National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for heavy element chemistry

  1. 2.10 Heavy Element Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 6/1/2011 2.10 Heavy Element Chemistry For more than 50 years, the Office of Science and predecessor agencies have supported the discovery and study of the actinide elements, in particular the transuranium elements-atoms that are heavier than uranium. Glenn Seaborg and Ed McMillan of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1951 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry for the discovery of plutonium and other actinide elements, began this quest. Today, the Heavy Element Chemistry program continues the

  2. Heavy Element Chemistry | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Element Chemistry Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, & Biosciences (CSGB) Division CSGB Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs Reports and Activities Science Highlights Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas Heavy Element Chemistry Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page This activity supports basic research in the chemistry of the heavy elements, focused on the actinides, but also includes the transactinide

  3. Super-Heavy Element Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Targets for Super-Heavy Element Research Presented at International Workshop on Super-Heavy Element Research SHE-15 J. B. Roberto Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge,...

  4. Folden Group - Heavy Element Nuclear and Radiochemistry at Texas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Welcome to the Heavy Elements Group at Texas A&M University, headed by Prof. Folden. ... Links Cyclotron Institute Texas A&M University Chemistry Department Department of Nuclear ...

  5. Heavy Element Synthesis Reactions W. Loveland Oregon State University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactions W. Loveland Oregon State University The role of ATLAS in helping us understand heavy element synthesis reactions and heavy element properties * Hot (E*=35-60 MeV) and Cold (E*=15 MeV) fusion reactions * Multi-nucleon transfer reactions * Fission * Atomic physics and chemistry of the heaviest elements * Structure of the heaviest nuclei The challenge of studying the heaviest elements at ATLAS * ATLAS beam time is oversubscribed * Low cross section studies - High luminosity - ATLAS has

  6. The Search for Heavy Elements

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  7. The Search for Heavy Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-04-17

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  8. The physics and chemistry of heavy Fermions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, Z.; Sarrao, J.L. |; Smith, J.L.; Thompson, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    The heavy Fermions are a subset of the f-element intermetallics straddling the magnetic/non-magnetic boundary. Their low temperature properties are characterized by an electronic energy scale of order 1--10 K. Among the low temperature ground states observed in heavy Fermion compounds are exotic superconductors and magnets, as well as unusual semiconductors. We review here the current experimental and theoretical understanding of these systems.

  9. Yb-based heavy fermion compounds and field tuned quantum chemistry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and field tuned quantum chemistry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Yb-based heavy fermion compounds and field tuned quantum chemistry You are accessing a ...

  10. Observation of heavy elements produced during explosive cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T.; Kurokawa, K. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports on many-body fusion reactions that may take place during cold fusion. Heavy elements are observed that might have been produced by such reactions during electrolysis of heavy water. Elements such as sodium, magnesium, aluminum, and zinc are observed inside grain-shaped defects in a palladium rod used in a cold fusion experiment.

  11. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberto, J.; Alexander, Charles W.; Boll, Rose Ann; Ezold, Julie G.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Hogle, Susan L.

    2015-06-18

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing themore » production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.« less

  12. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, J.; Alexander, Charles W.; Boll, Rose Ann; Ezold, Julie G.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Hogle, Susan L.

    2015-06-18

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.

  13. Advancing Chemistry with the Lanthanide and Actinide Elements Final Report, September 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, William John

    2013-09-11

    The objective of this research is to use the unique chemistry available from complexes of the lanthanides and actinides, as well as related heavy metals such as scandium, yttrium, and bismuth to advance chemistry in energy-related areas. The lanthanides and actinides have a combination of properties in terms of size, charge, electropositive character, and f valence orbitals that provides special opportunities to probe reactivity and catalysis in ways not possible with the other metals in the periodic table. We seek to discover reaction pathways and structural types that reveal new options in reaction chemistry related to energy. Identification of new paradigms in structure and reactivity should stimulate efforts to develop new types of catalytic processes that at present are not under consideration because either the transformation or the necessary intermediates are unknown. This project is one half of my laboratory’s DOE research which was split 50:50 between Catalysis and Heavy Element Chemistry programs in 2010. Hence, this report is for a half-project.

  14. At an Elemental Crossroad: Investigating the Chemistry of Protactinium |

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) At an Elemental Crossroad: Investigating the Chemistry of Protactinium Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More

  15. Formation of super-heavy elements in astrophysical nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zagrebaev, V. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Mishustin, I. N.; Greiner, Walter

    2012-10-20

    The unexplored area of heavy neutron-rich nuclides is extremely important for the understanding of the r process of astrophysical nucleogenesis. For elements with Z>100 only neutron deficient isotopes (located to the left of the stability line) have been synthesized so far. The 'north-east' area of the nuclear map can be reached neither in fusion reactions nor in fragmentation processes. Low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions are quite promising for the production and study of neutron-rich heavy nuclei including those located at the superheavy (SH) island of stability [1]. The neutron capture process is considered here as an alternative method for the production of SH nuclei. Requirements for the pulsed reactors of the next generation that could be used for the synthesis of long-living neutron rich SH nuclei are formulated. Formation of SH nuclei in supernova explosions is also discussed and the abundance of SH elements in nature is estimated.

  16. Heavy Element Synthesis Reaction Mechanisms W. Loveland Oregon State University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reaction Mechanisms W. Loveland Oregon State University Production of Heavy Elements in Complete Fusion Reactions * We need to know three spin-dependent quantities: (a) the capture cross section, (b) the fusion probability and (c) the survival probability, and their isospin dependence where Examples of cold fusion predictions The problem Hot fusion examples "How good are the model predictions of cross sections" * Very controversial Zagrebaev and Greiner (2015) Zagrebaev et al. (2001)

  17. Heavy-element fission barriers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Heavy-element fission barriers Citation ... OSTI Identifier: 21289903 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: ...

  18. Nations Work Together to Discover New Element

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Cabage, Bill

    2011-03-28

    The discovery of element 117 increases evidence for the "island of stability" in super-heavy nuclei, opening new frontiers of chemistry.

  19. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  20. Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Chemistry Print Chemical science at the ALS encompasses a broad range of approaches and specializations, including surfaces/interfaces, catalysis, chemical dynamics (gas-phase chemistry), crystallography, and physical chemistry. By one estimate, nearly 80% of all chemical reactions in nature and in human technology take place at boundaries between phases, i.e., at surfaces or interfaces. Atomic- and molecular-scale studies are needed to develop a thorough understanding of the

  1. LDRD Final Report: Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements (04-ERD-057)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escher, J E; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D; Burke, J; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Forssen, C; Gueorguiev, V; Hoffman, R D

    2007-02-23

    Research carried out in the framework of the LDRD project ''Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements'' (04-ERD-057) is summarized. The project was designed to address the challenge of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions involving unstable targets, with a particular emphasis on reactions that play a key role in the production of the elements between Iron and Uranium. This report reviews the motivation for the research, introduces the approach employed to address the problem, and summarizes the resulting scientific insights, technical findings, and related accomplishments.

  2. Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Chemistry Chemical science for a dynamic world 3D printer is ideal tool to make cones of explosive material with finely controlled internal microstructure Explosiv3Design READ MORE Isotopes for cancer and cardiac care Isotopes for cancer and cardiac care READ MORE Contact Us Division Leader David Morris Deputy Division Leader Mark McCleskey Division Office (505) 667-4457 Email Chemical science in support of Los Alamos mission The Chemistry Division serves the Laboratory's mission with

  3. Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Chemistry Top Journals Journal of the American Chemical Society Angewandte Chemie & Angewandte Chemie, international edition in English Chemical Communications Chemical...

  4. Effects of extreme pressure additive chemistry on rolling element bearing surface durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Ryan D.; Nixon, H. P.; Darragh, Craig V.; Howe, Jane Y; Coffey, Dorothy W

    2007-01-01

    Lubricant additives have been known to affect rolling element bearing surface durability for many years. Tapered roller bearings were used in fatigue testing of lubricants formulated with gear oil type additive systems. These systems have sulfur- and phosphoruscontaining compounds used for gear protection as well as bearing lubrication. Several variations of a commercially available base additive formulation were tested having modified sulfur components. The variations represent a range of ''active'' extreme pressure (EP) chemistries. The bearing fatigue test results were compared with respect to EP formulation and test conditions. Inner ring near-surface material in selected test bearings was evaluated on two scales: the micrometer scale using optical metallography and the nanometer scale using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Focused-ion beam (FIB) techniques were used for TEM specimen preparation. Imaging and chemical analysis of the bearing samples revealed near-surface material and tribofilm characteristics. These results are discussed with respect to the relative fatigue lives.

  5. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grazis, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  6. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grazis, B.M.

    1992-11-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  7. Final Report: Main Group Element Chemistry in Service of Hydrogen Storage and Activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Dixon; Anthony J. Arduengo, III

    2010-09-30

    goal was met in terms of reducing the number of costly experiments and helping to focus the experimental effort on the potentially optimal targets. We have used computational chemistry approaches to predict the thermodynamic properties of a wide range of compounds containing boron, nitrogen, hydrogen, and other elements as appropriate including carbon. These calculations were done in most cases with high level molecular orbital theory methods that have small error bars on the order of 1 to 2 kcal/mol. The results were used to benchmark more approximate methods such as density functional theory for larger systems and for database development. We predicted reliable thermodynamics for thousands of compounds for release and regeneration schemes to aid/guide materials design and process design and simulation. These are the first reliable computed values for these compounds and for many represent the only available values. Overall, the computational results have provided us with new insights into the chemistry of main group and organic-base chemical hydrogen systems from the release of hydrogen to the regeneration of spent fuel. A number of experimental accomplishments were also made in this project. The experimental work on hydrogen storage materials centered on activated polarized ?- or ?-bonded frameworks that hold the potential for ready dihydrogen activation, uptake, and eventually release. To this end, a large number of non-traditional valence systems including carbenes, cyanocarbons, and C-B and and B-N systems were synthesized and examined. During the course of these studies an important lead arose from the novel valency of a class of stable organic singlet bi-radical systems. A synthetic strategy to an endless hydrogen storage polymer has been developed based on our cyanocarbon chemistry. A key issue with the synthetic efforts was being able to link the kinetics of release with the size of the substituents as it was difficult to develop a low molecular weight

  8. Actinide Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Actinide Chemistry Actinide Chemistry Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise David Gallimore Actinide Analytical Chemistry Email Rebecca Chamberlin Actinide Analytical Chemistry Email Josh Smith Chemistry Communications Email Along with the lanthanides, they are often called "the f-elements" because they have valence electrons in the f shell. Actinide chemistry serves a

  9. Heavy element effects in the diagonal Born–Oppenheimer correction within a relativistic spin-free Hamiltonian

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Imafuku, Yuji; Abe, Minori; Schmidt, Michael W.; Hada, Masahiko

    2016-03-22

    Methodologies beyond the Born–Oppenheimer (BO) approximation are nowadays important to explain high precision spectroscopic measurements. Most previous evaluations of the BO correction are, however, focused on light-element molecules and based on a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian, so no information about the BO approximation (BOA) breakdown in heavy-element molecules is available. The present work is the first to investigate the BOA breakdown for the entire periodic table, by considering scalar relativistic effects in the Diagonal BO correction (DBOC). In closed shell atoms, the relativistic EDBOC scales as Z1.25 and the nonrelativistic EDBOC scales as Z1.17, where Z is the atomic number. Hence, wemore » found that EDBOC becomes larger in heavy element atoms and molecules, and the relativistic EDBOC increases faster than nonrelativistic EDBOC. We have further investigated the DBOC effects on properties such as potential energy curves, spectroscopic parameters, and various energetic properties. The DBOC effects for these properties are mostly affected by the lightest atom in the molecule. Furthermore, in X2 or XAt molecule (X = H, Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) the effect of DBOC systematically decreases when X becomes heavier but in HX molecules, the effect of DBOC seems relatively similar among all the molecules.« less

  10. THE ORIGINS OF LIGHT AND HEAVY R-PROCESS ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED BY CHEMICAL TAGGING OF METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-11-01

    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration ?-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A >130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] ?+1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  11. Effects of alloying elements on the formation of < c >-component loops in Zr alloy Excel under heavy ion irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idrees, Yasir; Francis, Elisabeth M.; Yao, Zhongwen; Korinek, Andreas; Kirk, Marquis A.; Sattari, Mohammad; Preuss, Michael; Daymond, M. R.

