, beam profile monitor, beam position monitors, tune meter and others, are shown [1].

  2. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) physics overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruan, L.J.; Ruan, L.; n /a

    2010-02-08

    The results from data taken during the last several years at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be reviewed in the paper. Several selected topics that further our understanding of constituent quark scaling, jet quenching and color screening effect of heavy quarkonia in the hot dense medium will be presented. Detector upgrades will further probe the properties of Quark Gluon Plasma. Future measurements with upgraded detectors will be presented. The discovery perspectives from future measurements will also be discussed.

  3. Observation of snake resonances at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Alessi, J.; et al

    2010-09-27

    The Siberian snakes are powerful tools in preserving polarization in high energy accelerators has been demonstrated at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV. However, the Siberian snakes also introduce a new set of depolarization resonances, i.e. snake resonances as first discovered by Lee and Tepikian. The intrinsic spin resonances above 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV which raises the challenge to preserve the polarization up to 250 GeV. In 2009, polarized protons collided for the first time at the RHIC design store energy of 250 GeV. This paper presents the experimental measurements of snake resonances at RHIC. The plan for avoiding these resonances is also presented.

  4. Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities User Facilities Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Project Development Isotope Program Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown

  5. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; White, S.

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  6. Time evolution of the luminosity of colliding heavy-ion beams in BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce, R.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Jowett, J.M.; Fischer, W.

    2010-09-07

    We have studied the time evolution of the heavy ion luminosity and bunch intensities in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), at BNL, and in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN. First, we present measurements from a large number of RHIC stores (from Run 7), colliding 100 GeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au{sup 79}+ beams without stochastic cooling. These are compared with two different calculation methods. The first is a simulation based on multi-particle tracking taking into account collisions, intrabeam scattering, radiation damping, and synchrotron and betatron motion. In the second, faster, method, a system of ordinary differential equations with terms describing the corresponding effects on emittances and bunch populations is solved numerically. Results of the tracking method agree very well with the RHIC data. With the faster method, significant discrepancies are found since the losses of particles diffusing out of the RF bucket due to intrabeam scattering are not modeled accurately enough. Finally, we use both methods to make predictions of the time evolution of the future {sup 208}Pb+{sup 82+} beams in the LHC at injection and collision energy. For this machine, the two methods agree well.

  7. The Multi-Purpose Detector for NICA heavy-Ion Collider at JINR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogachevsky, O. V.

    2012-05-15

    The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. Its main components located inside a superconducting solenoid are a tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber, a time-of-flight system for particle identification and a barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. A zero degree hadron calorimeter is designed specifically to measure the energy of spectators. In this paper, all parts of the apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

  8. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2010-01-08

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  9. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2009-06-09

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  10. Vector meson production in coherent hadronic interactions: Update on predictions for energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2011-07-15

    In this Rapid Communication we update our predictions for the photoproduction of vector mesons in coherent pp and AA collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies using the color dipole approach and the Color Glass Condensate formalism. In particular, we present our predictions for the first run of the LHC at half energy and for the rapidity dependence of the ratio between the J/{Psi} and {rho} cross sections at RHIC energies.

  11. Measurements of {phi} meson production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Illinois; Kent State Univ.; Panjab Univ.; Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre; Kent State Univ.; Particle Physics Lab.; STAR Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We present results for the measurement of {phi} meson production via its charged kaon decay channel {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} in Au+Au collisions at {radical}S{sub NN} = 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, and in p+p and d+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV from the STAR experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The midrapidity (|y| < 0.5) {phi} meson transverse momentum (p{sub T}) spectra in central Au+Au collisions are found to be well described by a single exponential distribution. On the other hand, the p{sub T} spectra from p+p, d+Au, and peripheral Au+Au collisions show power-law tails at intermediate and high p{sub T} and are described better by Levy distributions. The constant {phi}/K{sup -} yield ratio vs beam species, collision centrality, and colliding energy is in contradiction with expectations from models having kaon coalescence as the dominant mechanism for {phi} production at RHIC. The {Omega}/{phi} yield ratio as a function of p{sub T} is consistent with a model based on the recombination of thermal s quarks up to p{sub T} {approx} 4 GeV/c, but disagrees at higher transverse momenta. The measured nuclear modification factor, R{sub dAu}, for the {phi} meson increases above unity at intermediate p{sub T}, similar to that for pions and protons, while R{sub AA} is suppressed due to the energy loss effect in central Au+Au collisions. Number of constituent quark scaling of both R{sub cp} and v{sub 2} for the {phi} meson with respect to other hadrons in Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV at intermediate p{sub T} is observed. These observations support quark coalescence as being the dominant mechanism of hadronization in the intermediate p{sub T} region at RHIC.

  12. Measurements of {phi} meson production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelev, B. I.; Barannikova, O.; Betts, R. R.; Callner, J.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Iordanova, A.; Suarez, M. C.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Bhati, A. K.; Kumar, L.; Pruthi, N. K.; Ahammed, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Ganti, M. S.; Ghosh, P.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T. K.

    2009-06-15

    We present results for the measurement of {phi} meson production via its charged kaon decay channel {phi}{yields}K{sup +}K{sup -} in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=62.4,130, and 200 GeV, and in p+p and d+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV from the STAR experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The midrapidity (|y|<0.5) {phi} meson transverse momentum (p{sub T}) spectra in central Au+Au collisions are found to be well described by a single exponential distribution. On the other hand, the p{sub T} spectra from p+p, d+Au, and peripheral Au+Au collisions show power-law tails at intermediate and high p{sub T} and are described better by Levy distributions. The constant {phi}/K{sup -} yield ratio vs beam species, collision centrality, and colliding energy is in contradiction with expectations from models having kaon coalescence as the dominant mechanism for {phi} production at RHIC. The {omega}/{phi} yield ratio as a function of p{sub T} is consistent with a model based on the recombination of thermal s quarks up to p{sub T}{approx}4 GeV/c, but disagrees at higher transverse momenta. The measured nuclear modification factor, R{sub dAu}, for the {phi} meson increases above unity at intermediate p{sub T}, similar to that for pions and protons, while R{sub AA} is suppressed due to the energy loss effect in central Au+Au collisions. Number of constituent quark scaling of both R{sub cp} and v{sub 2} for the {phi} meson with respect to other hadrons in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV at intermediate p{sub T} is observed. These observations support quark coalescence as being the dominant mechanism of hadronization in the intermediate p{sub T} region at RHIC.

  13. Optics measurement and correction during beam acceleration in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.

    2014-09-09

    To minimize operational complexities, setup of collisions in high energy circular colliders typically involves acceleration with near constant β-functions followed by application of strong focusing quadrupoles at the interaction points (IPs) for the final beta-squeeze. At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam acceleration and optics squeeze are performed simultaneously. In the past, beam optics correction at RHIC has taken place at injection and at final energy with some interpolation of corrections into the acceleration cycle. Recent measurements of the beam optics during acceleration and squeeze have evidenced significant beta-beats which if corrected could minimize undesirable emittance dilutions and maximize the spin polarization of polarized proton beams by avoidance of higher-order multipole fields sampled by particles within the bunch. In this report the methodology now operational at RHIC for beam optics corrections during acceleration with simultaneous beta-squeeze will be presented together with measurements which conclusively demonstrate the superior beam control. As a valuable by-product, the corrections have minimized the beta-beat at the profile monitors so reducing the dominant error in and providing more precise measurements of the evolution of the beam emittances during acceleration.

  14. v{sub 4} from ideal and viscous hydrodynamic simulations of nuclear collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luzum, Matthew; Gombeaud, Clement; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2010-05-15

    We compute v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} in ideal and viscous hydrodynamics. We investigate its sensitivity to details of the hydrodynamic model and compare the results to experimental data from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Whereas v{sub 2} has a significant sensitivity only to initial eccentricity and viscosity while being insensitive to freeze-out temperature, we find that v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} is quite insensitive to initial eccentricity. On the other hand, it can still be sensitive to shear viscosity in addition to freeze-out temperature, although viscous effects do not universally increase v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} as originally predicted. Consistent with data, we find no dependence on particle species. We also make a prediction for v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} in heavy ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  15. Photoproduction of {rho}{sup 0} mesons in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2009-11-15

    We investigate the photoproduction of {rho} mesons in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies in the dipole approach and within two phenomenological models based on the color glass condensate (CGC) formalism. We estimate the integrated cross section and rapidity distribution for meson production and compare our predictions with the data from the STAR Collaboration. In particular, we demonstrate that the total cross section at RHIC is strongly dependent on the energy behavior of the dipole-target cross section at low energies, which is not well determined in the dipole approach. In contrast, the predictions at midrapidities at RHIC and in the full rapidity at LHC are under theoretical control and can be used to test QCD dynamics at high energies.

  16. Operational head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Altinbas, Z.; Costanzo, M.; Hock, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-23

    Head-on beam-beam compensation has been implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in order to increase the luminosity delivered to the experiments. We discuss the principle of combining a lattice for resonance driving term compensation and an electron lens for tune spread compensation. We describe the electron lens technology and its operational use. As of this date the implemented compensation scheme approximately doubled the peak and average luminosities.

  17. The Smallest Drops of the Hottest Matter? New Investigations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (493rd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickles, Anne

    2014-03-19

    Pool sharks at the billiards hall know that sometimes you aim to rocket the cue ball for a head-on collision, and other times, a mere glance will do. Physicists need to know more than a thing or two about collision geometry too, as they sift through data from the billions of ions that smash together at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Determining whether ions crash head-on or just glance is crucial for the physicists analyzing data to study quark-gluon plasmathe ultra-hot, "perfect" liquid of quarks and gluons that existed more than 13 billion years ago, before the first protons and neutrons formed. For these physicists, collision geometry data provides insights about quark-gluon plasma's extremely low viscosity and other unusual properties, which are essential for understanding more about the "strong force" that holds together the nucleus, protons, and neutrons of every atom in the universe. Dr. Sickles explains how physicists use data collected at house-sized detectors like PHENIX and STAR to determine what happens before, during, and after individual particle collisions among billions at RHIC. She also explains how the ability to collide different "species" of nuclei at RHICincluding protons and gold ions today and possibly more with a proposed future electron-ion collider upgrade (eRHIC)enables physicists to probe deeper into the mysteries of quark-gluon plasma and the strong force.

  18. Strange quark suppression and strange hadron production in pp collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long Haiyan; Feng Shengqin; Zhou Daimei; Yan Yuliang; Ma Hailiang; Sa Benhao

    2011-09-15

    The parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE based on PYTHIA is utilized to systematically investigate strange particle production in pp collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Globally speaking, the PACIAE results of the strange particle rapidity density at midrapidity and the transverse momentum distribution are better than those of PYTHIA (default) in comparison with STAR and ALICE experimental data. This may represent the importance of the parton and hadron rescatterings, as well as the reduction mechanism of strange quark suppression, added in the PACIAE model. The K/{pi} ratios as a function of reaction energy in pp collisions from CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to LHC energies are also analyzed in this paper.

  19. Azimuthally sensitive femtoscopy in hydrodynamics with statistical hadronization from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider to the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisiel, Adam; Broniowski, Wojciech; Florkowski, Wojciech; Chojnacki, Mikolaj

    2009-01-15

    Azimuthally sensitive femtoscopy for heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is explored within the approach consisting of the hydrodynamics of perfect fluid followed by statistical hadronization. It is found that for the RHIC initial conditions, employing the Gaussian shape of the initial energy density, the very same framework that reproduces the standard soft observables [including the transverse-momentum spectra, the elliptic flow, and the azimuthally averaged Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) radii] leads to a proper description of the azimuthally sensitive femtoscopic observables; we find that the azimuthal variation of the side and out HBT radii as well as out-side cross term are very well reproduced for all centralities. Concerning the dependence of the femtoscopic parameters on k{sub T} we find that it is very well reproduced. The model is then extrapolated to the LHC energy. We predict the overall moderate growth of the HBT radii and the decrease of their azimuthal oscillations. Such effects are naturally caused by longer evolution times. In addition, we discuss in detail the space-time patterns of particle emission. We show that they are quite complex and argue that the overall shape seen by the femtoscopic methods cannot be easily disentangled on the basis of simple-minded arguments.

  20. Constraining the viscous freeze-out distribution function with data obtained at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luzum, Matthew; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the form of the viscous correction to the equilibrium distribution function in the context of a Cooper-Frye freeze-out prescription for viscous hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The standard quadratic ansatz used by all groups for the case of shear viscosity is found to be disfavored by experimental data for v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and is unlikely to be correct for the hadron resonance gas present at freeze-out. Instead, data for v{sub 2}(p{sub t}) along with v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} favor a momentum dependence between linear and quadratic.

  1. Bulk matter evolution and extraction of jet transport parameters in heavy-ion collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xiaofang; Greiner, Carsten; Wang Enke; Wang Xinnian; Xu Zhe

    2010-06-15

    Within the picture of jet quenching induced by multiple parton scattering and gluon bremsstrahlung, medium modification of parton fragmentation functions and therefore the suppression of large transverse-momentum hadron spectra are controlled by both the value and the space-time profile of the jet transport parameter along the jet propagation path. Experimental data on single-hadron suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energy are analyzed within the higher-twist (HT) approach to the medium-modified fragmentation functions and the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD parton model. Assuming that the jet transport parameter q is proportional to the particle number density in both quark gluon plasma (QGP) and hadronic phase, experimental data on jet quenching in deeply inelastic scattering off nuclear targets can provide guidance on q{sub h} in the hot hadronic matter. One can then study the dependence of the extracted initial value of jet-quenching parameter q{sub 0} at initial time tau{sub 0} on the bulk medium evolution. Effects of transverse expansion, radial flow, phase transition, and nonequilibrium evolution are examined. The extracted values are found to vary from q{sub 0}tau{sub 0}=0.54 GeV{sup 2} in the (1+3)d ideal hydrodynamic model to 0.96 GeV{sup 2} in a cascade model, with the main differences coming from the initial nonequilibrium evolution and the later hadronic evolution. The overall contribution to jet quenching from the hadronic phase, about 22%-44%, is found to be significant. Therefore, a realistic description of the early nonequilibrium parton evolution and later hadronic interaction will be critical for accurate extraction of the jet transport parameter in the strongly interacting QGP phase in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  2. Fourth workshop on experiments and detectors for a relativistic heavy ion collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fatyga, M.; Moskowitz, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: physics at RHIC; flavor flow from quark-gluon plasma; space-time quark-gluon cascade; jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions; parton distributions in hard nuclear collisions; experimental working groups, two-arm electron/photon spectrometer collaboration; total and elastic pp cross sections; a 4{pi} tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer; hadron spectroscopy; efficiency and background simulations for J/{psi} detection in the RHIC dimuon experiment; the collision regions beam crossing geometries; Monte Carlo simulations of interactions and detectors; proton-nucleus interactions; the physics of strong electromagnetic fields in collisions of relativistic heavy ions; a real time expert system for experimental high energy/nuclear physics; the development of silicon multiplicity detectors; a pad readout detector for CRID/tracking; RHIC TPC R D progress and goals; development of analog memories for RHIC detector front-end electronic systems; calorimeter/absorber optimization for a RHIC dimuon experiment; construction of a highly segmented high resolution TOF system; progress report on a fast, particle-identifying trigger based on ring-imaging and highly integrated electronics for a TPC detector.

  3. Effects of momentum conservation and flow on angular correlations observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Scott; Schlichting, Soeren; Gavin, Sean

    2011-08-15

    Correlations of azimuthal angles observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have gained great attention due to the prospect of identifying fluctuations of parity-odd regions in the field sector of QCD. Whereas the observable of interest related to parity fluctuations involves subtracting opposite-sign from same-sign correlations, the STAR collaboration reported the same-sign and opposite-sign correlations separately. It is shown here how momentum conservation combined with collective elliptic flow contributes significantly to this class of correlations, although not to the difference between the opposite- and same-sign observables. The effects are modeled with a crude simulation of a pion gas. Although the simulation reproduces the scale of the correlation, the centrality dependence is found to be sufficiently different in character to suggest additional considerations beyond those present in the pion gas simulation presented here.

  4. System-Size Independence of Directed Flow Measured at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelev, B. I.; Barannikova, O.; Betts, R. R.; Callner, J.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Iordanova, A.; Suarez, M. C.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Bhati, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, L.; Pruthi, N. K.; Ahammed, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dutta Mazumdar, M. R.; Ganti, M. S.; Ghosh, P.; Mohanty, B.

    2008-12-19

    We measure directed flow (v{sub 1}) for charged particles in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 and 62.4 GeV, as a function of pseudorapidity ({eta}), transverse momentum (p{sub t}), and collision centrality, based on data from the STAR experiment. We find that the directed flow depends on the incident energy but, contrary to all available model implementations, not on the size of the colliding system at a given centrality. We extend the validity of the limiting fragmentation concept to v{sub 1} in different collision systems, and investigate possible explanations for the observed sign change in v{sub 1}(p{sub t})

  5. PHENIX Conceptual Design Report. An experiment to be performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagamiya, Shoji; Aronson, Samuel H.; Young, Glenn R.; Paffrath, Leo

    1993-01-29

    The PHENIX Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the detector design of the PHENIX experiment for Day-1 operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The CDR presents the physics capabilities, technical details, cost estimate, construction schedule, funding profile, management structure, and possible upgrade paths of the PHENIX experiment. The primary goals of the PHENIX experiment are to detect the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and to measure its properties. Many of the potential signatures for the QGP are measured as a function of a well-defined common variable to see if any or all of these signatures show a simultaneous anomaly due to the formation of the QGP. In addition, basic quantum chromodynamics phenomena, collision dynamics, and thermodynamic features of the initial states of the collision are studied. To achieve these goals, the PHENIX experiment measures lepton pairs (dielectrons and dimuons) to study various properties of vector mesons, such as the mass, the width, and the degree of yield suppression due to the formation of the QGP. The effect of thermal radiation on the continuum is studied in different regions of rapidity and mass. The e{mu} coincidence is measured to study charm production, and aids in understanding the shape of the continuum dilepton spectrum. Photons are measured to study direct emission of single photons and to study {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} production. Charged hadrons are identified to study the spectrum shape, production of antinuclei, the {phi} meson (via K{sup +}K{sup {minus}} decay), jets, and two-boson correlations. The measurements are made down to small cross sections to allow the study of high p{sub T} spectra, and J/{psi} and {Upsilon} production. The PHENIX collaboration consists of over 300 scientists, engineers, and graduate students from 43 institutions in 10 countries. This large international collaboration is supported by US resources and significant foreign resources.

  6. Tomography of quark gluon plasma at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gossiaux, P. B.; Bierkandt, R.; Aichelin, J.

    2009-04-15

    Using the recently published model [Gossiaux and Aichelin, Phys. Rev. C 78, 014904 (2008)] for the collisional energy loss of heavy quarks in a quark gluon plasma (QGP), based on perturbative QCD (pQCD) with a running coupling constant, we study the interaction between heavy quarks and plasma particles in detail. We discuss correlations between the simultaneously produced c and c quarks, study how central collisions can be experimentally selected, predict observable correlations, and extend our model to the energy domain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We finally compare the predictions of our model with that of other approaches such as anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT)

  7. Jet energy loss, photon production, and photon-hadron correlations at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin Guangyou; Ruppert, Joerg; Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Moore, Guy D.

    2009-11-15

    Jet energy loss, photon production, and photon-hadron correlations are studied together at high transverse momentum in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies. The modification of hard jets traversing a hot and dense nuclear medium is evaluated by consistently taking into account induced gluon radiation and elastic collisions. The production of high-transverse-momentum photons in Au+Au collisions at RHIC is calculated by incorporating a complete set of photon-production channels. Comparison with experimental photon production and photon-hadron correlation data is performed, using a (3+1)-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic description of the thermalized medium created in these collisions. Our results demonstrate that the interaction between the hard jets and the soft medium is important for the study of photon production and of photon-hadron correlation at RHIC.

