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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE CEM, CEA, CLEP, CDSM, CPE Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is to provide and maintain a comfortable environment within a building for the occupants or for the process being conducted Many HVAC systems were not designed with energy efficiency as one of the design factors 3 Air Air is the major conductor of heat. Lack of heat = air conditioning OR 4 Btu - Amount of heat required to raise one pound of water 1 F = 0.252 KgCal 1 Pound of Water = About 1 Pint of Water ~ 1 Large Glass 1 Kitchen Match Basics of Air Conditioning = 1 Btu 5 = 6 Low Cost Cooling Unit 7 8 Typical Design Conditions 75 degrees F temperature 50% relative humidity 30 - 50 FPM air movement

2

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

Kyle, D.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sullivan, R.A. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8, 2013 - 2:56pm Addthis The following heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies are underutilized within the Federal sector. These technologies have been...

4

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations October 16, 2013 - 4:49pm Addthis Renewable Energy Options for HVAC Renovations Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) Solar Water Heating (SWH) Biomass Passive Solar Heating Biomass Heating Solar Ventilation Air Preheating Federal building renovations that encompass the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in a facility provide a range of renewable energy opportunities. The primary technology option for HVAC renovations is geothermal heat pumps (GHP). Other options include leveraging a solar water heating (SWH) system to offset heating load or using passive solar heating or a biomass-capable furnace or boiler. Some facilities may also take

5

Intelligent Control of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposed a simulation-optimization energy saving strategy for heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems' condenser water loop through intelligent control of single speed cooling towers' components. An analysis of system components ...

Patrick Low Kie; Lau Bee Theng

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

HVAC Technology Report: A Review of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technology and Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many of us, roughly 95 percent of our time is spent indoors. To enable humans to spend this much time inside, mechanical equipment is necessary to provide space conditioning to control the temperature (heating and cooling), ventilation, humidity, and indoor air quality. This report introduces the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry to EPRI member utility employees. The document describes the most common technologies and applications and provides an overview of industry statisti...

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

7

Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Specialist Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The people responsible for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) in the nuclear power industry are known by various titles--HVAC specialist, HVAC component engineer, HVAC system manager, and HVAC system engineer, to name a few. Although HVAC duties and responsibilities are often spread across several departments, such as maintenance, operations, engineering, and procurement, it is up to the HVAC specialist to ensure that HVAC system and component health and reliability are maintained. This re...

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

8

A genetic rule weighting and selection process for fuzzy control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose the use of weighted linguistic fuzzy rules in combination with a rule selection process to develop accurate fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the intelligent control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems concerning ... Keywords: BEMS, building energy management system, FLC, fuzzy logic controller, Fuzzy logic controllers, GA, genetic algorithm, Genetic algorithms, HVAC systems, HVAC, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning, KB, knowledge base, PMV, predicted mean vote index for thermal comfort, Rule selection, Weighted fuzzy rules

Rafael Alcalá; Jorge Casillas; Oscar Cordón; Antonio González; Francisco Herrera

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

How refrigeration, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning service technicians learn from troubleshooting (Dissertation ABstract)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to understand how refrigeration, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (RHVAC) service technicians (techs) learned from troubleshooting. This understanding resulted in instructional and curricular strategies designed to help community colleges prepare vocational students to learn more effectively from informal workplace learning. RHVAC techs were studied because they increasingly learn their trade skills through a combination of formal schooling and informal workplace learning, though many still learn their trade almost exclusively in the workplace. Even those with formal training require considerable workplace experience to become fully competent. Troubleshooting is a major job function for RHVAC service techs, and troubleshooting

Denis F. H. Green

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning. It establishes functions of the fin structure parameters such as height,spacing and thickness of the fin when the volume of fin is the smallest under unit temperature difference and unit quantity of heat. It uses a genetic algorithm to optimize the model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe. The calculation result shows that the method of genetic algorithm is effective.

Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

Wetter, Michael

2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

14

A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for an effective tuning of fuzzy logic controllers in heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the use of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to develop smartly tuned fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, energy performance, stability and indoor comfort ... Keywords: Fuzzy logic controllers, Genetic tuning, HVAC systems, Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems, Linguistic 2-tuples representation, Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, Rule selection

María José Gacto; Rafael Alcalá; Francisco Herrera

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control  

SciTech Connect

A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Acoustical prediction methods for heating, ventilating, and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to compare and contrast various aspects of acoustical prediction methods for heating

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Genetic lateral and amplitude tuning with rule selection for fuzzy control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we propose the use of a new post-processing method for the lateral and amplitude tuning of membership functions combined with a rule selection to develop accurate fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the control of heating, ventilating ...

R. Alcalá; J. Alcalá-Fdez; F. J. Berlanga; M. J. Gacto; F. Herrera

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST); Volume 1: Cases E100-E200  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the Building Energy Simulation Test for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) project conducted by the Tool Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 22, Subtask A. The current test cases, E100-E200, represent the beginning of work on mechanical equipment test cases; additional cases that would expand the current test suite have been proposed for future development.

Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment Public Information for Convening Interviews I. What are the substantive issues DOE seeks to address? Strategies for grouping various basic models for purposes of certification; Identification of non-efficiency attributes, which do not impact the measured consumption of the equipment as tested by DOE's test procedure; The information that is certified to the Department; The timing of when the certification should be made relative to distribution in commerce; and Alterations to a basic model that would impact the certification.

22

Business reasons for utilizing renewable energy applications in facilities to assist in extending the life of the heating ventilation and air conditioning systems .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research is intended to discover business reasons for utilizing renewable energy applications in buildings to help extend the life of the heating, ventilation and… (more)

Thompson, Glendon Raymond

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Rotating heat pipe for air-conditioning  

SciTech Connect

A unique rotary hermetic heat pipe is disclosed for transferring heat from an external source to an external heat sink. The heat pipe has a tapered condensing surface which is curved preferably to provide uniform pumping acceleration, the heat pipe being rotated at a velocity such that the component of centrifugal acceleration in an axial direction parallel to the tapered surface is greater than lG and so that the condensing surface is kept relatively free of liquid at any attitude. The heat pipe may be incorporated in an air conditioning apparatus so that it projects through a small wall opening. In the preferred air conditioning apparatus, a hollow hermetic air impeller is provided which contains a liquefied gaseous refrigerant, such as freon, and means are provided for compressing the refrigerant in the evaporator region of the heat pipe.

Gray, V.H.

1976-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

24

Ventilation and air-conditioning concept for CNGS underground areas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of the CNGS project is to prove the existence of neutrino oscillation by generating an intense neutrino beam from CERN in the direction of the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, where two large neutrino detectors are built to detect the neutrinos. All the components for producing the neutrino beam will be situated in the underground tunnels, service galleries and chambers. The ventilation and air-conditioning systems installed in these underground areas have multiple tasks. Depending on the operating mode and structure to be air-conditioned, the systems are required to provide fresh air, cool the machine, dehumidify areas housing sensible equipment or assure the smoke removal in a case of a fire. This paper presents the technical solutions foreseen to meet these requirements.

Lindroos, J

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

Kühnl-Kinel, J

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Zoned heating and air conditioning system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a zoned heating and air conditioning system comprising: a central air handling system with an air heating means and an air cooling means and a blower connected to an air duct system; thermostats each have heating and cooling set points, respectively associated with and located in different zones of a building; dampers respectively associated with each building zone positioned in the air duct system. Each damper has an open position allowing air into the respective zone from the duct system and a closed position; relay means for connecting one thermostat to the air handling system upon a call for heating or cooling by one thermostat and disconnecting all other thermostats by connecting one thermostat's connections between the thermostat and air handling system. Only one thermostat is connected to the air handling system at a time and the relay means disconnects one thermostat from the air handling system after one thermostat is satisified; and damper actuating means for unlocking each damper in one building zone responsive actuated by a respective zone thermostat connected to the air handling system by the relay means. The damper actuates means including a damper solenoid for each damper located adjacent each damper and connected to a respective zone thermostat. It unlocks each damper in one building zone responsive to being actuated by the respective zone thermostat and unlocks the dampers in one building zone when one thermostat is actuated while preventing the dampers in another thermostat's building zone from unlocking.

Beachboard, S.A.

1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

27

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These comments...

28

An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Commercial and Residential Air Conditioning and HeatingOF COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATINGand residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST): Volume 2: Cases E300-E545.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents an additional set of mechanical system test cases that are planned for inclusion in ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 140. The cases test a program's modeling capabilities on the working-fluid side of the coil, but in an hourly dynamic context over an expanded range of performance conditions. These cases help to scale the significance of disagreements that are less obvious in the steady-state cases. The report is Vol. 2 of HVAC BESTEST Volume 1. Volume 1 was limited to steady-state test cases that could be solved with analytical solutions. Volume 2 includes hourly dynamic effects, and other cases that cannot be solved analytically. NREL conducted this work in collaboration with the Tool Evaluation and Improvement Experts Group under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 22.

Neymark J.; Judkoff, R.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

A study of membrane properties on air conditioning performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Energy consumption due to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning amounts to 10-20% of global electrical energy usage. Air conditioning alone uses one trillion kilowatt hours… (more)

Boyer, Elizabeth J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Name Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning Address 115 Washington Street - P.O. Box 516 Place Urbana, Ohio Zip 43078 Sector Efficiency, Geothermal energy, Services, Solar Product Installation; Maintenance and repair Phone number 937-652-1136 Website http://fetzphc.com Coordinates 40.108862°, -83.757291° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.108862,"lon":-83.757291,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

32

Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Name Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning Address 51 Meadow Lane Place Northfield, Ohio Zip 44067 Sector Buildings, Efficiency, Geothermal energy, Renewable Energy, Services Product Business and legal services; Energy audits/weatherization; Energy provider: power production;Energy provider: wholesale;Engineering/architectural/design;Installation;Investment/finances;Maintenance and repair; Retail product sales and distribution Phone number 330-908-0281 Website http://www.weatherking1.com Coordinates 41.3340869°, -81.530299° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.3340869,"lon":-81.530299,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

34

Airflow Simulation and Energy Analysis in Ventilated Room with a New Type of Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Airflow simulation in one ventilated room with radiant heating and natural ventilation has been carried out. Three cases are compared: the closed room, the room with full openings, and the room with small openings. The radiator heating room with small openings is recommended. The airflow and thermal comfort are discussed for the last case. It is suitable for two kinds of civil buildings, housing buildings and office buildings, which take up the largest part of all functional buildings.

Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system including investment, operating fee and pay-back time. The results show that waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system has a low investment, low operating fee and short payback time.

Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

A thermal comfort levels investigation of a naturally ventilated and air-conditioned office  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to investigate thermal comfort levels of a naturally ventilated and air-conditioner office. Field experiments conducted in an office room in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) used survey questionnaires and physical measurements. ... Keywords: PMV, mechanically ventilation, naturally ventilated, neutral temperature, objective study, subjective approach, thermal comfort

R. Daghigh; N. M. Adam; K. Sopian; A. Zaharim; B. B. Sahari

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) notice in the August 8, 2012 Federal Register...

38

Residential Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Research Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The residential HVAC load contributes $23 billion to electric utility energy sales and significantly to peak demands. Participants at this 1986 workshop identified fifteen areas of research needed to improve HVAC components, systems, and applications.

1987-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

39

HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps.

40

Development of a Dedicated 100 Percent Ventilation Air Heat Pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of using dedicated 100 percent ventilation makeup air conditioning units to meet indoor air quality standards is attractive because of the inherent advantages. However, it is challenging to design and build direct expansion unitary equipment for this purpose. EPRI teamed with ClimateMaster to develop and test a prototype of a vapor compression heat pump to advance the state of the art in such equipment. The prototype unit provides deep dehumidification and cooling of ventilation air in the su...

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As utility costs have risen despite political campaign promises and energy conserving measures implemented by the utility companies such as alternative fuel use (coal and nuclear), co-generation, etc., homeowners have begun to search for effective methods of reducing their electricity bills. In some cases homeowners are faced with utility bills That are approaching the cost of their mortgage payments. For those with fixed incomes, such as the elderly or those looking forward to retirement in the near future, this has become an alarming reality. Virtually every homeowner would like to reduce his utility bill but the question is, what items should he address in order to have a significant impact on his electricity costs? According to Houston Lighting h Power Company, 50% of an electricity bill can be attributed to the air conditioning system, and another 15-20% to the hot water heating system. Therefore, to dramatically reduce utility costs one should look first at these two "energy gulpers" and next at proper home insulation, window coverings, etc. The other electrical appliances in the home use relatively minor amounts of electricity compared to the air conditioning and hot water heating system. This paper will describe the geothermal heat pump and the desuperheater as the latest developments in energy efficient air conditioning and water heating.

Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Performance Assessment of a Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Air Conditioning System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) technology uses smart integrated controls, variable speed drives, and refrigerant piping to provide energy efficiency, flexible operation, ease of installation, low noise, zone control, and comfort through all-electric technology. This report describes and documents the construction, performance, and application of a heat pump air conditioning system that uses VRF technology8212the Daikin VRV system. This variable refrigerant volume (VRV) system is manufactured by Daikin I...

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

44

Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: New and

45

Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems, we can use the VRV air conditioning system to supply cold loads in the winter for rooms in the construction inner zone where cold loads need to be supplied. The VRV air-conditioning system of variable frequency technology can achieve the effect of energy conservation. In this article, we analyze the application of the VRV air conditioning system heat recovery series in the construction inner zone and its energy saving characteristics via a project example.

Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Large HVAC Codes and Standards Update 2000: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents EPRI activities in the year 2000 related to building codes and standards. The following activities are covered: attendance at the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) meetings and participation in technical committee and subcommittee meetings related to ASHRAE Standard 90.l; review of relevant U.S Department of Energy (DOE) appliance standards; review of developments of other building energy code organizations; and participation in the E...

2000-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

48

Exploratory Research on MEMS Technology for Air-Conditioning and Heat-Pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiple refrigerant channels are essential for improving system efficiency in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. A study was conducted to study the use of micro-electrical-mechanical- systems (MEMS) and micro device technologies to improve current vapor compression refrigeration cycles. The first step toward realizing this goal, and the focus of this report, is to determine how to better control multi-channel evaporators by reducing refrigerant maldistribution among channels.

1998-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

49

Ventilation and Solar Heat Storage System Offers Big Energy Savings  

Ventilation and Solar Heat Storage System Offers Big Energy Savings ... Heat is either reflected away from the building with radiant barriers, or heat is absorbed

50

The Study of Heat and Mass Transfer In The Generator For an Absorption Air Conditioning System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis is aimed to study the heat and mass transfer performance of a generator for the absorption cooling system. Both aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr)… (more)

Hsu, Yu-lien

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AHRI Comments - DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star AHRI Comments - DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star May 9, 2011 P a g e | 1 May 9, 2010 Ms. Ashley Armstrong U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 RE: DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star Dear Ms. Armstrong: I am writing on behalf of the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) to address the proposed DOE requirements for verification testing in support of the Energy Star program. AHRI is the trade association representing manufacturers of heating, cooling, and commercial refrigeration equipment. More than 300 members strong, AHRI is an internationally recognized advocate for the industry, and develops standards for and certifies the performance of many of the

52

Memorandum To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) Date: 1/12/2012 Subject: EX PARTE COMMUNICATION MEMO DOE ATTENDEES: Ashley Armstrong, John Cymbalsky, David Case, Laura Barhydt HARDI ATTENDEES: Talbot Gee, Jonathan Melchi AREAS OF DISCUSSION: DOE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. The meeting took place on Thursday January 5 th , 2012 from 2pm to 3-pm. The following topics were discussed. 1.) Sell-Through. HARDI asked for clarification on the DOE's notation on the Framework Document

53

Modeling of solar heating and air conditioning. Progress report, October 31, 1974--December 31, 1975  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objective of the research is to develop the means to identify and optimize practical systems for heating and cooling of buildings with solar energy in the United States. This will be done through simulation methods. Secondary objectives are to: extend and refine TRNSYS (a modular solar energy system simulation program); develop the means of supporting TRNSYS users in other laboratories; use TRNSYS (and other simulation programs) to develop design procedures for solar heating and cooling processes; design and evaluate an experimental solar heating system on a Wisconsin farm residence.

Duffie, J.A.; Beckman, W.A.

1975-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

HEAT PUMP AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM ANALYSIS BASED ON VARIABLE SPEED COMPRESSOR.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mechanical Engineering M.S.E. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of ambient air temperatures on the heat pump performance using a variable speed compressor.… (more)

Zhang, Hao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Aero?acoustic predictions of automotive dashboard HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air?conditioning ducts).  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flow?induced noisegenerated by automotive climate control systems is today emerging as one of the main noisesources in a vehicle interior. Numerical simulation offers a good way to analyze these mechanisms and to identify the aerodynamic noisesources in an industrial context driven by permanent reduction in programs timing and development costs

Stephane Detry; Julien Manera; Yves Detandt; Diego d'Udekem

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

R and D opportunities for commercial HVAC (heating, air conditioning, and ventilation) equipment  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to identify and characterize generic HVAC equipment research that will provide the best investment opportunities for DOE R and D funds. The prerequisites of a DOE research program include research efforts that are potentially significant in energy conservation impact and that are cost-effective, long-term, and high risk. These prerequisites form the basic guidelines for the R and D opportunities assessed. The assessment excludes the R and D areas that have potential or current private sector sponsors. Finally, R and D areas which are included in DOE programs generally are not addressed.