    2015-05-14

    We report here the microstructural changes occurring in the zirconium alloy Excel (Zr-3.5 wt% Sn-0.8Nb-0.8Mo-0.2Fe) during heavy ion irradiation. In situ irradiation experiments were conducted at reactor operating temperatures on two Zr Excel alloy microstructures with different states of alloying elements, with the states achieved by different solution heat treatments. In the first case, the alloying elements were mostly concentrated in the beta (beta) phase, whereas, in the second case, large Zr-3(Mo,Nb,Fe)(4) secondary phase precipitates (SPPs) were grown in the alpha (alpha) phase by long term aging. The heavy ion induced damage and resultant compositional changes were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. Significant differences were seen in microstructural evolution between the two different microstructures that were irradiated under similar conditions. Nucleation and growth of < c >-component loops and their dependence on the alloying elements are a major focus of the current investigation. It was observed that the < c >-component loops nucleate readily at 100, 300, and 400 degrees C after a threshold incubation dose (TID), which varies with irradiation temperature and the state of alloying elements. It was found that the TID for the formation of < c >-component loops increases with decrease in irradiation temperature. Alloying elements that are present in the form of SPPs increase the TID compared to when they are in the beta phase solid solution. Dose and temperature dependence of loop size and density are presented. Radiation induced redistribution and clustering of alloying elements (Sn, Mo, and Fe) have been observed and related to the formation of < c >-component loops. It has been shown that at the higher temperature tests, irradiation induced dissolution of precipitates occurs whereas irradiation induced

  12. The superTIGER instrument: Measurement of elemental abundances of ultra-heavy galactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binns, W. R.; Bose, R. G.; Braun, D. L.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Israel, M. H.; Moore, P.; Murphy, R. P.; Olevitch, M. A.; Rauch, B. F.; Brandt, T. J.; Daniels, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, S. P.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Mitchell, J. W.; Sakai, K.; and others

    2014-06-10

    The SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument was developed to measure the abundances of galactic cosmic-ray elements from {sub 10}Ne to {sub 40}Zr with individual element resolution and the high statistics needed to test models of cosmic-ray origins. SuperTIGER also makes exploratory measurements of the abundances of elements with 40 < Z ≤ 60 and measures the energy spectra of the more abundant elements for Z ≤ 30 from about 0.8 to 10 GeV/nucleon. This instrument is an enlarged and higher resolution version of the earlier TIGER instrument. It was designed to provide the largest geometric acceptance possible and to reach as high an altitude as possible, flying on a standard long-duration 1.11 million m{sup 3} balloon. SuperTIGER was launched from Williams Field, McMurdo Station, Antarctica, on 2012 December 8, and made about 2.7 revolutions around the South Pole in 55 days of flight, returning data on over 50 × 10{sup 6} cosmic-ray nuclei with Z ≥ 10, including ∼1300 with Z > 29 and ∼60 with Z > 49. Here, we describe the instrument, the methods of charge identification employed, the SuperTIGER balloon flight, and the instrument performance.

  13. Glann Seaborg's Contributions to Heavy Element Science and the Periodic Table

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobart, David E.

    2012-08-17

    In celebrating the centennial anniversary of the birth of Glenn T. Seaborg it is fitting that we recount and pay tribute to his legacy. Many know of the scientific accomplishments of this man who became a legend and anyone who has attended his lectures can attest to how informative, educational, and entertaining he was. He had a beguiling and whimsical sense of humor and used this to drive home his points and share his passion and quest for discovery. The periodic table is a fundamental cornerstone of science and remains a central unifying principal. Seaborg was the architect of the actinide series of elements and their proper placement in the periodic table and co-discoverer of ten transuranium elements - one of which bears his name, element 106, seaborgium. The work and achievements of this Nobel laureate have touched the lives of many and his legacy will continue for generations to come.

  14. Effect of minor chemistry elements on GTA weld fusion zone characteristics of a commercial grade titanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marya, S.K.

    1996-06-01

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is the most common technique employed in the fabrication of rolled thin tubes. One of the major manufacturing problems concerns the stability of weld fusion zone on materials from different casts, notwithstanding stringent monitoring of the process parameters -- current, voltage and travel speed. These parameters determine the theoretical weld heat and are expected to control the instantaneous mass of melt. According to the data compiled by Sahoo et al., oxygen is known to reduce the surface tension of most of the metals. However, investigations on the role of minor changes in concentrations of elements like sulphur, oxygen, selenium, bismuth, aluminium, and titanium in steels have very often attributed the cast to cast variations to different temperature gradients of surface tension over the weldpool. To the author`s knowledge, no reported work so far has revealed changing weld profiles in autogeneous mechanized GTA welds on titanium due to minor composition changes.

  15. Heavy metal transfers between trophic compartments in different ecosystems in Galicia (Northwest Spain): Essential elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, X.I.; Aboal, J.R.; Fernandez, J.A.; Carballeira, A.

    2008-11-15

    In the present study, we determined the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in soil and several trophic compartments at a total of 16 sampling stations. The trophic compartments studied were primary producers, represented by two species of terrestrial mosses (Pseudoescleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) and oak trees (Quercus robur or Q. pyrenaica); primary consumers, represented by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and the yellow necked mouse (A. flavicollis); secondary consumers, represented by the shrew (Sorex granarius); and finally, detritivores, represented by slugs (Arion ater). Thirteen of the sampling stations were located in mature oak woodlands (Quercus sp.); two of the sampling stations were located in the area surrounding a restored lignite mine dump, and the other in an ultrabasic area. The analytical determinations revealed a lack of significant correlations among trophic compartments, possibly caused by effective regulation of metals by organisms and/or spatial variation in availability of metals from soil or food. Furthermore, the only element that showed a clear pattern of biomagnification was Cu; as for the other elements, there was always some divergence from such a pattern. Finally, the patterns of bioaccumulation in contaminated and woodland sampling stations were very similar, although there was enrichment of the concentrations of Cu, Mn, and Zn in the mice viscera, which, except for Mn, were related to higher edaphic concentrations.

  16. Magnetocaloric effect in heavy rare-earth elements doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with tunable Curie temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jiawei; Huo, Juntao; Chang, Chuntao E-mail: dujun@nimte.ac.cn; Du, Juan E-mail: dujun@nimte.ac.cn; Man, Qikui; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei; Law, Jiayan

    2014-08-14

    The effects of heavy rare earth (RE) additions on the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and magnetocaloric effect of the Fe-RE-B-Nb (RE = Gd, Dy and Ho) bulk metallic glasses were studied. The type of dopping RE element and its concentration can easily tune T{sub C} in a large temperature range of 120 K without significantly decreasing the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) and refrigerant capacity (RC) of the alloys. The observed values of ΔS{sub M} and RC of these alloys compare favorably with those of recently reported Fe-based metallic glasses with enhanced RC compared to Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 1.9}Si{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.1}. The tunable T{sub C} and large glass-forming ability of these RE doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses can be used in a wide temperature range with the final required shapes.

  17. Element

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Departmental Element 2. System Name/ Major Application Name 3. Location 4. Name of System Owner/ Information or Data Owner 5. Contact Information 6. Does the system collect or maintain Social Security numbers? 7. Source of Legal Requirement/Authority to Collect or Maintain Social Security Numbers? 8. Does the system have a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA)? 9. Does the system have a System of Records Notice (SORN)? If yes, provide the name of the System of Records Notice. 10. Does the system

  18. Nucleosynthesis in helium-enriched asymptotic giant branch models: Implications for heavy element enrichment in ω Centauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the effect of helium enrichment on the evolution and nucleosynthesis of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of 1.7 M {sub ☉} and 2.36 M {sub ☉} with a metallicity of Z = 0.0006 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.4). We calculate evolutionary sequences with the primordial helium abundance (Y = 0.24) and with helium-enriched compositions (Y = 0.30, 0.35, 0.40). For comparison, we calculate models of the same mass but at a lower metallicity Z = 0.0003 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.8) with Y = 0.24. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations are performed on each of the evolutionary sequences to determine the production of elements from hydrogen to bismuth. Elemental surface abundance predictions and stellar yields are presented for each model. The models with enriched helium have shorter main sequence and AGB lifetimes, and they enter the AGB with a more massive hydrogen-exhausted core than the primordial helium model. The main consequences are as follows: (1) low-mass AGB models with enhanced helium will evolve more than twice as fast, giving them the chance to contribute sooner to the chemical evolution of the forming globular clusters, and (2) the stellar yields will be strongly reduced relative to their primordial helium counterparts. An increase of ΔY = 0.10 at a given mass decreases the yields of carbon by up to ≈60% and of fluorine by up to 80%; it also decreases the yields of the s-process elements barium and lanthanum by ≈45%. While the yields of first s-process peak elements strontium, yttrium, and zirconium decrease by up to 50%, the yields of rubidium either do not change or increase.

  19. Atmospheric Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemistry Atmospheric Chemistry Atmospheric Chemistry is the study of the composition of the atmosphere, the sources and fates of gases and particles in air, and changes induced by ...

  20. Actinide Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Actinide Chemistry Actinide chemistry serves a critical role in addressing global threats Project Description At Los Alamos, scientists are using actinide analytical chemistry to ...

  1. 2011-2012 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors influencing residue cross section in 48Ca-induced reactions D. A. Mayorov, T. A. Werke, M. C. Alfonso, M. E. Bennett, and C. M. Folden III Characterization of a gas stopper for heavy element chemistry studies M. C. Alfonso, D. A. Mayorov, T. A. Werke, and C. M. Folden III Fabrication of lanthanide targets for nuclear reaction studies D. A. Mayorov, T. A. Werke, M. E. Bennett, and C. M. Folden III Excitation functions of 45Sc-induced reactions: towards future superheavy element synthesis

  2. Grain refinement in heavy rare earth element-free sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets by addition of a small amount of molybdenum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jin Woo; Lee, Won Suk; Byun, Jong Min; Kim, Young Do; Kim, Se Hoon

    2015-05-07

    We employed a modified refractory-metal-addition method to achieve higher coercivity and remanence in heavy rare earth element (HREE)-free Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets. This process involved inducing the formation of a homogeneous secondary phase at the grain boundaries during sintering, making it possible to control the intergrain diffusion by adding small amounts of Mo, a refractory metal. To control the microstructure of the secondary phase effectively, a metal organic compound of the refractory metal was coated on the surfaces of the particles of an HREE-free Nd–Fe–B powder. The average grain size after this process was 5.60 μm, which was approximately 1.8 μm smaller than that of the HREE-free sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets (7.4 μm). The coercivity of the magnets prepared through this process could be increased from 11.88 kOe to 13.91 kOe without decreasing their remanence.

  3. SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for heavy element production...II-1 P. K.Sahu, J. B. Natowitz, R. Wada, K. Hagel, T. Materna, Z. Chen, L. Qin, M. Barbui,...

  4. Top Quark Produced Through the Electroweak Force: Discovery Using the Matrix Element Analysis and Search for Heavy Gauge Bosons Using Boosted Decision Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pangilinan, Monica; /Brown U.