  8. Conservation laws and multiplicity evolution of spectra at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chajecki, Zbigniew; Lisa, Mike

    2009-03-15

    Transverse momentum distributions in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions carry considerable information about the dynamics of the hot system produced. Direct comparison with the same spectra from p+p collisions has proved invaluable in identifying novel features associated with the larger system, in particular, the 'jet quenching' at high momentum and the apparently much stronger collective flow dominating the spectral shape at low momentum. We point out possible hazards of ignoring conservation laws in the comparison of high- and low-multiplicity final states. We argue that the effects of energy and momentum conservation actually dominate many of the observed systematics, and that p+p collisions may be much more similar to heavy ion collisions than generally thought.

  9. Dynamical heavy-quark recombination and the nonphotonic single-electron puzzle at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Magnin, J.; Montano, Luis Manuel; Sanchez, G. Toledo

    2009-12-15

    We show that the single, nonphotonic electron nuclear modification factor R{sub AA}{sup e} is affected by the thermal enhancement of the heavy-baryon-to-heavy-meson ratio in relativistic heavy-ion collisions with respect to proton-proton collisions. We make use of the dynamical quark recombination model to compute such a ratio and show that this produces a sizable suppression factor for R{sub AA}{sup e} at intermediate transverse momenta. We argue that this suppression factor needs to be considered, in addition to the energy loss contribution, in calculations of R{sub AA}{sup e}.

  10. Early anisotropic hydrodynamics and thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss puzzles in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Florkowski, Wojciech

    2010-08-15

    We address the problem of whether the early thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) puzzles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions may be solved by the assumption that the early dynamics of the produced matter is locally anisotropic. The hybrid model describing the purely transverse hydrodynamic evolution followed by the perfect-fluid hydrodynamic stage is constructed. The transition from the transverse to perfect-fluid hydrodynamics is described by the Landau matching conditions applied at a fixed proper time {tau}{sub tr}. The global fit to the RHIC data reproduces the soft hadronic observables (the pion, kaon, and the proton spectra, the pion and kaon elliptic flow, and the pion HBT radii) with the accuracy of about 20%. These results indicate that the assumption of the very fast thermalization may be relaxed. In addition, the presented model suggests that a large part of the inconsistencies between the theoretical and experimental HBT results may be removed.

  11. THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER (RHIC) CRYOGENIC SYSTEM AT BNL: REVIEW OF THE MODIFICATIONS AND UPGRADES SINCE 2002 AND PLANNED IMPROVEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    THAN,Y.R.; TUOZZOLO, J.; SIDI-YAKHLEF, A.; GANNI, V.; KNUDSEN, P.; ARENIUS, D.

    2007-07-16

    Brookhaven National Laboratory continues its multi-year program to improve the operational efficiency, reliability, and stability of the cryogenic system which also resulted in improved beam availability of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This paper summarizes the work and changes made after each phase over the past four years to the present, as well as proposed future improvements. Power usage dropped from an initial 9.4 MW to the present 5.1 MW and is expected to drop below 5 MW after the completion of the remaining proposed improvements. The work proceeded in phases by balancing the Collider's schedule of operation, time required for the modifications and budget constraints. The main changes include process control, compressor oil removal and management, elimination of the use of cold compressors and two liquid helium storage tanks, insulation of the third liquid helium storage tank, compressor bypass flow reduction and the addition of a load turbine (Joule-Thompson expander) with associated heat exchangers at the cold end of the plant. Also, liquid helium pumps used for forced circulation of the sub-cooled helium through the magnet loops were eliminated by an accelerator supply flow reconfiguration. Planned future upgrades include the resizing of expanders 5 and 6 to increase their efficiencies.

  12. Charge conservation at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and contributions to local parity violation observables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlichting, Soeren; Pratt, Scott

    2011-01-15

    Relativistic heavy ion collisions provide laboratory environments from which one can study the creation of a novel state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. The existence of such a state is postulated to alter the mechanism and evolution of charge production, which then becomes manifest in charge correlations. We study the separation of balancing charges at kinetic freeze-out by analyzing recent results on balancing charge correlations for Au + Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV. We find that in central collisions, the spatial points from which balancing charges are emitted are characterized by smaller relative angles. These results are consistent with the expectation that charge production occurred later in the collision, as would be expected for delayed hadronization. An alternative explanation would be that the charges were produced early, perhaps with a different mechanism where the charge production mechanism was altered from string breaking which tends to separate the charges in relative rapidity. The alternative explanation would also rely on the diffusion of charges being small. In addition we calculate the contributions from charge-balance correlations to STAR's local parity violation observable. We find that local charge conservation, when combined with elliptic flow, explains the bulk of STAR's measurement.

  13. Medium-modified jets and initial state fluctuations as sources of charge correlations measured at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Hannah; Bass, Steffen A.; Renk, Thorsten

    2011-01-15

    We investigate the contribution of medium-modified jets and initial state fluctuations to the asymmetry in charged-particle production with respect to the reaction plane. This asymmetry has been suggested as a compelling signature for the chiral magnetic effect in QCD and makes the study of conventional scenarios for the creation of such charged-particle multiplicity fluctuations a timely endeavor. The different path-length combinations of jets through the medium in noncentral heavy ion collisions result in finite correlations of like and different charged particles emitted in the different hemispheres. Our calculation is based on the combination of jet events from Yet another Jet Energy-Loss Model (YaJEM) and a bulk-medium evolution. It is found that the jet production probabilities are too small to observe this effect. The influence of initial state fluctuations on this observable is explored by using an event-by-event (3+1)-dimensional hybrid approach that is based on Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) with an ideal hydrodynamic evolution. In this calculation, momentum conservation and elliptic flow are explicitly taken into account. The asymmetries in the initial state are translated to a final state momentum asymmetry by the hydrodynamic flow profile. Dependent on the size of the initial state fluctuations, the resulting charged-particle asymmetries are in qualitative agreement with the preliminary STAR (solenoid tracker at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) results. The multiparticle correlation as proposed by the PHENIX Collaboration can, in principle, be used to disentangle the different contributions, however, in practice, is affected substantially by the procedure to subtract trivial resonance decay contributions.

  14. Kaon and pion femtoscopy at the highest energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in a hydrokinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpenko, Iu. A.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.

    2010-05-15

    The hydrokinetic approach that incorporates hydrodynamic expansion of the systems formed in A+A collisions and their dynamical decoupling is applied to restore the initial conditions and space-time picture of the matter evolution in central Au+Au collisions at the top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energy. The analysis is based on the detailed reproduction of the pion and kaon momentum spectra and femtoscopic data in whole interval of the transverse momenta studied by both the STAR and the PHENIX collaborations. The fitting procedure utilizes the two parameters: the maximal energy density at supposed thermalization time 1 fm/c and the strength of the prethermal flows developed to this time. The quark-gluon plasma and hadronic gas is supposed to be in complete local equilibrium above the chemical freeze-out temperature T{sub ch}=165 MeV with the equation of states (EoS) at high temperatures as in the lattice QCD. Below T{sub ch} the EoS in the expanding and gradually decoupling fluid depends on the composition of the hadron-resonance gas at each space-time point and accounts for decays of resonances into the nonequilibrated medium. A good description of the pion and kaon transverse momentum spectra and interferometry radii is reached at both used initial energy density profiles motivated by the Glauber and color glass condensate models, however, at different initial energy densities. The discussion as for the approximate pion and kaon m{sub T} scaling for the interferometry radii is based on a comparison of the emission functions for these particles.

  15. Breaking of the number-of-constituent-quark scaling for identified-particle elliptic flow as a signal of phase change in low-energy data taken at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, J.; Jin, F.; Zhang, S.; Chen, J. H.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Ma, G. L.; Zhong, C.

    2009-06-15

    We argue that measurements of identified-particle elliptic flow in a wide energy range could shed light on the possible phase change in high-energy heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). When the hadronization process is dominated by quark coalescence, the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) scaling for the identified-particle elliptic flow can serve as a probe for studying the strong interacting partonic matter. In the upcoming RHIC low-energy runs, the NCQ scaling behavior may be broken because of the change of the effective degrees of freedom of the hot dense matter, which corresponds to the transition from the dominant partonic phase to the dominant hadronic phase. A multiphase transport model is used to present the dependence of NCQ scaling behavior on the different hadronization mechanisms.

  16. Ion polarization in the MEIC figure-8 ion collider ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.S. Morozov, Ya.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang, P. Chevtsov, A.M. Kondratenko, M.A. Kondratenko, Yu.N. Filatov

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear physics program envisaged at the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) currently being developed at the Jefferson Lab calls for collisions of 3-11 GeV/c longitudinally polarized electrons and 20-100 GeV/c, in equivalent proton momentum, longitudinally/ transversely polarized protons/ deuterons/ light ions. We present a scheme that provides the required ion polarization arrangement in the MEIC's ion collider ring.

  17. Parton equilibration in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biro, T.S.; van Doorn, E.; Mueller, B.; Thoma, M.H.; Wang, X. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen, D-6300 Giessen Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 )

    1993-09-01

    We investigate the processes leading to phase-space equilibration of parton distributions in nuclear interactions at collider energies. We derive a set of rate equations describing the chemical equilibration of gluons and quarks including medium effects on the relevant QCD transport coefficients, and discuss their consequences for parton equilibration in heavy ion collisions.

  18. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  19. SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS Experimental Determination of the Symmetry Energy of a Low Density Nuclear Gas ......II-1 S. ...

  20. Characterizing Heavy Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Ion Reactions in the 1980's Is there Treasure at the end of the Rainbow? & What happens and how do different modes compete? John Schiffer One of the three research areas for ATLAS, as stated in a 1984 document to Congress: Are there some new marvelous symmetries, hidden in resonances in heavier nuclei, beyond 12 C+ 12 C and its immediate vicinity? (s.c. linac work, pre-ATLAS) Other attempts to chase the rainbow 180 o elastic scattering of 12 C on 40 Ca shows structure Fusion of 16 O on

  1. Significant in-medium {eta}{sup '} mass reduction in {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vertesi, R.; Sziklai, J.; Csoergo, T.

    2011-05-15

    In high-energy heavy ion collisions a hot and dense medium is formed, where the U{sub A}(1) or chiral symmetry may temporarily be restored. As a consequence, the mass of the {eta}{sup '}(958) mesons may be reduced to its quark model value, and the abundance of {eta}{sup '} mesons at low p{sub T} may be enhanced by more than a factor of 10. The intercept parameter {lambda}{sub *} of the charged pion Bose Einstein correlations provides a sensitive observable of the possibly enhanced {eta}{sup '} abundance. We have analyzed {lambda}{sub *}(m{sub T}) data from {radical}(s{sub N{sub N}})=200 GeV central Au+Au reactions measured at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), using extensive Monte Carlo simulations based on six popular models for hadronic multiplicities. Based on the combined STAR and PHENIX data set, and on various systematic investigations of resonance multiplicities and model parameters, we conclude that in {radical}(s{sub N{sub N}})=200 GeV central Au+Au reactions the mass of the {eta}{sup '} meson is reduced by {Delta}m{sub {eta}}{sup '*}>200 MeV, at the 99.9% confidence level in the considered model class. Such a significant {eta}{sup '} mass modification may indicate the restoration of the U{sub A}(1) symmetry in a hot and dense hadronic matter and the return of the ninth ''prodigal'' Goldstone boson. A similar analysis of NA44 S+Pb data at top CERN Super Proton Synchroton (SPS) energies showed no significant in-medium {eta}{sup '} mass modification.

  2. Centrality-dependent direct photon p{sub t} spectra in Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Fuming; Zhu Yan; Hirano, Tetsufumi; Werner, Klaus

    2009-01-15

    We calculate the centrality dependence of transverse momentum (p{sub t}) spectra for direct photons in Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV, based on a realistic data-constrained (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamic description of the expanding hot and dense matter, a reasonable treatment of the propagation of partons and their energy loss in the fluid, and a systematic study of the main sources of direct photons. The resultant p{sub t} spectra agree with recent PHENIX data in a broad p{sub t} range. The competition among the different direct photon sources is investigated at various centralities. Parton energy loss in the plasma is considered for photons from fragmentation and jet-photon conversion, which causes about 40% decrease in the total contribution. In the high p{sub t} region, the observed R{sub AA} of photons is centrality independent at the accuracy of 5% based on a realistic treatment of energy loss. We also link the different behavior of R{sub AA} for central and peripheral collisions, in the low p{sub t} region, to the fact that the plasma in central collisions is hotter than that in peripheral ones.

  3. Production, formation, and transport of high-brightness atomic hydrogen beam studies for the relativistic heavy ion collider polarized source upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolmogorov, A. Stupishin, N.; Atoian, G.; Ritter, J.; Zelenski, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk

    2014-02-15

    The RHIC polarized H{sup ?} ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H{sub 2} gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ?0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce geometrical beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench.

  4. Status of the MEIC ion collider ring design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2015-07-14

    We present an update on the design of the ion collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab. The design is based on the use of super-ferric magnets. It provides the necessary momentum range of 8 to 100 GeV/c for protons and ions, matches the electron collider ring design using PEP-II components, fits readily on the JLab site, offers a straightforward path for a future full-energy upgrade by replacing the magnets with higher-field ones in the same tunnel, and is more cost effective than using presently available current-dominated super-conducting magnets. We describe complete ion collider optics including an independently-designed modular detector region.

  5. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B; Zhang, Y

    2012-08-01

    Researchers have envisioned an electron-ion collider with ion species up to heavy ions, high polarization of electrons and light ions, and a well-matched center-of-mass energy range as an ideal gluon microscope to explore new frontiers of nuclear science. In its most recent Long Range Plan, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation endorsed such a collider in the form of a 'half-recommendation.' As a response to this science need, Jefferson Lab and its user community have been engaged in feasibility studies of a medium energy polarized electron-ion collider (MEIC), cost-effectively utilizing Jefferson Lab's already existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). In close collaboration, this community of nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists has rigorously explored the science case and design concept for this envisioned grand instrument of science. An electron-ion collider embodies the vision of reaching the next frontier in Quantum Chromodynamics - understanding the behavior of hadrons as complex bound states of quarks and gluons. Whereas the 12 GeV Upgrade of CEBAF will map the valence-quark components of the nucleon and nuclear wave functions in detail, an electron-ion collider will determine the largely unknown role sea quarks play and for the first time study the glue that binds all atomic nuclei. The MEIC will allow nuclear scientists to map the spin and spatial structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadrons from quarks and gluons. The proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab will collide a highly polarized electron beam originating from the CEBAF recirculating superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) linear accelerator (linac) with highly polarized light-ion beams or unpolarized light- to heavy-ion beams from a new ion accelerator and storage complex. Since the very

  6. Heavy ion fusion--Using heavy ions to make electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-03-15

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring {approx}100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris.

  7. Physics at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-08-01

    This introductory talk contains a brief discussion of future experiments at RHIC related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we consider the relation between space-time picture of the collision and spectra of the observed secondaries. We discuss where one should look for QGP signals and for possible manifestation of the phase transition. We pay more attention to a rather new topic: hadron modification in the gas phase, which is interesting by itself as a collective phenomenon, and also as a precursor indicating what happens with hadrons near the phase transition. We briefly review current understanding of the photon physics, dilepton production, charm and strangeness and J/{psi} suppression. At the end we try to classify all possible experiments. 47 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Colliding Nuclei at High Energy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains what happens when atomic nucleii travelling at close to the speed of light smash together in Brookhaven Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  9. Status of the MEIC ion collider ring design (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Status of the MEIC ion collider ring design Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Status of the MEIC ion collider ring design We present an update on the design of the ion ...

  10. Summary of heavy ion theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you! I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF `94 in the parallel sessions.

  11. Strangeness signals in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remsberg, L.P.

    1992-11-01

    The experimental data on strange meson and strange baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions are reviewed.

  12. Strangeness signals in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remsberg, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental data on strange meson and strange baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions are reviewed.

  13. Selected experimental results from heavy-ion collisions at LHC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, Ranbir; Kumar, Lokesh; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2013-01-01

    We reviewmore » a subset of experimental results from the heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility at CERN. Excellent consistency is observed across all the experiments at the LHC (at center of mass energysNN=2.76 TeV) for the measurements such as charged particle multiplicity density, azimuthal anisotropy coefficients, and nuclear modification factor of charged hadrons. Comparison to similar measurements from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at lower energy (sNN=200 GeV) suggests that the system formed at LHC has a higher energy density and larger system size and lives for a longer time. These measurements are compared to model calculations to obtain physical insights on the properties of matter created at the RHIC and LHC.« less

  14. The Design of a Large Booster Ring for the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Nissen, Todd Satogata, Yuhong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present the current design of the large booster ring for the Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jefferson Lab. The booster ring takes 3 GeV protons or ions of equivalent rigidity from a pre-booster ring, and accelerates them to 20 GeV for protons or equivalent energy for light to heavy ions before sending them to the ion collider ring. The present design calls for a figure-8 shape of the ring for superior preservation of ion polarization. The ring is made of warm magnets and shares a tunnel with the two collider rings. Acceleration is achieved by warm RF systems. The linear optics has been designed with the transition energy above the highest beam energy in the ring so crossing of transition energy will be avoided. Preliminary beam dynamics studies including chromaticity compensation are presented in this paper.

  15. Accelerator physics in ERL based polarized electron ion collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Yue

    2015-05-03

    This talk will present the current accelerator physics challenges and solutions in designing ERL-based polarized electron-hadron colliders, and illustrate them with examples from eRHIC and LHeC designs. These challenges include multi-pass ERL design, highly HOM-damped SRF linacs, cost effective FFAG arcs, suppression of kink instability due to beam-beam effect, and control of ion accumulation and fast ion instabilities.

  16. ERL BASED ELECTRON-ION COLLIDER ERHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LITVINENKO,V.N.; BEN-ZVI,I.; ANDERSON,D.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    In this paper we describe eRHIC design based on the RHIC hadron rings and 10-to-20 GeV energy recovery electron linac. RHIC requires a very large tunability range for c.m. energies while maintaining very high luminosity up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} per nucleon. The designs of this future polarized electron-hadron collider, eRHIC, based on a high current super-conducting energy-recovery linac (ERL) with energy of electrons up to 20 GeV, have a number of specific requirements on the ERL optics. Two of the most attractive features of this scheme are full spin transparency of the ERL at all operational energies and the capability to support up to four interaction points. We present two main layouts of the eRHIC, the expected beam and luminosity parameter, and discuss the potential limitation of its performance. Two of the most attractive features of this scheme are full spin transparency of the ERL at all operational energies and the capability to support up to four interaction points. We present two main layouts of the eRHIC, the expected beam and luminosity parameter, and discuss the potential limitation of its performance.

  17. From many body wee partons dynamics to perfect fluid: a standard model for heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venugopalan, R.

    2010-07-22

    We discuss a standard model of heavy ion collisions that has emerged both from experimental results of the RHIC program and associated theoretical developments. We comment briefly on the impact of early results of the LHC program on this picture. We consider how this standard model of heavy ion collisions could be solidified or falsified in future experiments at RHIC, the LHC and a future Electro-Ion Collider.

  18. APEX heavy-ion counters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercer, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    A large solid-angle array of low-pressure multi-wire proportional counters (LPMWPC) forms part of the APEX apparatus. Eight three-element trapezoidal counters provide 360{degrees} coverage in {phi} and 20{degrees} - 70{degrees} coverage in {phi}. Angle information is obtained from a transmission-line delay cathode ({phi}) and from the segmentation ({phi}). Time-of-flight information is obtained from the anode signals. These quantities are used to extract the center-of-mass scattering angle, reaction Q value, and masses of the scattered heavy ions. Design and performance of the counters will be discussed.