Chiu, S.A.; Zaloudek, F.R.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

six buildings had cooling towers, of which 46 were cleanedor poor condition of cooling tower was associated with aunscheduled cleaning of cooling towers was associated with

Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

59

Solar air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of a hybrid solar-assisted air conditioning system that combines a vapor compression section for sensible cooling with a desiccant section for dehumidification and that uses both solar energy and condenser waste heat to drive the dehumidifier has been under way for the last two years (1981 and 1982). The results of this research are included in this report: utilizing solar energy in an economical way has proven quite difficult.

Robison, H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region  

SciTech Connect

During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

Goldman, Charles

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time and effort. Therefore, this paper proposes a) two methods of evaluating the floor heating efficiency from the room / crawl space temperature and the energy consumption and b) method of evaluating COP of the room air conditioner from the data measured at the external unit. Case studies in which these tools were applied to actual residences are presented to demonstrate their effectiveness.

Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Demonstration of Demand Control Ventilation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) is one of the control strategies that can be used modulate the amount of ventilation air for space conditioning in commercial buildings. DCV modulates the amount of ventilation air introduced into the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system based on carbon dioxide levels sensed in the areas served. The carbon dioxide level is a proxy for the number of people within the space, from which the required quantity of ventilation air is determined. By using this ...

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

Air Conditioning and lungs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Conditioning and lungs Name: freeman Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: What affect does air conditioning have upon the lungs of the...

65

Floor-supply displacement ventilation system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research on indoor environments has received more attention recently because reports of symptoms and other health complaints related to indoor environments have been increasing. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ...

Kobayashi, Nobukazu, 1967-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

OPTIMIZED CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR A TYPICAL WATER LOOP HEAT PUMP SYSTEM.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water Loop Heat Pump (WLHP) System has been widely utilized in the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) industry for several decades. There is no… (more)

Lian, Xu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load for Radiant and Air Conditioning Systems. ProceedingsRefrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc. Babiak,of European Heating ahd Air-Conditioning Associations. CEN (

Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Summary of human responses to ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coils of commercial air-conditioning systems. Proceedings ofrefrigerating and air-conditioning engineers, inc. pp 601-for ventilation and air-conditioning systems - offices and

Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Movements in air conditioning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Movements in Air Conditioning is a collection of poems that explores the obstacles inherent in creating a new sense of home in a country that… (more)

Hitt, Robert D. (Robert David)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning May 30, 2012 - 8:01pm Addthis Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. What does this mean for me? Central air conditioning systems are thermostatically controlled and convenient to use. Central air conditioning systems must be installed properly to operate efficiently. Central air conditioning systems can share ductwork with your heating system. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. Supply ducts and registers (i.e., openings in the walls,

71

Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the weather data of a standard year in Wuhan, derived from the data of the latest 15 years, the data for the BIN (temperature and humidity frequency) method of an annual and 8-hour system were calculated. Then the BIN method was adopted to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show that the energy consumption of the former was approximately less 23.3% than that of the latter in summer and 19.1% in winter.

Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Review of Literature Related to Residential Ventilation Requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigerating, and Air -Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GRefrigerat ing, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Gof Ventilation and Air Conditioning: Is C E R N up to Date

McWilliams, Jennifer; Sherman, Max

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

DOE/EA-1673: Environmental Assessment for Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment (July 2009)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 3 Environmental Assessment for 10 CFR 431 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air- Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment July 2009 8-i CHAPTER 8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS 8.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 8-1 8.2 AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................... 8-1 8.3 AIR POLLUTANT DESCRIPTIONS ................................................................................ 8-1 8.4 AIR QUALITY REGULATIONS ...................................................................................... 8-3

75

Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior space to the relatively warm outside environment. An air conditioner uses a cold indoor coil called the evaporator. The condenser, a hot outdoor coil, releases the collected heat outside. The evaporator and condenser coils are serpentine tubing surrounded by aluminum fins. This tubing is usually made of copper.

76

Energy Performance and Economic Evaluations of the Geothermal Heat Pump System used in the KnowledgeWorks I and II Buildings, Blacksburg, Virginia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems (HVAC) are not only one of the most energy consuming components in buildings but also contribute to green house… (more)

Charoenvisal, Kongkun

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controlling summer attic heat gain is important to reducing air conditioning energy use in homes in hot-humid climates. Both heat transfer through ceilings and t attic duct systems can make up a large part of peak cooling demand, Attic ventilation has long been identified as a method to abate such heat gains. We present test results from using the photovoltaic (PV) attic ventilator fans in a test home to assess impact on attic and cooling energy performance.

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

Metzger, C.; Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Laboratory Testing of the Heating Capacity of Air-Source Heat Pumps at Low Outdoor Temperature Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-source heat pump systems offer an alternative to the common heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) configuration of single split unitary air conditioners with gas heating. In simple terms, heat pumps are traditional air conditioning units with the added capability of running in reverse as required by the building load. Thus, where the traditional air conditioning unit has an indoor evaporator to remove heat from the space and an outdoor condenser to reject heat to the ambient environment, ...

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system. DEVAP uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less

82

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system.

83

LBNL REPORT NUMBER 53776; OCTOBER 2003 ASHRAE &Residential Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL REPORT NUMBER 53776; OCTOBER 2003 ASHRAE &Residential Ventilation Max Sherman Energy Performance of Buildings Group IED/EETD Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory1 MHSherman@lbl.gov ASHRAE, the American of heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R). ASHRAE has recently released a new

84

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conditioning Conditioning Air Conditioning July 1, 2012 - 6:28pm Addthis Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment. Two-thirds of all homes in the United States have air conditioners. Air conditioners use about 5% of all the electricity produced in the United States, at an annual cost of more than $11 billion to homeowners. As a

85

Key Factors in Displacement Ventilation Systems for Better IAQ  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper sets up a mathematical model of three-dimensional steady turbulence heat transfer in an air-conditioned room of multi-polluting heat sources. Numerical simulation helps identify key factors in displacement ventilation systems that affect air-quality in rooms of multi-polluting heat sources. Results show that it is very important to determine the suitable air-intemperature , air-inflow, and heat source quantity and dispersion, to obtain better displacement ventilation results.

Wang, X.; Chen, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Energy Basics: Air Conditioning  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to...

87

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect

Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Dehumidification Performance of Air Conditioning Systems in Supermarkets: Field Demonstration with Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers in Delchamps Supermarket, Gulf Breeze, Florida  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lower humidity in supermarkets translates to reduced operational cost from refrigeration equipment. A demonstration project at a Florida supermarket showed that use of a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) improved the HVAC system's dehumidification performance; but lower airflow rates, with or without an HPHX, also provided significant dehumidification enhancements.

1996-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

89

Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Systems based on the vapor compression cycle are the most widely used in a variety of air conditioning applications. Despite the vast growth of modern… (more)

Seshadri, Swarooph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Using Modelica for Physical Modeling of Air-Conditioning Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Modelica for Physical Modeling of Air-Conditioning Systems Using Modelica for Physical Modeling of Air-Conditioning Systems Speaker(s): Jonas Eborn Date: August 23, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Wetter The Air Conditioning library is a commercial Modelica library for the steady-state and transient simulation of air conditioning systems using both compact micro-channel heat exchangers as well as fin-and-tube type heat exchangers. Currently it is mostly used by automotive OEMs and suppliers that need high-accuracy system level models to evaluate energy efficiency of systems developed under the pressure of reduced design cycle times. The library also has applications in other areas, including aircraft cooling systems and residential air-conditioning. The Air Conditioning library contains published correlations for heat and mass transfer and

91

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.of Ventilation and Air Conditioning: Is CERN up to Date With

Walker, Iain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Thermal storage HVAC system retrofit provides economical air conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes an EMS-controlled HVAC system that meets the ventilation and cooling needs of an 18,000-seat indoor ice hockey arena. The Buffalo Memorial Auditorium (affectionately referred to as the Aud) was built in 1937 under the Works Project Administration of the federal government. Its original configuration included a 12,000-seat arena with an ice skating rink. By the late 1980s, the city was unsuccessfully attempting to attract events and tenants to the auditorium, which lacked air conditioning and other modern amenities. Thus, it was decided to renovate the facility to make it marketable. The first phase of the renovation included installing an air-conditioning system in the arena and repairing the existing building systems that were inoperable because of deferred maintenance. After considering the existing conditions (such as size of the space, intermittent usage, construction restrictions, operating budgets and the limited operations staff), the engineering team designed an innovative HVAC system. The system's features include: a carbon dioxide monitoring device that controls the intake of outside air; an ice storage system that provides chilled water and shifts electrical demand to off-peak hours; and a design that uses the building mass as a heat sink. A new energy management system (EMS) determines building cooling needs based on the type of event, ambient conditions and projected audience size. Then, it selects the most economical method to obtain the desired arena temperature.

Smith, S.F. (Wendel Engineers, P.C., Buffalo, NY (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 Main Commercial Primary Energy Use of Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995 Heating Equipment | Cooling Equipment Packaged Heating Units 25% | Packaged Air Conditioning Units 54% Boilers 21% | Room Air Conditioning 5% Individual Space Heaters 2% | PTAC (2) 3% Furnaces 20% | Centrifugal Chillers 14% Heat Pumps 5% | Reciprocating Chillers 12% District Heat 7% | Rotary Screw Chillers 3% Unit Heater 18% | Absorption Chillers 2% PTHP & WLHP (1) 2% | Heat Pumps 7% 100% | 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) PTHP = Packaged Terminal Heat Pump, WLHP = Water Loop Heat Pump. 2) PTAC = Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume 1: Chillers, Refrigerant Compressors, and Heating Systems, Apr. 2001, Figure 5-5, p. 5-14 for cooling and Figure 5-10, p. 5-18 for heating

94

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

SciTech Connect

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

95

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

96

Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Revised fact sheet describes the transpired solar collector that was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

97

Air conditioning: Impact on the built environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The topics discussed in this book are: Introduction. 1. Air Conditioning - An Ever Expanding Market. 2. Building Envelope Design and Air Contitioning. 3. Air Conditioning and Energy - The CIBSE Building Energy Code. 4. Thermal Storage in Air Conditioning Systems. 5. Good Practice in the Design and Construction of Air Conditioning Systems. 6. Software for Air Conditioning Load Analysis and Design. 7. Lloyd's of London - The Architecture of Air Conditioning - Prediction of the Environment.

Sherratt, A.F.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Radiative Heating Errors in Naturally Ventilated Air Temperature Measurements Made from Buoys*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiative heating errors in buoy-mounted, naturally ventilated air temperature sensors are examined. Data from sensors with multiplate radiation shields and collocated, fan-aspirated air temperature sensors from three buoy deployments ...

Steven P. Anderson; Mark F. Baumgartner

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Computer controlled air conditioning systems  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a computer controlled air conditioning system providing for circulation of air through an air conditioned house in contact with concrete walls requiring a humidity within a critical range. The improvement consists of: a computer for processing sensed environmental input data including humidity and oxygen to produce output control signals for affecting the humidity of the air in the house; provision for an air flow circulation path through the house in contact with the concrete walls; sensing responsive to the amount of oxygen in the house for providing input signals to the computer; mixing for combining with the air in the house a variable amount of fresh atmospheric air to supply fresh oxygen; and humidity modifying means for modifying the humidity of the air flowing in the flow path responsive to the control signals.

Dumbeck, R.F.

1986-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

100

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

2 2 Main Commercial Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995, 1999, and 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) (1) Heating Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Cooling Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Packaged Heating Units 29% 38% 28% Packaged Air Conditioning Units 45% 54% 46% Boilers 29% 29% 32% Individual Air Conditioners 21% 21% 19% Individual Space Heaters 29% 26% 19% Central Chillers 19% 19% 18% Furnaces 25% 21% 30% Residential Central Air Conditioners 16% 12% 17% Heat Pumps 10% 13% 14% Heat Pumps 12% 14% 14% District Heat 10% 8% 8% District Chilled Water 4% 4% 4% Other 11% 6% 5% Swamp Coolers 4% 3% 2% Other 2% 2% 2% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Heating and cooling equipment percentages of floorspace total more than 100% since equipment shares floorspace. 2) Malls are no longer included in most CBECs tables; therefore, some data is not directly comparable to past CBECs.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(often required by building codes) will help to reduce your use of air conditioning, and attic fans may also help keep cooling costs down. Learn More Whole-House Ventilation...

102

Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a high-efficiency air conditioning scheme, the variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system is finding its way into medium-sized office buildings. Based on a generic dynamic building energy simulation environment, EnergyPlus, a new module is developed and the energy usage of the VRF system is investigated. This paper compares the energy consumption of the VRF system with that of two conventional air-conditioning systems, namely, the variable air volume (VAV) system and the fan-coil plus fresh air (FPFA) system. A generic office building is used to accommodate the different types of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Our objective is to examine the energy consumption of the VRF system applied to office buildings and make suggestions for evaluating and making decisions on HVAC systems in the early stages of building design. Simulation results show that the energy-saving potential of the VRF system is expected to achieve 22.2 percent and 11.7 percent, compared to the VAV system and the FPFA system, respectively. An energy-usage breakdown of electricity end-users in various systems is also presented.

Zhou, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, R.; Shiochi, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Automobile air-conditioning unit. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In this study the refrigerant in the automobile air-conditioner is compressed by thermal energy in a unique compression system rather than by work in a standard compressor. The compression uses an intermittent compression process with a solid absorbent. The vapor is absorbed by an absorbent at relatively low temperature and ejected as the absorbent temperature is raised. A set of one way valves limits flow to one direction. Major contributions are heat transfer requirements, molecular sieve-refrigerant matching, minimizing non-producing mass, solving thermal fatigue and shock problems, and applying this to automobile air-conditioning. The performance study shows energy savings up to fifty percent are possible, depending on engine load. A twenty percent energy savings with the vehicle tested with the air-conditioner in operation is average. The study also showed that less fuel is used with the windows open than with the air-conditioner operating.

Schaetzle, W.J.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants with little or no internal loads. The evaporative roof cooling system keeps the building from heating up during the day by misting the roof surface with a fine spray of water -just enough to evaporate. This process keeps the roof surface at 90° levels instead of 150° and knocks out the radiant heat transfer from the roof into the building. The system is controlled by a thermostat and automatically shuts off at night or when the roof surface cools below the set point. The same control system turns on exhaust fans to load the building with cool night air. Air circulators are installed to provide air movement on workers during the day. Best results are achieved by closing dock doors and minimizing hot air infiltration during the day. The typical application will maintain inside temperatures that will average 84° -86° when outside ambient temperatures range from 98 °-100°. Many satisfied users will attest to marked improvements in employee moral and productivity, along with providing safe storage temperatures for many products. Installed "Flywheel" systems' costs are usually less than 20% of comparable air-conditioning equipment. By keeping a built up roof cooler, the system will eliminate thermal shock and extend roof life while reducing maintenance.

Abernethy, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Presentation of the Air- Conditioning, Heating, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... GCC Standardization Organization (GSO) on the ... Headquarters: Arlington, Virginia USA Page 4. AHRI – ... Directory ? www.ahridirectory.org Page 18. ...

107

Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A large share of energy consumption is taken by an air-conditioning system. It worsens the electricity load of the power network. Therefore, more and more scholars are paying attention to research on new types of air-conditioning systems that are energy- saving and environment-friendly. A liquid desiccant air conditioning system is among them, as it has a tremendous ability for power storage and low requirements for heat resources. Heat with low temperatures, such as excess heat, waste heat, and solar power, is suitable for the liquid desiccant air-conditioning system. The feasibility and economical efficiency of the system are studied in this experimental research. The result shows that when the temperature of the regeneration is about 80?, the thermodynamic coefficient of the system is about 0.6, and the supply air temperature of the air-conditioning system remains stable at 21?, the air-conditioning system can meet human comfort levels.

Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

environment. An air conditioner uses a cold indoor coil called the evaporator. The condenser, a hot outdoor coil, releases the collected heat outside. The evaporator and...

109

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm...

110

Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented.

Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

112

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning Speaker(s): Eric Peterson Date: July 7, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Philip Haves Edward A. Arens The presentation will describe and compare the methods of determining cooling design conditions used by ASHRAE and the Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning and Heating. A case study based on weather data for Brisbane will be used to illustrate the issues that arise. One issue is the usefulness of the 3-hourly temperature observations archived in International Weather Office records compared to the hourly observations required by the ASHRAE method. Another issue is the use of daily maxima, which have been archived for over 100 years at many Australian locations. Daily data can easily be used to find trends

113

Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyzing the actuality of the large-scale public buildings' energy consumption, we know that most of them run not only in low efficiency, but also in high energy consumption. According to the characteristics of the building, we should proceed with the heating characteristics of the exterior -protected construction, the set value of the temperature of the air-conditioning, the lectotype of the Central air-conditioning system, the regulation and the modification of the transmission and distribution system, the use of the new energy and the daily management or the method of adjustment and control, and so on , so we can make the air-conditioning system run efficiently. Analyzing and comparing the large-scale public buildings' energy consumption with each other, some pointed improvement measures are proposed further. According to the study and analysis, even though large-scale public buildings consume a great of energy, there exists a huge potential for energy conservation.