    2010-02-01

    The top quark produced through the electroweak channel provides a direct measurement of the V{sub tb} element in the CKM matrix which can be viewed as a transition rate of a top quark to a bottom quark. This production channel of top quark is also sensitive to different theories beyond the Standard Model such as heavy charged gauged bosons termed W{prime}. This thesis measures the cross section of the electroweak produced top quark using a technique based on using the matrix elements of the processes under consideration. The technique is applied to 2.3 fb{sup -1} of data from the D0 detector. From a comparison of the matrix element discriminants between data and the signal and background model using Bayesian statistics, we measure the cross section of the top quark produced through the electroweak mechanism {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.30{sub -1.20}{sup +0.98} pb. The measured result corresponds to a 4.9{sigma} Gaussian-equivalent significance. By combining this analysis with other analyses based on the Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) and Boosted Decision Tree (BDT) method, the measured cross section is 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb with a significance of 5.0{sigma}, resulting in the discovery of electroweak produced top quarks. Using this measured cross section and constraining |V{sub tb}| < 1, the 95% confidence level (C.L.) lower limit is |V{sub tb}| > 0.78. Additionally, a search is made for the production of W{prime} using the same samples from the electroweak produced top quark. An analysis based on the BDT method is used to separate the signal from expected backgrounds. No significant excess is found and 95% C.L. upper limits on the production cross section are set for W{prime} with masses within 600-950 GeV. For four general models of W{prime} boson production using decay channel W{prime} {yields} t{bar b}, the lower mass limits are the following: M(W{prime}{sub L} with SM couplings) > 840 GeV; M(W{prime}{sub R}) > 880 GeV or 890 GeV if the right

  5. Superheavy Elements - Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, Dieter

    2009-03-04

    The search for superheavy elements (SHE) has yielded exciting results for both the 'cold fusion' approach with reactions employing Pb and Bi targets and the ''hot fusion'' reactions with {sup 48}Ca beams on actinide targets. The most recent activities at GSI were the successful production of a more neutron rich isotope of element 112 in the reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U confirming earlier result from FLNR, and the attempt to synthesize an isotope with Z 120 in the reaction {sup 64}Ni+{sup 238}U. Apart from the synthesis of new elements, advanced nuclear structure studies for heavy and super heavy elements promise a detailed insight in the properties of nuclear matter under the extreme conditions of high Z and A. The means are evaporation residue(ER)-{alpha}-{alpha} and -{alpha}-{gamma} coincidence techniques applied after separation of the reaction products from the beam. Recent examples of interesting physics to be discovered in this region of the chart of nuclides are the investigation of K-isomers observed for {sup 252,254}No and indicated for {sup 270}Ds. Fast chemistry and precision mass measurements deliver in addition valuable information on the fundamental properties of the SHE.

  6. Chemistry of hydrotreating heavy crudes: II. Detailed analysis of polar compounds in Wilmington 650-1000 degree F distillate and hydrotreated products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Green, J.B.; Tang, S.Y.; Reynolds, J.W.; Yu, S.K.T. )

    1987-04-01

    Notwithstanding the current oversupply of crude oil, the future importance of heavy crude as a primary energy resource is widely recognized. In addition, with the market for resid declining, refiners are facing an increasing challenge to convert more of the bottom of the barrel to transportation fuels. The problems that have been predicted for refinery products made from heavier feedstocks are now beginning to surface. State-of-the-art upgrading procedures have proven to be inadequate for removal of many of the chemical compound types that cause problems in the processing sequence or adversely affect the quality of the end products. These problems include instability or incompatibility of process streams or products, corrosiveness and catalyst poisoning. Before new approaches can be intelligently developed to remove the problem components, it is necessary to know what compound types are causing the observed problems. This study is focused on determination of polar compounds in the feedstock and products from hydrotreating a distillate of a representative heavy crude, Wilmington. The ultimate objective is to acquire an understanding of the compound types and reaction mechanisms contributing to instability, incompatibility, corrosiveness, catalyst poisoning and other problems exhibited by some crude oil feedstocks, intermediate process streams and final products resulting from the processing of lower quality fossil fuel feedstocks.

  7. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, elecrochemistry, catalysis, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemistry of hazardous chemicals, and thermal energy storage.

  8. Combustion Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  9. Materials Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  10. Flame Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  11. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending July 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Research is reported on: chemistry of coal liquefaction, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures, geosciences, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of TRU elements and compounds, separations chemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, inorganic chemistry of hydrogen cycles, molten salt systems, and enhanced oil recovery. Separate abstracts were prepared for the sections dealing with coal liquefaction, TRU elements and compounds, separations, nuclear wastes, and enhanced oil recovery. (DLC)

  12. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  13. Chemistry Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Chemistry Applications Gaussian 09 Gaussian 09 is a connected series of programs for performing semi-empirical, density functional theory and ab initio molecular orbital calculations. Read More » GAMESS GAMESS (General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System) is a general ab initio quantum chemistry package. Read More » AMBER AMBER (Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement) is the collective name for a suite of programs designed to carry out molecular dynamics

  14. Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels and Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Derived from Heavy Crude Sources | Department of Energy Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels and Fuels Derived from Heavy Crude Sources Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels and Fuels Derived from Heavy Crude Sources Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_bunting.pdf (405.64 KB) More Documents &

  15. Upgrading petroleum residues and heavy oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Here is an in-depth look at current techniques for converting heavy oils and residues into more valuable distillates. It examines the chemistry of heavy hydrocarbon feeds and their properties which are important to engineering design, including phase behavior, reaction kinetics, and thermodynamic and transport characteristics.

  16. Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

    2000-04-11

    Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

  17. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  18. Z-dependence analysis of M x-ray production cross sections for heavy elements with 60≤Z≤90 by protons impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deghfel, B.; Kahoul, A.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    Motivated by the large deviation between the experiment and the predictions of the most often used model of ionization process by a charged particle, namely ECPSSR model, a large database of experimental M-shell X-ray production cross-sections by protons energies varying from 0.1 to 4.0 MeV for elements with atomic number 60 ≤ Z ≤ 90, is collected from various sources published from 1980 till 2009 to deduce an empirical M x-ray production cross section. This latter is then deduced from the available experimental data as a function of the scaled velocity parameter by using the whole range of elements (collective analysis) or by introducing the dependence of these cross sections on the atomic number of the target, noted as “Z-dependence analysis” in addition to the collective one. The corresponding results and their deviation from the experimental data are presented for selected elements. Also, a comparison is made for selected elements between our results and other theoretical as well as experimental works.

  19. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    This report has been indexed by 11 separate chapters. The subjects covered are: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, catalysis, electron spectroscopy, nuclear waste chemistry, heuristic modeling, and special topics. (PLG)

  20. Ga, Ca, and 3d transition element (Cr through Zn) partitioning among spinel-lherzolite phases from the Lanzo massif, Italy: Analytical results and crystal chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wogelius, R.A.; Fraser, D.G.

    1994-06-01

    Ultramafic rocks exposed in Lanzo massif, Italy is a record of mantle geochemistry, melting, sub-solidus re-equilibration. Plagioclase(+ spinel)-lherzolite samples were analyzed by Scanning Proton Microscopy, other techniques. Previous work postulated partial melting events and a two-stage sub-solidus cooling history; this paper notes Ga enrichment on spinel-clinopyroxene grain boundaries, high Ga and transition element content of spinel, and pyroxene zonation in Ca and Al. Trace element levels in olivine and orthopyroxene are also presented. Zoning trends are interpreted as due to diffusion during cooling. Olivine-clinopyroxene Cr and Ca exchange as well as clinopyroxene and spinel zonation trends indicate that the massif experienced at least two sub-solidus cooling episodes, one at 20 kbar to 1000 C and one at 8 kbar <750C. Ga levels in cores of Lanzo high-Cr spinels are high (82-66 ppM) relative to other mantle spinels (66-40 ppM), indicating enrichment. Ga content of ultramafic spinels apparently increases with Cr content; this may be due to: increased Ga solubility stemming from crystal chemical effects and/or higher Ga activities in associated silicate melts. Thus, during melting, high-Cr residual spinel may tend to buffer solid-phase Ga level. These spinels are not only rich in Ga and Cr (max 26.37 el. wt %), but also in Fe (max 21.07 el. wt %), Mn (max 3400 ppM), and Zn (max 2430 ppM). These enrichments are again due to melt extraction and partitioning into spinel structure. Low Ni (min 1050 ppM) levels are due to unsuccessful competition of Ni with Cr for octahedral structural sites caused by crystal field. Comparisons of change in partitioning vs Cr content among several 3d transition elements for spinels from Lanzo, other localities allow us to separate crystal field effects from bulk chemical effects and to show that in typical assemblages, inversion of olivine-spinel partition coefficient for Ni from <1 to >1 should occur at 11% el. wt. Cr in spinel.

  1. Flame Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  2. Materials Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  3. Challenges of tomorrow. chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steindler, M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    According to the author, nuclear materials are going to play an increasing role in concerns regarding proliferation and international affair, with an increased demand for clean electric power, and in environmental and health and safety issues. Challenges range from detecting a single species in a sea of others at molar ratios of 10-{sup 12}, or smaller, to a knowledge of the fundamental physical chemistry (e.g., thermodynamics, activity coefficients, etc., of a two phase system, containing about 40 materials, at 500{sup 0}C) for the lanthanide and actinide elements produced during reactor operation. Other concerns are identified and discussed.

  4. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, R.R.

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  5. Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions | Department of Energy 5.15 MB) More Documents & Publications Coal-Derived Liquids to Enable HCCI Technology Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion, and Emissions Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels and Fuels Derived from Heavy Crude Sources

  6. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  7. Challenges in explosive nucleosynthesis of heavy elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinedo, Gabriel Martinez; Fischer, T.; Lohs, A.; Huther, L.

    2012-10-20

    We show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter that is consistent with the nuclear equation of state has a strong impact on the spectra of the neutrinos emitted during the deleptonization period of a protoneutron star formed in a core-collapse supernova. We compare results of simulations including and neglecting mean field effects on the neutrino opacities. Their inclusion reduces the luminosities of all neutrino flavors and enhances the spectral differences between electron neutrino and antineutrino. The magnitude of the difference depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at sub-nuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the neutrino-driven outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on the nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they do not result in conditions that favor an r-process. Contrarily to previous findings, our simulations show that the spectra of electron neutrinos remain substantially different from those of other (anti)neutrino flavors during the entire deleptonization phase of the protoneutron star. The obtained luminosity and spectral changes are also expected to have important consequences for neutrino flavor oscillations and neutrino detection on Earth.

  8. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  9. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.C. |

    1996-07-26

    Beginning in the 1930`s, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs.

  10. Flame Chemistry and Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flame Conditions Flame Chemistry Insights (n-butanol flame) Experiment vs. ... Molecular beam sampling "freezes" chemistry Time-of-flight mass spectrometry ...

  11. Elements in biological AMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  12. Heavy loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metz, D.

    1982-01-01

    The extreme pressures on the roof and walls of an earth-sheltered residential home are discussed and the need for careful planning is stressed. Pertinent terms are defined. Footings and wall structure (reinforced concrete walls and concrete block walls) are described. Roofing systems are discussed in detail and illustrated: (1) poured-in-place concrete roof slabs; (2) pre-cast concrete planks; and (3) heavy timber roofs. Insulation of earth-sheltered homes is reviewed in terms of using: (1) urethanes; (2) extruded polystyrene; and (3) expanded polystyrene. Advantages, disadvantages, R-factors, costs, and installation are discussed. (MJJ)

  13. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neu, M.P.

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pK{sub a}s and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 5.94, log{beta}{sub 120} = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 9.34, log{beta}{sub l20} = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is log{beta}{sub 110} = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of {sup 242}Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  14. Future of heavy crude and tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, R.F.; Steele, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    The 106 papers which were presented at the First International Conference on the Future of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, held in Edmonton, Alberta are incorporated in this volume. They are grouped under the following sections: (1) role of heavy crude oils and tar sands in world energy; (2) major known occurrences; (3) chemistry and geochemistry; (4) geology; (5) resource evaluation techniques; (6) production research and pilot projects; (7) current production; (8) upgrading and refining; (9) transportation; (10) environmental research; (11) economics; (12) technological problems; (13) institutional factors; and (14) bibliography. All papers have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  15. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kolker...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The chemistry of the hot springs strongly suggests the existence of a neutral chloride reservoir...

  16. Adsorption of the Lighter Homologs of Element 104 and Element 105 on DGA Resin from Various Mineral Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, M E; Sudowe, R

    2008-11-17

    magnitude and increase roughly according to Z. This feature is what makes studying the heavy elements so interesting because the chemical properties of transactinide elements should strongly exhibit these effects. For this work the terms heavy element and transactinide elements will be used interchangeably and are defined as elements with an atomic number greater than 103, Z > 103. In order to study the transactinide elements they must be isolated once they have been produced and transported to a chemistry apparatus. The transactinide elements are produced either via 'hot' or 'cold' fusion reactions. 'Hot' fusion reactions result in excitation energies of the compound nucleus of 40-50 MeV and occur when an actinide target nuclei fuse with a projectile with A < 40, where A is the atomic mass number. 'Cold' fusion results in excitation energies of 10-15 MeV. Cold fusion conditions tend to occur when a target of a spherical nuclei (Pb or Bi) is bombarded with a heavy projectile (A > 40). Hot fusion generally leads to neutron rich isotopes and cold fusion tends to produce a compound nucleus that emits 1-2 neutrons upon de-excitation. If a sufficiently thin target is employed, then the products of the nuclear reaction will recoil out of the target and can either be transported to the chemistry setup, e.g. using a gas jet, or trapped by implementing them on a catcher. An example for a catcher setup using a copper block as a catcher is described here. The copper block is placed behind the target during the irradiation and all nuclei recoiling from the target position will implant themselves in the block. The copper block is subsequently dismounted and sputter cleaned. It is then shaved with a micro-lathe. The 7-10 {micro}m copper shavings are then subjected to chemical separation. The copper is dissolved in aqua regia. Lanthanum carrier is added to the aqua regia to precipitate tri-, tetra- and penta- valent cations when ammonium hydroxide is added. The precipitate is then washed

  17. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  18. Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry Synthetic and Mechanistic Synthetic and Mechanistic ... Get Expertise Dave Thorn Chemistry Program Manager Email Josh Smith Chemistry ...