  19. Heavy-quark production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within a partonic transport model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uphoff, Jan; Fochler, Oliver; Greiner, Carsten; Xu Zhe

    2010-10-15

    The production and space-time evolution of charm and bottom quarks in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are investigated with the partonic transport model BAMPS (Boltzmann approach of multiparton scatterings). Heavy quarks, produced in primary hard parton scatterings during nucleon-nucleon collisions, are sampled using the Monte Carlo event generator pythia or the leading-order minijet model in conjunction with the Glauber model, revealing a strong sensitivity on the parton distribution functions, scales, and heavy-quark mass. In a comprehensive study exploring different charm masses, K factors, and possible initial gluon conditions, secondary production and the evolution of heavy quarks are examined within a fully dynamic BAMPS simulation for central heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Although charm production in the quark-gluon plasma can be neglected at RHIC, it is significant at LHC but very sensitive to the initial conditions and the charm mass. Bottom production in the quark-gluon plasma, however, is negligible both at RHIC and LHC.

  20. THE ELECTRON ION COLLIDER. A HIGH LUMINOSITY PROBE OF THE PARTONIC SUBSTRUCTURE OF NUCLEONS AND NUCLEI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EDITED BY M.S. DAVIS

    2002-02-01

    By the end of this decade, the advancement of current and planned research into the fundamental structure of matter will require a new facility, the Electron Ion Collider (EIC). The EIC will collide high-energy beams of polarized electrons from polarized protons and neutrons, and unpolarized beams of electrons off atomic nuclei with unprecedented intensity. Research at the EIC will lead to a detailed understanding of the structure of the proton, neutron, and atomic nuclei as described by Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD), the accepted theory of the strong interaction. The EIC will establish quantitative answers to important questions by delivering dramatically increased precision over existing and planned experiments and by providing completely new experimental capabilities. Indeed, the EIC will probe QCD in a manner not possible previously. This document presents the scientific case for the design, construction and operation of the EIC. While realization of the EIC requires a significant advance in the development of efficient means of producing powerful beams of energetic electrons, an important consideration for choosing the site of the EIC is the planned upgrade to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The upgrade planned for RHIC will fully meet the requirements for the ion beam for the EIC, providing a distinct advantage in terms of cost, schedule and the final operation.

  1. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armesto, N; Borghini, N; Jeon, S; Wiedemann, U A; Abreu, S; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonuv, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; delValle, Z C; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; de Deus, J D; Ding, H; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d'Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fai, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, F; Goncalves, V P; Greco, V; Gyulassy, M; van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kampfer, B; Kang, Z; Karpenko, I A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B; Lin, Z; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, M L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martinez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnar, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Rasanen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoski, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Y M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stocker, H; Teplov, C Y; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Pop, V T; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, U A; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B

    2008-02-25

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at {approx} 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' [1] was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise document, we required that

  3. Crab Crossing Schemes and Studies for Electron Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Ahmed, Y. Derbenev, V. Morozov, A. Castilla, G.A. Krafft, B. Yunn, Y. Zhang, J.R. Delayen

    2011-09-01

    This report shows our progress in crab crossing consideration for future electron-ion collider envisioned at JLab. In this design phase, we are evaluating two crabbing schemes viz., the deflecting and dispersive. The mathematical formulations and lattice design for these schemes are discussed in this paper. Numerical simulations involving particle tracking through a realistic deflecting RF cavity and optics illustrate the desired crab tilt of 25 mrad for 1.35 MV. Evolution of beam propagation are shown which provides the physical insight of the crabbing phenomenon.

  4. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams ...

  5. Preliminary heavy ion results on the Zynq ARM (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Preliminary heavy ion results on the Zynq ARM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary heavy ion results on the Zynq ARM Authors: Quinn, Heather ...

  6. Status of the MEIC ion collider ring design (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We describe complete ion collider optics including an independently-designed modular detector region. Authors: Morozov, Vasiliy ; Derbenev, Yaroslav ; Harwood, Leigh ; Hutton, ...

  7. Solenoid transport for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Edward

    2004-06-15

    Solenoid transport of high current, heavy ion beams is considered for several stages of a heavy ion fusion driver. In general this option is more efficient than magnetic quadrupole transport at sufficiently low kinetic energy and/or large e/m, and for this reason it has been employed in electron induction linacs. Ideally an ion beam would be transported in a state of Brillouin flow, i.e. cold in the transverse plane and spinning at one half the cyclotron frequency. The design of appropriate solenoids and the equilibrium and stability of transported ion beams are discussed. An outline of application to a fusion driver is also presented.

  8. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  9. SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for heavy element production...II-1 P. K.Sahu, J. B. Natowitz, R. Wada, K. Hagel, T. Materna, Z. Chen, L. Qin, M. Barbui,...

  10. TMDs and GPDs at a future Electron-Ion Collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ent, Rolf

    2016-06-21

    With two options studied at Brookhaven National Lab and Jefferson Laboratory the U.S., an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) of energy √s=20-100 GeV was under design. Furthermore, the recent 2015 US Nuclear Science Long-Range Planning effort included a future EIC as a recommendation for future construction. The EIC will be unique in colliding polarised electrons off polarised protons and light nuclei, providing the spin degrees of freedom essential to pursue its physics program driven by spin structure, multi-dimensional tomographic images of protons and nuclei, and discovery of the role of collective effects of gluons in nuclei. The foreseen luminosity of the EIC,more » coupled with its energy variability and reach, will allow unprecedented three-dimensional imaging of the gluon and sea quark distributions, via both TMDs and GPDs, and to explore correlations amongst them. Its hermetic detection capability of correlated fragments promises to similar allow for precise tomographic images of the quark-gluon landscape in nuclei, transcending from light few-body nuclei to the heaviest nuclei, and could uncover how the TMD and GPD landscape changes when gluons display an anticipated collective behavior at the higher energies.« less

  11. Ion Desorption Stability in Superconducting High Energy Physics Proton Colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, W.C.

    1995-05-29

    In this paper we extend our previous analysis of cold beam tube vacuum in a superconducting proton collider to include ion desorption in addition to thermal desorption and synchrotron radiation induced photodesorption. The new ion desorption terms introduce the possibility of vacuum instability. This is similar to the classical room temperature case but now modified by the inclusion of ion desorption coefficients for cryosorbed (physisorbed) molecules which can greatly exceed the coefficients for tightly bound molecules. The sojourn time concept for physisorbed H{sub 2} is generalized to include photodesorption and ion desorption as well as the usually considered thermal desorption. The ion desorption rate is density dependent and divergent so at the onset of instability the sojourn time goes to zero. Experimental data are used to evaluate the H{sub 2} sojourn time for the conditions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the situation is found to be stable. The sojourn time is dominated by photodesorption for surface density s(H{sub 2}) less than a monolayer and by thermal deposition for s(H{sub 2}) greater than a monolayer. For a few percent of a monolayer, characteristic of a beam screen, the photodesorption rate exceeds ion desorption rate by more than two orders of magnitude. The photodesorption rate corresponds to a sojourn time of approximately 100 sec. The paper next turns to the evaluation of stability margins and inclusion of gases heavier than H{sub 2} (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), where ion desorption introduces coupling between molecular species. Stability conditions are worked out for a simple cold beam tube, a cold beam tube pumped from the ends and a cold beam tube with a co-axial perforated beam screen. In each case a simple inequality for stability of a single component is replaced by a determinant that must be greater than zero for a gas mixture. The connection with the general theory of feedback stability is made and it is shown that the gains

  12. Modeling Crabbing Dynamics in an Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castilla, Alejandro; Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Satogata, Todd J.; Delayen, Jean R.

    2015-09-01

    A local crabbing scheme requires ?/2 (mod ?) horizontal betatron phase advances from an interaction point (IP) to the crab cavities on each side of it. However, realistic phase advances generated by sets of quadrupoles, or Final Focusing Blocks (FFB), between the crab cavities located in the expanded beam regions and the IP differ slightly from ?/2. To understand the effect of crabbing on the beam dynamics in this case, a simple model of the optics of the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) including local crabbing was developed using linear matrices and then studied numerically over multiple turns (1000 passes) of both electron and proton bunches. The same model was applied to both local and global crabbing schemes to determine the linear-order dynamical effects of the synchro-betatron coupling induced by crabbing.

  13. Design studies for the next generation electron ion colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal; Bogacz, Slawomir A.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    The next generation Electron Ion Collider (EIC) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) utilizes a figure-8 shaped ion and electron rings. EIC has the ability to preserve the ion polarization during acceleration, where the electron ring matches in footprint with a figure-8 ion ring. The electron ring is designed to deliver a highly polarized high luminous electron beam at interaction point (IP). The main challenges of the electron ring design are the chromaticity compensation and maintaining high beam polarization of 70% at all energies 311 GeV without introducing transverse orbital coupling before the IP. The very demanding detector design limits the minimum distance between the final focus quadrupole and the interaction point to 3.5 m which results in a large ? function inside the final focus quadrupoles leading to increased beam chromaticity. In this paper, we present a novel chromaticity compensation scheme that mitigates IP chromaticity by a compact chromaticity compensation section with multipole magnet components. In addition, a set of spin rotators are utilized to manipulate the polarization vector of the electron beam in order to preserve the beam polarization. The spin rotator solenoids introduce undesired coupling between the horizontal and vertical betatron motion of the beam. We introduce a compact and modular orbit decoupling insert that can fit in the limited space of the straight section in the figure-8 ring. We show a numerical study of the figure-8 ring design with the compact straight section, which includes the interaction region, chromaticity compensation section, and the spin rotators, the figure-8 design performance is evaluated with particle tracking.

  14. Synchrotrons for heavy ions: Bevalac experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunder, H.A.; Gough, R.A.; Alonso, J.R.

    1980-10-01

    The Bevalac should be viewed not as a model of accelerator hardware - a modern heavy ion complex will look quite different, but as a model for an operating versatile multifaceted, multiuser heavy ion facility. Of value to the planning of a new accelerator such as MARIA is the knowledge of operating modes peculiar to heavy ions and specific hardware requirements to carry out its mission with the mandated flexibility and reliability. This paper starts with a discussion of parameters and machine characteristics most suitable for medical and nuclear science applications. It then covers experience in interleaving these two research programs, and finally, concentrates on accelerator configuratin questions; injectors, repetition rate, vacuum systems and cost criteria which will be relevant to the design of MARIA.

  15. Physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chang, Ning-bo; Cao, ShanShan; Chen, Bao-yi; Chen, Shi-yong; Chen, Zhen-yu; Ding, Heng-Tong; He, Min; Liu, Zhi-quan; Pang, Long-gang; Qin, Guang-you; et al

    2016-01-15

    We expect heavy-ion collisions at very high colliding energies to produce a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest temperature obtainable in a laboratory setting. Experimental studies of these reactions can provide an unprecedented range of information on properties of the QGP at high temperatures. We also report theoretical investigations of the physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at a future high-energy collider. These include initial parton production, collective expansion of the dense medium, jet quenching, heavy-quark transport, dissociation and regeneration of quarkonia, photon and dilepton production. Here, we illustrate the potential of future experimental studies of the initial particle production andmore » formation of QGP at the highest temperature to provide constraints on properties of strongly interaction matter.« less

  16. RHIC performance for FY2011 Au+Au heavy ion run

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, G.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gardner, C.J.; Gassner, D.M.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.F.; Jamilkowski, J.P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.S.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.J.; Minty, M.G.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Polizzo, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Sandberg, J.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; VanKuik, B.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-09-04

    Following the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 (Run-10) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Au+Au run, RHIC experiment upgrades sought to improve detector capabilities. In turn, accelerator improvements were made to improve the luminosity available to the experiments for this run (Run-11). These improvements included: a redesign of the stochastic cooling systems for improved reliability; a relocation of 'common' RF cavities to alleviate intensity limits due to beam loading; and an improved usage of feedback systems to control orbit, tune and coupling during energy ramps as well as while colliding at top energy. We present an overview of changes to the Collider and review the performance of the collider with respect to instantaneous and integrated luminosity goals. At the conclusion of the FY 2011 polarized proton run, preparations for heavy ion run proceeded on April 18, with Au+Au collisions continuing through June 28. Our standard operations at 100 GeV/nucleon beam energy was bracketed by two shorter periods of collisions at lower energies (9.8 and 13.5 GeV/nucleon), continuing a previously established program of low and medium energy runs. Table 1 summarizes our history of heavy ion operations at RHIC.

  17. Design of Electron and Ion Crabbing Cavities for an Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alejandro Castilla Loeza, Geoffrey Krafft, Jean Delayen

    2012-07-01

    Beyond the 12 GeV upgrade at the Jefferson Lab a Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) has been considered. In order to achieve the desired high luminosities at the Interaction Points (IP), the use of crabbing cavities is under study. In this work, we will present to-date designs of superconducting cavities, considered for crabbing both ion and electron bunches. A discussion of properties such as peak surface fields and higher-order mode separation will be presented. Keywords: super conducting, deflecting cavity, crab cavity.

  18. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

    2002-06-25

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

  19. Probing the Quark Sea and Gluons: the Electron-Ion Collider Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolf Ent

    2012-04-01

    scattering probabilities are small, and any integrated detector/interaction region design needs to provide uniform coverage to detect spectator and diffractive products. This is because e-p and even more e-A colliders have a large fraction of their science related to what happens to the nucleon or ion beams. As a result, the philosophy of integration of complex detectors into an extended interaction region faces challenging constraints. Designs feature crossing angles between the protons or heavy ions during collisions with electrons, to remove potential problems for the detector induced by synchrotron radiation. Designs allocate quite some detector space before the final-focus ion quads, at the cost of luminosity, given that uniform detection coverage is a must for deep exclusive and diffractive processes. The integrated EIC detector/interaction region design at JLab focused on establishing full acceptance for such processes over a wide range of proton energies (20-100 GeV) with well achievable interaction region magnets. The detector design at BNL uses the higher ion beam energies to achieve good detection efficiency for instance for protons following a DVCS reaction, for proton beam energies starting from 100 GeV. Following a recommendation of the 2007 US Nuclear Science Long-Range Planning effort, the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics (DOE/NP) has allocated accelerator R&D funds to lay the foundation for a polarized EIC. BNL, in association with JLab and DOE/NP, has also established a generic detector R&D program to address the scientific requirements for measurements at a future EIC.

  20. Thermoacoustic imaging using heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, T.N.; Tesmer, J.R.; Deemer, B.C.; Murphy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Ion beams have been used for surface modification, semiconductor device fabrication and for material analysis, which makes ion-material interactions of significant importance. Ion implantation will produce new compositions near the surface by ion mixing or directly by implanting desired ions. Ions exchange their energy to the host material as they travel into the material by several different processes. High energy ions ionize the host atoms before atomic collisions transfer the remaining momentum and stop the incident ion. As they penetrate the surface, the low energy ions ionize the host atoms, but also have a significantly large momentum transfer mechanism near the surface of the material. This leads to atoms, groups of atoms and electrons being ejected from the surface, which is the momentum transfer process of sputtering. This talk addresses the acoustic waves generated during ion implantation using modulated heavy ion beams. The mechanisms for elastic wave generation during ion implantation, in the regimes where sputtering is significant and where implantation is dominant and sputtering is negligible, has been studied. The role of momentum transfer and thermal energy production during ion implantation was compared to laser generated elastic waves in an opaque solid as a reference, since laser generated ultrasound has been extensively studied and is fairly well understood. The thermoelastic response dominated in both high and low ion energy regimes since, apparently, more energy is lost to thermal heat producing mechanisms than momentum transfer processes. The signal magnitude was found to vary almost linearly with incident energy as in the laser thermoelastic regime. The time delays for longitudinal and shear waves-were characteristic of those expected for a purely thermal heating source. The ion beams are intrinsically less sensitive to the albedo of the surface.

  1. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  2. Charmonium production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Taesoo; Han, Kyong Chol; Ko, Che Ming

    2011-09-15

    Using the two-component model that includes charmonium production from both initial nucleon-nucleon hard scattering and regeneration in the produced quark-gluon plasma, we study J/{psi} production in heavy-ion collisions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For the expansion dynamics of produced hot dense matter, we use a schematic viscous hydrodynamic model with the specific shear viscosity in the quark-gluon plasma and the hadronic matter taken, respectively, to be two and ten times the lower bound of 1/4{pi} suggested by the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. For the initial dissociation and the subsequent thermal decay of charmonia in the hot dense matter, we use the screened Cornell potential to describe the properties of charmonia and perturbative QCD to calculate their dissociation cross sections. Including regeneration of charmonia in the quark-gluon plasma via a kinetic equation with in-medium chamonium decay widths, we obtain a good description of measured J/{psi} nuclear modification factors in Pb + Pb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=1.73 GeV at SPS and in Au + Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV at RHIC. A reasonable description of the measured nuclear modification factor of high transverse momenta J/{psi} in Pb + Pb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV at LHC is also obtained.

  3. Dynamical limitations to heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    In spite of the many attempts to synthesize superheavy elements in recent years, these efforts have not yet been successful. Recent improved theoretical models of heavy-ion fusion reactions suggest that the formation of super-heavy elements is hindered by the dynamics of the process. Several recent experiments lend support to these theories. The necessity of an excess radial velocity (extra push) over the Coulomb barrier in order to induce fusion is observed experimentally as predicted by the theory. So is a new reaction mechanism, called quasi-fission which tend to exhaust the part of the reaction cross section, which would otherwise lead to fusion. The present study shows that the angular distribution of fragments from quasi-fission processes are very sensitive to the occurrence of this reaction mechanism. A slight modification of one parameter in the theory demanded by the observation of quasi-fission for lighter projectiles via the angular distributions, has the consequence of posing even more-stringent limitations on heavy-ion-fusion reactions. This reduces even further the possibility for synthesizing and identifying superheavy elements in heavy-ion-fusion reactions.

  4. Constraining the equation of state of superhadronic matter from heavy-ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pratt, Scott; Sorensen, Paul; Sangaline, Evan; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-19

    The equation of state of QCD matter for temperatures near and above the quark-hadron transition (~165 MeV) is inferred within a Bayesian framework through the comparison of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and from the Large Hadron Collider to theoretical models. State-of-the-art statistical techniques are applied to simultaneously analyze multiple classes of observables while varying 14 independent model parameters. Thus, the resulting posterior distribution over possible equations of state is consistent with results from lattice gauge theory.

  5. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  6. RF System Requirements for a Medium-Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimmer, Robert A; Hannon, Fay E; Guo, Jiquan; Huang, Shichun; Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, S

    2015-09-01

    JLab is studying options for a medium energy electron-ion collider that could fit on the JLab site and use CEBAF as a full-energy electron injector. A new ion source, linac and booster would be required, together with collider storage rings for the ions and electrons. In order to achieve the maximum luminosity these will be high-current storage rings with many bunches. We present the high-level RF system requirements for the storage rings, ion booster ring and high-energy ion beam cooling system, and describe the technology options under consideration to meet them. We also present options for staging that might reduce the initial capital cost while providing a smooth upgrade path to a higher final energy. The technologies under consideration may also be useful for other proposed storage ring colliders or ultimate light sources.

  7. Commissioning of the EBIS-based heavy ion preinjector at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Binello, S.; Hoff, L.; Kondo, K.; Lambiase, R.; LoDestro, V.; Mapes, M.; McNerney, A.; Morris, J.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Smart, L.; Snydstrup, L.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Schempp, A.; Ratzinger, U.; Kanesue, T.

    2010-09-12

    The status is presented of the commissioning of a new heavy ion preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This preinjector uses an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), and an RFQ and IH Linac, both operating at 100.625 MHz, to produce 2 MeV/u ions of any species for use, after further acceleration, at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Among the increased capabilities provided by this preinjector are the ability to produce ions of any species, and the ability to switch between multiple species in 1 second, to simultaneously meet the needs of both science programs. For initial setup, helium beam from EBIS was injected and circulated in the Booster synchrotron. Following this, accelerated Au{sup 32+} and Fe{sup 20+} beams were transported to the Booster injection point, fulfilling DOE requirements for project completion.