Liu, P.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Controllability and invariance of monotone systems for robust ventilation automation in buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[2] and control [3] of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems leads to an improved on these matters [4]. Various paths have already been explored for the control of HVAC systems in intelligent and energy saving [7], a model-predictive strategy [8], or a fuzzy logic controller [9]. The notion of Robust

115

Proposed Design for a Coupled Ground-Source Heat Pump/Energy Recovery Ventilator System to Reduce Building Energy Demand.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The work presented in this thesis focuses on reducing the energy demand of a residential building by using a coupled ground-source heat pump/energy recovery ventilation… (more)

McDaniel, Matthew Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning  

SciTech Connect

There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an {open_quotes}upsized{close_quotes} condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an [open quotes]upsized[close quotes] condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

119

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

designs of personalized ventilation, International Journal of heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

VENTILATION MODEL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their postclosure analyses.

V. Chipman

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solar radiation through an air conditioned building depends on what is called the building envelope. Building envelope consists of the surfaces that separate the inside from the building outdoors. Area, direction, and specifications of glass walls; as one of envelope surfaces; has an important impact on solar radiation. Design and construction of glass walls have significant effects on building comfort and energy consumption. This paper describes methods of improving glass walls thermal resistance in air conditioned buildings. Effect of glass wall radiation temperature on the indoor temperature distribution of building rooms is also investigated. Heat gain through various types of glass is discussed. Optimization and testing of these types are carried out theoretically and experimentally as well. A series of experiments on different types of glass with special strips is performed.

Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

U.S. Heating and Air-Conditioning System Manufacturer Shipments, by Type (Including Exports) 2005 Value of 2000 2005 2007 2009 2010 Shipments Equipment Type (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) ($million) (7) Air-Conditioners (1) 5,346 6,472 4,508 3,516 3419 5,837 Heat Pumps 1,539 2,336 1,899 1,642 1,748 2,226 Air-to-Air Heat Pumps 1,339 2,114 1,899 1,642 1748 1,869 Water-Source Heat Pumps (2) 200 222 N.A. N.A. N.A. 357 Chillers 38 37 37 25 29 1,093 Reciprocating 25 24 30 20 24 462 Centrifugal/Screw 8 6 7 5 5 566 Absorption (3) 5 7 N.A. N.A. N.A. 64 Furnaces 3,681 3,624 2,866 2,231 2,509 2,144 Gas-Fired (4) 3,104 3,512 2,782 2,175 2453 2,081 Electric 455 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. Oil-Fired (5) 121 111 84 56 56 63 Boilers (6) 368 370 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. Note(s): Source(s): 1) Includes exports and gas air conditioners (gas units <10,000 units/yr) and rooftop equipment. Excludes heat pumps, packaged terminal air

124

Does the Air-Conditioning Engineering Rubric Work in Residences...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Does the Air-Conditioning Engineering Rubric Work in Residences? Title Does the Air-Conditioning Engineering Rubric Work in Residences? Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL...

125

A learning agent for heat-pump thermostat control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems are one of the biggest energy consumers around the world. With the efforts of moving to sustainable energy consumption, heat-pump based HVAC systems have gained popularity due to their high efficiency ... Keywords: control, energy savings, machine learning

Daniel Urieli, Peter Stone

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Troubleshooting the residential air conditioning system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to effectively diagnose problems in a residential air conditioning system, the technician should develop and follow a logical step-by-step troubleshooting procedure. A list of problems, along with possible causes and solutions, that a technician may encounter when servicing a residential air conditioner is presented.

Puzio, H. [Sussex County Vocational Technical School, Sparta, NJ (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry NOTICE Due to the current lapse of federal funding, Berkeley Lab websites are...

128

A scale model study of displacement ventilation with chilled ceilings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement ventilation is a form of air-conditioning which provides good air quality and some energy savings. The air quality is better than for a conventional mixed ventilation system. The maximum amount of cooling that ...

Holden, Katherine J. A. (Katherine Joan Adrienne)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Numerical Simulation of a Displacement Ventilation System with Multi-heat Sources and Analysis of Influential Factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement ventilation (DV) is a promising ventilation concept due to its high ventilation efficiency. In this paper, the application of the CFD method, the velocity and temperature fields of three-dimensional displacement ventilation systems with double heat sources are numerically simulated. The model is verified by experimental data. The results of the study show that thermal stratification characteristics exist in indoor temperature fields. The paper also analyzes the influence of different influential factors, e.g., the distance between heat sources, temperature of heat source, heat characteristics of the wall and outdoor temperature. It was found that the human requirement for comfort is satisfied easily when the distance between heat sources is long. Under the conditions simulated in this paper, when the distance was more than 0.8m, the temperature distribution tended to be average and steady, and it did not change as the distance changed. Second, the temperature change of the thermal current has a large influence on the indoor temperature. The rise in thermal current temperature makes the vertical temperature gradient in the room increase. The upper temperature of the room becomes higher, as does the height of the high temperature air level that lies in the upper part of the room. Finally, both the heat loss of the surrounding structure and the change in outdoor temperature have a large influence on indoor temperature. However, it does not influence the thermal stratification characteristics of DV. The only thing that has changed is the thermal stratification height.

Wu, X.; Gao, J.; Wu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

131

Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Study on Energy Saving of the Interlayer Ventilation Walla Used in Clean Operation Rooms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recovery energy of the exhaust in air conditioning is very important to clean operating rooms. In disinfected operating rooms, we often use completely fresh air conditioning system in order to maintain cleanliness. All the return air of the air conditioning must be discharged. For recovering the exhaust energy, whole heat exchangers are used, and they may bring cross-infection in clean operating rooms. Cross-infection would negatively affect cleanness. This paper puts forward an air layer inside of a building's external wall that acts as a passageway for air conditioning exhaust, and also providing a place for the thermal exchange of the air conditioning exhaust. This kind of envelope is named an interlayer ventilation wall. There are two advantages. First, it will recover and reutilize the energy that the air conditioning exhaust takes, avoid cross-infection between the fresh air and the exhaust. Second, it will lower the energy loss of the heat exchange through the envelope. The energy saving effect will be very significant in clean operating rooms.

Feng, J.; Lian, Z.; Hou, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Scale model studies of displacement ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement ventilation is an air conditioning method that provides conditioned air to indoor environments with the goal to improve air quality while reducing energy consumption. This study investigates the performance ...

Okutan, Galip Mehmet

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Vehicle Transient Air Conditioning Analysis: Model Development& System Optimization Investigations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a transient air conditioning (A/C) system model using SINDA/FLUINT analysis software. It captures all the relevant physics of transient A/C system performance, including two-phase flow effects in the evaporator and condenser, system mass effects, air side heat transfer on the condenser/evaporator, vehicle speed effects, temperature-dependent properties, and integration with a simplified cabin thermal model. It has demonstrated robust and powerful system design optimization capabilities. Single-variable and multiple variable design optimizations have been performed and are presented. Various system performance parameters can be optimized, including system COP, cabin cool-down time, and system heat load capacity. This work presents this new transient A/C system analysis and optimization tool and shows some high-level system design conclusions reached to date. The work focuses on R-134a A/C systems, but future efforts will modify the model to investigate the transient performance of alternative refrigerant systems such as carbon dioxide systems. NREL is integrating its transient air conditioning model into NRELs ADVISOR vehicle system analysis software, with the objective of simultaneously optimizing A/C system designs within the overall vehicle design optimization.

Hendricks, T. J.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Effect of building airtightness and fan size on the performance of mechanical ventilation systems in new U.S. houses: a critique of ASHRAE standard 62.2-2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers.Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , AtlantaRefrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , Atlanta

Roberson, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Keeping Cool Without Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Keeping Cool Without Air Conditioning Keeping Cool Without Air Conditioning August 2, 2013 - 9:50am Addthis Trees can save you energy by blocking sunlight in the summer and letting...

137

"Table HC11.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,4,2.4,1.7 "Have Coolling Equipment",93.3,16.5,12.8,3.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,16.3,12.6,3.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.3,"Q","Q" "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7

138

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Outdoor Air, Heat Wheels and JCPenney: A New Approach to Retail Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

JCPenney Construction Services department is responsible for the construction of new stores, takeover of existing facilities to create a new store, repairs to existing JCPenney facilities and the expansion and modernization of stores across the nation and the world. Each year, JCPenney Construction Services handles approximately 50 projects along these lines. After the implementation of ASHRAE 62- 1989 by JCPenney and many major building codes, including BOCA, mechanical engineers at JCPenney noticed a sharp increase in the percentage of cooling capacity required to cool the outdoor ventilation air. In an effort to limit this impact, both in first cost and in operational costs, JCPenney is beginning to make an effort to use enthalpy heat wheels in the hot and humid climate areas where it is economically feasible. This paper discusses the efforts of JCPenney to implement this option to the treatment of outdoor air in a store in Baton Rouge, LA while maintaining indoor air quality requirements as stated in ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 and maintaining energy efficiency. This paper also discusses the projected energy savings and operations of this alternative to the standard treatment of outdoor air.

Smith, C. S.; Bartlett, T. A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning, The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Evaporative and Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way-with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. Desiccants are an example of a thermally activated technology (TAT) that relies on heat instead

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141

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005 Total.................................................................................. 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.................................... 17.8 1.8 Q Q 4.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................................. 93.3 5.3 7.0 7.8 7.2 Use Cooling Equipment.................................................. 91.4 5.3 7.0 7.7 6.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................................ 1.9 Q N Q 0.6 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................................. 65.9 1.1 6.4 6.4 5.4 Without a Heat Pump................................................. 53.5 1.1 3.5 5.7 4.9 With a Heat Pump......................................................

143

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Treatment Building (WTB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for personnel comfort and equipment operation, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WTB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement area ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination with the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WTB. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits, The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Treatment Building System by being located in the WTB, and by maintaining specific pressure, temperature, and humidity environments within the building. The system also depends on the WTB for normal electric power supply and the required supply of water for heating, cooling, and humidification. Interface with the Waste Treatment Building System includes the WTB fire protection subsystem for detection of fire and smoke. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air and key areas within the WTB, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of system operations, and the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System and Site Generated Hazardous, Non-Hazardous & Sanitary Waste Disposal System for routing of pretreated toxic, corrosive, and radiologically contaminated effluent from process equipment to the HEPA filter exhaust ductwork and air-cleaning unit.

P.A. Kumar

2000-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

144

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of space heating to air conditioning choice; 3) explicitthe presence of central air conditioning, it seems unwise tonot to have central air conditioning. Statistical evidence

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Variables optimization of building air conditioning system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heating and climatizer system based on selective absorption of solar energy by a selective collector. The experimental study shows that the performance of this system depends on several variables: the nature of the colporteur fluid, the flow of the ... Keywords: heating and climatisation, modelation and optimization, solar energy

Marius-Constantin Popescu; Cornelia Aida Bulucea; Gheorghe Manolea; Cristian Vladu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar air conditioning is an attractive technology to achieve comfortable room conditions, especially in hot and sunny climates. In particular air conditioning systems based on sorption technologies offer several advantages as they can be designed for a high efficient utilization of solar thermal energy. To show the today's and near future potential innovative solar cooling and air conditioning systems are discussed which are well adapted to the utilization of solar energy. The system performance of each air conditioning system is evaluated under Abu Dhabi design conditions.

Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

2001 Consumption and Expenditures -- Electric Air-Conditioning ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

CE3-1c. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption in U.S. Households by Climate Zone, 2001 : 2: CE3-2c. ...

148

Modeling and construction of a computer controlled air conditioning system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As energy efficient devices become more necessary, it is desired to increase the efficiency of air conditioning systems. Current systems use on/off control, where the… (more)

Frink, Brandon S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Using Modelica for Physical Modeling of Air-Conditioning Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and ready-to-use models for all relevant components of automotive air conditioning systems like condenser, evaporator, compressor, expansion devices and accumulatorreceiver...

150

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches  

SciTech Connect

The prevailing residential ventilation standard in North America, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specifies volumetric airflow requirements as a function of the overall size of the home and the number of bedrooms, assumes a fixed, minimal amount of infiltration, and requires mechanical ventilation to achieve the remainder. The standard allows for infiltration credits and intermittent ventilation patterns that can be shown to provide comparable performance. Whole-house ventilation methods have a substantial effect on time-varying indoor pollutant concentrations. If alternatives specified by Standard 62.2, such as intermittent ventilation, are used, short-term pollutant concentrations could exceed acute health standards even if chronic health standards are met.The authors present a methodology for comparing ASHRAE- and non-ASHRAE-specified ventilation scenarios on relative indoor pollutant concentrations. We use numerical modeling to compare the maximum time-averaged concentrations for acute exposure relevant (1-hour, 8-hour, 24-hour ) and chronic exposure relevant (1-year) time periods for four different ventilation scenarios in six climates with a range of normalized leakage values. The results suggest that long-term concentrations are the most important metric for assessing the effectiveness of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposure standards and that, if chronic health exposure standards are met, acute standards will also be met.

Sherman, Max; Logue, Jennifer; Singer, Brett

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training #12;Date | 2Refrigeration Flow Coil Design etc. Finger Print Relationship Every evaporator is unique Unstable Region * = examples

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

153

Air Conditioning Load Prediction Based on DE-SVM Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on SVM (Support Vector Machine) theory, and the model to predict air conditioning load was established. In order to optimize the behavior of SVM, the DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm was introduced into classic SVM. The DE-SVM model is applied ... Keywords: Air Conditioning load, DE-SVM, Prediction

Zhonghai Chen; Yong Sun; Guoli Yang; Tengfei Wu; Guizhu Li; Longbiao Xin

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The Feasibility Analysis of a New Air-Conditioning System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new modular solar refrigeration and liquid desiccant air conditioning system composed by adsorption refrigeration system, liquid desiccant system and roof cold radiation. The feasibility and beneficial of this new system are analyzed ... Keywords: liquid desiccant, modular solar refrigeration, new air conditioning system, roof cold radiation, technical and economic feasibility analysis

Jinggang Wang; Meixia Du; Xiaoxia Gao; Jin Zhao; Zhenjiang Yin; Yi Man

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Engineering Project Manager  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of energy use in typical office and hotel buildings in Hawaii. Hawaii relies on imported fossil fuels electricity usage by 75 percent compared to conventional air conditioning systems. This renewable energy conditioning. Conventional air conditioning systems are energy intensive and represent close to 50 percent

Frandsen, Jannette B.

156

Investigation of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-52235 Investigation of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS Kristina Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer. #12;#12;LBNL-52235 Investigation of Residential Central Air;#12;Investigation of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS i Table of Contents Acronyms

157

Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Use of seawater for air conditioning at Waikiki Convention Center. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

A large part of operating costs of a hotel in Hawaii is the cost of energy for air conditioning. Buildings can be constructed to use energy more efficiently by using many methods, however, some of these methods conflict with other concerns, aesthetics for example. Thus the process of designing and building an energy efficient hotel often involves trade-offs between energy efficiency and other objectives. The method proposed herein to reduce energy costs is to introduce seawater, pumped from the deep ocean at a temperature of approximately six degrees celsius, directly to heat exchangers which cool the chilled water circulating in the building air conditioning system. The energy required to run the system would be reduced to only the cost of the seawater pumps, the fans and controls. The savings would be in the operating costs of the seawater pumps versus the cost to the compressors of a conventional air conditioning system.

Williams, M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WHB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement areas ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination within the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WHB. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System is designed to perform its safety functions under accident conditions and other Design Basis Events (DBEs) (such as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and loss of the primary electric power). Additional system design features (such as compartmentalization with independent subsystems) limit the potential for cross-contamination within the WHB. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits. The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System by being located within the WHB and by maintaining specific pressures, temperatures, and humidity within the building. The system also depends on the WHB for water supply. The system interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air; the Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System for detection of fire and smoke; the Waste Handling Building Electrical System for normal, emergency, and standby power; and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of the system.

P.A. Kumar

2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

160

Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pumps. DOE EX Parte Memo.pdf More Documents & Publications Status Prospects of Green Data Center Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Regional Standards Enforcement...

163

Natural ventilation possibilities for buildings in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the United States, many of the commercial buildings built in the last few decades are completely mechanically air conditioned, without the capability to use natural ventilation. This habit has occurred in building designs ...

Dean, Brian N. (Brian Nathan), 1974-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Project title: Natural ventilation, solar heating and integrated low-energy building design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of integrated low-energy building design. In Cambridge, research was conducted at the BP Institute - which was set up in 1999 with an endowment from BP to research some of the fundamental scientific challenges that the oil industry encounters. In the CMI... in building design. Summary of Intended Outcomes: The objectives of the project will be to develop designs and technologies to: reduce energy costs of maintaining a comfortable environment with buildings through use of solar power, natural ventilation...