  19. Heavy Vehicle Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-09

    Idaho National Laboratory Heavy Vehicle Simulator located at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies.

  20. Heavy metal biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  1. Actinide Analytical Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AAC Actinide Analytical Chemistry We do analyses that range from assay of the major and ... Group Office (505) 667-4087 The Actinide Analytical Chemistry (C-AAC) Group at Los Alamos ...

  2. Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Mechanistic Chemistry Security at center of chemical and mechanistic chemistry research at Lab Project Description Los Alamos scientists are using synthetic and mechanistic chemistry to address energy security and other emerging challenges, including global security and core weapons missions. Synthetic chemistry includes work in ligands for catalysts, fission-products separations for isotope delivery, and labeled substrates for reaction mechanisms. Other research addresses materials

  3. Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry Synthetic and mechanistic chemical sciences play an important role in Lab missions dedicated to energy security, emerging challenges, global security, and core weapons missions. Get Expertise Dave Thorn Chemistry Program Manager Email Josh Smith Chemistry Communications Email "Research into alternative forms of energy, of which biofuels is a key component, is one of the major national security imperatives of this

  4. ALS Chemistry Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Chemistry Lab Print ALS Chemistry Labs The ALS Chemistry Labs are located in the User Support Building (15-130) and in Building 6 (6-2233)*. These spaces are dedicated for chemistry work that involves higher quantities, higher toxicity or reactivity, and/or more complex work activity than is allowed on the ALS experiment floor. In addition, the great majority of hazardous chemicals at the ALS are stored in these facilities. Standard chemical safety engineering, administrative and PPE

  5. ALS Chemistry Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Chemistry Lab Print ALS Chemistry Labs The ALS Chemistry Labs are located in the User Support Building (15-130) and in Building 6 (6-2233)*. These spaces are dedicated for chemistry work that involves higher quantities, higher toxicity or reactivity, and/or more complex work activity than is allowed on the ALS experiment floor. In addition, the great majority of hazardous chemicals at the ALS are stored in these facilities. Standard chemical safety engineering, administrative and PPE

  6. ALS Chemistry Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Lab Print ALS Chemistry Labs The ALS Chemistry Labs are located in the User Support Building (15-130) and in Building 6 (6-2233)*. These spaces are dedicated for chemistry work that involves higher quantities, higher toxicity or reactivity, and/or more complex work activity than is allowed on the ALS experiment floor. In addition, the great majority of hazardous chemicals at the ALS are stored in these facilities. Standard chemical safety engineering, administrative and PPE controls

  7. High Pressure Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  8. Chemistry of Autoignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  9. ORNL, partners officially recognized for discovery of elements 115, 117

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Roberto, Jim

    2016-01-15

    The International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry has announced formal verification of four new chemical elements, recognizing the Department of Energy?s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and its collaborators for the discovery of elements 115 and 117.

  10. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) IBA Table (HTML) | IBA Table (135KB GIF) | IBA Table (1.2MB PDF) | IBA Table (33MB TIF) | Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) | Virtual Lab Tour (6MB) Description of Technique: HIBS is used to detect ultra-trace levels of heavy impurities on the surface of a Si wafer. HIBS has advantages over TXRF, including: Improved sensitivity for most elements Quantifying composition without standards Measurement on rough surfaces. HIBS is accomplished by

  11. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, J.H.; Lindberg, H.A.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1983 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes.

  12. Chemistry of Materials

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engineering and Materials Science, Dept. of Chemistry, The Smalley Institute for Nanoscale ... University, R.E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Tech., Ajayan, Pulickel; ...

  13. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids).

  14. Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performing weapons chemistry of targets for cross-section measurements, energetic ligands, and composites. Conducting separations for (1) medical isotope purification and (2) ...

  15. United abominations: Density functional studies of heavy metal chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoendorff, George

    2012-04-02

    Carbonyl and nitrile addition to uranyl (UO{sup 2}{sup 2+}) are studied. The competition between nitrile and water ligands in the formation of uranyl complexes is investigated. The possibility of hypercoordinated uranyl with acetone ligands is examined. Uranyl is studied with diactone alcohol ligands as a means to explain the apparent hypercoordinated uranyl. A discussion of the formation of mesityl oxide ligands is also included. A joint theory/experimental study of reactions of zwitterionic boratoiridium(I) complexes with oxazoline-based scorpionate ligands is reported. A computational study was done of the catalytic hydroamination/cyclization of aminoalkenes with zirconium-based catalysts. Techniques are surveyed for programming for graphical processing units (GPUs) using Fortran.

  16. APEX heavy-ion counters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercer, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    A large solid-angle array of low-pressure multi-wire proportional counters (LPMWPC) forms part of the APEX apparatus. Eight three-element trapezoidal counters provide 360{degrees} coverage in {phi} and 20{degrees} - 70{degrees} coverage in {phi}. Angle information is obtained from a transmission-line delay cathode ({phi}) and from the segmentation ({phi}). Time-of-flight information is obtained from the anode signals. These quantities are used to extract the center-of-mass scattering angle, reaction Q value, and masses of the scattered heavy ions. Design and performance of the counters will be discussed.

  17. CHEMISTRY IN EVAPORATING ICES-UNEXPLORED TERRITORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Rawlings, Jonathan M. C.; Viti, Serena; Williams, David A. E-mail: jcr@star.ucl.ac.u E-mail: daw@star.ucl.ac.u

    2010-12-20

    We suggest that three-body chemistry may occur in warm high-density gas evaporating in transient co-desorption events on interstellar ices. Using a highly idealized computational model we explore the chemical conversion from simple species of the ice to more complex species containing several heavy atoms, as a function of density and of adopted three-body rate coefficients. We predict that there is a wide range of densities and rate coefficients in which a significant chemical conversion may occur. We discuss the implications of this idea for the astrochemistry of hot cores.

  18. HEAVY WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szilard, L.

    1958-04-29

    A nuclear reactor of the type which utilizes uranium fuel elements and a liquid coolant is described. The fuel elements are in the form of elongated tubes and are disposed within outer tubes extending through a tank containing heavy water, which acts as a moderator. The ends of the fuel tubes are connected by inlet and discharge headers, and liquid bismuth is circulated between the headers and through the fuel tubes for cooling. Helium is circulated through the annular space between the outer tubes in the tank and the fuel tubes to cool the water moderator to prevent boiling. The fuel tubes are covered with a steel lining, and suitable control means, heat exchange means, and pumping means for the coolants are provided to complete the reactor assembly.

  19. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  20. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  1. Detecting bioterrorism: Is chemistry enough?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detecting bioterrorism: Is chemistry enough? Detecting bioterrorism: Is chemistry enough? In an online webinar, Kristin Omberg will offer discussion on the possibilities and ...

  2. SC e-journals, Chemistry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Acta Glass and Ceramics Global Biogeochemical Cycles Green Chemistry Helvetica Chimica Acta High Energy Chemistry High Temperature Hyle: International Journal for ...

  3. Dynamical limitations to heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    In spite of the many attempts to synthesize superheavy elements in recent years, these efforts have not yet been successful. Recent improved theoretical models of heavy-ion fusion reactions suggest that the formation of super-heavy elements is hindered by the dynamics of the process. Several recent experiments lend support to these theories. The necessity of an excess radial velocity (extra push) over the Coulomb barrier in order to induce fusion is observed experimentally as predicted by the theory. So is a new reaction mechanism, called quasi-fission which tend to exhaust the part of the reaction cross section, which would otherwise lead to fusion. The present study shows that the angular distribution of fragments from quasi-fission processes are very sensitive to the occurrence of this reaction mechanism. A slight modification of one parameter in the theory demanded by the observation of quasi-fission for lighter projectiles via the angular distributions, has the consequence of posing even more-stringent limitations on heavy-ion-fusion reactions. This reduces even further the possibility for synthesizing and identifying superheavy elements in heavy-ion-fusion reactions.

  4. Seawater Chemistry Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-23

    SeaChem Seawater Chemistry package provides routines to calculate pH, carbonate chemistry, density, and other quantities for seawater, based on the latest community standards. The chemistry is adapted from fortran routines provided by the OCMIP3/NOCES project, details of which are available at http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/. The SeaChem package can generate Fortran subroutines as well as Python wrappers for those routines. Thus the same code can be used by Python or Fortran analysis packages and Fortran ocean models alike.

  5. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems.

  6. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (HMEM)...

  7. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  8. Kinetics of heavy oil/coal coprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szladow, A.J.; Chan, R.K. ); Foudu, S.; Kelly, J.F. )

    1988-06-01

    A number of studies have been reported on coprocessing of coal and oil sand bitumen, petroleum residues and distillate fractions in catalytic and non-catalytic processes. The studies described the effects of feedstock characteristics, process chemistry and operating variables on the product yield and distribution; however, very few kinetic data were reported in these investigations. This paper presents the kinetic data and modelling of the CANMET coal/heavy oil coprocessing process. CANMET has been conducting research and process development work on coprocessing of Canadian heavy oil/bitumen and coal since 1979 including studies of the kinetics and mechanisms of coprocessing. As a continuation of the program, CANMET and Lobbe Technologies undertook a project on mathematical modelling of coprocessing kinetics with emphasis on the development of reaction engineering models for improved process performance and operation.

  9. Kinetics of heavy oil/coal coprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szladow, A.J.; Chan, R.K.; Fouda, S.; Kelly, J.F. )

    1988-01-01

    A number of studies have been reported on coprocessing of coal and oil sand bitumen, petroleum residues and distillate fractions in catalytic and non-catalytic processes. The studies described the effects of feedstock characteristics, process chemistry and operating variables on the product yield and distribution; however, very few kinetic data were reported in these investigations. This paper presents the kinetic data and modeling of the CANMET coal/heavy oil coprocessing process. A number of reaction networks were evaluated for CANMET coprocessing. The final choice of model was a parallel model with some sequential characteristics. The model explained 90.0 percent of the total variance, which was considered satisfactory in view of the difficulties of modeling preasphaltenes. The models which were evaluated showed that the kinetic approach successfully applied to coal liquefaction and heavy oil upgrading can be also applied to coprocessing. The coal conversion networks and heavy oil upgrading networks are interrelated via the forward reaction paths of preasphaltenes, asphaltenes, and THFI and via the reverse kinetic paths of an adduct formation between preasphaltenes and heavy oil.

  10. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report Number(s): NETL-PUB--20051 Journal ID: ISSN 0016-2361 Resource ... Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Rare earth elements; ...

  11. Upgrading heavy gas oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, S.; Reese, D.D.

    1986-05-20

    A method is described of neutralizing the organic acidity in heavy gas oils to produce a neutralization number less than 1.0 whereby they are rendered suitable as lube oil feed stocks which consists essentially of treating the heavy gas oils with a neutralizing amount of monoethanolamine to form an amine salt with the organic acids and then heating the thus-neutralized heavy gas oil at a temperature at least about 25/sup 0/F greater than the boiling point of water and for a time sufficient to convert the amine salts to amides.

  12. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poutsma, M.L.; Ferris, L.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1993-08-01

    The Chemistry Division conducts basic and applied chemical research on projects important to DOE`s missions in sciences, energy technologies, advanced materials, and waste management/environmental restoration; it also conducts complementary research for other sponsors. The research are arranged according to: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, chemistry of advanced inorganic materials, structure and dynamics of advanced polymeric materials, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, chemical and structural principles in solvent extraction, surface science related to heterogeneous catalysis, photolytic transformations of hazardous organics, DNA sequencing and mapping, and special topics.