  8. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility: Users handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auble, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this handbook is to provide information for those who plan to carry out research programs at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator systems and experimental apparatus available are described. The mechanism for obtaining accelerator time and the responsibilities of those users who are granted accelerator time are described. The names and phone numbers of ORNL personnel to call for information about specific areas are given. (LEW)

  9. Femtoscopy in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa, M; Pratt, S; Soltz, R A; Wiedemann, U

    2005-07-29

    Analyses of two-particle correlations have provided the chief means for determining spatio-temporal characteristics of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss the theoretical formalism behind these studies and the experimental methods used in carrying them out. Recent results from RHIC are put into context in a systematic review of correlation measurements performed over the past two decades. The current understanding of these results are discussed in terms of model comparisons and overall trends.

  10. A Radiographic Technique With Heavy Ion Microbeams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muscio, J.; Somacal, H.; Burlon, A. A.; Debray, M. E.; Valda, A. A.; Kreiner, A. J.; Kesque, J. M.; Minsky, D. M.

    2007-02-12

    In this work, we introduce a new technique to perform densitometric and multielemental analysis of samples at the same time using a simple detector with heavy ion micro-beams. It consists in the simultaneous analysis of X-rays induced in the sample and in a secondary target arranged behind the specimen. The X-rays originated in the secondary target are attenuated when crossing the specimen producing a radiographic image with a monochromatic source.

  11. The Shape and Flow of Heavy Ion Collisions (490th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenke, Bjoern

    2014-12-18

    The sun can’t do it, but colossal machines like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven Lab and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Europe sure can. Quarks and gluons make up protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of every atom in the universe. At heavy ion colliders like RHIC and the LHC, scientists can create matter more than 100,000 times hotter than the center of the sun—so hot that protons and neutrons melt into a plasma of quarks and gluons. The particle collisions and emerging quark-gluon plasma hold keys to understanding how these fundamental particles interact with each other, which helps explain how everything is held together—from atomic nuclei to human beings to the biggest stars—how all matter has mass, and what the universe looked like microseconds after the Big Bang. Dr. Schenke discusses theory that details the shape and structure of heavy ion collisions. He will also explain how this theory and data from experiments at RHIC and the LHC are being used to determine properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

  12. Heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and RHIC II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frawley, A D; Ullrich, T; Vogt, R

    2008-03-30

    In the initial years of operation, experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have identified a new form of matter formed in nuclei-nuclei collisions at energy densities more than 100 times that of a cold atomic nucleus. Measurements and comparison with relativistic hydrodynamic models indicate that the matter thermalizes in an unexpectedly short time, has an energy density at least 15 times larger than needed for color deconfinement, has a temperature about twice the critical temperature predicted by lattice QCD, and appears to exhibit collective motion with ideal hydrodynamic properties--a 'perfect liquid' that appears to flow with a near-zero viscosity to entropy ratio--lower than any previously observed fluid and perhaps close to a universal lower bound. However, a fundamental understanding of the medium seen in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC does not yet exist. The most important scientific challenge for the field in the next decade is the quantitative exploration of the new state of nuclear matter. That will require new data that will, in turn, require enhanced capabilities of the RHIC detectors and accelerator. In this report we discuss the scientific opportunities for an upgraded RHIC facility --RHIC II--in conjunction with improved capabilities of the two large RHIC detectors, PHENIX and STAR. We focus solely on heavy flavor probes. Their production rates are calculable using the well-established techniques of perturbative QCD and their sizable interactions with the hot QCD medium provide unique and sensitive measurements of its crucial properties making them one of the key diagnostic tools available to us.

  13. Heavy Ion Reaction Modeling for Hadrontherapy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Enghardt, W.; Gadioli, E.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.; Sommerer, F.

    2007-10-26

    A comprehensive and reliable description of nucleus-nucleus interactions represents a crucial need in different interdisciplinary fields. In particular, hadrontherapy monitoring by means of in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) requires, in addition to measuring, the capability of calculating the activity of {beta}{sup +}-decaying nuclei produced in the irradiated tissue. For this purpose, in view of treatment monitoring at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy (HIT) facility, the transport and interaction Monte Carlo code FLUKA is a promising candidate. It is provided with the description of heavy ion reactions at intermediate and low energies by two specific event generators. In-beam PET experiments performed at GSI for a few beam-target combinations have been simulated and first comparisons between the measured and calculated {beta}{sup +}-activity are available.

  14. Design of the Proposed Low Energy Ion Collider Ring at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nissen, Edward W.; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong

    2013-06-01

    The polarized Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) envisioned at Jefferson Lab will cover a range of center-of-mass energies up to 65 GeV. The present MEIC design could also allow the accommodation of low energy electron-ion collisions (LEIC) for additional science reach. This paper presents the first design of the low energy ion collider ring which is converted from the large ion booster of MEIC. It can reach up to 25 GeV energy for protons and equivalent ion energies of the same magnetic rigidity. An interaction region and an electron cooler designed for MEIC are integrated into the low energy collider ring, in addition to other required new elements including crab cavities and ion spin rotators, for later reuse in MEIC itself. A pair of vertical chicanes which brings the low energy ion beams to the plane of the electron ring and back to the low energy ion ring are also part of the design.

  15. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory Python in a Parallel Environment Dave Grote - LLNL & LBNL NUG2013 User Day Wednesday, February 15, 2013 Slide 2 The Heavy Ion Fusion ...

  16. Can CP violation be observed in heavy-ion collisions?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khriplovich, I. B. Rudenko, A. S.

    2012-09-15

    We demonstrate that, at least at present, there is no convincing way to detect CP violation in heavy-ion collisions.

  17. Heavy-ion Accelerators for Testing Microelectronic Components...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Applicationinstrumentation: Use of heavy-ion accelerators for testing microelectronic components for space radiation effects Developed ...

  18. Heavy-Quark Associated Production with One Hard Photon at Hadron Colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartanto, Heribertus Bayu

    2013-01-01

    We present the calculation of heavy-quark associated production with a hard photon at hadron colliders, namely $pp(p\\bar p) \\rightarrow Q\\bar Q\\gam +X$ (for $Q=t,b$), at Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). We study the impact of NLO QCD corrections on the total cross section and several differential distributions at both the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For $t\\bar t\\gam$ production we observe a sizeable reduction of the renormalization and factorization scale dependence when the NLO QCD corrections are included, while for $b\\bar b\\gam$ production a considerable scale dependence still persists at NLO in QCD. This is consistent with what emerges in similar processes involving $b$ quarks and vector bosons and we explain its origin in detail. For $b\\bar b\\gam$ production we study both the case in which at least one $b$ jet and the case in which at least two $b$ jets are observed. We perform the $b\\bar b\\gam$ calculation using the Four Flavor Number Scheme (4FNS) and compare the case where at least one $b$ jet is observed with the corresponding results from the Five Flavor Number Scheme (5FNS) calculation. Finally we compare our results for $p\\bar p \\rightarrow \\gam+b+X$ with the Tevatron data.

  19. Gated beam imager for heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahle, Larry; Hopkins, Harvey S.

    1998-12-10

    As part of the work building a small heavy-ion induction accelerator ring, or recirculator, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a diagnostic device measuring the four-dimensional transverse phase space of the beam in just a single pulse has been developed. This device, the Gated Beam Imager (GBI), consists of a thin plate filled with an array of 100-micron diameter holes and uses a Micro Channel Plate (MCP), a phosphor screen, and a CCD camera to image the beam particles that pass through the holes after they have drifted for a short distance. By time gating the MCP, the time evolution of the beam can also be measured, with each time step requiring a new pulse.

  20. Gated beam imager for heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahle, L.; Hopkins, H.S.

    1998-12-01

    As part of the work building a small heavy-ion induction accelerator ring, or recirculator, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a diagnostic device measuring the four-dimensional transverse phase space of the beam in just a single pulse has been developed. This device, the Gated Beam Imager (GBI), consists of a thin plate filled with an array of 100-micron diameter holes and uses a Micro Channel Plate (MCP), a phosphor screen, and a CCD camera to image the beam particles that pass through the holes after they have drifted for a short distance. By time gating the MCP, the time evolution of the beam can also be measured, with each time step requiring a new pulse. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapidity spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.

  2. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapiditymore » spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.« less

  3. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) IBA Table (HTML) | IBA Table (135KB GIF) | IBA Table (1.2MB PDF) | IBA Table (33MB TIF) | Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) | Virtual Lab Tour (6MB) Description of Technique: HIBS is used to detect ultra-trace levels of heavy impurities on the surface of a Si wafer. HIBS has advantages over TXRF, including: Improved sensitivity for most elements Quantifying composition without standards Measurement on rough surfaces. HIBS is accomplished by

  4. High-energy high-luminosity electron-ion collider eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Webb, S.; et al

    2011-08-09

    In this paper, we describe a future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference. The replacement cost of the RHIC facility is about two billion US dollars, and the eRHIC will fully take advantage and utilize this investment. We plan adding a polarized 5-30 GeV electron beam to collide with variety of species in the existing RHIC accelerator complex, from polarized protons with a top energy of 325 GeV, to heavy fully-striped ions with energies up to 130 GeV/u. Brookhaven's innovative design, is based on one of the RHIC's hadron rings and a multi-pass energy-recovery linac (ERL). Using the ERL as the electron accelerator assures high luminosity in the 10{sup 33}-10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} range, and for the natural staging of eRHIC, with the ERL located inside the RHIC tunnel. The eRHIC will provide electron-hadron collisions in up to three interaction regions. We detail the eRHIC's performance in Section 2. Since first paper on eRHIC paper in 2000, its design underwent several iterations. Initially, the main eRHIC option (the so-called ring-ring, RR, design) was based on an electron ring, with the linac-ring (LR) option as a backup. In 2004, we published the detailed 'eRHIC 0th Order Design Report' including a cost-estimate for the RR design. After detailed studies, we found that an LR eRHIC has about a 10-fold higher luminosity than the RR. Since 2007, the LR, with its natural staging strategy and full transparency for polarized electrons, became the main choice for eRHIC. In 2009, we completed technical studies of the design and dynamics for MeRHIC with 3-pass 4 GeV ERL. We learned much from this evaluation, completed a bottom-up cost estimate for this $350M machine, but then shelved the design. In the same year, we turned again to considering the cost-effective, all-in-tunnel six-pass ERL for our design of the high

  5. Study of heavy-ion collisions in the PHENIX experiment: Survey of the most recent results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riabov, V. G. Samsonov, V. M.

    2011-03-15

    The first experimental results obtained at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) over the period between 2000 and 2005 are indicative of the production of dense and hot partonic matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Investigations performed in recent years make it possible to extend the list of measured signatures and to study their dependence on the greater number of variables. The most recent results obtained in the PHENIX experiment by studying proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions are surveyed. Particular attention is given to studying the properties of the initial state, dynamical evolution of the product medium, and its response to the propagation of high-energy partons through it. The aforementioned effects are studied via measuring the properties of identified hadrons and leptons over a broad region of transverse momenta at various rapidities.

  6. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  7. Benchmarking of Neutron Production of Heavy-Ion Transport Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remec, Igor; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of radiation fields generated by heavy ion interactions is important in medical applications, space missions, and in design and operation of rare isotope research facilities. In recent years, several well-established computer codes in widespread use for particle and radiation transport calculations have been equipped with the capability to simulate heavy ion transport and interactions. To assess and validate these capabilities, we performed simulations of a series of benchmark-quality heavy ion experiments with the computer codes FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS. We focus on the comparisons of secondary neutron production. Results are encouraging; however, further improvements in models and codes and additional benchmarking are required.

  8. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Bangerter, R.O. ); Bock, R. ); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. )

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  9. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  10. Progress on the design of the polarized Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider at JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, F.; Bogacz, A.; Brindza, P.; Camsonne, A.; Daly, E.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Douglas, D.; Ent, R.; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Grames, J.; Guo, J.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Jordan, K.; Kimber, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Michalski, T.; Morozov, V. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; /Jefferson Lab /Argonne /DESY /Moscow , Inst. Phys. Tech., Dolgoprydny /Dubna, JINR /Northern Illinois U. /Old Doominion U. /Novosibirsk, GOO Zaryad /SLAC /Texas A-M

    2015-07-14

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab is designed to provide high luminosity and high polarization needed to reach new frontiers in the exploration of nuclear structure. The luminosity, exceeding 1033 cm-2s-1 in a broad range of the center-of-mass (CM) energy and maximum luminosity above 1034 cm-2s-1, is achieved by high-rate collisions of short small-emittance low-charge bunches made possible by high-energy electron cooling of the ion beam and synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. The polarization of light ion species (p, d, 3He) can be easily preserved and manipulated due to the unique figure-8 shape of the collider rings. A fully consistent set of parameters have been developed considering the balance of machine performance, required technical development and cost. This paper reports recent progress on the MEIC accelerator design including electron and ion complexes, integrated interaction region design, figure-8-ring-based electron and ion polarization schemes, RF/SRF systems and ERL-based high-energy electron cooling. Luminosity performance is also presented for the MEIC baseline design.

  11. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Brookhaven Summer Program on Quarkonium Production in Elementary and Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumitru, A.; Lourenco, C.; Petreczky, P.; Qiu, J., Ruan, L.

    2011-08-03

    Understanding the structure of the hadron is of fundamental importance in subatomic physics. Production of heavy quarkonia is arguably one of the most fascinating subjects in strong interaction physics. It offers unique perspectives into the formation of QCD bound states. Heavy quarkonia are among the most studied particles both theoretically and experimentally. They have been, and continue to be, the focus of measurements in all high energy colliders around the world. Because of their distinct multiple mass scales, heavy quarkonia were suggested as a probe of the hot quark-gluon matter produced in heavy-ion collisions; and their production has been one of the main subjects of the experimental heavy-ion programs at the SPS and RHIC. However, since the discovery of J/psi at Brookhaven National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory over 36 years ago, theorists still have not been able to fully understand the production mechanism of heavy quarkonia, although major progresses have been made in recent years. With this in mind, a two-week program on quarkonium production was organized at BNL on June 6-17, 2011. Many new experimental data from LHC and from RHIC were presented during the program, including results from the LHC heavy ion run. To analyze and correctly interpret these measurements, and in order to quantify properties of the hot matter produced in heavy-ion collisions, it is necessary to improve our theoretical understanding of quarkonium production. Therefore, a wide range of theoretical aspects on the production mechanism in the vacuum as well as in cold nuclear and hot quark-gluon medium were discussed during the program from the controlled calculations in QCD and its effective theories such as NRQCD to various models, and to the first principle lattice calculation. The scientific program was divided into three major scientific parts: basic production mechanism for heavy quarkonium in vacuum or in high energy elementary collisions; the

  12. A new luminescence beam profile monitor for intense proton and heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang,T.; Bellavia, S.; Connolly, R.; Gassner, D.; Makdisi, Y.; Russo, T.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-10-01

    A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.

  13. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  14. Heavy-ion Fusion Reactions with Neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy-ion Fusion Reactions with Neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams A. Wakhle National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA The predicted shell closures forming the 'island of stability' [1-2] are beyond the reach of stable beams [3]. This dictates that future efforts towards the synthesis of super-heavy elements (SHEs) [4] must utilize neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The low intensities of RIBs puts this goal beyond the

  15. Nuclear physics with a medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Accardi, V. Guzey, A. Prokudin, C. Weiss

    2012-06-01

    A polarized ep/eA collider (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with variable center-of-mass energy {radical}s {approx} 20-70 GeV and a luminosity {approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} would be uniquely suited to address several outstanding questions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the microscopic structure of hadrons and nuclei: (i) the three-dimensional structure of the nucleon in QCD (sea quark and gluon spatial distributions, orbital motion, polarization, correlations); (ii) the fundamental color fields in nuclei (nuclear parton densities, shadowing, coherence effects, color transparency); (iii) the conversion of color charge to hadrons (fragmentation, parton propagation through matter, in-medium jets). We briefly review the conceptual aspects of these questions and the measurements that would address them, emphasizing the qualitatively new information that could be obtained with the collider. Such a medium-energy EIC could be realized at Jefferson Lab after the 12 GeV Upgrade (MEIC), or at Brookhaven National Lab as the low-energy stage of eRHIC.

  16. Inferring Magnetospheric Heavy Ion Density using EMIC Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from EMIC wave observations that result from ionion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. This mode converted wave is localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this letter, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and field-aligned wave numbers using a dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentrations, it only occurs for a limited range of field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  17. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Sandeep K. [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goloubinoff, Pierre [Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Christen, Philipp [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: christen@bioc.uzh.ch

    2008-07-25

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

  18. Tests of an RF Dipole Crabbing Cavity for an Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castilla Loeza, Alejandro; Delayen, Jean R.

    2013-12-01

    On the scheme of developing a medium energy electron-ion collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab, we have designed a compact superconducting rf dipole cavity at 750 MHz to crab both electron and ion bunches and increase luminosities at the interaction points (IP) of the machine. Following the design optimization and characterization of the electromagnetic properties such as peak surface fields and shunt impedance, along with field nonuniformities, multipole components content, higher order modes (HOM) and multipacting, a prototype cavity was built by Niowave Inc. The 750 MHz prototype crab cavity has been tested at 4 K and is ready for re-testing at 4 K and 2 K at Jefferson Lab. In this paper we present the detailed results of the rf tests performed on the 750 MHz crab cavity prototype.

  19. New heavy-ion-fusion accelerator research program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1983-05-01

    This paper will briefly summarize the concepts of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), especially those aspects that are important to its potential for generating electrical power. It will also note highlights of the various HIF programs throughout the world. Especially significant is that the US Department of Energy (DOE) plans a program, beginning in 1984, aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The new program concentrates on the aspects of accelerator design that are important to ICF, and for this reason is called HIF Accelerator Research.

  20. 2014-2015 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isospin equilibration in Fermi-energy heavy-ion nuclear collisions L.W. May, P. Cammarata, L. Heilborn, Z. Kohley, A. McIntosh, M. Youngs, A. Zarrella, and S.J. Yennello N/Z transport within a deformed nuclear system A. Jedele, A.B. McIntosh, L. Heilborn, M. Youngs, A. Zarrella, E. McCleskey, L.W. May, and S.J. Yennello Exploring the limits of the thermodynamic model of heavy-ion collisions with respect to particle ratios M. Youngs, A.B. McIntosh, L. Heilborn, A. Jedele, L.W. May, E. McCleskey,

  1. Investigation of the dynamics of gluon distributions in the production of heavy quarks and quarkonia at the LEP2 collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipatov, A. V.

    2006-09-15

    The inclusive production of heavy quarks and quarkonia in photon-photon collisions at the LEP2 collider is considered within the semihard (k{sub T}-factorization) QCD approach. The dependence of the total and differential cross sections for the production of heavy (c and b) quarks and D* and J/{psi} mesons on the choice of unintegrated gluon distribution is studied. The transition of a cc-bar charmed pair to observed J/{psi} mesons is described on the basis of the color-singlet model. The results of the calculations are compared with currently available experimental data obtained by the L3, OPAL, ALEPH, and DELPHI Collaborations. It is shown that the polarization properties of J/{psi} mesons at the LEP2 collider are sensitive to the behavior of unintegrated gluon distributions. This means that experimental investigations of the polarization properties of quarkonia in photon-photon collisions may provide a direct test of the dynamics of gluon distributions in the photon.

  2. Benchmarking Heavy Ion Transport Codes FLUKA, HETC-HEDS MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronningen, Reginald Martin; Remec, Igor; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.