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program FINAL COLLABORATIVE PROJECT REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

about their heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system; the emission sources and concentrations. Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems that cycle ventilation with thermal demand (a control ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING SURVEY OF SMALL AND MEDIUMSIZED

166

Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the UnitedStates  

SciTech Connect

The first and only national norm for residential ventilation in the United States is Standard 62.2-2004 published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). This standard does not by itself have the force of regulation, but is being considered for adoption by various jurisdictions within the U.S. as well as by various voluntary programs. The adoption of 62.2 would require mechanical ventilation systems to be installed in virtually all new homes, but allows for a wide variety of design solutions. These solutions, however, may have a different energy costs and non-energy benefits. This report uses a detailed simulation model to evaluate the energy impacts of currently popular and proposed mechanical ventilation approaches that are 62.2 compliant for a variety of climates. These results separate the energy needed to ventilate from the energy needed to condition the ventilation air, from the energy needed to distribute and/or temper the ventilation air. The results show that exhaust systems are generally the most energy efficient method of meeting the proposed requirements. Balanced and supply systems have more ventilation resulting in greater energy and their associated distribution energy use can be significant.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coating comparison of air-conditioning energy usage for bothtemperature, heat flux, and air conditioning electricity useHourly time series of air conditioning and non-conditioning

Akbari, Hashem

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Energy Efficient Ventilation for Maintaining Indoor Air Quality in Large Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this paper was presented at the 3rd International Conference on Cold Climate Heating, Ventilating and Air-conditioning, Sapporo, Japan, November 2000 C. Y. Shaw Rsum Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada Achieving good indoor air quality in large residential and commercial buildings continues to be a top priority for owners, designers, building managers and occupants alike. Large buildings present a greater challenge in this regard than do smaller buildings and houses. The challenge is greater today because there are many new materials, furnishings, products and processes used in these buildings that are potential sources of air contaminants. There are three strategies for achieving acceptable indoor air quality: ventilation (dilution), source control and air cleaning/filtration. Of the three, the most frequently used strategy, and in most cases the only one available to building operators, is ventilation. Ventilation is the process of supplying outdoor air to an enclosed space and removing stale air from this space. It can control the indoor air quality by both diluting the indoor air with less contaminated outdoor air and removing the indoor contaminants with the exhaust air. Ventilation costs money because the outdoor air needs to be heated in winter and cooled in summer. To conserve energy, care must be taken to maximize the efficiency of the ventilation system. In this regard, a number of factors come into play

C. Y. Shaw; C. Y. Shaw Résumé

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Air Conditioning and Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conditioning and Emissions Conditioning and Emissions Air conditioning and indirect emissions go together in the sense that when a vehicle's air conditioning system is in use, fuel economy declines. When more petroleum fuel is burned, more pollution and greenhouse gases are emitted. An additional, "direct" source of greenhouse gas emissions is the refrigerant used in air conditioning. Called HFC-134a, this pressurized gas tends to seep through tiny openings and escapes into the atmosphere. It can also escape during routine service procedures such as system recharging. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team applied its vehicle systems modeling expertise in a study to predict fuel consumption and indirect emissions resulting from the use of vehicle air conditioning. The analysis

170

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning Speaker(s): Eric Peterson Date: July 7, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Philip...

171

Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis sets forth a novel intelligent residential air-conditioning (A/C) system controller that provides optimal thermal comfort and electricity cost trade-offs for a household resident… (more)

Thomas, Auswin George

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Direct Digital Control in Air Conditioning Systems for Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the rapid development of Intelligent Buildings (IB), the Building Automation System (BAS) has come to control and manage the equipment in the building more and more scientifically, economically and rationally, which can not only raise the function and the level of the building, but also save energy. At present, air-conditioning design in internal commercial buildings is becoming more complex and enormous. The proportion of air conditioning systems in the whole building is getting larger. In order to control and manage the air-conditioning systems effectively and take full use of energy-saving technology, we apply computer control to the system of air automation control. This paper discusses direct digital control (DDC) in the air conditioning system in buildings.

Liu, W.; Ye, A.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Reducing Air-Conditioning System Energy Using a PMV Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The control system of central air-conditioning, based on PMV, not only improves thermal comfort but also reduces system energy consumption. A new thermal comfort degree softsensor model is built via use of the CMAC neural network nonlinear calibration function. It can realize on-line detection of thermal comfort. At the same time it can also realize real-time control of central air-conditioning system based on PMV. Simulation results demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the presented method.

Li, H.; Zhang, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Predictions of thermal comfort and pollutant distributions for a thermostatically-controlled, air-conditioned, partitioned room: Numerical results and enhanced graphical presentation  

SciTech Connect

An index of local thermal comfort and pollutant distributions have been computed with the TEMPEST computer code, in a transient simulation of an air-conditioned enclosure with an incomplete partition. This complex three-dimensional air conditioning problem included forced ventilation through inlet veins, flow through a partition, remote return air vents, and infiltration source, a pollutant source, and a thermostatically controlled air conditioning system. Five forced ventilation schemes that varied in vent areas and face velocities were simulated. Thermal comfort was modeled as a three-dimensional scalar field dependent on the fluid velocity and temperature fields; where humidity activity levels, and clothing were considered constants. Pollutants transport was incorporated through an additional constituent diffusion equation. Six distinct graphic techniques for the visualization of the three-dimensional data fields of air velocity, temperature, and comfort index were tested. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

White, M.D.; Eyler, L.L.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet) (Revised), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highlights Highlights System Size 300 ft 2 transpired solar collector Energy Production About 125 Btu/hr/ft 2 (400 W/m 2 ) of heat delivery under ideal conditions (full sun) Installation Date 1990 Motivation Provide solar-heated ventilation air to offset some of the heating with conventional electric resistance heaters Annual Savings 14,310 kWh (49 million Btu/yr) or about 26% of the energy required to heat the facility's ventilation air System Details Components Black, 300 ft 2 corrugated aluminum transpired solar collector with a porosity of 2%; bypass damper; two-speed 3000 CFM vane axial supply fan; electric duct heater; thermostat controller Storage None Loads 188 million Btu/year (55,038 kWh/year) winter average to heat 1,300 ft 2 Waste Handling Facility

176

Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet) (Revised), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Highlights Highlights System Size 300 ft 2 transpired solar collector Energy Production About 125 Btu/hr/ft 2 (400 W/m 2 ) of heat delivery under ideal conditions (full sun) Installation Date 1990 Motivation Provide solar-heated ventilation air to offset some of the heating with conventional electric resistance heaters Annual Savings 14,310 kWh (49 million Btu/yr) or about 26% of the energy required to heat the facility's ventilation air System Details Components Black, 300 ft 2 corrugated aluminum transpired solar collector with a porosity of 2%; bypass damper; two-speed 3000 CFM vane axial supply fan; electric duct heater; thermostat controller Storage None Loads 188 million Btu/year (55,038 kWh/year) winter average to heat 1,300 ft 2 Waste Handling Facility

177

"Table HC11.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,4,2.4,1.7 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,16.5,12.8,3.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,16.3,12.6,3.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.3,"Q","Q" "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7

178

"Table HC10.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,4,2.1,1.4,10.3 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,16.5,23.5,39.3,13.9 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,16.3,23.4,38.9,12.9 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.3,"Q",0.5,1 "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7

179

Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems  

SciTech Connect

The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of health services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

55476 Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased5-14-04 Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increasedof office buildings with air-conditioning systems (e.g. ,

Mendell, Mark J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 Residential Boiler Efficiencies (1) Gas-Fired Boilers Oil-Fired Boilers Average shipped in 1985 (2): 74% AFUE Average shipped in 1985 (2): 79% AFUE Best Available in 1981: 81% AFUE Best Available in 1981: 86% AFUE Best Available in 2007: 96% AFUE Best Available in 2007: 89% AFUE Note(s): Source(s): 1) Federal appliance standards effective Jan. 1, 1992, require a minimum of 80% AFUE (except gas-fired steam boiler, which must have a 75% AFUE or higher). 2) Includes furnaces. GAMA, Consumer's Directory of Certified Efficiency Ratings for Residential Heating and Water Heating Equipment, Aug. 2005, p. 88 and 106 for best- available AFUE; and GAMA for 1985 average AFUEs; GAMA Tax Credit Eligible Equipment: Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers 95% AFUE or Greater, May 2007; and GAMA Consumer's Directory of Certified Efficiency Ratings for Heating and Water Heating Equipment, May 2007

182

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation...  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

Standard (Trane) 14% York 12% Nordyne 12% Rheem 9% Lennox 9% Others 3% Total 100% Note(s): Source(s): 5,833,354 1) Does not include water-source or ground-source heat pumps....

183

Table HC9.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total......................................................................... 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment........................... 17.8 3.2 4.7 3.6 5.5 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment........................................ 93.3 7.7 21.4 23.7 18.5 21.9 Use Cooling Equipment......................................... 91.4 7.6 21.0 23.4 17.9 21.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it........................ 1.9 Q 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.3 Air-Conditioning Equipment 2, 3 Central System...................................................... 65.9 4.8 12.3 15.1 14.9 18.7 Without a Heat Pump......................................... 53.5 4.7 11.5 11.6 12.3 13.6 With a Heat Pump..............................................

184

Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total........................................................................ 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.......................... 17.8 5.4 5.3 2.7 2.5 2.0 Have Cooling Equipment...................................... 93.3 24.6 29.6 15.7 13.4 10.0 Use Cooling Equipment....................................... 91.4 24.0 29.1 15.5 13.2 9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it...................... 1.9 0.6 0.5 Q 0.2 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System................................................... 65.9 15.3 22.6 10.7 9.9 7.3 Without a Heat Pump....................................... 53.5 12.5 17.9 8.7 8.2 6.3 With a Heat Pump............................................ 12.3

185

Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Efficient Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multifamily Individual Heating Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Retrofit Type: Multifamily, affordable Builder: Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) www.merrimackvalleyhabitat.org Size: 840 to 1,170 ft 2 units Price Range: $125,000-$130,000 Date completed: Slated for 2014 Climate Zone: Cold (5A) PERFORMANCE DATA HERS Index Range: 48 to 63 Projected annual energy cost savings: $1,797 Incremental cost of energy efficiency measures: $3,747 Incremental annual mortgage: $346 Annual cash flow: $1,451 Billing data: Not available The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley

186

Table HC4-12a. Air Conditioning by West Census Region, Million U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table HC4-12a. Air Conditioning by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S.

187

Table HC4-9a. Air Conditioning by Northeast Census Region, Million ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table HC4-9a. Air Conditioning by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

188

Table AC1. Total Households Using Air-Conditioning Equipment, 2005 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table AC1. Total Households Using Air-Conditioning Equipment, 2005 Million U.S. Households Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment (millions) Central System

189

Table AC7. Average Expenditures for Air-Conditioning by Equipment ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Central System 5 Table AC7. Average Expenditures for Air-Conditioning by Equipment Type, 2005 Dollars per Household Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment

190

Solar powered desiccant air conditioning system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar-powered desiccant air conditioning system using silica gel has been developed, and modifications to the existing unit and additional testing are proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of the unit. Conversion from a rotating bed to a fixed bed of silica gel is proposed. Some general plans for commercialization are briefly discussed. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

191

Solar air conditioning system using desiccant wheel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years. Modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. In this paper, a new design of desiccant cooling is being developed ... Keywords: air-conditioning, desiccant cooling, solar thermal energy, solid desiccant

Arfidian Rachman; Sohif Mat; Taib Iskandar; M. Yahya; Azami Zaharim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses  

SciTech Connect

In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Own-Elasticities for Space Conditioning Equipment Equipmentthe choice of a space heat/air conditioning combination. Theutility from air conditioning and space heating alternative

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-63806 Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, & Electric Powerand its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigeratingand its applications in Air Conditioning and refrigerating

Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California Title Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Refereed Year of Publication 2012 Authors Bennett, Deborah H., William J. Fisk, Michael G. Apte, X. Wu, Amber L. Trout, David Faulkner, and Douglas P. Sullivan Journal Indoor Air Volume 22 Issue 4 Pagination 309-20 Abstract This field study of 37 small and medium commercial buildings throughout California obtained information on ventilation rate, temperature, and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system characteristics. The study included seven retail establishments; five restaurants; eight offices; two each of gas stations, hair salons, healthcare facilities, grocery stores, dental offices, and fitness centers; and five other buildings. Fourteen (38%) of the buildings either could not or did not provide outdoor air through the HVAC system. The air exchange rate averaged 1.6 (s.d. = 1.7) exchanges per hour and was similar between buildings with and without outdoor air supplied through the HVAC system, indicating that some buildings have significant leakage or ventilation through open windows and doors. Not all buildings had sufficient air exchange to meet ASHRAE 62.1 Standards, including buildings used for fitness centers, hair salons, offices, and retail establishments. The majority of the time, buildings were within the ASHRAE temperature comfort range. Offices were frequently overcooled in the summer. All of the buildings had filters, but over half the buildings had a filter with a minimum efficiency reporting value rating of 4 or lower, which are not very effective for removing fine particles. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Most U.S. commercial buildings (96%) are small- to medium-sized, using nearly 18% of the country's energy, and sheltering a large population daily. Little is known about the ventilation systems in these buildings. This study found a wide variety of ventilation conditions, with many buildings failing to meet relevant ventilation standards. Regulators may want to consider implementing more complete building inspections at commissioning and point of sale.

197

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Ventilation Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings....

199

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Commercial Equipment Efficiencies Equipment Type Chiller Screw COP(full-load / IPLV) 2.80 / 3.05 2.80 / 3.05 3.02 / 4.45 Scroll COP 2.80 / 3.06 2.96 / 4.40 N.A. Reciprocating COP(full-load / IPLV) 2.80 / 3.05 2.80 / 3.05 3.52 / 4.40 Centrifugal COP(full-load / IPLV) 5.0 / 5.2 6.1 / 6.4 7.3 / 9.0 Gas-Fired Absorption COP 1.0 1.1 N.A. Gas-Fired Engine Driven COP 1.5 1.8 N.A. Rooftop A/C EER 10.1 11.2 13.9 Rooftop Heat Pump EER (cooling) 9.8 11.0 12.0 COP (heating) 3.2 3.3 3.4 Boilers Gas-Fired Combustion Efficiency 77 80 98 Oil-Fired Thermal Efficiency 80 84 98 Electric Thermal Efficiency 98 98 98 Furnace AFUE 77 80 82 Water Heater Gas-Fired Thermal Efficiency 78 80 96 Oil-Fired Thermal Efficiency 79 80 85 Electric Resistance Thermal Efficiency 98 98 98 Gas-Fired Instantaneous Thermal Efficiency 77 84 89 Source(s): Parameter Efficiency

200

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

1 1 Main Residential Heating Equipment as of 1987, 1993, 1997, 2001, and 2005 (Percent of Total Households) Equipment Type 1987 1993 1997 2001 2005 Natural Gas 55% 53% 53% 55% 52% Central Warm-Air Furnace 35% 36% 38% 42% 40% Steam or Hot-Water System 10% 9% 7% 7% 7% Floor/Wall/Pipeless Furnace 6% 4% 4% 3% 2% Room Heater/Other 4% 3% 4% 3% 3% Electricity 20% 26% 29% 29% 30% Central Warm-Air Furnace 8% 10% 11% 12% 14% Heat Pump 5% 8% 10% 10% 8% Built-In Electric Units 6% 7% 7% 6% 5% Other 1% 1% 2% 2% 1% Fuel Oil 12% 11% 9% 7% 7% Steam or Hot-Water System 7% 6% 5% 4% 4% Central Warm-Air Furnace 4% 5% 4% 3% 3% Other 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% Other 13% 11% 9% 8% 10% Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Note(s): Source(s): Other equipment includes wood, LPG, kerosene, other fuels, and none. EIA, A Look at Residential Consumption in 2005, June 2008, Table HC2-4; EIA, A Look at Residential Energy Consumption in 2001, Apr. 2004, 'Table HC3-

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Room Air Conditioning Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Room or window air conditioners are a common appliance in parts of the United States residential sector for providing summertime cooling. The technology is based on the same vapor compression cycle common in central air conditioning and refrigeration applications, but with all system components in one enclosure, which is generally small and comparatively inexpensive. The systems are simple and modular enough to be installed by the homeowner, and can be installed in windows without major modification, or ...