  13. Thorium and Uranium: Elements of Opportunity in Actinide Organometalli...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thorium and Uranium: Elements of Opportunity in Actinide Organometallic Chemistry January 12, 2016 11:00AM to 12:00PM Presenter Jaqueline L. Kiplinger, Los Alamos National...

  14. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  15. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  16. CMR: Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CMR: Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility CMR: Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) ...

  17. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Laboratory provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs. AnalyticalChemistryLaboratoryfactsheet...

  18. Some engineering properties of heavy concrete added silica fume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akka?, Ay?e; Ba?yi?it, Celalettin; Esen, Serap

    2013-12-16

    Many different types of building materials have been used in building construction for years. Heavy concretes can be used as a building material for critical building as it can contain a mixture of many heavy elements. The barite itself for radiation shielding can be used and also in concrete to produce the workable concrete with a maximum density and adequate structural strength. In this study, some engineering properties like compressive strength, elasticity modules and flexure strength of heavy concretes added Silica fume have been investigated.

  19. Chemistry of transuranium elements in salt-base repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkowski, Marian; Reed, Donald T; Lucchini, Jean - Francois; Richmann, Michael K; Khaing, H; Swanson, J; Ams, D

    2010-12-02

    The mobility and potential release of actinides into the accessible environment continues to be the key performance assessment concern of nuclear repositories. Actinide, in particular plutonium speciation under the wide range of conditions that can exist in the subsurface is complex and depends strongly on the coupled effects of redox conditions, inorganic/organic complexation, and the extent/nature of aggregation. Understanding the key factors that define the potential for actinide migration is, in this context, an essential and critical part of making and sustaining a licensing case for a nuclear repository. Herein we report on recent progress in a concurrent modeling and experimental study to determine the speciation of plutonium, uranium and americium in high ionic strength Na-CI-Mg brines. This is being done as part of the ongomg recertification effort m the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The oxidation-state specific solubility of actinides were established in brine as function of pC{sub H+}, brine composition and the presence and absence of organic chelating agents and carbonate. An oxidation-state invariant analog approach using Nd{sup 3+} and Th{sup 4+} was used for An{sup 3+} and An{sup 4+} respectively. These results show that organic ligands and hydrolysis are key factors for An(III) solubility, hydrolysis at pC{sub H+} above 8 is predominate for An(IV) and carbonates are the key factor for U(VI) solubility. The effect of high ionic strength and brine components measured in absence of carbonates leads to measurable increased in overall solubility over analogous low ionic strength groundwater. Less is known about the bioreduction of actinides by halo-tolerant microorganisms, but there is now evidence that bioreduction does occur and is analogous, in many ways, to what occurs with soil bacteria. Results of solubility studies that focus on Pitzer parameter corrections, new species (e.g. borate complexation), and the thermodynamic parameters for modeling are discussed.

  20. LA-2271 CHEMISTRY-GENERAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2271 CHEMISTRY-GENERAL TID-4500, 14th Ed. LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY OF THE ... U in Vol. n of A Treatise on Physical Chemistry, edited by H. S. Taylor and S. ...

  1. High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transport and formation of ore deposits with strategic importance such as rare earth elements (REE), beryllium, cobalt, gallium, indium, and telluride deposits, etc., which ...

  2. High Pressure Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  3. Chemistry of Autoignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry of Autoignition - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  4. RADIOCHEMISTRY, AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY; NUCLEAR MEDICINE; HISTORICAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The early days Richards, P. 38 RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOCHEMISTRY, AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY; NUCLEAR MEDICINE; HISTORICAL ASPECTS; TECHNETIUM 99; COLLOIDS; MOLYBDENUM...

  5. Extensible Computational Chemistry Environment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-09

    ECCE provides a sophisticated graphical user interface, scientific visualization tools, and the underlying data management framework enabling scientists to efficiently set up calculations and store, retrieve, and analyze the rapidly growing volumes of data produced by computational chemistry studies. ECCE was conceived as part of the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory construction to solve the problem of researchers being able to effectively utilize complex computational chemistry codes and massively parallel high performance compute resources. Bringing themore » power of these codes and resources to the desktops of researcher and thus enabling world class research without users needing a detailed understanding of the inner workings of either the theoretical codes or the supercomputers needed to run them was a grand challenge problem in the original version of the EMSL. ECCE allows collaboration among researchers using a web-based data repository where the inputs and results for all calculations done within ECCE are organized. ECCE is a first of kind end-to-end problem solving environment for all phases of computational chemistry research: setting up calculations with sophisticated GUI and direct manipulation visualization tools, submitting and monitoring calculations on remote high performance supercomputers without having to be familiar with the details of using these compute resources, and performing results visualization and analysis including creating publication quality images. ECCE is a suite of tightly integrated applications that are employed as the user moves through the modeling process.« less

  6. Upgrading heavy oil using slurry processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bianco, A.; Panariti, N.; Marchionna, M.

    1995-11-01

    There is a growing interest in processes capable of converting heavy feedstocks (petroleum residues and heavy oils) into lower boiling products of high quality. The operational problems of upgrading heavy feeds relate to the presence of sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and considerable amounts of Conradson carbon residue. An efficient residue conversion process must be able to reduce the molecular weight of the feedstocks to material with boiling points below 550 C, increase the H-to-C ratio of the refined product, and remove heteroatoms and metals. Whereas the molecular weight reduction is normally achieved by C-C bond cracking above 400 C, often in the presence of acid catalysts, a higher H-to-C ratio can be obtained by either the rejection of carbon (as in coking) or the addition of hydrogen (as in hydrogenation processes). Slurry processes combine the flexibility of the carbon rejection with the high performance of the hydrogen addition processes. The origin of slurry processes is the Bergius-Pier technology (1920--1930) for the conversion of heavy oils and coal into distillates. Whereas the original Bergius-Pier technology did not use a catalyst, small amounts of inexpensive additives or finely dispersed hydrogenation catalysts can be used to increase the rates of the desired reactions. Catalysts can also inhibit coke formation by physically interfering with the coalescence of mesophase, which is the precursor of solid coke. Catalysts are used to reduce the severity of the process and to improve the quality of the products. Most of the research carried out in the past decade in the field of slurry processes has dealt with the identification of more effective and/or less expensive catalysts and the technological problems related to their use. Here the authors discuss both subjects, describing the path from the fundamental chemistry of dispersed catalytic systems to the development and initial commercialization of slurry processes.

  7. Magic nuclei unlock the secrets of heavy elements

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jones, Kate

    2014-08-13

    Kate Jones, an assistant professor at the University of Tennessee, describes her inquiries into the behavior of the somewhat enigmatic isotope tin-132.

  8. Heavy-element fission barriers Moeller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Bengtsson, Ragnar; Uhrenholt, Henrik; Angstromberg, Sven...

  9. Programmatic Elements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-07-11

    The Guide provides acceptable methods of meeting the requirements of DOE O 151.1C for programmatic elements that sustain the emergency management program and maintain the readiness of the program to respond to an emergency. Supersedes DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 7-1, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 7-3.

  10. SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS Experimental Determination of the Symmetry Energy of a Low Density Nuclear Gas ......II-1 S. ...

  11. Response Elements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-07-11

    The Guide provides acceptable methods for meeting the requirement of DOE O 151.1C for response elements that respond or contribute to response as needed in an emergency. Supersedes DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-5, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-6.

  12. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY 1986, October 1985-September 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1986 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. The report includes articles on radiochemical diagnostics and weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production and separation; chemical biology and nuclear medicine; element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced concepts and technology; and atmospheric chemistry.

  13. Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry » Synthetic and Mechanistic Synthetic and Mechanistic publications Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Dave Thorn Chemistry Program Manager Email Josh Smith Chemistry Communications Email "Research into alternative forms of energy, of which biofuels is a key component, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century.

  14. Henry Taube and Coordination Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Henry Taube and Coordination Chemistry Resources with Additional Information Henry Taube Chuck Painter/Stanford News Service Henry Taube, a Marguerite Blake Wilbur Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus, at Stanford University, received the 1983 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes" Taube 'received a doctorate from the University of California-Berkeley in 1940 and was an instructor there from 1940-41. "I

  15. Process for upgrading heavy oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePage, J.F.; Marlino, G.

    1983-07-05

    The viscosity of heavy oils is reduced in order to facilitate pipe line transportation thereof. A fraction of the heavy oil is deasphalted in the presence of C/sub 5/-C/sub 7/ hydrocarbons, a portion of the separated asphalt is converted to synthesis gas, at least a portion of said gas is used to manufacture an alcohol mixture including methanol and C/sub 2/ to C/sub 10/ alcohols, which mixture is admixed with the heavy oil before transportation thereof. This procedure is more beneficial to the transported heavy oil than the prior processes which do not comprise the conversion of the asphalt fraction of the heavy oil.

  16. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Johnson

    2000-01-31

    The objectives are to Provide Key Enabling Materials Technologies to Increase Energy Efficiency and Reduce Exhaust Emissions. The following goals are listed: Goal 1: By 3rd quarter 2002, complete development of materials enabling the maintenance or improvement of fuel efficiency {ge} 45% of class 7-8 truck engines while meeting the EPA/Justice Department ''Consent Decree'' for emissions reduction. Goal 2: By 4th quarter 2004, complete development of enabling materials for light-duty (class 1-2) diesel truck engines with efficiency over 40%, over a wide range of loads and speeds, while meeting EPA Tier 2 emission regulations. Goal 3: By 4th quarter 2006, complete development of materials solutions to enable heavy-duty diesel engine efficiency of 50% while meeting the emission reduction goals identified in the EPA proposed rule for heavy-duty highway engines.''

  17. 2009 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    search for super heavy elements using alternative mechanisms J. B. Natowitz, R. Wada, K. Hagel, T. Materna, Z. Chen, L. Qin, P. K. Sahu, G. Souliotis, G. Chubaryan, M. Barbui, S. Moretto, D. Fabris, M. Lunardon, M. Morando, G. Nebbia, S. Pesente, V. Rizzi, G. Viesti, V. Bocci, A. Andrighetto, M. Cinausero, G. Prete, Z. Majka, A. Wieloch, S. Kowalski,F. D. Bechetti, T. W. O'Donnell, and H. Griffin Calibration of the 40Ca + 40Ca data taken on NIMROD-ISiS array C. Bottosso, J. B. Natowitz, K.

  18. Retrofitting heavy oil processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, G.L.; Fitzgerald, M.; D'Amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    Refiners, faced with the need to process the bottom end of the heavy high sulfur crude oil barrel in today's uncertain economic environment, are reluctant to commit large amounts of money to expensive upgrading processes. In order to conserve scarce capital while improving operating margins, additional valuable products can be produced by retrofits such as conversion of an idle crude unit to visbreaking, delayed coking or deasphalting service, or conversion of hydrodesulfurizers to mild hydrocracking.

  19. Viscous heavy brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    House, R.F.; Hoover, L.D.

    1984-07-10

    Hydroxyethyl cellulose and a sequestrant are added to a heavy brine containing one or more salts selected from calcium chloride, calcium bromide, and zinc bromide to increase the viscosity of the brine. Preferably the brine contains zinc bromide, has a density in the range from about 14.2-19.2 pounds per gallon, and the sequestrant is a polyphosphonic acid or water soluble salt thereof.

  20. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  1. Department of Chemistry | Center for Catalytic HydrocarbonFunctionali...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Faculty & Research Outreach Programs Graduate Studies Events & Seminars ... electrochemistry, bioinorganic chemistry, materials chemistry and quantum mechanics. ...

  2. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Heavy-Duty ...

  3. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel ...