    2013-06-07

    Powerful accelerators such as spallation neutron sources, muon-collider/neutrino facilities, and rare isotope beam facilities must be designed with the consideration that they handle the beam power reliably and safely, and they must be optimized to yield maximum performance relative to their design requirements. The simulation codes used for design purposes must produce reliable results. If not, component and facility designs can become costly, have limited lifetime and usefulness, and could even be unsafe. The objective of this proposal is to assess the performance of the currently available codes – PHITS, FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and HETC-HEDS – that could be used for design simulations involving heavy ion transport. We plan to access their performance by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data of benchmark quality. Quantitative knowledge of the biases and the uncertainties of the simulations is essential as this potentially impacts the safe, reliable and cost effective design of any future radioactive ion beam facility. Further benchmarking of heavy-ion transport codes was one of the actions recommended in the “Report of the 2003 RIA R&D Workshop".

  3. Preliminary result of rapid solenoid for controlling heavy-ion beam parameters of laser ion source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Okamura, M.; Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.

    2015-03-13

    To realize a heavy ion inertial fusion driver, we have studied a possibility of laser ion source (LIS). A LIS can provide high current high brightness heavy ion beams, however it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters. To overcome the issue, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The rapid ramping magnetic field could enhance limited time slice of the current and simultaneously the beam emittance changed accordingly. This approach may also useful to realize an ion source for HIF power plant.

  4. 2009 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    search for super heavy elements using alternative mechanisms J. B. Natowitz, R. Wada, K. Hagel, T. Materna, Z. Chen, L. Qin, P. K. Sahu, G. Souliotis, G. Chubaryan, M. Barbui, S. Moretto, D. Fabris, M. Lunardon, M. Morando, G. Nebbia, S. Pesente, V. Rizzi, G. Viesti, V. Bocci, A. Andrighetto, M. Cinausero, G. Prete, Z. Majka, A. Wieloch, S. Kowalski,F. D. Bechetti, T. W. O'Donnell, and H. Griffin Calibration of the 40Ca + 40Ca data taken on NIMROD-ISiS array C. Bottosso, J. B. Natowitz, K.

  5. Heavy ion collisions and the pre-equilibrium exciton model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betak, E.

    2012-10-20

    We present a feasible way to apply the pre-equilibrium exciton model in its masterequation formulation to heavy-ion induced reactions including spin variables. Emission of nucleons, {gamma}'s and also light clusters is included in our model.

  6. Entropy and hadrochemical composition in heavy ion collision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biro, T.; Barz, H.W.; Lukacs, B.; Zimanyi, J.

    1983-06-01

    The composite particle production in a heavy ion collision is calculated in the framework of a hadrochemical model. A critical comparison is performed between the produced entropy and the observables. The entropy production during the hadrochemical processes is found to be negligible.

  7. Photon and dilepton production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sakaguchi, Takao

    2015-05-07

    The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high energy heavy ion collisions, obtained particularly at RHIC and LHC are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.

  8. Simulation Studies of Beam-Beam Effects of a Ring-Ring Electron-Ion Collider Based on CEBAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuhong Zhang,Ji Qiang

    2009-05-01

    The collective beam-beam effect can potentially cause a rapid growth of beam sizes and reduce the luminosity of a collider to an unacceptably low level. The ELIC, a proposed ultra high luminosity electron-ion collider based on CEBAF, employs high repetition rate crab crossing colliding beams with very small bunch transverse sizes and very short bunch lengths, and collides them at up to 4 interaction points with strong final focusing. All of these features can make the beam-beam effect challenging. In this paper, we present simulation studies of the beam-beam effect in ELIC using a self-consistent strong-strong beam-beam simulation code developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This simulation study is used for validating the ELIC design and for searching for an optimal parameter set.

  9. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  10. Heavy quarkonium production at collider energies: Partonic cross section and polarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Jian -Wei; Kang, Zhong -Bo; Ma, Yan -Qing; Sterman, George

    2015-01-27

    We calculate the O(α³s) short-distance, QCD collinear-factorized coefficient functions for all partonic channels that include the production of a heavy quark pair at short distances. Thus, this provides the first power correction to the collinear-factorized inclusive hadronic production of heavy quarkonia at large transverse momentum, pT, including the full leading-order perturbative contributions to the production of heavy quark pairs in all color and spin states employed in NRQCD treatments of this process. We discuss the role of the first power correction in the production rates and the polarizations of heavy quarkonia in high-energy hadronic collisions. The consistency of QCD collinear factorization and nonrelativistic QCD factorization applied to heavy quarkonium production is also discussed.

  11. Heavy quarkonium production at collider energies: Partonic cross section and polarization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qiu, Jian -Wei; Kang, Zhong -Bo; Ma, Yan -Qing; Sterman, George

    2015-01-27

    We calculate the O(α³s) short-distance, QCD collinear-factorized coefficient functions for all partonic channels that include the production of a heavy quark pair at short distances. Thus, this provides the first power correction to the collinear-factorized inclusive hadronic production of heavy quarkonia at large transverse momentum, pT, including the full leading-order perturbative contributions to the production of heavy quark pairs in all color and spin states employed in NRQCD treatments of this process. We discuss the role of the first power correction in the production rates and the polarizations of heavy quarkonia in high-energy hadronic collisions. The consistency of QCD collinearmore » factorization and nonrelativistic QCD factorization applied to heavy quarkonium production is also discussed.« less

  12. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  13. Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich W. Heinz

    2012-11-09

    In the course of this project the Ohio State University group led by the PI, Professor Ulrich Heinz, developed a comprehensive theoretical picture of the dynamical evolution of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and of the numerous experimental observables that can be used to diagnose the evolving and short-lived hot and dense fireball created in such collisions. Starting from a qualitative understanding of the main features based on earlier research during the last decade of the twentieth century on collisions at lower energies, the group exploited newly developed theoretical tools and the stream of new high-quality data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory (which started operations in the summer of the year 2000) to arrive at an increasingly quantitative description of the experimentally observed phenomena. Work done at Ohio State University (OSU) was instrumental in the discovery during the years 2001-2003 that quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in nuclear collisions at RHIC behaves like an almost perfect liquid with minimal viscosity. The tool of relativistic fluid dynamics for viscous liquids developed at OSU in the years 2005-2007 opened the possibility to quantitatively determine the value of the QGP viscosity empirically from experimental measurements of the collective flow patterns established in the collisions. A first quantitative extraction of the QGP shear viscosity, with controlled theoretical uncertainty estimates, was achieved during the last year of this project in 2010. OSU has paved the way for a transition of the field of relativistic heavy-ion physics from a qualitative discovery stage to a new stage of quantitative precision in the description of quark-gluon plasma properties. To gain confidence in the precision of our theoretical understanding of quark-gluon plasma dynamics, one must test it on a large set of experimentally measured observables. This achievement report demonstrates that we have, at

  14. (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions ...

  15. Equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter and heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Gharaei, R.

    2011-08-15

    We employ the equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter to simulate the repulsive force caused by the incompressibility effects of nuclear matter in the fusion reactions of heavy colliding ions. The results of our studies reveal that temperature effects of compound nuclei have significant importance in simulating the repulsive force on the fusion reactions for which the temperature of the compound nucleus increases up to about 2 MeV. Since the equation of state of hot nuclear matter depends upon the density and temperature of the nuclear matter, it has been suggested that, by using this equation of state, one can simulate simultaneously both the effects of the precompound nucleons' emission and the incompressibility of nuclear matter to calculate the nuclear potential in fusion reactions within a static formalism such as the double-folding (DF) model.

  16. Heavy-ion excitation of rare-gas excimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, A.; Koerner, H.J.; Kroetz, W.; Ribitzki, G.; Murnick, D.E.; Matthias, E.; Kienle, P.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.

    1987-07-15

    Beams of high-energy heavy ions (Ar and U) from the UNILAC accelerator have been used to excite rare gases at pressures near 1 bar. The dominant spectroscopic feature observed in Ar, Kr, and Xe gases was molecular excimer emission at the second excimer continuum at 130, 150, and 170 nm, respectively. The excimer radiation was studied as a function of time (with respect to the excitation pulse), ion-beam current, pressure, and excitation density. The efficiency of excimer production from heavy-ion-beam energy was found to be several percent. Details of spectral shape, especially the ratio of first-to-second continuum emission, were found to depend on pressure and exciting beam type.

  17. Progress on the LBL ECR heavy ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, D.J.; Jongen, Y.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    The LBL ECR ion source, which began test operation in January 1984, has already produced a variety of high charge state heavy ion beams of sufficient intensity for cyclotron operation, although actual use must wait for completion of the beam transport system. The source has produced 40 ..mu..A of O/sup 6 +/, 2 ..mu..A of O/sup 7 +/, 40 ..mu..A of Ar/sup 8 +/, and 0.20 ..mu..A of Ar/sup 12 +/. The source development has centered on optimizing source performance with modifications and parameter tuning. Future plans include construction of an SmCo/sub 5/ octupole structure, and testing of solid feed techniques. The construction of the beam transport line and calculations on center region geometry for heavy ion axial injection into the 88-Inch Cyclotron are also underway.

  18. Fate of the initial state perturbations in heavy ion collisions. II. Glauber fluctuations and sounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staig, Pilar; Shuryak, Edward

    2011-09-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are well described by the (nearly ideal) hydrodynamics for average events. In the present paper we study initial state fluctuations appearing on an event-by-event basis and the propagation of perturbations induced by them. We found that (i) fluctuations of several of the lowest harmonics have comparable magnitudes and (ii) that at least all odd harmonics are correlated in phase, (iii) thus indicating the local nature of fluctuations. We argue that such local perturbations should be the source of the ''tiny bang,'' a pulse of sound propagating from it. We identify its two fundamental scales as (i) the ''sound horizon'' (analogous to the absolute ruler in cosmic microwave background and galaxy distributions) and (ii) the ''viscous horizon'' separating damped and undamped harmonics. We then qualitatively describe how one can determine them from the data and thus determine two fundamental parameters of the matter: the (average) speed of sound and viscosity. The rest of the paper explains how one can study mutual coherence of various harmonics. For that, one should go beyond the two-particle correlations to three (or more) particles. Mutual coherence is important for the picture of propagating sound waves.

  19. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolatedmore » point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Furthermore, inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.« less

  20. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  1. The heavy ion beam diagnostic for the tokamak ISTTOK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, J.A.C.; Malaquias, A.; Praxedes, A.; Toledo, W. van; Varandas, C.A.F. )

    1994-08-01

    In this paper the authors describe the heavy ion beam diagnostic for the tokamak ISTTOK, which has been designed to determine the temporal evolution of the plasma density, poloidal magnetic field and plasma potential profiles. This diagnostic makes use of a new type of high density caesium plasma source, a multiple cell detector and a fast data acquisition system. The authors describe the numerical code for trajectory and beam attenuation simulations, a method for the experimental determination of the poloidal field profile, the ion gun and the detection, control and data acquisition systems. Calibration tests and the first experimental results are presented.

  2. Time-of-flight heavy ion backscattering spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, J.A.; Banks, J.C.; Doyle, B.L.

    1993-08-01

    A new time-of-flight (TOF) ion detection system for Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) is described. Examples are also given of the use of the system for measuring low-level contamination on Si wafers. Currently, the TOF-HBIS system has a sensitivity of 1 {times} 10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2} for the heaviest of surface impurity atoms and a mass resolution capable of separating Fe from Cu. The sensitivity is expected to improve by an additional order of magnitude on a industrial TOF-HIBS system being constructed for SEMATECH.

  3. Calculation of cross sections for binary reactions between heavy ion projectiles and heavy actinide targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Hoffman, M.M.

    1990-11-01

    The computer program, described in this report, is identified as PWAVED5. It was developed to calculate cross sections for nucleon transfer reactions in low energy heavy ion bombardments. The objective was to calculate cross sections that agree with experimental results for ions of different charge and mass and to develop a predictive capability. It was undertaken because previous heavy ion calculations, for which programs were readily available, appeared to focus primarily on reactions resulting in compound nucleus formation and were not particularly applicable to calculations of binary reaction cross sections at low interaction energies. There are to principal areas in which this computation differs from several other partial wave calculations of heavy-ion reaction cross sections. First, this program is designed specifically to calculate cross sections for nucleon exchange interactions and to exclude interactions that are expected to result in fusion of the two nuclei. A second major difference in this calculation is the use of a statistical distribution to assign the total interaction cross section to individual final mass states.

  4. Production of 14 MeV neutrons by heavy ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brugger, Robert M.; Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a neutron generator and a method for the production of 14 MeV neutrons. Heavy ions are accelerated to impinge upon a target mixture of deuterium and tritium to produce recoil atoms of deuterium and tritium. These recoil atoms have a sufficient energy such that they interact with other atoms of tritium or deuterium in the target mixture to produce approximately 14 MeV neutrons.

  5. Heavy-ion Accelerators for Testing Microelectronic Components at LBNL |

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Heavy-ion Accelerators for Testing Microelectronic Components at LBNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy

  6. LHC INTERACTION REGION CORRECTION IN HEAVY ION OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PTITSIN,V.; FISCHER,W.; WEI,J.

    1999-09-07

    In heavy ion operation the LHC interaction region at IP2 will have a low-{beta} optics for collisions. The dynamic aperture is therefore sensitive to magnetic field errors in the interaction region quadrupoles and dipoles. The authors investigate the effect of the magnetic field errors on the dynamic aperture and evaluate the effectiveness of local interaction region correctors. The dynamic aperture and the tune space are computed for different crossing angles.

  7. Modeling Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W M; Niller, D A C; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L

    2002-08-02

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  8. Modeling chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2002-10-01

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  9. How much do heavy quarks thermalize in a heavy ion collision?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Guy D.; Teaney, Derek

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the thermalization of charm quarks in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. To this end, we calculate the diffusion coefficient in the perturbative quark gluon plasma and relate it to collisional energy loss and momentum broadening. We then use these transport properties to formulate a Langevin model for the evolution of the heavy quark spectrum in the hot medium. The model is strictly valid in the nonrelativistic limit and for all velocities {gamma}v<{alpha}s{sup -1/2} to leading logarithm in T/m{sub D}. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation can be solved analytically for a Bjorken expansion and the solution gives a simple estimate for the medium modifications of the heavy quark spectrum as a function of the diffusion coefficient. Finally we solve the Langevin equations numerically in a hydrodynamic simulation of the heavy-ion reaction. The results of this simulation are the medium modifications of the charm spectrum R{sub AA} and the expected elliptic flow v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) as a function of the diffusion coefficient.

  10. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-08

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond.

  11. Unveiling the proton spin decomposition at a future electron-ion collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschenauer, Elke C.; Sassot, Rodolfo; Stratmann, Marco

    2015-11-24

    We present a detailed assessment of how well a future electron-ion collider could constrain helicity parton distributions in the nucleon and, therefore, unveil the role of the intrinsic spin of quarks and gluons in the proton’s spin budget. Any remaining deficit in this decomposition will provide the best indirect constraint on the contribution due to the total orbital angular momenta of quarks and gluons. Specifically, all our studies are performed in the context of global QCD analyses based on realistic pseudodata and in the light of the most recent data obtained from polarized proton-proton collisions at BNL-RHIC that have provided evidence for a significant gluon polarization in the accessible, albeit limited range of momentum fractions. We also present projections on what can be achieved on the gluon’s helicity distribution by the end of BNL-RHIC operations. As a result, all estimates of current and projected uncertainties are performed with the robust Lagrange multiplier technique.

  12. Unveiling the proton spin decomposition at a future electron-ion collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aschenauer, Elke C.; Sassot, Rodolfo; Stratmann, Marco

    2015-11-24

    We present a detailed assessment of how well a future electron-ion collider could constrain helicity parton distributions in the nucleon and, therefore, unveil the role of the intrinsic spin of quarks and gluons in the proton’s spin budget. Any remaining deficit in this decomposition will provide the best indirect constraint on the contribution due to the total orbital angular momenta of quarks and gluons. Specifically, all our studies are performed in the context of global QCD analyses based on realistic pseudodata and in the light of the most recent data obtained from polarized proton-proton collisions at BNL-RHIC that have providedmore » evidence for a significant gluon polarization in the accessible, albeit limited range of momentum fractions. We also present projections on what can be achieved on the gluon’s helicity distribution by the end of BNL-RHIC operations. As a result, all estimates of current and projected uncertainties are performed with the robust Lagrange multiplier technique.« less

  13. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  14. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  15. Progress on the Los Alamos heavy-ion injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.C.; Riepe, K.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Heavy-ion fusion using an induction linac requires injection of multiple high-current beams from a pulsed electrostatic accelerator at as high a voltage as practical. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a 16-beam, 2-MeV, pulsed electrostatic accelerator for Al/sup +/ ions. The ion source will use a pulsed metal vapor arc plasma. A biased grid will control plasma flux into the ion extraction region. This source has achieved a normalized emittance of epsilon/sub n/ < 3.10/sup -7/..pi..-m-rad with Al/sup +/ ions. An 800 kV Marx prototype with a laser fired diverter is being assembled. The ceramic accelerating column sections have been brazed and leak tested. Voltage hold off on a brazed sample was more than doubled by selective removal of the Ticusil braze fillet extending along the ceramic. A scaled test module held 250 kV for 50 ..mu..s, giving confidence that the full module can hold 175 kV per section. The pressure vessel should be received in June 1986. High-voltage testing of a 1 MV column will begin by early 1987.

  16. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1999-02-16

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  17. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1999-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  18. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1998-07-21

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high (n,f) reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  19. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  20. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  1. An Updated Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S S; Meier, W R; Abbott, R B; Barnard, J J; Brown, t; Callahan, D A; Heitzenroeder, P; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Pemberton, S J; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Sabbi, G -L; Sharp, W M; Welch, D R

    2002-12-16

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  2. An Updated Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R; Yu, S S; Abbott, R P; Barnard, J J; Brown, T; Callahan, D A; Heitzenroeder, P; Latkowski, J F; Logan B G; Pemberton, S J; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Sabbi, G-L; Sharp, W M; Welch, D R

    2002-11-12

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  3. An updated point design for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.S.; Meier, W.R.; Abbott, R.P.; Barnard, J.J.; Brown, T.; Callahan, D.A.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Pemberton, S.J.; Peterson, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Sabbi, G-L.; Sharp, W.M.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-11-01

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  4. Inertial Fusion Driven by Intense Heavy-Ion Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS * W. M. Sharp # , A. Friedman, D. P. Grote, J. J. Barnard, R. H. Cohen, M. A. Dorf, S. M. Lund, L. J. Perkins, M. R. Terry, LLNL, Livermore, CA, USA B. G. Logan, F. M. Bieniosek, A. Faltens, E. Henestroza, J.-Y. Jung, J. W. Kwan, E. P. Lee, S. M. Lidia, P. A. Ni, L. L. Reginato, P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, J. H. Takakuwa, J.-L. Vay, W. L. Waldron, LBNL, Berkeley, CA, USA R. C. Davidson, E. P. Gilson, I. D. Kaganovich, H. Qin, E. Startsev, PPPL,

  5. The Next Generation of Heavy Ion Sources (447th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2009-03-04

    Imagine if, by staying in your lane when driving on the expressway, you could help fight cancer or provide a new, clean energy source. You would clench the steering wheel with both hands and stay in your lane, right? Unlike driving on the expressway where you intentionally avoid hitting other cars, scientists sometimes work to steer particle beams into head-on collisions with other oncoming particle beams. However, the particles must be kept "in their lanes" for cleaner, more frequent collisions. Some scientists propose starting the whole process by using lasers to heat a fixed target as a way to get particles with higher charge, which are more steerable. These scientists believe the new methods could be used to develop particle beams for killing cancer cells or creating usable energy from fusion. Join Masahiro Okamura of Brookhaven's Collider-Accelerator Department for the 447th Brookhaven Lecture, titled "The Next Generation of Heavy Ion Sources." Okamura will explain how lasers can be used to create plasma, neutral mixtures of positive ions and negative electrons, from different materials, and how using this plasma leads to beams with higher charge states and currents. He will also discuss how this efficient, simpler method of producing particle beams might be used for cancer therapy, to develop new energy sources, or in synchrotrons.