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

Yellott, J. I.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Service center to test solar air-conditioning system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field testing of an advanced solar-powered air-conditioning system developed under the joint Saudi Arabia-US Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of solar Energy (SOLERAS) will be conducted in Arizona over a three-phase 34-month perod. Participants in the program and their contribution are cited. The solar-Rankine alternative to conventional systems using electricity or fossil fuels. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

204

Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Torchiere Space heating Air conditioning Electric motorsCommercial Space heating Air conditioning Ventilation GasResidential End Use: Air conditioning Product: Room air

Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Classroom Test Bed Title Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Classroom Test Bed Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2005 Authors Apte, Michael G., Ian S. Buchanan, David Faulkner, William J. Fisk, Chi-Ming Lai, Michael Spears, and Douglas P. Sullivan Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract The primary goals of this research effort were to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research was motivated by several factors, including the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This project involved the installation and verification of the performance of an Improved Heat Pump Air Conditioning (IHPAC) system, and its comparison, a standard HVAC system having an efficiency of 10 SEER. The project included the verification of the physical characteristics suitable for direct replacement of existing 10 SEER systems, quantitative demonstration of improved energy efficiency, reduced acoustic noise levels, quantitative demonstration of improved ventilation control, and verification that the system would meet temperature control demands necessary for the thermal comfort of the occupants. Results showed that the IHPAC met these goals. The IHPAC was found to be a direct bolt-on replacement for the 10 SEER system. Calculated energy efficiency improvements based on many days of classroom cooling or heating showed that the IHPAC system is about 44% more efficient during cooling and 38% more efficient during heating than the 10 SEER system. Noise reduction was dramatic, with measured A-weighed sound level for fan only operation conditions of 34.3 dB(A), a reduction of 19 dB(A) compared to the 10 SEER system. Similarly, the IHPAC stage-1 and stage-2 compressor plus fan sound levels were 40.8 dB(A) and 42.7 dB(A), reductions of 14 and 13 dB(A), respectively. Thus, the IHPAC is 20 to 35 times quieter than the 10 SEER systems depending upon the operation mode. The IHPAC system met the ventilation requirements and was able to provide consistent outside air supply throughout the study. Indoor CO2 levels with simulated occupancy were maintained below 1000 ppm. Finally temperature settings were met and controlled accurately. The goals of the laboratory testing phase were met and this system is ready for further study in a field test of occupied classrooms

207

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

8 8 Major Residential HVAC Equipment Lifetimes, Ages, and Replacement Picture Equipment Type Central Air Conditioners 8 - 14 11 8 5,354 Heat Pumps 9 - 15 12 8 1,260 Furnaces Electric 10 - 20 15 11 N.A. Gas-Fired 12 - 17 15 11 2,601 Oil-Fired 15 - 19 17 N.A. 149 Gas-Fired Boilers (1) 17 - 24 20 17 204 Note(s): Source(s): Lifetimes based on use by the first owner of the product, and do not necessarily indicate that the product stops working after this period. A replaced unit may be discarded or used elsewhere. 1) 2005 average stock age is for gas- and oil-fired steam and hot water boilers. Appliance Magazine, U.S. Appliance Industry: Market Share, Life Expectancy & Replacement Market, and Saturation Levels, January 2010, p. 10 for service and average lifetimes, and units to be replaced; ASHRAE, 1999 ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Applications, Table 3, p. 35.3 for boilers service lifetimes; and

208

Desiccant solar air conditioning in tropical climates: II-field testing in Guadeloupe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of the experimental investigation of a solar desiccant air conditioning device exposed to the sun in Guadeloupe to test that adaptability of a silicagel compact bed, the most simple technology, in a tropical climate. It has been shown that it is possible to make use of solar flat plate collectors with a balancing water tank, to produce heat for the regeneration of a solid desiccant as silicagel, with solar energy. Second, the compact bed system proposed gives the foreseen cooling power, but considerable losses appear, particularly in the sorption process, which is not close enough to the reversible adiabatic one.

Dupont, M.; Celestine, B.; Beghin, B. (Solar Energy Lab., Pointe-a-Pitre (Guadeloupe))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

e3_Coyote Case Study2000/L&J  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... graphic design technology; biotechnology; heat- ing, ventilating ... the local school districts and work ... HVAC Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning ...

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

210

LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry  

SciTech Connect

Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

Ushimaru, Kenji.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, it could not be operated at air cooled condensing temperatures. (7) The two-stage impellers/diffusers worked well separately but combined did not match well.

Ruckes, John

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

214

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

215

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

216

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

217

The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining the advantage of measure and control by “PLC” and the software of “Kingview”, the whole year's operating results of this system was tested and analysed. The results indicate this system can keep the indoor air temperature range at 26±2°C and the relative humidity range being 50-70% under the low electricity cost on the whole year in the south of China region when the special solar air heater can offer flux air heating up to 60°C. In this paper some ideas are offered in order to facilitate the availability for air-conditioning using low grade energy, for example, solar energy and surplus or waste heat energy in the industrial process.

Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It used to be that the only alternative to costly electric air conditioning was the double-effect gas-fired absorption chiller/heaters. Beginning in the 1980's, they were the "star" equipment promoted by gas companies throughout the nation. Although not a new technology at the time, neither was the gas engine. But now in the 19901s, gas engine-drive (GED) chillers have "hit" the air conditioning market with a "bang". In the Lone Star Gas Company area in 1995, GED chillers are now being considered in as many projects as are Absorption. units. Where once the only studies being analyzed were absorption vs. electric chiller operation costs. Now, the choice is: Why, Where, and How to choose between gas fired Absorption and GED chillers. WHY Absorption or Engine ? . Absorption uses the most environmentally friendly refrigerant - water. . Absorption chillers are chiller/heaters Absorption chillers are manufactured by the four US major manufacturers Absorption chillers have few moving parts . Engine chillers provide "free" hot water Engine chillers retrofit with DX systems . Engine chillers use less gas per ton WHERE Do Absorption And Engine Chillers Belong? . Absorption: Office buildings, restaurants, industries, churches, universities . Engine: Hospitals, universities, hotels, apartments, industries HOW To Choose Between Absorption And Engine Chillers? Energy cost Operation and maintenance costs Equipment cost Environmental concerns Thermal requirements . Space requirements Staff experience

Phillips, J. N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies estimate that as much as 50% of packaged air conditioning systems operate in faulty conditions that degrade system efficiency. Common faults include: under- and over-charged systems (too much or too little refrigerant), faulty expansions valves (stuck valves, valve hunting, poorly tuned valve controllers), and fouled evaporators and condensers. Furthermore, air conditioning systems can often be adjusted to improve efficiency while continuing to meet cooling loads (adjusting system pressures, decreasing superheat setpoints). This study presents the design of a low cost device that can non-invasively measure system operating conditions, diagnose faults, estimate potential energy savings, and provide recommendations on how the system should be adjusted or repaired. Using eight external temperature measurements, the device potentially can detect and diagnose up to ten faults commonly found in HVAC systems. Steady state temperatures are compared to threshold values obtained from literature and HVAC manufacturers to detect and determine the severity of faults and subsequent reductions in coefficient of performance. Preliminary tests reveal the potential for the device to detect and diagnose common efficiency-degrading faults in HVAC systems.

Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

HVAC Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Research Project HVAC Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) radial air bearing heat exchangers. Rotary air bearing heat exchanger technology simultaneously solves four long standing problems of conventional "fan-plus-finned-heat-sink" heat exchangers. Project Description This project seeks to design, fabricate, and test successive generations of prototype radial air bearing heat exchanger devices based on lessons learned and further insights into device optimization, computational fluid dynamic studies for parametric optimization and determination of scaling laws, and laboratory measurement of flow field and heat transfer

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

Christensen, C.

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

222

Regression Forecasting of the Onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon with Antecedent Upper Air Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the recorded onset dates of the summer monsoon in southwestern India can be closely related functionally to the antecedent upper air conditions. The antecedent upper air conditions are represented by April mean values of the ...

Ernest C. Kung; Taher A. Sharif

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Table HC2.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Type of Housing ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table HC2.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Air Conditioning Characteristics Attached 2 to 4 Units 5 or More

224

Evaluation of air-conditioning compressor performance for assessment of load management potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residential air-conditioning contributes heavily to the electrical utilities' summer peak demand. Cycling programs in which utilities turn off air-conditioning compressors a certain percentage of each hour through remotely-controlled switches can help ...

Jerry R. Harber; Aileen Henson

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Research on Thermal Properties in a Phase Change Wallboard Room Based on Air Conditioning Cold Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room to a phase change wall (PCW) room, we learn that phase change wallboard affects the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in the summer. We built a PCW room and an ordinary wall room, which are cooled by an air-conditioner. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to test the temperature field and heat flow fluctuation in these rooms. Through analyzing the data tested, we found that the mean temperature of PCW is lower than that of ordinary wall room by 1 to 2?, and PCW can lower the heat flow by 4.6W/m2. Combining phase change material with the building envelope can lower the indoor temperature, make the room thermally comfortable, and cut down the turn-on-and-off frequency of the air-conditioner and the primary investment and operating costs. It alleviates the urgent need for electricity.

Feng, G.; Li, W.; Chen, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Commissioning and Diagnosis of VAV Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) strategy based on system knowledge, qualitative states and object-oriented statistical process control (SPC) models for typical pressure-independent variable air volume (VAV) air-conditioning systems. Eight FDD schemes are built to detect the eleven pre-defined VAV faults using the qualitative and quantitative FDD approaches within the strategy at two steps. The ten hard faults, which would affect the system operation, are analyzed at Step 1. The soft fault, which would not affect the basic system operation but would impact the supervisory controls, is analyzed at Step 2. The strategy is tested and validated on typical VAV systems involving multiple faults, both in simulation and in-situ tests. A software package is developed as a BMS-assisted automatic commissioning tool based on the FDD strategy. Off-line tests were conducted in both the simulated building and the real building.

Qin, J.; Wang, S.; Chan, C.; Xiao, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design conditions based on the meteorological data collected at two weather stations located less than 10 km away from each other within Kuwait City are presented for dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and web-bulb temperature (WBT) prioritization. The proposed design conditions specific to the location and the application are drastically different than currently used single design conditions for all application and locations. Cooling load estimates fro two building located in Kuwait have been analyzed for the proposed and the current design conditions to highlight over- or under-sizing the air-conditioning (A/C) plant capacity. Finally, a number of recommendations are made for architects and designers to use proper design conditions to ensure year-round comfort and energy conservation.

Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Electrical applications for air conditioning and refrigeration systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical troubleshooting is possibly the most neglected area of maintaining air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. This text explains and illustrates methods for troubleshooting the full spectrum of electrical or electronic circuits of these systems. Comprehensive sections offer coverage of electrical fundamentals, single-phase electric motors, three-phase motors, control devices, electrical control circuits, use of schematic diagrams in troubleshooting, ice makers, solid state electronics, and basic electronic controls. The author`s clear, concise coverage of controls enables one to quickly understand both how a specific type of control works, and how it is used in the system. The reader will find a wealth of useful instructions for making operational checks and troubleshooting for proper operation. The book is conveniently divided into application-specific units, making it easy to quickly find information specific to a particular job at hand.

Langley, B.C.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Solar liquid-desiccant air-conditioning system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A design for a closed, diurnal, intermittent absorption chiller for passive solar air-conditioning using liquid sorbents has been constructed and tested. LiBr-H/sub 2/O will not work with this design because of its low vapor pressure at the temperature available. The approach has possibilities using the 2 LiBr-ZrBr-CH/sub 3/OH or H/sub 2/O-NH/sub 3/ sorbent refrigerant pairs. The use of H/sub 2/O-NH/sub 3/ appears to be the better candidate because of the lower solution viscosity and less cycle weight, through tank volumes and collector requirements are similar. Further study of other refrigerant pairs such as S-Thiocyanate-ammonia is indicated, however, the difficulties encountered in construction and low potential coefficient of performance, and thus large collection area needed, makes commercialization of such a system doubtful in the foreseeable future.

Not Available

230

Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS  

SciTech Connect

This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial air conditioning and distribution transformers.

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

REFRIGERATIONREFRIGERATION ((svsv: Kylteknik): Kylteknik) 424503 E424503 E 20102010 #7#7 --rzrz 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers7. Air conditioning, cooling towersg, gg, g  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the top of the tower An (earlier) alternative is to use a spray pond to cool water; disadvantages. Air conditioning, cooling towers7. Air conditioning, cooling towersg, gg, g Ron Zevenhoven Ã?Ã?bo, is the hi htemperature at which condensation begins when air is cooled at constant pressurecooled

Zevenhoven, Ron

233

Solar heating and cooling commercialization research program. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Heating and Cooling Commercialization Research Program has addressed a recognized need to accelerate the commercialization of solar products. The development of communication techniques and materials for a target group of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) wholesalers and distributors has been the primary effort. A summary of the program, the approach to the development of the techniques and materials, the conclusions derived from seminar feedback, the development of additional research activities and reports and the recommendations for follow-on activities are presented. The appendices offer detailed information on specific elements of the research effort.

Christensen, D.L.; Tragert, W.; Weir, S.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

HVAC Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project HVAC Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) optimized heat exchangers. The information generated in this study will demonstrate performance improvements that can be achieved through optimization of refrigerant circuitry for non-uniform inlet air distribution. The tubing circuitry on fin-tube heat exchangers used in residential space-conditioning systems is typically designed assuming uniform airflow through the finned passageways. However, the air flow in installed systems is highly non-uniform, resulting in mismatched refrigerant-air heat transfer that reduces the capacity of the heat exchanger and efficiency of

236

Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a comfortable and energy-efficient air conditioning system, the application of floor radiant heating system is used increasingly greatly in the north of China. As a result, the feasibility of floor radiant cooling has gained more attention. To examine the thermodynamic performance of the floor radiant cooling system, we measured the operational conditions including the minimum floor surface temperature, the cooling capacity, and the indoor temperature field distribution under different outdoor temperatures in Beijing. Because the ground temperature changes with the mean temperature of the supplied and returned water and room temperature, the mean temperature of the supplied and retuned water was obtained. Finally, we analyzed the phenomenon of dewing and developed measures for preventing it. The dry air layer near the floor formed by a displacement ventilation system can effectively prevent dews on the surface of the floor in the wet and hot days in summer. In addition, for the sake of the displacement ventilation system, the heat transfer effect between floor and space is enhanced. Our analysis pointed out that floor radiant cooling system combined with displacement ventilation ensures good comfort and energy efficiency.

Ren, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Investigation and Analysis of Energy Consumption and Cost of Electric Air Conditioning Systems in Civil Buildings in Changsha  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated 40 typical air conditioned buildings in Changsha in 2005, including 15 hotel buildings, 6 commercial buildings, 5 office buildings, 6 hospital buildings and 8 synthesis buildings. On this basis we analyze the relation between types of cold and heat sources and the HVAC area of the buildings. Meanwhile the economical and feasible types of cold and heat sources are pointed out, i.e., oil boilers and gas boilers for heat source, and centrifugal and screw water chillers for cold source based on the electric refrigeration. Among the heat sources, the prospect of gas boilers is better. In addition, the air source heat pump depends heavily on whether some crucial issues such as frost can be solved during its application. The water-source heat pump will likely be applied. Based on the analysis of energy consumption and energy bills, we determine the feasible measures for energy conservation including the aspects of design, operation and management. Among them, special attention should be paid to energy metering and running time of air conditioning systems in civil buildings in Changsha.

Xie, D.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Available Technologies: TRAMS: A New Tracer Gas Airflow ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Balancing of airflows in heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial buildings;

239

STATE OF CALIFORNIA --NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER, Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: · Lighting systems · Heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems · Light emitting diode (LED) traffic

240

Ventilation Model and Analysis Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This model and analysis report develops, validates, and implements a conceptual model for heat transfer in and around a ventilated emplacement drift. This conceptual model includes thermal radiation between the waste package and the drift wall, convection from the waste package and drift wall surfaces into the flowing air, and conduction in the surrounding host rock. These heat transfer processes are coupled and vary both temporally and spatially, so numerical and analytical methods are used to implement the mathematical equations which describe the conceptual model. These numerical and analytical methods predict the transient response of the system, at the drift scale, in terms of spatially varying temperatures and ventilation efficiencies. The ventilation efficiency describes the effectiveness of the ventilation process in removing radionuclide decay heat from the drift environment. An alternative conceptual model is also developed which evaluates the influence of water and water vapor mass transport on the ventilation efficiency. These effects are described using analytical methods which bound the contribution of latent heat to the system, quantify the effects of varying degrees of host rock saturation (and hence host rock thermal conductivity) on the ventilation efficiency, and evaluate the effects of vapor and enhanced vapor diffusion on the host rock thermal conductivity.

V. Chipman

2003-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Table CE3-3e. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Expenditures in U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Expenditures in U.S. Households by Household Income, 2001 RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli-

242

Energy studies on central and variable refrigerant flow air-conditioning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-conditioning is a major contributor to energy end-use in commercial buildings. Different types of airconditioning systems are installed in commercial buildings including packaged systems

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9...

244

Table CE3-1e. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Expenditures in U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Dollars per Household4,a Electric Air-Conditioning Expenditures per Household ... per Household4 2001 Cooling Degree-Days per Household Total U.S. Households ...

245

Table CE3-6.1u. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CE3-6.1u. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption and Expenditures by Household Member and Usage Indicators, 2001 Usage Indicators RSE Column Factor:

246

Impact of Vehicle Air-Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vehicle air-conditioning can significantly impact fuel economy and tailpipe emissions of conventional and hybrid electric vehicles and reduce electric vehicle range. In addition, a new US emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure, has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the US. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. Current air-conditioning systems can reduce the fuel economy of high fuel-economy vehicles by about 50% and reduce the fuel economy of today's mid-sized vehicles by more than 20% while increasing NOx by nearly 80% and CO by 70%.

Farrington, R.; Rugh, J.