  4. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient engine

  5. Characterizing Heavy Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Ion Reactions in the 1980's Is there Treasure at the end of the Rainbow? & What happens and how do different modes compete? John Schiffer One of the three research areas for ATLAS, as stated in a 1984 document to Congress: Are there some new marvelous symmetries, hidden in resonances in heavier nuclei, beyond 12 C+ 12 C and its immediate vicinity? (s.c. linac work, pre-ATLAS) Other attempts to chase the rainbow 180 o elastic scattering of 12 C on 40 Ca shows structure Fusion of 16 O on

  6. Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science » Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science publications Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science publications Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Randy Drake Actinide Analytical Chemistry Email Kirk Rector Physical Chemistry & Applied Spectroscopy Email Josh Smith Chemistry Communications Email Los Alamos is one of

  7. Heavy-flavor production overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey A. Appel

    2003-12-10

    This talk serves as an introduction to the Heavy-Flavor session of the XXXIII International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics. A major focus of this session is on the production of heavy quarks. The talks which follow review the latest results on heavy quark production in strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions, as well as some of the physics of the heavy quarks themselves. This talk emphasizes what we can learn from the production measurements, both about underlying QCD theory and the partonic nature of the hadrons which we see in the laboratory.

  8. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2008-01-01

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  9. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2013-05-28

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  10. Exhaust Phosphorous Chemistry and Catalyst Poisoning | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry and Catalyst Poisoning Exhaust Phosphorous Chemistry and Catalyst Poisoning 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National ...

  11. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Chemistry Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Research Photo of a hand holding a beaker containing a clear yellow liquid. NREL ... Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's fuel chemistry research explores how biofuels, ...

  12. Martin Karplus Wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home News & Publications News Center News Martin Karplus Wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry Martin Karplus Wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry October 9, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, ...

  13. Computational Actinide Chemistry: Reliable Predictions and New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computational Actinide Chemistry: Reliable Predictions and New Concepts PI Name: David ... 100 Million Year: 2014 Research Domain: Chemistry The project will obtain some of the ...

  14. Redox Chemistry of Anthraquinone Derivatives Via Simulations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 27, 2014, Research Highlights Redox Chemistry of Anthraquinone Derivatives Via ... S. Assary, Investigation of the Redox Chemistry of Anthraquinone Derivatives Using ...

  15. Understanding and Manipulating Solution Chemistry of Polysulfides...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding and Manipulating Solution Chemistry of Polysulfides for Lithium Sulfur Batteries (Top)Fundamental details regarding the solution chemistry of polysulfides in organic ...

  16. Chemistry and Material Sciences Codes at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry and Material Sciences Codes Chemistry and Material Sciences Codes at NERSC April 6, 2011 Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:1

  17. Solubilities of heavy fossil fuels in compressed gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monge, A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Design of processes for upgrading heavy fossil fuels such as coal-derived liquids, heavy petroleum fractions, tar sands, and shale oil, requires quantitative information for equilibrium properties of the fossil fuel in the presence of compressed light gases at elevated temperatures. Presented here are methods to predict and measure solubilities of heavy fossil fuels in compressed gases in the region ambient to 100 bar and 600 K. A molecular-thermodynamic model is used to predict heavy fossil-fuel solubilities. The heavy fuel is fractionated ina spinning-band column at low pressure and high reflux; each fraction is considered to be a pseudo-component. Each fraction is characterized by one vapor-pressure datum (obtained during fractionation), elemental analysis, and proton-NMR spectra (to determine aromaticity). Liquid-phase properties are obtained from the SWAP equation for vapor pressure and from a density correlation. Vapor-phase properties are obtained using the virial equation of state with virial coefficients from Kaul's correlation. The molecular-thermodynamic model has been used to establish a design-oriented computer program for calculating heavy, fossil-fuel solubility for general application in process design and, in particular, for isobaric condensation as a function of temperature as required for design of a continuous-flow heat exchanger. A total-vaporization technique is used to measure the solubilities of narrow-boiling, heavy fossil-fuel fractions in compressed gases. The solubility of a heavy fraction is determined from the volume of gas required to vaporize completely a small, measured mass of fossil-fuel sample. To test the molecular-thermodynamic model, the total-vaporization technique has been used to measure the solubilities of two Lurgi coal-tar fractions in compressed methane. Predicted and experimental solubilities agree well.

  18. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty ...

  19. APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update 2003 DEER ...

  20. Hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krohn, Kenneth A.; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Link, Jeanne M.; Welch, Michael J.

    2012-12-19

    The chemical products made in a cyclotron target are a combined result of the chemical effects of the nuclear transformation that made the radioactive atom and the bulk radiolysis in the target. This review uses some well-known examples to understand how hot atom chemistry explains the primary products from a nuclear reaction and then how radiation chemistry is exploited to set up the optimal product for radiosynthesis. It also addresses the chemical effects of nuclear decay. There are important principles that are common to hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceutical chemistry. Both emphasize short-lived radionuclides and manipulation of high specific activity nuclides. Furthermore, they both rely on radiochromatographic separation for identification of no-carrieradded products.

  1. Henry Taube and Coordination Chemistry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Taube 'received a doctorate from the University of California-Berkeley in 1940 and was an instructor there from 1940-41. "I became deeply interested in chemistry soon after I came ...

  2. National Nuclear Chemistry Summer School

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society (ACS) is sponsoring two INTENSIVE six-week Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry for undergraduates. Funding is provided by the US Department of Energy.

  3. National Nuclear Chemistry Summer School

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    he Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society (ACS) is sponsoring two INTENSIVE six-week Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry for undergraduates. Funding...

  4. Overview of actinide chemistry in the WIPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean - Francois; Richmann, Michael K; Reed, Donald T; Khaing, Hnin; Swanson, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The year 2009 celebrates 10 years of safe operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the only nuclear waste repository designated to dispose defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States. Many elements contributed to the success of this one-of-the-kind facility. One of the most important of these is the chemistry of the actinides under WIPP repository conditions. A reliable understanding of the potential release of actinides from the site to the accessible environment is important to the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The environmental chemistry of the major actinides disposed at the WIPP continues to be investigated as part of the ongoing recertification efforts of the WIPP project. This presentation provides an overview of the actinide chemistry for the WIPP repository conditions. The WIPP is a salt-based repository; therefore, the inflow of brine into the repository is minimized, due to the natural tendency of excavated salt to re-seal. Reducing anoxic conditions are expected in WIPP because of microbial activity and metal corrosion processes that consume the oxygen initially present. Should brine be introduced through an intrusion scenario, these same processes will re-establish reducing conditions. In the case of an intrusion scenario involving brine, the solubilization of actinides in brine is considered as a potential source of release to the accessible environment. The following key factors establish the concentrations of dissolved actinides under subsurface conditions: (1) Redox chemistry - The solubility of reduced actinides (III and IV oxidation states) is known to be significantly lower than the oxidized forms (V and/or VI oxidation states). In this context, the reducing conditions in the WIPP and the strong coupling of the chemistry for reduced metals and microbiological processes with actinides are important. (2) Complexation - For the anoxic, reducing and mildly basic brine systems in the WIPP, the most important

  5. Nuclear Science/Nuclear Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nuclear science nuclear chemistry Nuclear Science/Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Physics The 10-MV tandem accelerator at CAMS provides a platform for conducting nuclear physics experiment both for basic science and lab mission-related programs. For example, we performed a new cross section measurement of the astrophysically important reaction 40Ca(a,g)44Ti in which high purity CaO targets were irradiated with helium ions at several different discrete energies. The reaction rate was measured on-line

  6. Chemistry, Life, and Earth Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ADCLES Chemistry, Life, and Earth Sciences The CLES Directorate is home to world class capabilities in chemistry, bioscience, and earth and environmental sciences. Structural protein research Structural protein research A wide range of protein folding research Field Instrument Deployments and Operations (FIDO) Field Instrument Deployments and Operations (FIDO) Atmospheric science research Quantum Dots Quantum Dots Quantum dot research for energy and light Contact Us Associate Director Nan Sauer

  7. Conversion of heavy hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, N.Y.; Pelrine, B.P.; Yan, T.Y.

    1982-12-14

    This invention provides a process for upgrading a heavy hydrocarbon oil to motor fuel products. The heavy hydrocarbon oil is admixed with a metal halide catalyst and a solvent component under supercritical conditions to form (1) a dense-gas solvent phase which contains refined hydrocarbon crackate, and which is substantially free of metal halide catalyst content; and (2) a residual asphaltic phase.

  8. Frontiers of Chemistry for Americium and Curium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Keller, O. L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The discoveries of americium and curium were made only after Seaborg had formulated his actinide concept in order to design the chemistry needed to separate them from irradiated /sup 239/Pu targets. Their discoveries thus furnished the first clear-cut evidence that the series exists and justified Seaborg`s bold assumption that even though Th and Pa appeared to presage a following 6d series, the pattern established by the periodic table after Cs and Ba would be repeated exactly after Fr and Ra. That is to say, a new 5f element rare earth series (the actinides) would follow Ac in the same way the 4f rare earth series (the lanthanides) follows La. The consequences of the resulting half-filled 5f/sup 7/ shell at Cm were originally presented by Seaborg as a test of his hypothesis. Recent research is outlined that substantiates Seaborg`s predictions in new and definitive ways.

  9. Advances in heavy oil hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendizabal, O.B. )

    1988-06-01

    The world increase in heavy crudes has forced refiners to develop different processes that upgrade the yields and product properties recovered from these crudes. However, some of the optimized and new processes are not able to handle whole heavy crude oils, due to the high viscosity and corrosion of their long and short residues. The different processes for heavy crudes can be classified in two areas: physical (vg. Liquid Extraction) and chemical processes. The catalytic hydrotreating process, which belongs to this last classification, has demonstrated to be an economical upgrading process for heavy crude oil. This paper describes the development by the Mexican Petroleum Institute of the process to hydrotreat maya heavy crude. The effect of the operating conditions, the catalyst ---- development and the technical - economical analysis are presented. The product properties and yields are compared with the results obtained with light crude oil like isthmus.

  10. Heavy oil transportation by pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerez, J.M.; Pick, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Worldwide there are a number of pipelines used to transport heavy crude oils. The operations are facilitated in a variety of ways. For example, the Alyeska pipeline is an insulated pipeline transporting warm oil over 800 miles. This 48-inch line experiences limited heat loss due to the insulation, volume of oil contained, and heat gain due to friction and pumping. Some European trunk lines periodically handle heavy and waxy crudes. This is achieved by proper sizing of batches, following waxy crudes with non-waxy crudes, and increased use of scrapers. In a former Soviet republic, the transportation of heavy crude oil by pipeline has been facilitated by blending with a lighter Siberian crude. The paper describes the pipeline transport of heavy crudes by Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. The paper describes enhancing heavy oil transportation by emulsion formation, droplet suspension, dilution, drag reducing agents, and heating.

  11. New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces Print Monday, 23 February 2015 10:48 A new technique developed at the ALS offers sub-nanometer depth resolution of every chemical element to be found at heterogeneous interfaces, such as those in batteries and fuel cells. The technique, Standing-Wave Ambient-Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SWAPPS), combines standing-wave photoelectron spectroscopy (SWPS) with

  12. Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Update Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Update ...

  13. Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Randy Drake Actinide Analytical Chemistry Email Kirk Rector Physical Chemistry & Applied Spectroscopy Email Josh Smith Chemistry Communications Email Los Alamos is one of two FBI "hub" laboratories for analyzing bulk special nuclear

  14. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  16. Creation and Testing of the ACES Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Schedule for Representative Measurement of Heavy-Duty Engine Emissions | Department of Energy Creation and Testing of the ACES Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Test Schedule for Representative Measurement of Heavy-Duty Engine Emissions Creation and Testing of the ACES Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Test Schedule for Representative Measurement of Heavy-Duty Engine Emissions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August,

  17. Family Chemistry | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Family Chemistry Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Family Chemistry Family gathers at the dinner table and, sometimes, the conference table or the science lab. Paul and Mark Buckley both work at the Global Research Center in Niskayuna, New York and, collectively, have more than 45 years of experience

  18. Heavy-ion Fusion Reactions with Neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy-ion Fusion Reactions with Neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams A. Wakhle National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA The predicted shell closures forming the 'island of stability' [1-2] are beyond the reach of stable beams [3]. This dictates that future efforts towards the synthesis of super-heavy elements (SHEs) [4] must utilize neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The low intensities of RIBs puts this goal beyond the

  19. Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Inorganic chemistry can provide insight and improve technical issues ...

  20. Chemistry of Cobalt-Platinum Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry of Cobalt-Platinum Nanocatalysts Chemistry of Cobalt-Platinum Nanocatalysts Print Monday, 25 February 2013 15:59 Bimetallic cobalt-platinum (CoPt) nanoparticles are ...