  6. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    2000-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a new, larger inertial fusion energy program. To manage program growth, we have developed a new inertial fusion energy research and we have established a Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion. There has been significant technical progress. Improvements in target design have reduced the predicted energy requirements by approximately a factor of two. There have also been important experiments on chamber dynamics and other inertial fusion technologies. The accelerator program has completed a number of small-scale experiments. Experiments with driver-scale beams are being designed -- including experiments with driver-scale ion sources and injectors. Finally we are developing the technologies needed to build a major research facility known as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)

  7. Modeling heavy ion ionization energy loss at low and intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhno, I.L.; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The needs of contemporary accelerator and space projects led to significant efforts made to include description of heavy ion interactions with matter in general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. This paper deals with an updated model of heavy ion ionization energy loss developed previously for the MARS code. The model agrees well with experimental data for various projectiles and targets including super-heavy ions in low-Z media.

  8. Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    collisions'' (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions'' Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions'' In the course of this project the Ohio State University group led by the PI, Professor Ulrich Heinz, developed a comprehensive theoretical picture of the dynamical evolution of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and of the numerous

  9. Revisiting heavy ion collisions under the influence of strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paoli, M. G. de; Menezes, D. P.

    2013-05-06

    The quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase refers to matter where quarks and gluons are believed to be deconfined and it probably takes place at temperatures of the order of 150 to 170 MeV. In large colliders around the world (RHIC/BNL, ALICE/CERN, GSI, etc), physicists are trying to convert hadronic matter at these order of temperatures into QGP by looking at non-central heavy ion collisions. Possible experiments towards this search are Au-Au collisions at RHIC/BNL and Pb-Pb collisions at SPS/CERN, where the hadron abundances and particle ratios are used in order to determine the temperature and baryonic chemical potential of the possibly present hadronic matter-QGP phase transition. The magnetic fields involved in heavy-ion collisions, although time dependent and short-lived, can reach intensities higher than the ones considered in magnetars, around 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} Gauss. In fact, the densities related to the chemical potentials obtained within the relativistic models framework developed in previous works are very low (of the order of 10{sup -3} fm{sup -3}). At these densities the nuclear interactions are indeed very small and this fact made us consider the possibility of free Fermi and Boson gases under the unfluence of strong magnetic fields. We investigate the effects of magnetic fields of the order of 10{sup 18}, 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 20} G through a {chi}{sup 2} fit to some data sets of the STAR experiment. Our results shown that a field of the order of 10{sup 19} G can produce a much better fit to the experimental data than the calculations without magnetic fields.

  10. Transport rates and momentum isotropization of gluon matter in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2007-08-15

    To describe momentum isotropization of gluon matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the transport rate of gluon drift and the transport collision rates of elastic (gg{r_reversible}gg) as well as inelastic (gg{r_reversible}ggg) perturbative quantum chromodynamics- (pQCD) scattering processes are introduced and calculated within the kinetic parton cascade Boltzmann approach of multiparton scatterings (BAMPS), which simulates the space-time evolution of partons. We define isotropization as the development of an anisotropic system as it reaches isotropy. The inverse of the introduced total transport rate gives the correct time scale of the momentum isotropization. The contributions of the various scattering processes to the momentum isotropization can be separated into the transport collision rates. In contrast to the transport cross section, the transport collision rate has an indirect but correctly implemented relationship with the collision-angle distribution. Based on the calculated transport collision rates from BAMPS for central Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies, we show that pQCD gg{r_reversible}ggg bremsstrahlung processes isotropize the momentum five times more efficiently than elastic scatterings. The large efficiency of the bremsstrahlung stems mainly from its large momentum deflection. Due to kinematics, 2{yields}N (N>2) production processes allow more particles to become isotropic in momentum space and thus kinetically equilibrate more quickly than their back reactions or elastic scatterings. We also show that the relaxation time in the relaxation time approximation, which is often used, is strongly momentum dependent and thus cannot serve as a global quantity that describes kinetic equilibration.

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Ultra-Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, Steffen A

    2008-06-02

    This document contains the final report for DOE grant DE-FG02-03ER41239: Modeling and Analysis of Ultra-Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

  12. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Yun Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-15

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was got when work gas was CH{sub 4} while about 262 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was obtained when work gas was C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  13. SYSTEMATIC STUDIES OF HEAVY ION COLLISIONS TO SEARCH FOR QUARK-GLUON PLASMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuqiang Wang

    2007-11-29

    This is the final technical report for DOE Outstanding Junior Investigator (OJI) Award, 'Systematic Studies of Heavy Ion Collisions to Search for Quark-Gluon Plasma', grant DE-FG02-02ER41219, Principal Investigator (PI) Fuqiang Wang. The research under the grant was divided into two phases. The first concentrated on systematic studies of soft hadron production at low transverse momentum (p{sub T}), in particular the production of (anti-)baryon and strangeness in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies. The second concentrated on measurements of di-hadron and multi-hadron jet-correlations and investigations of medium response to jets. The research was conducted at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL with the Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment. The total grant is $214,000. The grant established a PC farm solely used for this research. The PC farm consists of 8 nodes with a total of 16 CPUs and 3 disk servers of total 2 TB shared storage. The current balance of the grant is $19,985. The positive balance is because an initial purchase of $22,600 for the PC farm came out of the PI's start-up fund due to the lateness of the award. The PC farm is an integral part of the Purdue Physics Department's computer cluster. The grant supported two Ph.D. graduate students. Levente Molnar was supported from July 2002 to December 2003, and worked on soft hadron production. His thesis title is Systematics of Identified Particle Production in pp, d-Au and Au-Au Collisions at RHIC Energies. He graduated in 2006 and now is a Postdoctoral fellow at INFN Sezione di Bari, Italy working on the ALICE experiment at the LHC. Jason Ulery was supported from January 2004 to July 2007. His thesis title is Two- and Three-Particle Jet-Like Correlations. He defended his thesis in October 2007 and is moving to Frankfurt University, Germany to work on the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The research by this grant resulted in 7 journal publications (2 PRL, 1 PLB, 1 PRC, 2 submitted and

  14. Evaluation of Negative-Ion-Beam Driver Concepts for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, Larry R.

    2003-03-15

    The feasibility of producing and using atomically neutral heavy ion beams produced from negative ions as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor is evaluated. Bromine and iodine appear to be the most attractive elements for the driver beams. Fluorine and chlorine appear to be the most appropriate feedstocks for initial tests of extractable negative-ion current densities. With regard to ion sources, photodetachment neutralizers, and vacuum requirements for accelerators and beam transport, this approach appears feasible within existing technology, and the vacuum requirements are essentially identical to those for positive-ion drivers except in the target chamber. The principal constraint is that this approach requires harder vacuums in the target chamber than do space-charge-neutralized positive-ion drivers. With realistic (but perhaps pessimistic) estimates of the total ionization cross section, limiting the ionization of a neutral beam to <5% while traversing a 3-m path would require a chamber pressure of no more than 1.3 x 10{sup -5} torr. However, it appears that substantial improvements in the beam spot size on target might be achieved at pressures a factor of 10 or more higher than this. Alternatively, even at still higher chamber pressures that would strongly ionize atomically neutral beams, the negative-ion approach may still have significant appeal, since it precludes the possibly challenging problem of electron contamination of a positive-ion beam during acceleration, drift compression, and focusing.

  15. Evaluation of Negative-Ion-Beam Driver Concepts for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry R. Grisham

    2002-01-14

    We evaluate the feasibility of producing and using atomically neutral heavy ion beams produced from negative ions as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor. Bromine and iodine appear to be the most attractive elements for the driver beams. Fluorine and chlorine appear to be the most appropriate feedstocks for initial tests of extractable negative ion current densities. With regards to ion sources, photodetachment neutralizers, and vacuum requirements for accelerators and beam transport, this approach appears feasible within existing technology, and the vacuum requirements are essentially identical to those for positive ion drivers except in the target chamber. The principal constraint is that this approach requires harder vacuums in the target chamber than do space-charge-neutralized positive ion drivers. With realistic (but perhaps pessimistic) estimates of the total ionization cross section, limiting the ionization of a neutral beam to less than 5% while traversing a four -meter path would require a chamber pressure of no more than 5 x 10{sup -5} torr. Alternatively, even at chamber pressures that are too high to allow propagation of atomically neutral beams, the negative ion approach may still have appeal, since it precludes the possibly serious problem of electron contamination of a positive ion beam during acceleration, drift compression, and focusing.

  16. Beam imaging diagnostics for heavy ion beam fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Prost, L.; Ghiorso, W.

    2003-05-01

    We are developing techniques for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in the HIF-VNL in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions. The beams in current experiments range in energy from 50 keV to 2 MeV, with beam current densities from <10 to 200 mA/cm{sup 2}, and pulse lengths of 4 to 20 {micro}s. The beam energy will range up to 10 MeV in near-future beam experiments. The imaging techniques, based on kapton films and optical scintillators, complement and, in some cases, may replace mechanical slit scanners. The kapton film images represent a time-integrated image on the film exposed to the beam. The optical scintillator utilizes glass and ceramic scintillator material imaged by a fast, image-intensified CCD-based camera. We will discuss the techniques, results, and plans for implementation of the diagnostics on the beam experiments.

  17. Time-of-flight detector for heavy ion backscattering spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, J.A.; Banks, J.C.; Doyle, B.L.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year laboratory directed research and development project to explore advanced concepts in Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS), undertaken with the goal of extending the sensitivity of this relatively new technique to levels unattainable by any other existing trace element surface analysis. Improvements in sensitivity are required for the application of HIBS to contamination control in the microelectronics industry. Tools with sensitivity approaching 10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2} are expected to be essential for enabling advanced IC production by the year 2000. During the project the authors developed a new analysis chamber with channeling goniometer and a prototype time-of-flight detector with a demonstrated sensitivity of {approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2} for Au on Si and {approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 10} for Fe, and sufficient mass resolution to separate contributions from Fe and Cu.

  18. Multi Module Modeling of Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magas, V. K.; Csernai, L. P.; Keranen, A.; Manninen, J.; Strottman, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    Multi Module Model is required for the realistic and detailed description of an ultrarelativistic heavy ion reaction. We are working in the framework of such a model: initial stages are described by Effective String Rope Model with expanding final streaks; hydrodynamical approach is used for the intermediate stages. This paper is mainly devoted to Third Module - the one dealing with Freeze Out (FO). Two possibilities are discussed in details: (A) freeze out at the constant time hypersurface, where the statistical production model is used to describe post FO particle species; and (B) simultaneous hadronization and freeze out from supercooled QGP. For the last case the ALCOR-like algorithm for calculation of the post FO particle species is presented, due to the fact that these do not have time to reach chemical equilibrium.

  19. Heavy ion induction linac drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.P.; Hovingh, J.

    1988-10-01

    Intense beams of high energy heavy ions (e.g., 10 GeV Hg) are an attractive option for an ICF driver because of their favorable energy deposition characteristics. The accelerator systems to produce the beams at the required power level are a development from existing technologies of the induction linac, rf linac/storage ring, and synchrotron. The high repetition rate of the accelerator systems, and the high efficiency which can be realized at high current make this approach especially suitable for commercial ICF. The present report gives a summary of the main features of the induction linac driver system, which is the approach now pursued in the USA. The main subsystems, consisting of injector, multiple beam accelerator at low and high energy, transport and pulse compression lines, and final focus are described. Scale relations are given for the current limits and other features of these subsystems. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Production of photons in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jean -Francois Paquet; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Shen, Chun; Luzum, Matthew; Schenke, Bjorn; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2016-04-18

    In this work it is shown that the use of a hydrodynamical model of heavy-ion collisions which incorporates recent developments, together with updated photon emission rates, greatly improves agreement with both ALICE and PHENIX measurements of direct photons, supporting the idea that thermal photons are the dominant source of direct photon momentum anisotropy. The event-by-event hydrodynamical model uses the impact parameter dependent Glasma model (IP-Glasma) initial states and includes, for the first time, both shear and bulk viscosities, along with second-order couplings between the two viscosities. Furthermore, the effect of both shear and bulk viscosities on the photon rates ismore » studied, and those transport coefficients are shown to have measurable consequences on the photon momentum anisotropy.« less

  1. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  2. Electron Spin Rotation And Matching Scheme For ELIC, A High-Luminosity Ring-Ring Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogacz, A.; Chevtsov, P.; Derbenev, Y.; Krafft, G.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-08-04

    A unique design feature of a polarized Electron-Ion Collider (ELIC) based on CEBAF is its Figure-8 shaped storage rings for both electrons and ions, which significantly simplifies beam polarization maintenance and manipulation. The CEBAF accelerator is used as a full energy injector of polarized electron beams into the electron storage ring. While electron polarization is maintained vertical in arcs of the ring, a stable longitudinal spin at four collision points is achieved through vertical crossing bending magnets, solenoid spin rotators, and horizontal orbit bends. Spin matching technique needs to be implemented in order to enhance quantum self-polarization and minimize depolarization effects. In this paper, we also discuss several important issues related to the use of positron beams, radiative polarization and quantum depolarization effects, as well as spin in ELIC.

  3. Recent U.S. advances in ion-beam-driven high energy densityphysics and heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy,P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, Qin H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev,E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2006-07-05

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport; and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by > 50 X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. They are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy.

  4. Atomic nuclei decay modes by spontaneous emission of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M.; Sndulescu, A.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    The great majority of the known nuclides with Z>40, including the so-called stable nuclides, are metastable with respect to several modes of spontaneous superasymmetric splitting. A model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay allows one to estimate the lifetimes and the branching ratios relative to the alpha decay for these natural radioactivities. From a huge amount of systematic calculations it is concluded that the process should proceed with maximum intensity in the trans-lead nuclei, where the minimum lifetime is obtained from parent-emitted heavy ion combinations leading to a magic (/sup 208/Pb) or almost magic daughter nucleus. More than 140 nuclides with atomic number smaller than 25 are possible candidates to be emitted from heavy nuclei, with half-lives in the range of 10/sup 10/--10/sup 30/ s: /sup 5/He, /sup 8en-dash10/Be, /sup 11,12/B, /sup 12en-dash16/C, /sup 13en-dash17/N, /sup 15en-dash22/O, /sup 18en-dash23/F, /sup 20en-dash26/Ne, /sup 23en-dash28/Na, /sup 23en-dash30/Mg, /sup 27en-dash32/Al, /sup 28en-dash36/Si, /sup 31en-dash39/P, /sup 32en-dash42/S, /sup 35en-dash45/Cl, /sup 37en-dash47/Ar, /sup 40en-dash49/ K, . .Ca, /sup 44en-dash53/ Sc, /sup 46en-dash53/Ti, /sup 48en-dash54/V, and /sup 49en-dash55/ Cr. The shell structure and the pairing effects are clearly manifested in these new decay modes.

  5. Scaling of elliptic flow, recombination, and sequential freeze-out of hadrons in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Min; Rapp, Ralf; Fries, Rainer J.

    2010-09-15

    The scaling properties of elliptic flow of hadrons produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are investigated at low transverse momenta, p{sub T} < or approx. 2 GeV. Utilizing empirical parametrizations of a thermalized fireball with collective-flow fields, the resonance recombination model (RRM) is employed to describe hadronization via quark coalescence at the hadronization transition. We reconfirm that RRM converts equilibrium quark distribution functions into equilibrated hadron spectra including the effects of space-momentum correlations on elliptic flow. This provides the basis for a controlled extraction of quark distributions of the bulk matter at hadronization from spectra of multistrange hadrons which are beligeved to decouple close to the critical temperature. The resulting elliptic flow from empirical fits at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider exhibits transverse kinetic-energy and valence-quark scaling. Utilizing the well-established concept of sequential freeze-out, the scaling at low momenta extends to bulk hadrons ({pi}, K, p) at thermal freeze-out, albeit with different source parameters compared to chemical freeze-out. Elliptic-flow scaling is thus compatible with both equilibrium hydrodynamics and quark recombination.

  6. Sub-micron resolution of localized ion beam induced charge reduction in silicon detectors damaged by heavy ions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Abraham, John B. S.; Doyle, Barney L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, displacement damage reduces ion beam induced charge (IBIC) through Shockley-Read-Hall recombination. Closely spaced pulses of 200 keV Si++ ions focused in a 40 nm beam spot are used to create damage cascades within 0.25 μm2 areas. Damaged areas are detected through contrast in IBIC signals generated with focused ion beams of 200 keV Si++ ions and 60 keV Li+ ions. IBIC signal reduction can be resolved over sub-micron regions of a silicon detector damaged by as few as 1000 heavy ions.

  7. Sub-micron resolution of localized ion beam induced charge reduction in silicon detectors damaged by heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Abraham, John B. S.; Doyle, Barney L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, displacement damage reduces ion beam induced charge (IBIC) through Shockley-Read-Hall recombination. Closely spaced pulses of 200 keV Si++ ions focused in a 40 nm beam spot are used to create damage cascades within 0.25 μm2 areas. Damaged areas are detected through contrast in IBIC signals generated with focused ion beams of 200 keV Si++ ions and 60 keV Li+ ions. IBIC signal reduction can be resolved over sub-micron regions of a silicon detector damaged by as few as 1000 heavy ions.

  8. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  9. A lower cost development path for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1993-05-19

    If two features of the inertial fusion process are exploited successfully, they can lead to significantly lower costs for demonstrating the feasibility of commercial electric power production from this source of energy. First, fusion capsule ignition and burn physics is independent of reaction chamber size and hydrodynamically-equivalent capsules can be designed to perform at small yield, exactly as they do at large yield. This means that an integrated test of all power plant components and feasibility tests of various reaction chamber concepts can be done at much smaller sizes (about 1--2 m first wall radius) and much lower powers (tens of MWs) than magnetic fusion development facilities such as ITER. Second, the driver, which is the most expensive component of currently conceived IFE development facilities, can be used to support more than one experiment target chamber/reactor (simultaneously and/or sequentially). These two factors lead to lower development facility costs, modular facilities, and the planning flexibility to spread costs over time or do several things in parallel and thus shorten the total time needed for development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). In this paper the authors describe the general feature of a heavy ion fusion development plan that takes advantage of upgradable accelerators and the ability to test chambers and reactor systems at small scale in order to reduce development time and costs.

  10. SAFETY ENGINEERING FOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER AT THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MUSOLINO,S.V.

    1999-11-14

    THERE ARE ONLY A FEW OTHER HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATORS LIKE RHIC IN THE WORLD. THEREFORE, THE DESIGNERS OF THE MACHINE DO NOT ALWAYS HAVE CONSENSUS DESIGN STANDARDS AND REGULATORY GUIDANCE AVAILABLE TO ESTABLISH THE ENGINEERING PARAMETERS FOR SAFETY. SOME OF THE AREAS WHERE STANDARDS ARE NOT AVAILABLE RELATE TO THE CRYOGENIC SYSTEM, CONTAINMENT OF LARGE VOLUMES OF FLAMMABLE GAS IN FRAGILE VESSELS IN THE EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND MITIGATION OF A DESIGN BASIS ACCIDENT WITH A STORED PARTICLE BEAM. UNIQUE BUT EQUIVALENT SAFETY ENGINEERING MUST BE DETERMINED. SPECIAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR PROMPT RADIATION WERE DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR THE DESIGN OF RADIATION SHIELDING.

  11. Correlations between jet-quenching observables at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, J.; Horowitz, W.; Liao, J.

    2011-10-01

    Focusing on four types of correlation plots, R{sub AA} versus v{sub 2}, R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA}, I{sub AA} versus v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}}, and v{sub 2} versus v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}}, we demonstrate how the centrality dependence of correlations between multiple jet quenching observables provide valuable insight into the energy loss mechanism in a quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we find that a qualitative energy loss model gives a good description of R{sub AA} versus v{sub 2} only when we take {Delta}E-I{sup 3} and a medium geometry generated by a model of the color glass condensate. This same {Delta}E-I{sup 3} model also qualitatively describes the trigger p{sub T} dependence of R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA} data and makes novel predictions for the centrality dependence for this R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA} correlation. Current data suggest, albeit with extremely large uncertainty, that v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}} >> v{sub 2}, a correlation that is difficult to reproduce in current energy loss models.