2000-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

247

Table AC6. Average Consumption for Air-Conditioning by Equipment ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Central System 5 Table AC6. Average Consumption for Air-Conditioning by Equipment Type, 2005 Million British Thermal Units (Btu) per Household

248

Table CE3-6.2u. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CE3-6.2u. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption and Expenditures by Square Feet and Usage Indicators, 2001 Usage Indicators RSE Column Factor:

249

Active improvement of air-conditioning system energy consumption with adaptive thermal comfort approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The MSc research project aims to suggest improvements to building air-conditioning control systems, to reduce energy consumption while maintaining the comfort level of the occupants.… (more)

Muhammad Saleh, Muhammad Fadzli

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Theoretical analysis of the steam pressure exchange ejector for an automotive air conditioning application.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The project conducted at The George Washington University is a computer simulation and theoretical analysis of the steam pressure exchange ejector air conditioning system… (more)

Gould, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Effects of ambient humidity on the energy use of air conditioning equipment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper addresses the real-time use of ambient wet bulb temperature measurements in the optimization of building air conditioning system control as a means to… (more)

White, Justin George

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

The Stakeholders Using Strategy of Diversification for Taiwan's Business Transformation: Case on Air Conditioning Industry.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As environmental protection issue become the most hot global issues recently, Air Conditioning Industry has to face not only its own management and marketing problems,… (more)

Hung, Li-Yun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Study of a solar-assisted air conditioning system for South Africa.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In South Africa, a significant amount of electrical energy is used for air conditioning in commercial buildings, on account of the high humidity experienced. Due… (more)

Joseph, Jerusha Sarah.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Superheat control for air conditioning and refrigeration systems: Simulation and experiments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ever since the invention of air conditioning and refrigeration in the late nineteenth century, there has been tremendous interest in increasing system efficiency to reduce… (more)

Otten, Richard J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Neural network control for an intelligent air handler in an air-conditioning system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Many commercial air-conditioning systems in hot and humid areas like Singapore are operated throughout the year. There are two main classifications for these systems: the… (more)

Zhang, Qi.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficeincy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation covers the demonstration and testing of ClimaStat for improved rooftop air-conditioning efficiency at the March 15, 2012, Federal Technology Deployment Working Group meeting.

257

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use  

SciTech Connect

The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads. A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.

Rugh, J. P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Analysis of historical residential air-conditioning equipment sizing using monitored data  

SciTech Connect

Monitored data were analyzed to determine whether residential air conditioners in the Pacific Northwest historically have been sized properly to meet or slightly exceed actual cooling requirements. Oversizing air-conditioning equipment results in a loss of efficiency because of increased cycling and also lowers humidity control. On the other hand, the penalty of undersizing air-conditioning equipment may be some loss of comfort during extremely hot weather. The monitored data consist of hourly space-conditioning electrical energy use and internal air temperature data collected during the past 7 years from 75 residences in the Pacific Northwest. These residences are equipped with central air conditioners or heat pumps. The periods with the highest cooling energy use were analyzed for each site. A standard industry sizing methodology was used for each site to determine a sizing estimate. Both the sizing recommendation based on Manual J and peak monitored loads are compared to the capacity of the installed equipment for each site to study how the actual capacity differed from both the estimate of proper sizing and from actual demands. Characteristics of the maximum cooling loads are analyzed here to determine which conditions put the highest demand on the air conditioner. Specifically, internal air temperature data are used to determine when the highest cooling loads occur, at constant thermostat settings or when the thermostat was set down. This analysis of monitored data also provides insight into the extent that occupant comfort may be affected by undersizing air conditioners. The findings of this research indicate that cooling equipment historically has often but not always been oversized beyond industry-recommended levels. However, some occupants in homes with undersized, properly sized, and, in rare occasions, even oversized cooling equipment appear to suffer because the cooling equipment cannot always provide adequate cooling. Key findings are summarized.

Lucas, R.G.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Buoyancy and stratification in Boussinesq flow with applications to natural ventilation and intrusive gravity currents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heating or air conditioning systems, as discussed by Woodsheating on simple household stoves using unpro- cessed solid fuels [most often wood

Flynn, Morris R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Experimental Research and Performance Analysis of a Solar-Powered Air-conditioning System in a Green Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a typical operating mode in summer was studied, which includes temperature variations of solar collector arrays, heat storage tank and adsorption chillers as well as refrigerating output variations of the system. Experimental results show that adsorption chillers have the advantages of low driving temperature, stability and long working time with high efficiency. Under representative working conditions in summer, the average refrigerating output of solar powered air-conditioning system is 15.31kW during operation of 8 hours; moreover, the maximum attains 20kW. Correspondingly, the average system COP is 0.35, and the average solar COP is 0.15. The solar fraction in summer is concluded to be 71.73%. In addition, the variations of solar-powered air-conditioning system performance with ambient parameters (solar radiant intensity and ambient temperature) and operating parameters (temperatures and flow rates) are analyzed.

Zhai, X.; Wang, R.; Dai, Y.; Wu, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Ice storage rooftop retrofit for rooftop air conditioning  

SciTech Connect

A significant fraction of the floor space in commercial and federal buildings is cooled by single-package rooftop air conditioning units. These units are located on flat roofs and usually operate during the day under hot conditions. They are usually less energy efficient than a chiller system for building cooling. Several U.S. companies are developing systems that employ ice storage in conjunction with chillers to replace older, inefficient rooftop units for improved performance and minimal use of on-peak electricity. Although the low evaporator temperatures needed for ice making tend to reduce the efficiency of the chiller, the overall operating costs of the ice storage system may be lower than that of a packaged, conventional rooftop installation. One version of this concept, the Roofberg{reg_sign} System developed by the Calmac Corporation, was evaluated on a small building at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Roofberg system consists of a chiller, an ice storage tank, and one or more rooftop units whose evaporator coils have been adapted to use a glycol solution for cooling. The ice storage component decouples the cooling demand of the building from the operation of the chiller. Therefore, the chiller can operate at night (cooler, more efficient condensing temperatures) to meet a daytime cooling demand. This flexibility permits a smaller chiller to satisfy a larger peak cooling load. Further, the system can be operated to shift the cooling demand to off-peak hours when electricity from the utility is generated more efficiently and at lower cost. This Roofberg system was successfully installed last year on a small one-story office building in Oak Ridge and is currently being operated to cool the building. The building and system were sufficiently instrumented to allow a determination of the performance and efficiency of the Roofberg system. Although the energy efficiency of a simulated Roofberg storage/chiller concept operating in the full storage mode was about equal to what could be expected through a simple rooftop efficiency upgrade, the operating costs for the Roofberg system could be much more favorable depending on the utility rate structure. The ability of Roofberg to move much of the cooling load to off-peak periods enables it to take advantage of on-peak demand charges and time-of-use electricity rates. The Roofberg system, as installed, was able to reduce the on-peak energy use of the cooling system to 35% of the on-peak energy consumption of the baseline system. A comparative analysis of a rooftop replacement and Roofberg indicated that the Roofberg system on Building 2518 would be the better economic choice over a range of demand charges and on-off peak energy prices which are typical of utility rate tariffs for commercial buildings.

Tomlinson, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jennings, L.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Experimental Evaluation of a Downsized Residential Air Distribution System: Comfort and Ventilation Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Good air mixing not only improves thermal comfort Human thermal comfort is the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment, according to ASHRAE Standard 55. Achieving thermal comfort for most occupants of buildings or other enclosures is a goal of HVAC design engineers. but also enhances ventilation effectiveness by inducing uniform supply-air diffusion. In general, the performance of an air distribution system in terms of comfort and ventilation effectiveness is influenced by the supply air temperature, velocity, and flow rate, all of which are in part dictated by the HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) In the home or small office with a handful of computers, HVAC is more for human comfort than the machines. In large datacenters, a humidity-free room with a steady, cool temperature is essential for the trouble-free system as well as the thermal load attributes. Any potential deficiencies associated with these design variables can be further exacerbated by an improper proximity of the supply and return outlets with respect to the thermal and geometrical characteristics of the indoor space. For high-performance houses, the factors influencing air distribution performance take on an even greater significance because of a reduced supply-air design flow rate resulting from downsized HVAC systems.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Fault Diagnosis of an Air-Conditioning System Using LS-SVM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes fault diagnosis of an air-conditioning system for improving reliability and guaranteeing the thermal comfort and energy saving. To achieve this goal, we proposed a technique which is model based fault diagnosis technique. Here, a ... Keywords: Air-Conditioning System, FDD, LS-SVM, Residuals generator

Mahendra Kumar; I. N. Kar

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning systems has met with mixed results since the publication of the Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning system, and discusses the advantages of its application.

Zhu, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Performance simulation of R410A air conditioning system with variable speeds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the implementation of "Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer", HCFCs especially R22 will be phased out. R410A (R32/R125,50/50wt%), as one alternative of R22, is a promising refrigerant for air conditioning ... Keywords: R410A, air conditioning, electronic expansion valve, performance, refrigerants, system simulation, variable speeds

Zaoxiao Zhang; Yongzhang Yu; Leping Zhang

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

An overview of solar assisted air-conditioning system application in small office buildings in Malaysia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many regions of the world especially tropical weather in Malaysia, the demand for cooling of indoor air is growing due to increasing comfort expectations and increasing cooling loads. Air-conditioning, the most common cooling mechanism for providing ... Keywords: Malaysian climatic conditions, absorption chiller, evacuated tube solar collector, high energy consumption, peak load demand, solar assisted air conditioning system, solar energy

Lim Chin Haw; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Yusof Sulaiman

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality Auswin George residential air-conditioning (A/C) system controller that has smart grid functionality. The qualifier, conditional on anticipated retail energy prices. The term "smart- grid functionality" means that retail energy

Tesfatsion, Leigh

268

Effectiveness of Shading Air-Cooled Condensers of Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In air-conditioning (A/C) systems with air-cooled condensers, the condensing unit has to be kept in the open for easy access to outdoor air in order to efficiently dissipate heat. During daytime, the solar radiation falling on the surfaces of the condenser and the high ambient temperatures can be detrimental for the energy performance. The effectiveness of shading the condensing unit to mitigate this adverse impact is investigated in this paper. A limiting analysis compares the performance of several A/C systems with ideal shade to those with ideal solar heat gain. The comparison is based on a theoretical model and data from equipment catalogs. The theoretical increase in the coefficient of performance (COP) due to shading is found to be within 2.5%. Furthermore, this small improvement in ideal efficiency decreases at higher ambient temperatures, when enhancements to efficiency are more needed. The actual efficiency improvement due to shading is not expected to exceed 1%, and the daily energy savings will be lower.

ElSherbini, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Facility HVAC System Conversion to Ground Source Heat Pump Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ventilators will utilize the hot water to "temper" outdoor air ventilation. Although the heat pump modules can provide both heating and cooling, the space requires heating only....

270

Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation Speaker(s): Hwataik Han Date: July 10, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone Heat recovery ventilators are frequently used to save heating/cooling loads of buildings for ventilation. There are several types of HRV's, including a parallel plate type, a rotary type, a capillary type, and a heat pipe type. The breathing HRV is a heat recovery ventilator of a new kind using the concept of alternating-current ventilation. The AC ventilation is the ventilation with the airflow directions reversed periodically. It has an advantage of using a single duct system, for both supply and exhaust purposes. In order to develop a breathing HRV system, the thermal recovery performance should be investigated depending on many parameters, such as

271

Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In northern China, there are a large number of space buildings divided in inner zone and exterior zone based on usage requirements. The exterior zone needs to be heated in winter and cooled in summer, while the inner zone needs to be cooled both in winter and summer. Taking a practical project as example, this paper analyzes the energy consumption of a VAV air conditioning system that is shared by inner zone and exterior zone. The paper also points out the serious problem of useless energy consumption for this kind of system.

Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Title Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-57730 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Russell, Marion L., Max H. Sherman, and Armin F. Rudd Journal HVAC&R Research Volume 13 Start Page Chapter Pagination 325-348 Abstract This paper reviews current and potential ventilation technologies for residential buildings in North America and a few in Europe. The major technologies reviewed include a variety of mechanical systems, natural ventilation, and passive ventilation. Key parameters that are related to each system include operating costs, installation costs, ventilation rates, heat recovery potential. It also examines related issues such as infiltration, duct systems, filtration options, noise, and construction issues. This report describes a wide variety of systems currently on the market that can be used to meet ASHRAE Standard 62.2. While these systems generally fall into the categories of supply, exhaust or balanced, the specifics of each system are driven by concerns that extend beyond those in the standard and are discussed. Some of these systems go beyond the current standard by providing additional features (such as air distribution or pressurization control). The market will decide the immediate value of such features, but ASHRAE may wish to consider modifications to the standard in the future.

273

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

Eric Loros

2001-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

274

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

NONE

2000-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

275

Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [ORNL; Smith, Travis [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

minimizing the use of air-conditioning – A research reportComfort without air -conditioning in refurbished offices –projects. Whether air conditioning is being reduced or

Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

"Table HC13.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.4,0.8,0.2,0.3 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,39.3,20.9,6.7,11.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,38.9,20.7,6.6,11.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.5,"Q","Q","Q" "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 "

279

Table CE3-4c. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption in U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CE3-4c. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption in U.S. Households by Type of Housing Unit, 2001 RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit

280

A Historical Look at the Invention of Air-conditioned Comfort...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Satkartar K. Kinney Comfort air conditioning is largely an American development which grew out of the need for the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Table CE3-1c. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption in U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CE3-1c. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption in U.S. Households by Climate Zone, 2001 RSE Column Factor: Total Climate Zone1 RSE Row

282

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A procedure is described to measure approximate real-world air conditioning fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Rugh, J.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Table CE3-10e. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Expenditures in U ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CE3-10e. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Expenditures in U.S. Households by Midwest Census Region, 2001 RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region

284

Analysis of a Retrofitted Thermal Energy Storage Air-conditioning System of a Marine Museum.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thermal energy storage(TES) air-conditioning system is a electrical load management technology with great potential to shift load from peak to off-peak utility periods. TES is… (more)

Yu, Po-wen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation Controlled ventilation keeps energy-efficient homes healthy and comfortable. Learn more about ventilation. Controlled ventilation keeps energy-efficient homes healthy and comfortable. Learn more about ventilation. When creating an energy-efficient, airtight home through air sealing, it's very important to consider ventilation. Unless properly ventilated, an airtight home can seal in indoor air pollutants. Ventilation also helps control moisture-another important consideration for a healthy, energy-efficient home. Featured Whole-House Ventilation A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. Tight, energy-efficient homes require mechanical -- usually whole-house --

286

Improving the Performance of Air-Conditioning Systems in an ASEAN Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an analysis of air conditioning performance under hot and humid tropical climate conditions appropriate to the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. This region, with over 280 million people, has one of the fastest economic and energy consumption growth rates in the world. The work reported here is aimed at estimating the conservation potential derived from good design and control of air conditioning systems in commercial buildings.

Busch, J. F.; Warren, M. L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According to control method and water system, it can be divided into direct return system pass-by control, direct return system terminal control, reversed return system pass-by control and reversed return system terminal control. The results indicate that reversed return system terminal control has the best hydraulic stability.

Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Influence of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems on Air Conditioning Demand in an Utility Pilot Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A utility monitoring project has evaluated radiant barrier systems (RBS) as a new potential demand site management (DSM) program. The study examined how the retrofit of attic radiant barriers can be expected to alter utility residential space conditioning loads. An RBS consists of a layer of aluminum foil fastened to roof decking or roof trusses to block radiant heat transfer between the hot roof surface and the attic below. The radiant barrier can significantly lower summer heat transfer to the attic insulation and to the cooling duct system. Both of these mechanisms have strong potential impacts on cooling energy use as illustrated in Figures 1 and 2. The pilot project involved installation of RBS in nine homes that had been extensively monitored over the preceding year. The houses varied in conditioned floor area from 939 to 2,440 square feet; attic insulation varied from R-9 to R-30. The homes had shingle roofs with varying degrees of attic ventilation. The radiant barriers were installed during the summer of 2000. Data analysis on the pre and post cooling and heating consumption was used to determine impacts on energy use and peak demand for the utility. The average cooling energy savings from the RBS retrofit was 3.6 kWh/day, or about 9%. The average reduction in summer afternoon peak demand was 420 watts (or about 16%).

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners  

SciTech Connect

A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Liquid ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For 350 million years, fish have breathed liquid through gills. Mammals evolved lungs to breathe air. Rarely, circumstances can occur when a mammal needs to `turn back the clock' to breathe through a special liquid medium. This is particularly true if surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung is increased, as in acute lung injury. In this condition, surface tension increases because the pulmonary surfactant system is damaged, causing alveolar collapse, atelectasis, increased right-to-left shunt and hypoxaemia. 69 The aims of treatment are: (i) to offset increased forces causing lung collapse by applying mechanical ventilation with PEEP; (ii) to decrease alveolar surface tension with exogenous surfactant; (iii) to eliminate the air-liquid interface by filling the lung with a fluid in

U. Kaisers; K. P. Kelly; T. Busch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems Title Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation...