  1. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry Resources with Additional Information * Patents George A. Olah Courtesy Rand Larson, Morningstar Productions George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids ... that are much stronger than ordinary acids, are non-nucleophilic, and are fluid at low temperatures. In such media ... carbocations

  2. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  3. Interfacial Chemistry and Engineering Annual Report 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.

    2001-08-01

    This annual report describes the research and staff accomplishments in 2000 for the EMSL Interfacial Chemistry and Engineering Directorate.

  4. Martin Karplus Wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home » News & Publications » News » Center News » Martin Karplus Wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry Martin Karplus Wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry October 9, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov Karplus605v1.jpg Martin Karplus On Wednesday, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three scientists for pioneering methods in computational chemistry that have brought a deeper understanding of complex chemical structure and reactions in biochemical systems. These methods can

  5. CMR: Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CMR: Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility CMR: Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building supports research and experimental activities for plutonium and uranium analytical chemistry and metallurgy. CMR capabilities support a number of national security programs, such as non-proliferation and nuclear safeguards. The CMR Facility In 1952, the first LANL CMR facility was completed. At that time, the

  6. Heavy ion fusion--Using heavy ions to make electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-03-15

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring {approx}100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris.

  7. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace001musculus2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Heavy-Duty ...

  8. Shell effects in fusion of heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The spontaneous-fission properties of Fm isotopes undergo dramatic changes between {sup 256}Fm and {sup 258} Fm. The fission fragments of the former isotope are mass asymmetric with kinetic energies of about 200 MeV, whereas the fission fragments of the latter isotope are symmetric with kinetic energies of about 235 MeV. This rapid change occurs because the division into nearly doubly magic fragments near {sup 132}Sn becomes possible and opens up new valleys in the fission potential-energy surface. In the cold-fusion reactions leading to the heaviest elements, the nearly doubly magic targets and/or projectiles may give rise to important features associated with this magicity. Cold fusion is thought to favor heavy-element formation because it leads to low excitation energies of the compound nuclei. We investigate how near-magic targets and projectiles may lead to persistent survivability of the shells in the fusion valley as the ions merge, in addition to their effect on the compound-nucleus excitation energy.

  9. Upgrading of heavy hydrocarbonaceous feeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, A.K.; Storm, D.A.; DeRosa, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper is based on our work in the area of upgrading of heavy hydrocarbonaceous feedstocks. The work involves the development of a method of catalytically hydroconverting a hydrocarbon feed stream containing a substantial quantity of components boiling above about 538{degrees}C to a substantial portion thereof to components boiling below 538{degrees}C. More particularly, an oil-miscible or oil-soluble poly(ether)diol or a derivative thereof and an aromatic additive oil, such as Heavy Cycle Gas oil, are added to a heavy hydrocarbon feed and the mixed stream is contacted at elevated temperatures with a solid catalyst such as a sulfided nickel molybdenum oxide on alumina in the presence of hydrogen under pressure. This method advantageously affords higher conversion to more valuable liquid products containing lower amounts of heteroatoms such as sulfur, substantially eliminates plugging of the hydroconversion reactor, and reduces the amount of insolubles in the total liquid product.

  10. (Chemistry of the global atmosphere)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G.

    1990-09-27

    The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaver, R.J.; Leitten, C.F. Jr.

    1962-04-17

    A boron-10 containing reactor control element wherein the boron-10 is dispersed in a matrix material is describeri. The concentration of boron-10 in the matrix varies transversely across the element from a minimum at the surface to a maximum at the center of the element, prior to exposure to neutrons. (AEC)

  12. Upgrading Orinoco belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-09-01

    The Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt of Venezuela is a subsurface geological formation of petroleum-bearing sands that is approximately 700 km long and between 60 and 80 km wide. The results of recent explorations have shown the area to contain over one trillion barrels of oil in-place, ranging from 8/sup 0/ API to 14/sup 0/ APE gravity. In an effort to develop these resources, Petroleos de Venezuela has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop this heavy oil belt. The objectives of this program are discussed along with the process technology selection, pilot plants, and environmental protection measures. (JMT)

  13. Heaviest Nuclei: New Element with Atomic Number 117

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oganessian, Yuri [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Russia and Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    2010-09-01

    One of the fundamental outcomes of the nuclear shell model is the prediction of the 'stability islands' in the domain of the hypothetical super heavy elements. The talk is devoted to the experimental verification of these predictions - the synthesis and study of both the decay and chemical properties of the super heavy elements. The discovery of a new chemical element with atomic number Z=117 is reported. The isotopes 293117 and 294117 were produced in fusion reactions between 48Ca and 249Bk. Decay chains involving 11 new nuclei were identified by means of the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator. The measured decay properties show a strong rise of stability for heavier isotopes with Z =111, validating the concept of the long sought island of enhanced stability for heaviest nuclei.

  14. Physical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PCS Physical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy We perform basic and applied research in support of the Laboratory's national security mission and serve a wide range of customers. Contact Us Group Leader Kirk Rector Deputy Group Leader Jeff Pietryga Group Office (505) 667-7121 Postdoctoral researcher Young-Shin Park characterizing emission spectra of LEDs in the Los Alamos National Laboratory optical laboratory. Postdoctoral researcher Young-Shin Park characterizing emission spectra of LEDs in

  15. Physics and Chemistry of Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Physics and Chemistry of Materials Developing new science and technologies needed for the national security of the United States by understanding how basic forces operating at the atomic level manifest themselves in the properties of matter at the macroscopic level. Molecular docking simulations The influence of small organic molecules on the operation and mechanism of electron transfer in enzymatic anodes. Molecular docking simulations The influence of small organic molecules on the operation

  16. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  17. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  18. Proton Distribution in Heavy Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Johnson, M. H; Teller, E.

    1953-11-13

    It is reasoned that, from considerations connected with beta-decay stability and Coulomb repulsion forces, a neutron excess is developed on the surface of heavy nuclei. Several consequences of this qualitative analysis in nucleon interactions are briefly noted. (K.S.)

  19. Summary of heavy ion theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you! I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF `94 in the parallel sessions.

  20. The role of top in heavy flavor physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewett, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The implications of the massive top quark on heavy flavor transitions are explored. We review the generation of quark masses and mixings and the determination techniques, and present the status of the elements of the weak mixing matrix. Purely leptonic decays of heavy mesons are briefly summarized. We present a general introduction to flavor changing neutral currents and an extensive summary of radiative and other rare decay modes. The physics of neutral meson mixing is reviewed and applied to each meson system. We describe the phenomenology of CP violation and how it may be measured in meson decays. Standard Model predictions are given in each case and the effects of physics beyond the Standard Model are also discussed. Throughout, we contrast these transitions in the K and B meson systems to those in the D meson and top-quark sectors.

  1. Fragmentation production of triply heavy baryons at the CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobary, M.A. Gomshi; Sepahvand, R.

    2005-02-01

    The triply heavy baryons in the standard model formed in direct c and b quark fragmentation are the {omega}{sub ccc}, {omega}{sub ccb}, {omega}{sub cbb} and {omega}{sub bbb} baryons. We calculate their fragmentation functions in leading order of perturbative QCD. The universal fragmentation probabilities fall within the range of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -7}.We also evaluate their cross section at the LHC ({radical}(s)=14 TeV) using next-to-leading order matrix elements for heavy quark-antiquark pair production. We present the differential cross sections as functions of the transverse momentum as well as the total cross sections. They range from a few nb to a few pb.

  2. Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop WHEN: Jan 11, 2016 8:30 AM - Jan 13, 2016 5:30 PM WHERE: Inn and Spa at Loretto 211 Old Santa Fe...

  3. Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The ALS provides the intense x-ray radiation necessary for studies of crystals that, ... understanding-at the molecular, atomic, and electronic level-of how chemical ...

  4. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

    1995-12-26

    Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

  5. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P.; Smatlak, Donna L.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  6. Strangeness signals in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remsberg, L.P.

    1992-11-01

    The experimental data on strange meson and strange baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions are reviewed.

  7. Strangeness signals in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remsberg, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental data on strange meson and strange baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions are reviewed.

  8. Dynacracking process first commerical application for upgrading heavy oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, F.N. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Dynacracking process developed by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., is a non-catalytic process capable of upgrading heavy oil whose sulfur, metal, and carbon contents may be high. It converts residual stocks to distillates with high naphtha yields, and to synthetic fuel gas of high quality (700-800 Btu/ft/sup 3/). It has esentially no air polution emissions and requires a relatively small amount of water and utilities. The process generates sufficient heat internally such that, except for start-up, no boilers, furnaces, or external heaters are required to operate the plant. Several aspects of the process are discussed: chemistry, hardware, feedstock, flexibility in the product mix, product quality, and economics.

  9. The synthetic elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  10. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newson, H.W.

    1960-09-13

    A novel composite neutronic reactor control element is offered. The element comprises a multiplicity of sections arranged in end-to-end relationship, each of the sections having a markedly different neutron-reactive characteristic. For example, a three-section control element could contain absorber, moderator, and fuel sections. By moving such an element longitudinally through a reactor core, reactivity is decreased by the absorber, increased slightly by the moderator, or increased substantially by the fuel. Thus, control over a wide reactivity range is provided.

  12. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)

  13. Appendix SOTERM: Actinide Chemistry Source Term

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SOTERM-2014 Actinide Chemistry Source Term United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Appendix SOTERM-2014 Actinide Chemistry Source Term Table of Contents SOTERM-1.0 Introduction SOTERM-2.0 Expected WIPP Repository Conditions, Chemistry, and Processes SOTERM-2.1 Ambient Geochemical Conditions SOTERM-2.2 Repository Conditions SOTERM-2.2.1 Repository Pressure SOTERM-2.2.2 Repository

  14. Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Inorganic chemistry can provide insight and improve technical issues surrounding nuclear power production and waste disposition. July 31, 2013 Aspects of inorganic chemistry related to nuclear energy. Aspects of inorganic chemistry related to nuclear energy. John Gordon of LANL's Inorganic, Isotope and Actinide Chemistry group guest edited the issue. The journal Inorganic Chemistry

  15. Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Inorganic chemistry can provide insight and improve technical issues surrounding nuclear power production and waste disposition. July 31, 2013 Aspects of inorganic chemistry related to nuclear energy. Aspects of inorganic chemistry related to nuclear energy. John Gordon of LANL's Inorganic, Isotope and Actinide Chemistry group guest edited the issue. The journal Inorganic Chemistry

  16. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, S.; Johnson, D.R.

    1999-04-26

    The objective of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is to develop the enabling materials technology for the clean, high-efficiency diesel truck engines of the future. The development of cleaner, higher-efficiency diesel engines imposes greater mechanical, thermal, and tribological demands on materials of construction. Often the enabling technology for a new engine component is the material from which the part can be made. The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE), and the diesel engine companies in the United States, materials suppliers, national laboratories, and universities. A comprehensive research and development program has been developed to meet the enabling materials requirements for the diesel engines of the future. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications.

  17. Yb-based heavy fermion compounds and field tuned quantum chemistry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    One of the topics of this work was the investigation of the interaction between the Kondo ... In these systems, the Kondo interaction and CEF excitations generally give rise to large ...

  18. 2011-2012 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A search for super heavy elements using a catcher foil M. Barbui, K. Schmidt, J.B. Natowitz, H. Zheng, K. Hagel, A. Bonasera and M. Barbino Probing clusterization in 40Ca + 40Ca reactions K. Schmidt, M. Barbui, J. B. Natowitz, K. Hagel, A. Bonasera, G. Giuliani, M. Rodrigues, R. Wada, M. Huang, C. Botosso, G. Liu, G. Viesti, S. Moretto, G. Prete, S. Pesente, D. Fabris, Y. El Masri, T. Keutgen, S. Kowalski, and A. Kumar Yield of D-D and D-3He fusion reactions produced by the interaction of

  19. Heavy quark production at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Paus

    2002-11-13

    The contribution summarizes the latest results from CDF on heavy quark production. Results from top, bottom and charm production are included. Some new analysis using Run I (1991-1994) data have become available. More importantly there are a number of results using Run II data which began in April 2001. The data indicate the potential of CDF for bottom and charm production physics in the near future.

  20. Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Screening of Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Materials Benchmarking Activities for ...