  12. Indications of Conical Emission of Charged Hadrons at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelev, B. I.; Barannikova, O.; Betts, R. R.; Callner, J.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Iordanova, A.; Suarez, M. C.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Bhati, A. K.; Kumar, L.; Pruthi, N. K.; Ahammed, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dutta Mazumdar, M. R.; Ganti, M. S.; Ghosh, P.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T. K.

    2009-02-06

    Three-particle azimuthal correlation measurements with a high transverse momentum trigger particle are reported for pp, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV by the STAR experiment. Dijet structures are observed in pp, d+Au and peripheral Au+Au collisions. An additional structure is observed in central Au+Au data, signaling conical emission of correlated charged hadrons. The conical emission angle is found to be {theta}=1.37{+-}0.02(stat){sub -0.07}{sup +0.06}(syst), independent of p{sub perpendicular}.

  13. Correlations between jet-quenching observables at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Jiangyong; Horowitz, W. A.; Liao Jinfeng

    2011-09-15

    Focusing on four types of correlation plots, R{sub AA} versus v{sub 2}, R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA}, I{sub AA} versus v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}}, and v{sub 2} versus v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}}, we demonstrate how the centrality dependence of correlations between multiple jet quenching observables provide valuable insight into the energy loss mechanism in a quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we find that a qualitative energy loss model gives a good description of R{sub AA} versus v{sub 2} only when we take {Delta}E{approx}l{sup 3} and a medium geometry generated by a model of the color glass condensate. This same {Delta}E{approx}l{sup 3} model also qualitatively describes the trigger p{sub T} dependence of R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA} data and makes novel predictions for the centrality dependence for this R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA} correlation. Current data suggest, albeit with extremely large uncertainty, that v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}}>>v{sub 2}, a correlation that is difficult to reproduce in current energy loss models.

  14. Indications of conical emission of charged hadrons at the BNL relativistic heavy ion collider.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Illinois; Panjab Univ.; Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre; Kent State Univ.; Particle Physic Lab.; STAR Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Three-particle azimuthal correlation measurements with a high transverse momentum trigger particle are reported for pp, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV by the STAR experiment. Dijet structures are observed in pp, d+Au and peripheral Au+Au collisions. An additional structure is observed in central Au+Au data, signaling conical emission of correlated charged hadrons. The conical emission angle is found to be {theta} = 1.37 {+-} 0.02(stat){sub -0.07}{sup +0.06} (syst), independent of p.

  15. Indications of Conical Emission of Charged Hadrons at the BNL Relativistic HeavyIon Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Coll

    2009-02-09

    Three-particle azimuthal correlation measurements with a high transverse momentum trigger particle are reported for pp, d + Au, and Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV by the STAR experiment. Dijet structures are observed in pp, d + Au and peripheral Au + Au collisions. An additional structure is observed in central Au + Au data, signaling conical emission of correlated charged hadrons. The conical emission angle is found to be {theta} = 1.37 {+-} 0.02(stat){sub -0.07}{sup +0.06}(syst), independent of p{sub {perpendicular}}.

  16. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1985-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The heavy ion accelerator is profiled. Energy losses, currents, kinetic energy, beam optics, pulse models and mechanical tolerances are included in the discussion. In addition, computational efforts and an energy analyzer are described. 37 refs., 27 figs. (WRF)

  17. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator - CT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    05 Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator - CT 05 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator (CT.05) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: New Haven , Connecticut CT.05-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CT.05-3 Site Operations: Research and development with solvents. CT.05-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination remote based on limited amount of materials handled CT.05-3 Radioactive Materials

  18. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; et al.

    2005-09-19

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  19. Triangularity and dipole asymmetry in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teaney, Derek; Yan Li

    2011-06-15

    We introduce a cumulant expansion to parametrize possible initial conditions in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We show that the cumulant expansion converges and that it can systematically reproduce the results of Glauber type initial conditions. At third order in the gradient expansion the cumulants characterize the triangularity and the dipole asymmetry of the initial entropy distribution. We show that for midperipheral collisions the orientation angle of the dipole asymmetry {psi}{sub 1,3} has a 20% preference out of plane. This leads to a small net v{sub 1} out of plane. In peripheral and midcentral collisions the orientation angles {psi}{sub 1,3} and {psi}{sub 3,3} are strongly correlated, but this correlation disappears towards central collisions. We study the ideal hydrodynamic response to these cumulants and determine the associated v{sub 1}/{epsilon}{sub 1} and v{sub 3}/{epsilon}{sub 3} for a massless ideal gas equation of state. The space time development of v{sub 1} and v{sub 3} is clarified with figures. These figures show that v{sub 1} and v{sub 3} develop toward the edge of the nucleus, and consequently the final spectra are more sensitive to the viscous dynamics of freezeout. The hydrodynamic calculations for v{sub 3} are provisionally compared to Alver and Roland fit of STAR inclusive two-particle correlation functions. Finally, we propose to measure the v{sub 1} associated with the dipole asymmetry and the correlations between {psi}{sub 1,3} and {psi}{sub 3,3} by measuring a two-particle correlation with respect to the participant plane . The hydrodynamic prediction for this correlation function is several times larger than a correlation currently measured by the STAR collaboration . This experimental measurement would provide

  20. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This report contains the following topics on heavy ion fusion: MBE-4 drifting beam quadrupole operating range; transverse emittance growth in MBE-4; an improved ion source for MBE-4; drifting beam studies on MBE-4; 2-MV injector; improvements in lifetime of the C{sup +} source; injector control system; Maxwell spark gap test update; ILSE cosine 2{theta} quadrupole magnet development; electrostatic quadrupole prototype development activity; induction accelerator cell development; effect of a spread in beamlet currents on longitudinal stability; and heavy ion linac driver analysis.

  1. Direct Drive Heavy-Ion-Beam Inertial Fusion at High Coupling Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B. Grant; Logan, B. Grant; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2007-06-25

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry and Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX ICF target physics code shows the ion range increasing four-fold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16 to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  2. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Pt nanocrystals: I. shape transformation and dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giulian, R.; Araujo, L.L.; Kluth, P.; Sprouster, D.J.; Schnohr, C.S.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C. (ANU)

    2014-09-24

    We report on the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation of embedded Pt nanocrystals (NCs), which change from spheres to prolate spheroids to rods upon irradiation. Using a broad range of ion irradiation energies and NC mean sizes we demonstrate that the elongation and dissolution processes are energy and size dependent, attaining comparable levels of shape transformation and dissolution upon a given energy density deposited in the matrix. The NC shape transformation remains operative despite discontinuous ion tracks in the matrix and exhibits a constant threshold size for elongation. In contrast, for ion irradiations in which the ion tracks are continuous, the threshold size for elongation is clearly energy dependent.

  3. Review of target studies for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.D.; Mark, J.W.K.; Pan, Y.L.

    1986-10-24

    We present an updated set of gain curves for radiation driven ion beam targets. The improved target performance calculated with nuclear spin polarized fuel will also be discussed. We discuss the conditions required for efficient conversion to x-rays of ion beam energy. These requirements are compared with those obtained for lasers. Recent results on symmetry requirements for direct drive ion beam targets are presented.

  4. Effects of Crab Cavities' Multipole Content in an Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satogata, Todd J.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Delayen, Jean R.; Castillo, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    The impact on the beam dynamics of the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Colider (MEIC) due to the multipole content of the 750 MHz crab cavity was studied using thin multipole elements for 6D phase space particle tracking in ELEGANT. Target values of the sextupole component for the cavity’s field expansion were used to perform preliminary studies on the proton beam stability when compared to the case of pure dipole content of the rf kicks. Finally, important effects on the beam sizes due to non-linear components of the crab cavities’ fields were identified and some criteria for their future study were proposed.

  5. Effects of Heavy Ions on ULF Wave Resonances Near the Equatorial Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.-H.Lee, J.R. Johnson, K. Kim and K.-S.Kim

    2008-11-20

    Pc1-2 ULF waves are strongly associated with the presence of various ions in the magnetosphere. We investigate the role of heavy ion resonances in nonuniform plasmas near the equatorial region. By adopting the invariant imbedding method, the coupled plasma wave equations are solved in an exact manner to calculate the resonant absorption at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Our results show that irreversible mode conversion occurs at the resonance, which absorbs the fast wave energy. It is found that waves near the resonances appear with linear polarization, and their amplitude and frequency are sensitive to the properties of the heavy ion plasma composition. We examine how these resonances occur for various H+ - He+ populations in detail by performing an accurate calculation of the mode conversion effciency. Because the multi-ion hybrid resonance locations in cold plasmas are determined by simple parameters such as the fraction of the ion number density of each species and the magnetic field, we suggest that it is possible to monitor heavy ion composition by examining the peak frequencies of linearly polarized wave events in either electric field or magnetic field spectral data.

  6. Selected Topics in the Physics of Heavy Ion Collisions (1/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    In these lectures, I discuss some classes of measurements accessible in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. How can these observables be measured, to what extent can they be calculated, and what do they tell us about the dense mesoscopic system created during the collision? In the first lecture, I shall focus in particular on measurements that constrain the spatio-temporal picture of the collisions and that measure centrality, orientations and extensions. In the subsequent lectures, I then discuss on how classes of measurements allow one to characterize collective phenomena, and to what extent these measurements can constrain the properties of matter produced in heavy ion collisions.

  7. Doorway state expansion approach to coupled channels problems and application to heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breitschaft, A. M.S.; Canto, L. F.; Schechter, H.; Hussein, M. S.; Moniz, Ernest J.

    1994-08-01

    The doorway expansion method is extended to coupled channels problems in low energy heavy ion collisions. As a test, it is applied to an exactly soluble model and the convergence problem is discussed. The method is then applied to heavy ion elastic scattering due to the optical potential and to a simple coupled channels problem. In both cases very good convergence is reached with six doorway states. The calculation with a single doorway is shown to be much better than the DWBA. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Fluctuations driven isotropization of the quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akkelin, S. V.

    2008-07-15

    Averaged over ensemble of initial conditions kinetic transport equations of weakly coupled systems of quarks and gluons are derived. These equations account for the correlators of fluctuations of particles and classical gluon fields. The isotropization of particle momenta by field fluctuations at the early prethermal stage of matter evolution in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions is discussed. Our results can be useful for understanding under what conditions isotropization of the quark-gluon plasma in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions can be reached within phenomenologically observed time scales.

  9. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Sessler, A.M.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    reactions which are open to a muon collider and the physics of such reactions - what one learns and the necessary luminosity to see interesting events - are described in detail. Most of the physics accesible to an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider could be studied in a muon collider. In addition the production of Higgs bosons in the s-channel will allow the measurement of Higgs masses and total widths to high precision; likewise, t{bar t} and W{sup +}W{sup -} threshold studies would yield m{sub t} and m{sub w} to great accuracy. These reactions are at low center of mass energy (if the MSSM is correct) and the luminosity and {Delta}p/p of the beams required for these measurements is detailed in the Physics Chapter. On the other hand, at 2 + 2 TeV, a luminosity of L {approx} 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is desirable for studies such as, the scattering of longitudinal W bosons or the production of heavy scalar particles. Not explored in this work, but worth noting, are the opportunities for muon-proton and muon-heavy ion collisions as well as the enormous richness of such a facility for fixed target physics provided by the intense beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons and spallation neutrons. To see all the interesting physics described herein requires a careful study of the operation of a detector in the very large background. Three sources of background have been identified. The first is from any halo accompanying the muon beams in the collider ring. Very carefully prepared beams will have to be injected and maintained. The second is due to the fact that on average 35% of the muon energy appears in its decay electron. The energy of the electron subsequently is converted into EM showers either from the synchrotron radiation they emit in the collider magnetic field or from direct collision with the surrounding material. The decays that occur as the beams traverse the low beta insert are of particular concern for detector backgrounds. A third source of background is

  10. Estimation of Heavy Ion Densities From Linearly Polarized EMIC Waves At Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-02-24

    Linearly polarized EMIC waves are expected to concentrate at the location where their wave frequency satisfies the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance condition as the result of a mode conversion process. In this letter, we evaluate absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance in the Earth geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of helium and azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers in dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentration, it only occurs for a limited range of azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Our results suggest that, at L = 6.6, linearly polarized EMIC waves can be generated via mode conversion from the compressional waves near the crossover frequency. Consequently, the heavy ion concentration ratio can be estimated from observations of externally generated EMIC waves that have polarization.

  11. Beam charge and current neutralization of high-charge-state heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.; Callahan, D.A.

    1997-10-29

    High-charge-state heavy-ions may reduce the accelerator voltage and cost of heavy-ion inertial fusion drivers, if ways can be found to neutralize the space charge of the highly charged beam ions as they are focused to a target in a fusion chamber. Using 2-D Particle-In- Cell simulations, we have evaluated the effectiveness of two different methods of beam neutralization: (1) by redistribution of beam charge in a larger diameter, preformed plasma in the chamber, and (2), by introducing a cold-electron-emitting source within the beam channel at the beam entrance into the chamber. We find the latter method to be much more effective for high-charge-state ions.

  12. Cascade Problems in Some Atomic Lifetime Measurements at a Heavy-Ion Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabert, E; Hoffmann, J; Krantz, C; Wolf, A; Ishikawa, Y; Santana, J

    2008-10-09

    Lifetimes of 3s{sup 2}3p{sup k} ground configuration levels of Al-, Si-, P-, and S-like ions of Be, Co, and Ni have been measured at a heavy-ion storage ring. Some of the observed decay curves show strong evidence of cascade repopulation from specific 3d levels that feature lifetimes in the same multi-millisecond range as the levels of the ground configuration.

  13. Design and characterization of a neutralized-transport experiment for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Shuman, D.B.; Vanecek, D.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Houck, T.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Sefkow, A.B.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2004-03-14

    In heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the fusion chamber to hit millimeter-sized spots on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams in this final transport is essential for a heavy-ion fusion power plant to be economically competitive. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with particle-in-cell simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX). The experiment consists of three main sections, each with its own physics issues. The injector is designed to generate a very high-brightness, space-charge-dominated potassium beam while still allowing variable perveance by a beam aperturing technique. The magnetic-focusing section, consisting of four pulsed magnetic quadrupoles, permits the study of beam tuning, as well as the effects of phase space dilution due to higher-order nonlinear fields. In the final section, the converging ion beam exiting the magnetic section is transported through a drift region with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we discuss the design and characterization of the three sections in detail and present initial results from the experiment.

  14. Fourier harmonics of high-p{sub T} particles probing the fluctuating initial condition geometries in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betz, Barbara; Gyulassy, Miklos; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2011-08-15

    Second Fourier harmonics of jet quenching have been thoroughly explored in the literature and shown to be sensitive to the underlying jet path-length dependence of energy loss and the differences between the mean eccentricity predicted by Glauber and color glass condensate (CGC)/Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (KLN) models of initial conditions. We compute the jet path-length dependence of energy-loss for higher azimuthal harmonics of jet-fragments in a generalized model of energy-loss for Relativistc Heavy Ion Collider energies and find, however, that even the high-p{sub T} second moment is most sensitive to the poorly known early time evolution during the first fm/c. Moreover, we demonstrate that higher-jet harmonics are remarkably insensitive to the initial conditions, while the different v{sub n}(N{sub part}) vs v{sub n}{sup I{sub AA}}(N{sub part}) correlations between the moments of monojet and dijet nuclear modifications factors remain a most sensitive probe to differentiate between Glauber and CGC/KLN initial state geometries of the strongly-coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma.

  15. 2011-2012 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A search for super heavy elements using a catcher foil M. Barbui, K. Schmidt, J.B. Natowitz, H. Zheng, K. Hagel, A. Bonasera and M. Barbino Probing clusterization in 40Ca + 40Ca reactions K. Schmidt, M. Barbui, J. B. Natowitz, K. Hagel, A. Bonasera, G. Giuliani, M. Rodrigues, R. Wada, M. Huang, C. Botosso, G. Liu, G. Viesti, S. Moretto, G. Prete, S. Pesente, D. Fabris, Y. El Masri, T. Keutgen, S. Kowalski, and A. Kumar Yield of D-D and D-3He fusion reactions produced by the interaction of

  16. 2011-2012 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors influencing residue cross section in 48Ca-induced reactions D. A. Mayorov, T. A. Werke, M. C. Alfonso, M. E. Bennett, and C. M. Folden III Characterization of a gas stopper for heavy element chemistry studies M. C. Alfonso, D. A. Mayorov, T. A. Werke, and C. M. Folden III Fabrication of lanthanide targets for nuclear reaction studies D. A. Mayorov, T. A. Werke, M. E. Bennett, and C. M. Folden III Excitation functions of 45Sc-induced reactions: towards future superheavy element synthesis

  17. Heavy ion beam induced charge transfer in Ar-Cs mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murnick, D.E.; Gernhauser, R.; Ulrich, A.; Krotz, W.; Wieser, J.

    1993-12-01

    In situ production of target ions in cold, dense matter by heavy ion collisions and subsequent selective charge transfer may provide an effective pumping scheme for heavy ion beam pumped lasers. Charge transfer from cesium atoms to doubly charged argon ions was used for selective population of 4d-levels in Ar II. The argon ions were produced in an argon-cesium gas target by a pulsed beam of 100 MeV {sup 32}S{sup 8+} ions from the Munich Tandem van de Graaff accelerator. The ion beam of 12 {times} 10{sup 6} ions/pulse had a pulse width of 2 ns and a repetition rate of 32 kHz. The argon pressure was typically 250 mbar. The cesium partial pressure was adjusted by heating the gas target, including a cesium reservoir, to temperatures between 250 and 500{degrees}C. Time resolved wavelength spectra showed large intensity increases corresponding to 4d {sup 4}D and 4d {sup 4}F to 4p transitions in Ar II in the ultraviolet wavelength region between 300 and 400 nm. This is interpreted as a resonant charge transfer of outer electrons of cesium to 4d levels in Ar II in Cs{sup 0} + Ar{sup 2+} collisions.

  18. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  19. {gamma} spectroscopy around doubly magic {sup 48}Ca by heavy-ion transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leoni, Silvia

    2012-10-20

    {gamma} spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei around {sup 48}Ca is performed by the heavy-ion transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca on {sup 64}Ni at 282 MeV, with the PRISMA-CLARA setup at Legnaro Laboratory. Angular distributions, polarizations and lifetimes analysis probe spin and parities of several excited states, shading lights on their configuration. In the one neutron transfer channels, {sup 49}Ca and {sup 47}Ca, states arising by coupling a single particle to the 3{sup -} phonon of {sup 48}Ca are observed, showing the robustness of nuclear collectivity in rather light systems. The work demonstrates the feasibility of complete in-beam {gamma}-spectroscopy with heavy-ion transfer reactions and provides a method that can be further exploited in the future with heavy targets and radioactive beams.