292

Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Ushimaru, Kenji (Energy International, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS: TEST METHODS AND RESULTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presenting Test Results Heat Exchanger Descriptions and Testof Residential Heat Exchangers Conclusions . . . . . . . .ventilation testing heat exchangers. system, a heat

Fisk, William J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Authors Fisk, William J., Mark J. Mendell, Molly Davies, Ekaterina Eliseeva, David Faulkner, Tienzen Hong, and Douglas P. Sullivan Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords absence, building s, carbon dioxide, demand - controlled ventilation, energy, indoor air quality, schools, ventilation Abstract This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included:  The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).  Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.

295

Issues and Factors of Train Air-conditioning System Design and Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Like a moving building, a train's outer meteorologic parameter will change a lot with the local meteorologic parameter on the way. In this paper, we put forward the design method of the typical design period and some dynamic energy-saving ways to solve the problem. These methods consider the dynamic changes of the outer environment when the train is moving, which will supply the theoretical basis for the calculation of the dynamic load and real-time running and regulation of the train's air-conditioning. Modifications to the air-conditioning system and some advanced air conditioning systems are introduced, which are helpful for system optimization. In this paper, based on analysis of the characteristics of the air - conditioning system in foreign high speed passenger cars and demands for its acceleration, developing trends for air - conditioning systems for high speed passenger cars are pointed out and some advice is put forward. Above all, we should not only satisfy the comfort need of the passengers, but also succeed in saving energy.

Liu, P.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

C.R. Gorrell

1998-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

297

Hysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation, external wind forcing and internal heat gains e.g. due to electrical equipment or building chloride, etc. Developing world: By-products of cooking or heating fires Ghiaus & Allard (2005) · Exposure-breeze, displacement ventilation dissipate internal heat gains e.g. from kitchen stove · Wintertime: Spaces filled

Flynn, Morris R.

298

The Technical and Economical Analysis of the Air-conditioning System Usage in Residential Buildings in Beijing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we show that the air-conditioning usage in residential buildings in Beijing grows rapidly in relation to the development of civil construction. More and more people are not satisfied with the current style of only using split air-conditioning units in residential buildings, and are using the central air-conditioning system in residential buildings. To determine the best air conditioning mode, a residential tower building with 22 layers was chosen for analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of the central air-conditioning system and the residential multi-unit air-conditioning equipment system and the LiBr absorption chiller were compared based on calculating the first-cost and the annual cost (according to providing cooling 90 days annually). The predicted results show the economical feasibility of using the refrigerating units in air-conditioning systems in Beijing region, and point out the developing directions for the future.

Sheng, G.; Xie, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To design an optimum HVAC airside system that provides comfort and air quality in the air-conditioned spaces with efficient energy consumption is a great challenge. This paper evaluates recent progresses of HVAC airside design for the air-conditioned spaces. The present evaluation study defines the current status, future requirements, and expectations. It has been found that, the experimental investigations should be considered in the new trend of studies, not to validate the numerical tools only, but also to provide a complete database of the airflow characteristics in the air-conditioned spaces. Based on this analysis and the vast progress of computers and associated software, the artificial intelligent technique will be a competitor candidate to the experimental and numerical techniques. Finally, the researches that relate between the different designs of the HVAC systems and energy consumption should concern with the optimization of airside design as the expected target to enhance the indoor environment.

Khalil, E. E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed model is supposed to be used in conditioning the governmental offices during the working hours in the weekdays when both the sunshine and the need for air-conditioning reach their maximum levels at the same instance. Solar adsorption refrigeration devices have no moving parts consequently they are noiseless, non-corrosive, cheap to maintain, long lasting in addition to being environmentally friendly with zero ozone depletion as well as zero global warming potentials. For these reasons, the research activities are of increasing interest in this aspect in order to provide optimum solutions for the crucial points that impede making these systems capable to meet the criteria for commercialization.

Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Indoor environmental quality and ventilation in U.S. office buildings: A view of current issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Much of the current focus on indoor environmental quality and ventilation in US office buildings is a response to sick building syndrome and occupant complaints about building-related health symptoms, poor indoor air quality, and thermal discomfort. The authors know that serious ``sick-building`` problems occur in a significant number of US office buildings and that a significant proportion of the occupants in many normal (non-sick) buildings report building-related health symptoms. Concerns about the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke have also focused attention on the indoor environment. The major responses of industry and governments, underway at the present time, are to restrict smoking in offices, to attempt to reduce the emissions of indoor pollutants, and to improve the operation of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Better air filtration, improved HVAC commissioning and maintenance, and increased provisions for individual control of HVAC are some of the improvements in HVAC that are currently being, evaluated. In the future, the potential for improved productivity and reduced airborne transmission of infectious disease may become the major driving force for improved indoor environments.

Fisk, W.J.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spatial cartography of air- cooled chillers and cooling towers in the city of Paris and surroundings have); secondly the actual situation including individual air dry coolers, wet cooling towers and an urban cooling the air cooling demand. Results of a meso-scale meteorological model (MESO-NH), coupled to an urban energy

304

An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4 Customer Price as a function of Marginal Cost with upwardB.1 Relationship between Customer Price and Marginal Coston final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – how muchA.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation and+ paper 6,306 Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in

McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

In the OSTI Collections: Heat Pumps | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Heat-Pump Water Heaters Heat Pumps in Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems References Research Organizations Reports Available through OSTI's Information Bridge The particles of any physical system above absolute zero temperature are always moving. The higher the temperature-that is, the hotter the system-the more energetic the particles' motion. As the particles interact with each other, their random motions tend to redistribute the energy more and more equally among themselves all the time, since there are more ways to distribute energy more evenly than there are to distribute it less evenly. This means that the system's temperature becomes more and more uniform throughout-warmer regions tend to cool, and cooler regions tend to warm, as their particles' random motion flows from where the

307

Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition  

SciTech Connect

This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Printed on recycled paperPERFORMANCE OF A COMBINED SOLAR DESICCANT FILTRATION AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A solar desiccant filtration system and conventional system were compared by simulating their performance over a cooling season using TRNSYS and Typic,aI Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data for a r,a.nge of system p‘arameters. The desiccant dehumidifier was modeled as a heat ‘and m,ass exe hanger with moisture and temperature effectivenesses based on the equilibrium intersection point. The activated carbon filter was modeled as a reduction of required ventilation tlow rate to m,aintain acceptable contamirmnt levels in the space. Several locations were investigated. The desiccant isotherm shape was varied from a moderate Brunauer Type I to silica gel (line,%) and the solar collector a-ea wxs varied from 0 to 4,000 ft2 to see its effect on the savings per season. The isotherm shape ‘and location had little effect on the resulting savings. The savings were between $2,800 and!S4,800 per season depending on the amount of collector carea. 1.

S. M. Burley; M. E. Arden; R. Campbell-howe; B. Wilkins-crowder; T. B. Jekel; J. W. Mitchell; S. A. Klein; W. A. Beckman

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Model Based Sensor System for Temperature Measurement in R744 Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal is the development of a novel principle for the temperature acquisition of refrigerants in CO2 air conditioning systems. The new approach is based on measuring the temperature inside a pressure sensor, which is also needed in the system. On the basis of simulative investigations of different mounting conditions functional relations between measured and medium temperature will be derived.

Reitz, Sven; Schneider, Peter

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop  

SciTech Connect

Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Air-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Engineering-industry, secondary: Econometrics. 1 Introduction The electric power mid-term loads forecasting: Estimated annual temperature sensitive electricity load components 3 Mid-term load forecasting StatisticalAir-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

A heuristic predictive logic controller applied to hybrid solar air conditioning plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper shows the development of a heuristic predictive logic controller (HPLoC) applied to a solar air conditioning plant. The plant uses two energy sources, solar and gas, in order to warm up the water. The hot water feeds a single-effect absorption ...

Darine Zambrano; Winston García-Gabín; Eduardo F. Camacho

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: University of Riyadh. Solar air conditioning. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on solar air conditioning at the University of Riyadh in Riyhadh, Saudi Arabia is presented. Topics relevant to the university's proposed solar cooling laboratory are discussed: absorption systems and various contingencies, photovoltaic solar collectors and thermoelectric elements, measuring instruments, solar radiation measurement and analysis, laboratory specifications, and decision theories. Dual cycle computations and equipment specifications are included among the appendices.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation May 7, 2012 - 2:49pm Addthis This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. What does this mean for me? After you've reduced air leakage in your home, adequate ventilation is critical for health and comfort. Depending on your climate, there are a number of strategies to ventilate your home. Ventilation is very important in an energy-efficient home. Air sealing techniques can reduce air leakage to the point that contaminants with known health effects such as formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and radon

315

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation May 7, 2012 - 2:49pm Addthis This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. What does this mean for me? After you've reduced air leakage in your home, adequate ventilation is critical for health and comfort. Depending on your climate, there are a number of strategies to ventilate your home. Ventilation is very important in an energy-efficient home. Air sealing techniques can reduce air leakage to the point that contaminants with known health effects such as formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and radon

316

The Ventilated Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adiabatic theories of ocean circulation and density structure have a long tradition, from the concept of the ventilated thermocline to the notion that deep ocean ventilation is controlled by westerly winds over the Southern Ocean. This study ...

Patrick Haertel; Alexey Fedorov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introducing several kinds of air-conditioning systems energy conservation measures, and according to the climate of the hot-summer and cold-winter region in China, this paper puts forward an overall conception for air-conditioning energy-savings at this area. Namely, we may use the combination of evaporative cooling, dehumidifier and mechanical cooling to save energy for air-conditioning.

Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Conditioning, & Electric Power Machinery 29(1): 1-4 Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: DemandUSA Solutions for summer electric power shortages: Demand

Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in aModular Classroom Test Bed  

SciTech Connect

The primary goals of this research effort were to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research was motivated by several factors, including the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This project involved the installation and verification of the performance of an Improved Heat Pump Air Conditioning (IHPAC) system, and its comparison, a standard HVAC system having an efficiency of 10 SEER. The project included the verification of the physical characteristics suitable for direct replacement of existing 10 SEER systems, quantitative demonstration of improved energy efficiency, reduced acoustic noise levels, quantitative demonstration of improved ventilation control, and verification that the system would meet temperature control demands necessary for the thermal comfort of the occupants. Results showed that the IHPAC met these goals. The IHPAC was found to be a direct bolt-on replacement for the 10 SEER system. Calculated energy efficiency improvements based on many days of classroom cooling or heating showed that the IHPAC system is about 44% more efficient during cooling and 38% more efficient during heating than the 10 SEER system. Noise reduction was dramatic, with measured A-weighed sound level for fan only operation conditions of 34.3 dB(A), a reduction of 19 dB(A) compared to the 10 SEER system. Similarly, the IHPAC stage-1 and stage-2 compressor plus fan sound levels were 40.8 dB(A) and 42.7 dB(A), reductions of 14 and 13 dB(A), respectively. Thus, the IHPAC is 20 to 35 times quieter than the 10 SEER systems depending upon the operation mode. The IHPAC system met the ventilation requirements and was able to provide consistent outside air supply throughout the study. Indoor CO2 levels with simulated occupancy were maintained below 1000 ppm. Finally temperature settings were met and controlled accurately. The goals of the laboratory testing phase were met and this system is ready for further study in a field test of occupied classrooms.

Apte, Michael G.; Buchanan, Ian S.; Faulkner, David; Fisk,William J.; Lai, Chi-Ming; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Start-Up of Air Conditioning Systems After Periods of Shutdown (Humidity Considerations)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In many cases the single most important energy conservation measure that can be taken is to turn equipment off when it is not needed. In the case of air conditioning, this generally means turning it off when occupants leave and turning it back on in time to have the space comfortable when they return. In humid climates special problems are often encountered when a system is restarted after a period of shutdown. The temperature and humidity in the space rises during the period of shutdown. Unfortunately the latent load required to bring the space back to comfort conditions is usually much higher than the sensible load. Most methods of control are ill suited for this duty. This paper examines the response of various types of air conditioning systems during this recovery period and makes recommendations for system designers.

Todd, T. R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Impact of cool storage air-conditioning in commercial sector on power system operation in Thailand  

SciTech Connect

The results are presented from an investigation into the potential application for cool storage air-conditioning, and the resultant beneficial impact on power system operation in Thailand is discussed. Field assessment through interviews with decision makers in the identified customer groups produces results that show good potential for cool storage application. Results from a computer program used to calculate power production cost and other characteristics show that substantial benefits would also accrue to the generating utility.

Surapong, C.; Bundit, L. [Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving thermal comfort and saving energy, a combined system is presented in this paper. It combines an evaporative cooling system with ceiling cooling, in which the evaporative cooling system handles the entire latent load and one part of the sensible loads, and the ceiling cooling system deals with the other part of sensible loads in the air-conditioned zone, so that the condensation on radiant panels and the insufficiency of cooling capacity can be avoided. The cooling water at 18? used in the cooling coils of ceiling cooling system can be ground water, tap water or the cooled water from cooling towers in the summer. This new air-conditioning system and existing all- outdoor air evaporative cooling system are applied to a project in the city of Lanzhou. Energy consumption analysis of the building is carried out using the energy consumption code. Velocity and temperature distribution in the air-conditioned zone is computed using CFD. According to the results, the energy consumption and indoor human thermal comfort of both systems are then compared. It is concluded that the new system occupies less building space, reduces energy consumption, improves indoor human thermal comfort and saves initial investment.

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Comparison of global warming impacts of automobile air-conditioning concepts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The global warming impacts of conventional vapor compression automobile air conditioning using HFC-134a are compared with the potential impacts of four alternative concepts. Comparisons are made on the basis of total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) which accounts for the effects of refrigerant emissions, energy use to provide comfort cooling, and fuel consumed to transport the weight of the air conditioning system. Under the most favorable assumptions on efficiency and weight, transcritical compression using CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant and adsorption cooling with water and zeolite beds could reduce TEWI by up to 18%rlative to HFC-134a compression air conditioning. Other assumptions on weight and efficiency lead to significant increases in TEWI relative to HFC-134a, and it is impossible to determine which set of assumptios is valid from existing data, Neither Stirling cycle or thermoelectric cooling will reduce TEWI relative to EFC-134a. Brief comments are also made concerning technical barriers that must be overcome for succesful development of the new technologies.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

The Importance of the Global Health Sector in California: An Evaluation of the Economic Impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial Machinery Manufacturing  Commercial and Service Industry Machinery Manufacturing  Ventilation, Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Commercial RefrigerationIndustrial Machinery Manufacturing Commercial and Service Industry Machinery Manufacturing Ventilation, Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Commercial Refrigeration

Nandi, Arindam

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program FINAL PROJECT REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING SURVEY OF SMALL AND MEDIUMSIZE COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS (SMCB) Appendix F. Codebook for the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning SAQ (2008) Appendix OF BUSINESS HERE Hospital Nursing Home Dental Office Orthodontist Medical Office

326

Influencing Factors on Energy Consumption of Air Conditioning System in Railway Passenger Station Based on Orthogonal Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Orthogonal experiment was used to analyze the energy consumption of air conditioning system, which belongs to four typical passenger stations in four regions, including severe cold region, cold region, hot summer and cold winter region, hot summer and ... Keywords: Railway Passenger Station, Orthogonal Experiment, Air Conditioning Energy Consumption, Energy Conservation

Weiwu Ma; Liqing Li; Suoying He; Jia Cheng; Guijie Huang; Chenn Q. Zhou

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Verifying energy savings with minimal metered data: The Hunter heat pump analysis  

SciTech Connect

In November 1992, Hunter Army Air Field (AAF) completed the installation of 489 air-source heat pumps -- a new heat pump and air-handling unit for each residence. The air-source heat pumps replaced older, less efficient, air-conditioning systems, fuel oil-fired furnaces, and fan coil units. Hunter AAF originally contacted to upgrade the old family housing heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with high efficiency air-conditioning systems and natural gas furnaces, but an alternative proposal and following energy studies indicated that heat pumps were a more life-cycle cost-effective alternative. Six months after the heat pumps were installed, Hunter`s energy bills appeared to be increasing, not decreasing as expected. In early 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory` (PNL) began an analysis to determine if there were any energy savings resulting from the heat pump installation as predicted by previous energy studies. The problem is that the HVAC systems are not specifically submetered to support verifying the resulting energy savings and, as is the case with most federal facilities, even the homes are not individually metered. Savings verification needed to be accomplished with die existing and available metered data. This data consisted primarily of monthly electric submeter readings from the two housing subdivision meters, historical fuel oil delivery records for family housing, and monthly base-wide electric bills. The objective of the study is to verify the change in energy consumption in family housing and, to the extent possible, identify how much of the change in consumption is attributable to the new HVAC system and how much is probably attributable to other factors, such as the weather.

Parker, S.A.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

... (above/below ground and either side of ductwork that delivers heating, ventilation and air conditioning in buildings) are applications. ...

329

Status of Data Collection Efforts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Tenant design standards manuals for structural; architectural; heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC); fire protection; plumbing; electrical ...