  1. Coordination Chemistry in Magnesium Battery Electrolytes: How...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 3, 2014, Research Highlights Coordination Chemistry in Magnesium Battery Electrolytes: How Ligands Affect Their Performance (Top) Schematic illustration of the solution ...

  2. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    are excellent combustion fuels and feedstocks for ethylene and propylene production. ... Technical Report, 1980 Superacid Catalyzed Coal Conversion Chemistry. 1st and 2nd ...

  3. understanding the low-temperature combustion chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low-temperature combustion chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... EnergyWater History Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Decision Models for ...

  4. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  5. new chemistry to break down cell walls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new chemistry to break down cell walls - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  6. Chemistry Controls Material's Nanostructure | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Controls Material's Nanostructure Tweaking the chemicals used to form nanorods can be used to control their shape.Controlling a nanorod's shape is a key to controlling ...

  7. Introduction to Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intro Chem and MatSci Apps Introduction to Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications June 26, 2012 Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:4

  8. Exhaust Phosphorous Chemistry | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Exhaust Phosphorous Chemistry and Catalyst Poisoning The Development of Rapid Aging and Poisoning Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices Vehicle ...

  9. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids).

  10. Categorical Exclusion 4497: Lithium Wet Chemistry Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Detennination Form Proposed Action Tills: Lithium W@t Chemistry Project (4597) Program or Fild Oftke: Y-12 Site Office L&cationfs)...

  11. 2005 American Conference on Theoretical Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, Emily A

    2006-11-19

    The materials uploaded are meant to serve as final report on the funds provided by DOE-BES to help sponsor the 2005 American Conference on Theoretical Chemistry.

  12. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry Resources with Additional Information * Patents George A. Olah Courtesy Rand Larson, Morningstar Productions George Olah ...

  13. Introduction to Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intro Chem and MatSci Apps Introduction to Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications June 26, 2012 Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:4

  14. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  15. Heavy oil expansions gather momentum worldwide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritis, G.

    1995-08-14

    Cold production, wormholes, foamy oil mechanism, improvements in thermal methods, and horizontal wells are some of the processes and technologies enabling expansion of the world`s heavy oil/bitumen production. Such processes were the focus of the International Heavy Oil Symposium in Calgary, June 19--21. Unlike conventional oil production, heavy oil/bitumen extraction is more a manufacturing process where technology enables the business and does not just add value. The current low price spreads between heavy oil/light oil indicate that demand for heavy oil is high. The paper first discusses the price difference between heavy and light oils, then describes heavy oil production activities in Canada at Cold Lake, in Venezuela in the Orinoco belt, and at Kern River in California.

  16. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Progress Report for FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 (October 1993 through September 1994). This annual report is the eleventh for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has a research program in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require significant development of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL has four technical groups -- Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis -- which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL. The Chemical Analysis Group uses wet- chemical and instrumental methods for elemental, compositional, and isotopic determinations in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples and provides specialized analytical services. Major instruments in this group include an ion chromatograph (IC), an inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometer (ICP/AES), spectrophotometers, mass spectrometers (including gas-analysis and thermal-ionization mass spectrometers), emission spectrographs, autotitrators, sulfur and carbon determinators, and a kinetic phosphorescence uranium analyzer.

  17. MOLDED SEALING ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, B.W.; Skinner, W.J.

    1959-03-24

    Molded sealing elements suitable for use under conditions involving exposure to uranium hexafluoride vapor are described. Such sealing elements are made by subjecting graphitic carbons to a preliminary treatment with uranium hexafluoride vapor, and then incorporating polytetrafluorethylene in them. The resulting composition has good wear resistant and frictional properties and is resistant to disintegration by uranium hexafluoride over long periods of exposure.

  18. Impact and future of heavy oil produciton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K, )

    1996-01-01

    Heavy oil resources are becoming increaingly important in meeting world oil demand. Heavy oil accounts for 10% of the worlds current oil production and is anticipated to grow significantly. Recent narrowing of the price margins between light and heavy oil and the development of regional heavy oil markets (production, refining and marketing) have prompted renewed investment in heavy oil. Production of well known heavy oil resources of Canada, Venezuela, United States, and elsewhere throughout the world will be expanded on a project-by-project basis. Custom refineries designed to process these heavy crudes are being expanded. Refined products from these crudes will be cleaner than ever before because of the huge investment. However, heavy oil still remains at a competitive disadvantage due to higher production, transportation and refining have to compete with other investment opportunities available in the industry. Expansion of the U.S. heavy oil industry is no exception. Relaxation of export restrictions on Alaskan North Slope crude has prompted renewed development of California's heavy oil resources. The location, resource volume, and oil properties of the more than 80-billion barrel U.S. heavy oil resource are well known. Our recent studies summarize the constraints on production, define the anticipated impact (volume, location and time frame) of development of U.S. heavy oil resources, and examines the $7-billion investment in refining units (bottoms conversion capacity) required to accommodate increased U.S. heavy oil production. Expansion of Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil and tar sands production are anticipated to dramatically impact the U.S. petroleum market while displacing some imported Mideast crude.

  19. Impact and future of heavy oil produciton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K,

    1996-12-31

    Heavy oil resources are becoming increaingly important in meeting world oil demand. Heavy oil accounts for 10% of the worlds current oil production and is anticipated to grow significantly. Recent narrowing of the price margins between light and heavy oil and the development of regional heavy oil markets (production, refining and marketing) have prompted renewed investment in heavy oil. Production of well known heavy oil resources of Canada, Venezuela, United States, and elsewhere throughout the world will be expanded on a project-by-project basis. Custom refineries designed to process these heavy crudes are being expanded. Refined products from these crudes will be cleaner than ever before because of the huge investment. However, heavy oil still remains at a competitive disadvantage due to higher production, transportation and refining have to compete with other investment opportunities available in the industry. Expansion of the U.S. heavy oil industry is no exception. Relaxation of export restrictions on Alaskan North Slope crude has prompted renewed development of California`s heavy oil resources. The location, resource volume, and oil properties of the more than 80-billion barrel U.S. heavy oil resource are well known. Our recent studies summarize the constraints on production, define the anticipated impact (volume, location and time frame) of development of U.S. heavy oil resources, and examines the $7-billion investment in refining units (bottoms conversion capacity) required to accommodate increased U.S. heavy oil production. Expansion of Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil and tar sands production are anticipated to dramatically impact the U.S. petroleum market while displacing some imported Mideast crude.

  20. EXAFS of heavy metal coordination in acid mine drainage sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, S.; O`Day, P.; Waychunas, G.; Phillips, B.

    1995-12-01

    We use extended x-ray adsorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to examine the chemical environment of zinc (1-2 wt. %), lead (300-600 ppm) and cadmium (50-200 ppm) in complex acid mine drainage sediments from the Tri-State Mining District (KS, MO, OK). The sediments in streams draining tailings piles and open mine shafts are dominated by quartz or amorphous iron hydroxides; accessory minerals include calcite. The bulk water chemistry is buffered by the limestone geology and is undersaturated with respect to pure heavy metal carbonates and hydroxides. EXAFS spectra of the sediment samples were taken at SSRL with a fluorescence detector at low temperature ({approximately}10 K). Heavy metals do not form pure carbonate or hydroxide phases, nor do they appear to sorb to quartz surfaces. In sediments near the mine source, the metals are present primarily as sulfides, the original host mineral. With increasing distance from the source, second-neighbor backscattering from Fe indicates that the metals leached from the sulfides are taken up with amorphous iron hydroxides.

  1. Neutronic fuel element fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korton, George

    2004-02-24

    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shackleford, M.H.

    1958-12-16

    A fuel element possessing good stability and heat conducting properties is described. The fuel element comprises an outer tube formed of material selected from the group consisting of stainhess steel, V, Ti. Mo. or Zr, a fuel tube concentrically fitting within the outer tube and containing an oxide of an isotope selected from the group consisting of U/sup 235/, U/sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/, and a hollow, porous core concentrically fitting within the fuel tube and formed of an oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Be, and Zr.

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, W.F.; Tellefson, D.R.; Shimazaki, T.T.

    1962-04-10

    A plate type fuel element which is particularly useful for organic cooled reactors is described. Generally, the fuel element comprises a plurality of fissionable fuel bearing plates held in spaced relationship by a frame in which the plates are slidably mounted in grooves. Clearance is provided in the grooves to allow the plates to expand laterally. The plates may be rigidly interconnected but are floatingly supported at their ends within the frame to allow for longi-tudinal expansion. Thus, this fuel element is able to withstand large temperature differentials without great structural stresses. (AEC)

  4. Chemistry: Theory - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theory Chemistry: Theory Presentations from 2010 CEFRC First Annual Conference MultireferenceCorrelated WavefunctionCalculations and Reaction Flux Analyses of Methyl Ester Combustion Emily A. Carter, Princeton University Constructing Accurate Combustion Chemistry Models William H. Green, MIT Theoretical Gas Phase Chemical Kinetics Stephen J. Klippenstein, Argonne National Laboratory Theoretical Chemical Kinetics and Combustion Modeling James A. Miller, Argonne National Laboratory Computation of

  5. Mapping Metals Incorporation of a Single Catalyst Particle Using Element

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Specific X-ray Nanotomography | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Mapping Metals Incorporation of a Single Catalyst Particle Using Element Specific X-ray Nanotomography Tuesday, March 31, 2015 Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the refining process for converting large and/or heavy molecules of oil feedstock into smaller and lighter hydrocarbons, such as gasoline. The workhorse of the FCC process is a tiny catalyst particle of 50-150 µm diameter that consists of a complex mixture of

  6. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-02-01

    These fuel elements are comprised of a homogeneous metallic uranium body completely enclosed and sealed in an aluminum cover. The uranium body and aluminum cover are bonded together by a layer of zinc located between them. The bonding layer serves to improve transfer of heat, provides an additional protection against corrosion of the uranium by the coolant, and also localizes any possible corrosion by preventing travel of corrosive material along the surface of the fuel element.

  7. COMPOSITE FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurford, W.J.; Gordon, R.B.; Johnson, W.A.

    1962-12-25

    A sandwich-type fuel element for a reactor is described. This fuel element has the shape of an elongated flat plate and includes a filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein in which the fuel material is located. The filler plate is clad on both sides with a thin cladding material which is secured to the filler plate only to completely enclose the fuel material in each compartment. (AEC)

  8. Upgrading Orinoco Belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), in an effort to develop new oil resources, has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop the Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt, in the eastern part of Venezuela. Lagoven, S.A., a subsidiary of PDVSA, has been assigned the responsibility for developing and upgrading part of the Orinoco belt. This paper describes the most relevant aspects of Lagoven's first upgrading module, a facility that will convert Orinoco oil into a premium crude with a very high yield of products of great market demand.

  9. Heavy Gas Dispersion Incompressible Flow

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-27

    FEM3 is a numerical model developed primarily to simulate heavy gas dispersion in the atmosphere, such as the gravitational spread and vapor dispersion that result from an accidental spill of liquefied natural gas (LNG). FEM3 solves both two and three-dimensional problems and, in addition to the generalized anelastic formulation, includes options to use either the Boussinesq approximation or an isothermal assumption, when appropriate. The FEM3 model is composed of three parts: a preprocessor PREFEM3, themore » main code FEM3, and two postprocessors TESSERA and THPLOTX.« less

  10. Comparison of Muon Capture in Light and in Heavy Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Measday, David F.; Stocki, Trevor J.

    2007-10-26

    We have recently completed an experimental study at TRIUMF of muon capture in the following elements, N, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni, I, Au, and Bi. We detected the nuclear gamma rays emitted by the product nuclei after muon capture. The energy of the gamma ray identifies the source nuclide, and thus the reaction which has occurred. Our data are of better quality, and more comprehensive than any other data set in the literature. The ({mu}{sup -},{nu}n) reaction is always dominant. In light nuclei, reactions such as ({mu}{sup -},{nu}p) and ({mu}{sup -},{nu}pn) can occur, but not for heavy nuclei. However the reverse is true for reactions such as ({mu}{sup -},{nu}3n) and ({mu}{sup -},{nu}4n), which are very rare in light nuclei, but easily detected in heavy elements. We shall discuss how such information can be useful in calculations of neutrino-nucleus interactions, and of electron-capture in supernovae.