  20. Experimental measurement of the 4-d transverse phase space map of a heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, H S

    1997-12-01

    The development and employment of a new diagnostic instrument for characterizing intense, heavy ion beams is reported on. This instrument, the ''Gated Beam Imager'' or ''GBI'' was designed for use on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project's ''Small Recirculator'', an integrated, scaled physics experiment and engineering development project for studying the transport and control of intense heavy ion beams as inertial fusion drivers in the production of electric power. The GBI allows rapid measurement and calculation of a heavy ion beam's characteristics to include all the first and second moments of the transverse phase space distribution, transverse emittance, envelope parameters and beam centroid. The GBI, with appropriate gating produces a time history of the beam resulting in a 4-D phase-space and time ''map'' of the beam. A unique capability of the GBI over existing diagnostic instruments is its ability to measure the ''cross'' moments between the two transverse orthogonal directions. Non-zero ''cross'' moments in the alternating gradient lattice of the Small Recirculator are indicative of focusing element rotational misalignments contributing to beam emittance growth. This emittance growth, while having the same effect on the ability to focus a beam as emittance growth caused by non-linear effects, is in principle removable by an appropriate number of focusing elements. The instrument uses the pepperpot method of introducing a plate with many pinholes into the beam and observing the images of the resulting beamlets as they interact with a detector after an appropriate drift distance. In order to produce adequate optical signal and repeatability, the detector was chosen to be a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor readout screen. The heavy ions in the pepperpot beamlets are stopped in the MCP's thin front metal anode and the resulting secondary electron signal is amplified and proximity-focused onto the phosphor while maintaining

  1. Heavy-ion transfer reactions at large internuclear distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanari, D.; Corradi, L.; Szilner, S.; Pollarolo, G.; Fioretto, E.; Stefanini, A. M.; Farnea, E.; Michelagnoli, C.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Ur, C. A.; Courtin, S.; Goasduff, A.; Haas, F.; Mijatovic, T.; Soic, N.; Grebosz, J.

    2012-10-20

    The transfer reaction for the {sup 116}Sn+{sup 60}Ni system has been studied using the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer at different bombarding energies from above to well below the Coulomb barrier. The experiment has been done in inverse kinematics and light target-like ions have been detected with PRISMA placed at very forward angles. Good mass, nuclear charge and kinetic energy resolutions have been achieved. Sufficient statistics has been accumulated to extract angular distributions for different bombarding energies have been extracted and the response function of the spectrometer has been studied to correct for the aberration due to the transport of the ions in PRISMA. The comparison between the present case and the previously measured {sup 96}Zr+{sup 40}Ca system, superfluid and near closed shells nuclei, respectively, should significantly improve our understanding of nucleon-nucleon correlation properties in multinucleon transfer processes.

  2. Kinetic temperatures of heavy ions in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bochsler, P.; Geiss, J.; Joos, R.

    1990-11-01

    From a refined analysis of 4 years of data of the ion composition instrument on board ISEE 3 we find that in the overwhelming majority of observations kinetic temperatures of ions are approximately proportional to their masses. The logarithmic average for T(/sup 4/He/sup + +/) is 5.363; for T(O/sup 6 +/) and T(O/sup 7 +/) it is 5.978 and 6.000, respectively, corresponding to T(O)/T(He) = 4.2. For we find 6.52, corresponding to T(Fe)/T(He) = 14. The correlation coefficients between oxygen and helium kinetic temperatures are high (approx.0.78 or above), whereas for the correlation log T(Fe) versus log T(He) we find a value of only 0.44 due to the large measurement uncertainties of T(He). Significant deviations from the mass/temperature proportionality are found at occasions of cool and dense solar wind flow when Coulomb collisions succeed to equilibrate kinetic temperatures of different ions species.

  3. Reorientation of the crystalline planes in confined single crystal nickel nanorods induced by heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Abha; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Rai, Padmnabh; Misra, D. S.; Ghatak, Jay; Satyam, P. V.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2006-08-28

    In a recent letter Tyagi et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253110 (2005)] have reported the special orientation of nickel planes inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with respect to the tube axis. Heavy ion irradiation has been performed with 1.5 MeV Au{sup 2+} and 100 MeV Au{sup 7+} ions on these nickel filled MWCNTs at fluences ranging from 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Ion-induced modifications have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The diffraction pattern and the lattice imaging showed the presence of ion-induced planar defects on the tube walls and completely amorphized encapsulated nickel nanorods. The results are discussed in terms of thermal spike model.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF THE PARAMETERS IN THE RHIC SINGLE CRYSTAL HEAVY ION COLLIMATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BIRYUKOV,V.M.; CHESNOKOV,Y.A.; KOTOV,V.I.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; STEVENS,A.

    1999-03-29

    In the framework of the project to design and test a collimation system prototype using bent channeling crystal for cleaning of the RHIC heavy ion beam halo, we have studied the optimal length and bending angle of a silicon (110) single crystal proposed to be a primary element situated upstream of the traditional heavy amorphous collimator. Besides the matters of the channeling and collimation efficiency, we also looked into the impact the crystal may have on the non-channeled particles that go on circulating in the ring, so as to reduce the momentum offset of the particles scattered of the crystal.

  5. Ballistic protons in incoherent exclusive vector meson production as a measure of rare parton fluctuations at an electron-ion collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lappi, T.; Venugopalan, R.; Mantysaari, H.

    2015-02-25

    We argue that the proton multiplicities measured in Roman pot detectors at an electron ion collider can be used to determine centrality classes in incoherent diffractive scattering. Incoherent diffraction probes the fluctuations in the interaction strengths of multi-parton Fock states in the nuclear wavefunctions. In particular, the saturation scale that characterizes this multi-parton dynamics is significantly larger in central events relative to minimum bias events. As an application, we examine the centrality dependence of incoherent diffractive vector meson production. We identify an observable which is simultaneously very sensitive to centrality triggered parton fluctuations and insensitive to details of the model.

  6. Evolution of collectivity as a signal of quark gluon plasma formation in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Payal; Alam, Jan-e; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2011-08-15

    A measurement for studying the mass dependence of dilepton interferometry in relativistic heavy-ion collision experiments as a tool to characterize the quark gluon phase is proposed. In calculations involving dileptons, we show that the mass dependence of radii extracted from the virtual photon (dilepton) interferometry provide access to the development of collective flow with time. It is argued that the nonmonotonic variation of Hanbury Brown-Twiss radii with invariant mass of the lepton pairs signals the formation of quark gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions. Our proposal of experimentally measuring the ratio, R{sub out}/R{sub side} for dileptons can be used to estimate the average lifetimes of the partonic as well as the hadronic phases.

  7. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Davidson, R.C.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Lindl, J.D.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.

    2000-10-03

    Inertial fusion energy research has enjoyed increased interest and funding. This has allowed expanded programs in target design, target fabrication, fusion chamber research, target injection and tracking, and accelerator research. The target design effort examines ways to minimize the beam power and energy and increase the allowable focal spot size while preserving target gain. Chamber research for heavy ion fusion emphasizes the use of thick liquid walls to serve as the coolant, breed tritium, and protect the structural wall from neutrons, photons, and other target products. Several small facilities are now operating to model fluid chamber dynamics. A facility to study target injection and tracking has been built and a second facility is being designed. Improved economics is an important goal of the accelerator research. The accelerator research is also directed toward the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE is being designed to accelerate ions to >100 MeV, enabling experiments in beam dynamics, focusing, and target physics. Activities leading to the IRE include ion source development and a High Current Experiment (HCX) designed to transport and accelerate a single beam of ions with a beam current of approximately 1 A, the initial current required for each beam of a fusion driver. In terms of theory, the program is developing a source-to-target numerical simulation capability. The goal of the entire program is to enable an informed decision about the promise of heavy ion fusion in about a decade.

  8. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  9. Polydopamine-mediated surface-functionalization of graphene oxide for heavy metal ions removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia; Jin, Jian

    2015-04-15

    By utilizing polydopamine (PD) nano-thick interlayer as mediator, polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes with abundant amine groups were grafted onto the surface of PD coated graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction and produced a PEI–PD/GO composite nanosheets. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions as compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. The adsorption capacities for Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} are up to 87, 106, 197, and 110 mg/g, respectively. To further make the GO based composite operable, PEI–PD/RGO aerogel was prepared through hydrothermal and achieved a high surface area up to 373 m{sup 2}/g. Although the adsorption capacity of PEI–PD/RGO aerogel for heavy metal ions decreases a little as compared to PEI–PD/GO composite dispersion (38, 32, 95, 113 mg/g corresponding to Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+}, respectively), it could be recycled several times in a simple way by releasing adsorbed metal ions, indicating its potential application for cleaning wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes were grafted onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction between the PEI and polydopamine interlayer coated on GO surface. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. - Highlights: • We prepared polyethylenimine grafted polydopamine-mediated graphene oxide composites. • Introduction of PD layer increases metal ions adsorption capacity. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel exhibited a superior adsorption performance. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel can be recycled several times in a simple way.

  10. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on bare and coated ZnS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, S. Hussain, A.M.P.; Ahmed, G.A.; Singh, F.; Avasthi, D.K.; Choudhury, A.

    2008-12-01

    The present study compares structural and optical modifications of bare and silica (SiO{sub 2}) coated ZnS quantum dots under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. Bare and silica coated ZnS quantum dots were prepared following an inexpensive chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the dielectric host matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the samples show the formation of almost spherical ZnS quantum dots. The UV-Vis absorption spectra reveal blue shift relative to bulk material in absorption energy while photoluminescence (PL) spectra suggests that surface state and near band edge emissions are dominating in case of bare and coated samples, respectively. Swift heavy ion irradiation of the samples was carried out with 160 MeV Ni{sup 12+} ion beam with fluences 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. Size enhancement of bare quantum dots after irradiation has been indicated in XRD and TEM analysis of the samples which has also been supported by optical absorption spectra. However similar investigations on irradiated coated quantum dots revealed little change in quantum dot size and emission. The present study thus shows that the coated ZnS quantum dots are stable upon SHI irradiation compared to the bare one.

  11. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, T. Sugimoto, S.; Sasai, K.; Hattori, T.

    2014-02-15

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz.

  12. Elise - the next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.

    1994-11-01

    LBL, with the participation of LLNL and industry, proposes to build Elise, an electric-focused accelerator as the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction linac powerful enough to implode or {open_quotes}drive{close_quotes} inertial-confinement fusion targets. Elise will be at full driver scale in several important parameters-most notably line charge density (a function of beam size), which was not explored in earlier experiments. Elise will be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and will be designed to be extendible, by successive future construction projects, to meet the goal of the USA DOE Inertial Fusion Energy program (IFE). This goal is to address all remaining issues in heavy-ion IFE except target physics, which is currently the responsibility of DOE Defense Programs, and the target chamber. Thus Elise is the first step of a program that will provide a solid foundation of data for further progress toward a driver, as called for in the National Energy Strategy and National Energy Policy Act.

  13. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  14. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. . Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  15. Event-shape fluctuations and flow correlations in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jia, Jiangyong

    2014-12-01

    I review recent measurements of a large set of flow observables associated with event-shape fluctuations and collective expansion in heavy ion collisions. First, these flow observables are classified and experiment methods are introduced. The experimental results for each type of observables are then presented and compared to theoretical calculations. A coherent picture of initial condition and collective flow based on linear and non-linear hydrodynamic responses is derived, which qualitatively describe most experimental results. I discuss new types of fluctuation measurements that can further our understanding of the event-shape fluctuations and collective expansion dynamics.

  16. Thermalization of color gauge fields in high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwazaki, Aiichi [International Politics Economics, Nishogakusha University, Ohi Kashiwa Chiba 277-8585 (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    We discuss the quantum mechanical decay of the color magnetic field generated initially during high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The decay is caused by Nielsen-Olesen unstable modes and is accomplished possibly in a period <1 fm/c. We show that the decay products (i.e., incoherent gluons) may be thermalized in a sufficiently short period (<1 fm/c). The precise determination of the period is made by calculating the two-point function of the color magnetic field in a color glass condensate model.

  17. Heavy ion precompound phenomena: A glance at hard gamma and subthreshold pion production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-08-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann master equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons share the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho. With no additional free parameters our model successfully reproduces subthreshold pion production cross sections, high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra, and angular distributions of high energy ..gamma..-rays. 40 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-12-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion energy systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. In this paper, we examine three different modes of beam propagation: neutralized ballistic transport, assisted pinched transport, and self-pinched transport. The status of our understanding of these three modes is summarized, and the constraints imposed by beam propagation upon the chamber environment, as well as their compatibility with various chamber and target concepts, are considered. We conclude that, on the basis of our present understanding, there is a reasonable range of parameter space where beams can propagate in thick-liquid wall, wetted-wall, and dry-wall chambers.

  19. HIGH-POWER FFAG-BASED HEAVY-ION AND PROTON DRIVERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUGGIERO,A.

    2007-10-01

    Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators are being proposed as an alternative to Super-conducting Linacs (SCL), Rapid-Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) and Cyclotrons for the acceleration of very intense Heavy-Ion and Proton beams in the medium energy range. One application is the acceleration of ions of Uranium-238 to an energy of 400 MeV/u, and the average power of 400 kWatt, and the other a 1-GeV Proton Driver with an average beam power of 10 MWatt. One or two FFAG rings are needed for acceleration of both beams. They adopt a Non-Scaling Lattice (NSL) to reduce the size and the cost of the accelerator. The continuous wave (CW) mode of operation is achieved with the method of Harmonic Number Jump (HNJ).

  20. Off-momentum dynamic aperture for lattices in the RHIC heavy ion runs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo Y.; Bai, M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Gu, X.; Fischer, W.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Zhang, S.

    2012-05-20

    To reduce transverse emittance growth rates from intrabeam scattering in the RHIC heavy ion runs, a lattice with an increased phase advance in the arc FODO cells was adopted in 2008-2011. During these runs, a large beam loss due to limited off-momentum dynamic aperture was observed during longitudinal RF re-bucketing and with transverse cooling. Based on the beam loss observations in the previous ion runs and the calculated off-momentum apertures, we decided to adopt the lattice used before 2008 for the 2012 U-U and Cu-Au runs. The observed beam decay and the measured momentum aperture in the 2012 U-U run are presented.

  1. Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, R.

    2009-10-19

    Parameters are given of muon colliders with center of mass energies of 1.5 and 3 TeV. Pion production is from protons on a mercury target. Capture, decay, and phase rotation yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling reduces the emittances until the trains are merged into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in 6 dimensions is then applied, followed by final transverse cooling in 50 T solenoids. After acceleration the muons enter the collider ring. Ongoing R&D is discussed.

  2. Final Technical Report DE-FG02-08ER41540. Establishing the Transport Properties of QCD With Heavy Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teaney, Derek

    2015-03-17

    We review the results of the DE-FG02-08ER41540, "Establishing the transport properties of QCD with heavy ion reactions"

  3. RHIC Performance as a 100 GeV Polarized Proton Collider in Run-9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montag, C.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; DOttavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hahn, H.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Menga, P.M.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Pozdeyev, E.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2010-05-23

    During the second half of Run-9, the Relativisitc Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided polarized proton collisions at two interaction points. The spin orientation of both beams at these collision points was controlled by helical spin rotators, and physics data were taken with different orientations of the beam polarization. Recent developments and improvements will be presented, as well as luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-9.

  4. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  5. Stress influenced trapping processes in Si based multi-quantum well structures and heavy ions implanted Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciurea, Magdalena Lidia Lazanu, Sorina

    2014-10-06

    Multi-quantum well structures and Si wafers implanted with heavy iodine and bismuth ions are studied in order to evaluate the influence of stress on the parameters of trapping centers. The experimental method of thermostimullatedcurrents without applied bias is used, and the trapping centers are filled by illumination. By modeling the discharge curves, we found in multilayered structures the parameters of both 'normal' traps and 'stress-induced' ones, the last having a Gaussian-shaped temperature dependence of the cross section. The stress field due to the presence of stopped heavy ions implanted into Si was modeled by a permanent electric field. The increase of the strain from the neighborhood of I ions to the neighborhood of Bi ions produces the broadening of some energy levels and also a temperature dependence of the cross sections for all levels.

  6. Radiation damage by light- and heavy-ion bombardment of single-crystal LiNbO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Hsu-Cheng; Zhang, Lihua; Malladi, Girish; Dadap, Jerry I.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Kisslinger, Kim; Vemuri, Rama Sesha R.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Bakhru, Hassaram; Osgood, Jr., Richard M.

    2015-04-14

    In this work, a battery of analytical methods including in situ RBS/C, confocal micro-Raman, TEM/STEM, EDS, AFM, and optical microscopy were used to provide a comparative investigation of light- and heavy-ion radiation damage in single-crystal LiNbO?. High (~MeV) and low (~100s keV) ion energies, corresponding to different stopping power mechanisms, were used and their associated damage events were observed. In addition, sequential irradiation of both ion species was also performed and their cumulative depth-dependent damage was determined. It was found that the contribution from electronic stopping by high-energy heavy ions gave rise to a lower critical fluence for damage formationmorethan for the case of low-energy irradiation. Such energy-dependent critical fluence of heavy-ion irradiation is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the case of light-ion damage. In addition, materials amorphization and collision cascades were seen for heavy-ion irradiation, while for light ion, crystallinity remained at the highest fluence used in the experiment. The irradiation-induced damage is characterized by the formation of defect clusters, elastic strain, surface deformation, as well as change in elemental composition. In particular, the presence of nanometric-scale damage pockets results in increased RBS/C backscattered signal and the appearance of normally forbidden Raman phonon modes. The location of the highest density of damage is in good agreement with SRIM calculations. (author)less

  7. Heavy-ion inertial fusion: influence of target gain on accelerator parameters for vacuum-propagation regimes in reaction chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Bangerter, R.O.; Barletta, W.A.; Fawley, W.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1982-03-04

    Target physics imposes requirements on the design of inertial fusion drivers. The influence of beam propagation in near vacuum fusion reaction chambers is evaluated for the relation between target gain and the phase-space requirements of heavy-ion accelerators. Initial results suggest that neutralization of the ion beam has a much greater positive effect than the deleterious one of beam stripping provided that the fusion chamber pressure is < 10/sup -3/ torr (of Li vapor or equivalent).

  8. Operation of a multiple cell array detector in plasma experiments with a heavy ion beam diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncalves, B.; Malaquias, A.; Nedzelskiy, I. S.; Pereira, L.; Silva, C.; Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.; Khrebtov, S.M.; Dreval, N.B.; Krupnik, L.I.; Hidalgo, C.; Depablos, J.

    2004-10-01

    A multiple cell array detector (MCAD) has been developed to investigate the spatial structure of plasma turbulence in fusion plasmas. This system is expected to provide simultaneous measurements of edge and core density fluctuations with both temporal and spatial resolution, extending the range and number of the sample volumes simultaneously recorded by a heavy ion beam diagnostic (HIBD). Since the detector (usually located close to the vessel wall of a plasma device) operates in a strong plasma radiation environment, the effective shielding of the detector presents a special problem. This article describes and compares the MCAD operation conditions on ISTTOK tokamak and TJ-II stellarator. Experimental results of the detector performance are presented together with the first measurements of n{sub e}{sigma}{sub eff} in the TJ-II plasmas.

  9. Dynamical approach to heavy-ion induced fusion using actinide target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aritomo, Y.; Hagino, K.; Chiba, S.; Nishio, K.

    2012-10-20

    To treat heavy-ion reactions using actinide target nucleus, we propose a model which takes into account the coupling to the collective states of interacting nuclei in the penetration of the Coulomb barrier and the dynamical evolution of nuclear shape from the contact configuration. A fluctuation-dissipation model (Langevin equation) was applied in the dynamical calculation, where effect of nuclear orientation at the initial impact on the prolately deformed target nucleus was considered. Using this model, we analyzed the experimental data for the mass distribution of fission fragments (MDFF) in the reaction of {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U at several incident energies. Fusion-fission, quasifission and deep-quasi-fission are separated as different trajectories on the potential energy surface. We estimated the fusion cross section of the reaction.

  10. A new look at positron production from heavy-ion collisions: Results from apex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Austin, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    A new solenoidal spectrometer, designed to study the production mechanism of electrons and positrons in heavy-ion collisions, has been constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The spectrometer has been used to study the {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta system at 5.95, 6.10, and 6.30 MeV/u and the {sup 238}U + {sup 232}Th system at 5.95 MeV/u. These bombarding energies cover the energy region where previous experiments have reported sharp sum-energy lines. No evidence is found for sharp peaks in the present data. For the specific case of the isolated decay of a neutral particle of mass 1.4--2.1 MeV/c{sup 2} the upper limits on cross sections obtained from the present data are significantly less than the previously reported cross sections.