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

330

Key Findings of NIST's June 2004 Progress Report on the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning) ductwork was a major path for vertical smoke spread in the buildings. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

331

NIST Tech Beat - June 8, 2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... spaces such as lobbies, system shutdown and purge cycles, and automated heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) operational changes ...

332

US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment Public Information for Convening Interviews...

333

CX-000147: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Galloway's Rooftop Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Unit Replacement, Boiler Replacement, Lighting Upgrade CX(s) Applied:...

334

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... not consumption specifically for that particular end use. HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. Due to rounding, ...

335

Table E3. Electricity Consumption (Btu) by End Use for Non ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Notes: Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals. HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. Source: Energy Information Administration, ...

336

ENERGY-EFFICIENT NEW COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS IN THE NORTHWEST REGION: A COMPILATION OF MEASURED DATA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

daylighting, Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system(systems. Seven buildings have some earth berming; eleven have daylighting.

Piette, M.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Research Required to Support Full Implementation of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Precast concrete cladding • Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems • Fixed windows • Skylights over large atria • Glass fiber reinforced ...

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

338

CX-002509: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

computer power management, hot water systemscontrols, lighting, kitchen equipment, laundry equipment, plug load controls, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system...

339

News Briefs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Nonetheless, building heating, ventilating, and air- conditioning equipment routinely fails to satisfy perfor- mance expectations envisioned at design ...

2001-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

340

CX-001346: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

retrofits limited to insulation, lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, weather sealing, appliances, high efficiency showersfaucets, closed loop ground source...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Building Science - Ventilation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Joseph Lstiburek, Ph.D., P.Eng, ASHRAE Fellow www.buildingscience.com Build Tight - Ventilate Right Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 2 Build Tight - Ventilate Right How Tight? What's Right? Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 3 Air Barrier Metrics Material 0.02 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa Assembly 0.20 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa Enclosure 2.00 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa 0.35 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa 0.25 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa 0.15 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 4 Getting rid of big holes 3 ach@50 Getting rid of smaller holes 1.5 ach@50 Getting German 0.6 ach@50 Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 5 Best As Tight as Possible - with - Balanced Ventilation Energy Recovery Distribution Source Control - Spot exhaust ventilation Filtration

342

ASHRAE and residential ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conditioning Engineers. 2001. ASHRAE, “Indoor Air QualityABOUT/IAQ_papr01.htm ASHRAE. “Standard 62.2-2003:Ventilation Requirements. ” ASHRAE Journal, pp. 51- 55, June

Sherman, Max H.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Measuring Residential Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measured. The local exhaust flows can be measured or can meet prescriptive ducting and fan labeling requirements that use ratings provided by the Home Ventilating Institute (HVI,...

344

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficeincy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat® for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficiency Presented at IA Technology Deployment Working Group Meeting March 15, 2012 By Dan Howett, PE Oak Ridge National Laboratory Demonstration/Testing of ClimaStat ® for Improved Efficiency of RTU Air Conditioners * Technology from Advantek Consulting - Patented by Dr. Michael West in 2003. (US Patent #6427454) - Originally demonstrated under DOE's Inventions & Innovations program. * Current demonstration sponsored by DOD's ESTCP program * Uses off-the-shelf components to either... - Modify existing packaged air conditioners, or - Incorporate changes into new RTU equipment before installation * Initial tests show 15% improvement in HVAC efficiency.

345

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficeincy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat® for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficiency Presented at IA Technology Deployment Working Group Meeting March 15, 2012 By Dan Howett, PE Oak Ridge National Laboratory Demonstration/Testing of ClimaStat ® for Improved Efficiency of RTU Air Conditioners * Technology from Advantek Consulting - Patented by Dr. Michael West in 2003. (US Patent #6427454) - Originally demonstrated under DOE's Inventions & Innovations program. * Current demonstration sponsored by DOD's ESTCP program * Uses off-the-shelf components to either... - Modify existing packaged air conditioners, or - Incorporate changes into new RTU equipment before installation * Initial tests show 15% improvement in HVAC efficiency.

346

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response andits Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems  

SciTech Connect

Demand response (DR) is an effective tool which resolves inconsistencies between electric power supply and demand. It further provides a reliable and credible resource that ensures stable and economical operation of the power grid. This paper introduces systematic definitions for DR and demand side management, along with operational differences between these two methods. A classification is provided for DR programs, and various DR strategies are provided for application in air conditioning and refrigerating systems. The reliability of DR is demonstrated through discussion of successful overseas examples. Finally, suggestions as to the implementation of demand response in China are provided.

Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.for Residential Winter and Summer Air Conditioning.Air Conditioning Contractors of America, Washington, DC. 10.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rudd. 2007. Review of residential ventilation technologies.2009. EISG Final Report: Residential Integrated VentilationDesign and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems. Proc.

Sherman, Max H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

warming and electricity demand: A study of California.Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California Norman L.high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned

Miller, N.L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Measurement of Airflow of Air-Conditioning in a Car with PIV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study, a model experiment is performed in order to clarify the airflow characteristics of a car cabin. In addition, this study provides high precision data for a benchmark test using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis method. ... Keywords: Car Cabin, Data for Benchmark Test, PIV, Ventilation

J. H. Yang; S. Kato; H. Nagano

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Pulverized Coal OxyCombustion Power Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HHV Higher heating value hp Horsepower HP High pressure HRSG Heat Recovery Steam Generator HSS Heat stable salts HVAC Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning HWT Hot water...

352

Why We Ventilate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why We Ventilate Why We Ventilate Title Why We Ventilate Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-5093E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Logue, Jennifer M., Phillip N. Price, Max H. Sherman, and Brett C. Singer Conference Name Proceedings of the 2011 32nd AIVC Conference and 1st Tightvent Conference Date Published October 2011 Conference Location Brussels, Belgium Keywords indoor environment department, resave, ventilation and air cleaning Abstract It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of "good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

353

Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies  

SciTech Connect

In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective regulation strategies. To avoid wasting energy and presenting simple regulation methods, fuzzy regulation strategies for CAV systems are studied in this research. A CAV system of an office building is modeled and simulated with the Designer's Simulation Toolkit (DeST). The operating parameters are calculated based on the instantaneous load obtained from simulation. The operation of the system is divided into five stages according to different conception of “cold” or “hot” in different seasons. The relationship between the outdoor air temperature and the fresh air volume, and the supply air temperature is presented in the form of fuzzy rules. Then the building is simulated under different load conditions and the operating parameters are obtained from fuzzy reasoning. Finally, the effect of fuzzy strategies on energy consumption is analyzed and compared with the effects of the operating parameters obtained from simulation. The results show that energy consumption using a fuzzy regulation strategy is close to the energy consumption of knowing the exact load of the building, while the fuzzy regulation strategy can largely simplify the regulation of the air conditioning system.

Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Test and Reconstruction of Air Conditioning System in a Hotel Lobby  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two air conditioning systems are equipped in a hotel lobby. It is found from the field test that the actual air rate is 40% and 16% of the nominal value, respectively, of the two systems, which is far lower than the design requirement. The air rate of the outlets varies greatly, and the coefficient of uniformity is 129.1% and 111.6% respectively of the two systems. Air distribution in the lobby is bad and thermal comfort is poor. Moreover, sharp reduction of return air makes portions of fresh air increase, which will lead to high energy consumption. Reconstruction is carried out to improve the thermal environment with the assistance of the CFD method. First, the original system is simulated by CFD method to verify the CFD method and propose modification suggestions. Then air conditioning load and air rate of the lobby is recalculated and duct redesigned. Simulation results show that the air distribution and thermal comfort of the improved scheme can meet the design requirement. The reconstructed system has been running for about two years and has shown good performance.

Wang, G.; Hu, Y.; Hu, S.; Chen, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

A Field Study on Residential Air Conditioning Peak Loads During Summer in College Station, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Severe capacity problems are experienced by electric utilities during hot summer afternoons. Several studies have found that, in large part, electric peak loads can be attributed to residential airconditioning use. This air-conditioning peak depends primarily on two factors: (i) the manner in which the homeowner operates his air-conditioner during the hot summer afternoons, and (ii) the amount by which the air-conditioner has been over-designed. Whole-house and air-conditioner electricity use data at 15 minute time intervals have been gathered and analyzed for 8 residences during the summer of 1991, six of which had passed the College Station Good Cents tests. Indoor air temperatures were measured by a mechanical chart recorder, while a weather station located on the main campus of Texas A&M university provided the necessary climatic data, especially ambient temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The data were analysed to determine the extent to which air-conditioning over-sizing and homeowner intervention contributes to peak electricity use for newer houses in College Station, Texas.

Reddy, T. A.; Vaidya, S.; Griffith, L.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Claridge, D. E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

The Influence of Air-Conditioning Efficiency in the Peak Load Demand for Kuwait  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model co-relating the peak load demand of a utility with the allowable power rating (PR) of air-conditioning (AC) systems has been developed in this paper through a well defined methodology. The model is capable to predict the extent of allowable increase in the capital cost of the AC system for an improvement in PR from its base case as well. Furthermore, effectiveness of better PR of AC system for peak load management has been analyzed for Kuwait as a case study. It is found that up to 5,752 MW in reduction in peak load demand and savings of KD 2,301 million in capital expenditures are possible for the years between 2001 and 2025 if the PR of AC systems are improved to 1.2 kW/RT from its present level of 2.0 kW/RT. Also, it is estimated that extent of increase in capital cost of AC system by 106 % is justified for reducing the expenditure for new power plants. The paper will be useful for the energy planner and policy makers in the countries of Arabian Peninsula with huge demand for air-conditioning.

Ali, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? Dianne Griffiths April 29, 2013 Presentation Outline * Basic Objectives * Exhaust Systems * Make-up Air Systems Two Primary Ventilation Objectives 1) Providing Fresh Air - Whole-House 2) Removing Pollutants - Local Exhaust Our goal is to find the simplest solution that satisfies both objectives while minimizing cost and energy impacts. Common Solution: Align local exhaust with fresh air requirements (Ex: 25 Bath + 25 Kitchen) Exhaust-Driven Fresh Air Design * Exhaust slightly depressurizes the units * Outside air enters through leaks, cracks, or planned inlets * Widely used in the North Multifamily Ventilation Best Practice * Step 1: Understand ventilation requirements * Step 2: Select the simplest design that can

360

Whole Building Ventilation Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Whole-Building Whole-Building Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Home Performance / Weatherization  Addressing ventilation is the exception  Max tightness, e.g. BPI's "Building Airflow Standard" (BAS)  References ASHRAE 62-89  BAS = Max [0.35 ACH, 15 CFM/person], CFM50 eq.  If BD tests show natural infiltration below BAS...  Ventilation must be recommended or installed.  SO DON'T AIR SEAL TO MUCH! © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Ventilation Requirements Ventilation systems for existing homes that are:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

"Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.8,"Q","Q",4.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,5.3,7,7.8,7.2 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,5.3,7,7.7,6.6 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,"Q","N","Q",0.6 "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4

362

"Table HC13.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.4,0.8,0.2,0.3 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,39.3,20.9,6.7,11.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,38.9,20.7,6.6,11.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.5,"Q","Q","Q" "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2"

363

"Table HC15.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.8,"Q","Q",4.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,5.3,7,7.8,7.2 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,5.3,7,7.7,6.6 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,"Q","N","Q",0.6 "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4

364

Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation  

SciTech Connect

In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Solar ventilation preheating: FEMP fact sheet  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Installing a ''solar wall'' to heat air before it enters a building, called solar ventilation preheating, is one of the most efficient ways of reducing energy costs using clean and renewable energy. A solar wall can be designed as an integral part of a new building or it can be added in a retrofit project.

Clyne, R.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

366

Gas heat pumps are coming: But by a different name  

SciTech Connect

Gas heat pumps are coming, but by a different name. The manufacturers have elected not to call these products {open_quote}heat pumps{close_quotes} because advertising by gas distributors has been so effective at associating the term {open_quote}air-source heat pump{close_quotes} with cold blowing air. Nonetheless, gas-fired air-source heat pumps of the engine-driven and absorption types will be marketed starting in 1994 and in 1997, respectively, according to current plans. This paper identifies the generic participants that have been and will be involved in the gas heat pump deployment effort, and it reviews the underlying forces that caused (or likely will cause) those participants to act as they do. The participants include technology developers; the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry; the utility industry; and state utility regulators. The driving forces include the drifting of unitary HVAC products toward a commodity-like status, the decline of the domestic component of global HVAC markets, the restructuring of the HVAC and gas utility industries, the anticipated restructuring of the electric utility industry, the strengths and weaknesses of gas distributors, and state utility regulation. Also reviewed are technology status, manufacturer commitments, and timetables for introducing products. The road to widespread domestic market acceptance of gas heat pumps will likely be very different from that experienced by electric heat pump manufacturers in the 1950s and 1960s.

Hughes, P.J.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main purpose of this study is to put forward a novel nonlinear feedback control strategy on controlling indoor air temperature by variable air volume. A dynamic model of a typical room for a VAV air-conditioning system is established. The performance of the novel control strategy is investigated. Simulation of the controlling air temperature, on which the novel strategy is adopted, was carried out based on MATLAB in the VAV system. In order to show that the novel control strategy outperforms conventional PID control, a comparison is made between the performance of conventional PID and the novel nonlinear feedback control strategy. The results show that nonlinear feedback control strategy outperforms a conventional PID control system in terms of celerity, stability and other aspects.

Shi, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, G.; Li, A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Impact of Vehicle Air-Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range: Preprint  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vehicle Air- Vehicle Air- Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range Preprint September 2000 * NREL/CP-540-28960 R. Farrington and J. Rugh To Be Presented at the Earth Technologies Forum Washington, D.C. October 31, 2000 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute * * * * Battelle * * * * Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute (MRI), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337. Accordingly, the US Government and MRI retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published

371

Natural Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation May 30, 2012 - 7:56pm Addthis Opening a window is a simple natural ventilation strategy. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/Simotion Opening a window is a simple natural ventilation strategy. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/Simotion What does this mean for me? If you live in a part of the country with cool nights and breezes, you may be able to cool your house with natural ventilation. If you're building a new home, design it to take advantage of natural ventilation. Natural ventilation relies on the wind and the "chimney effect" to keep a home cool. Natural ventilation works best in climates with cool nights and regular breezes. The wind will naturally ventilate your home by entering or leaving windows, depending on their orientation to the wind. When wind blows against your

372

Residential Ventilation & Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Residential Ventilation & Energy Figure 1: Annual Average Ventilation Costs of the Current U.S. Single-Family Housing Stock ($/year/house). Infiltration and ventilation in dwellings is conventionally believed to account for one-third to one-half of space conditioning energy. Unfortunately, there is not a great deal of measurement data or analysis to substantiate this assumption. As energy conservation improvements to the thermal envelope continue, the fraction of energy consumed by the conditioning of air may increase. Air-tightening programs, while decreasing energy requirements, have the tendency to decrease ventilation and its associated energy penalty at the possible expense of adequate indoor air quality. Therefore, more energy may be spent on conditioning air.

373

Why We Ventilate  

SciTech Connect

It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Federal Energy Management Program: Technology Deployment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Envelope Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Lighting Water Heating Combined Heat and Power Refrigeration, Computer Power Management, and Vending Machine Goals and...

375

"Table HC3.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total",111.1,78.1,64.1,4.2,1.8,2.3,5.7 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,11.3,9.3,0.6,"Q",0.4,0.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,66.8,54.7,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,65.8,54,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.7

376

"Table HC3.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total",111.1,78.1,64.1,4.2,1.8,2.3,5.7 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,11.3,9.3,0.6,"Q",0.4,0.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,66.8,54.7,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,65.8,54,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.7

377

Upgrading of the Air-conditioning of the Computer Room in the Computer Centre for the LHC era  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Built in the beginning of 1970's, the Computer Centre air-conditioning and cooling systems were designed to be modular and easily adaptable to the unpredictable future needs of computing. The infrastructure of LHC-computing that will be housed in the existing Computer Room with its five Computing farms and over 11000 PC's increases the requirements of cooling and air-conditioning power to a new level. The nominal thermal loads from the equipment rise from the current design maximum of 1MW to estimated maximum of 2MW in the future. This paper presents calculations and proposes solutions to meet the new nominal requirements. The air-conditioning system must also be able to cope with a situation of power cut in the main supply. A calculation of the temperature evolution during the power cut and a justified operation strategy for this scenario is also presented.

Lindroos, J

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

FEMP-FS--Solar Ventilation Preheating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Installing a "solar wall" to heat air before it enters a Installing a "solar wall" to heat air before it enters a building, called solar ventilation preheating, is one of the most efficient ways of reducing energy costs using clean and renewable energy. The system works by heating outside air with a south-facing solar collector-a dark-colored wall made of sheet metal and perforated with tiny holes. Outdoor air is drawn through the holes and heated as it absorbs the wall's warmth. The warm air rises in the space between the solar wall and the building wall and is moved into the air-duct system, usually by means of a fan, to heat the building. Any additional heating needed at night or on cloudy days is supplied by the build- ing's conventional heating system. During summer months, intake air bypasses the solar collector,

379

Summary of human responses to ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

low ventilation rates and increase in health problems:rate. As ventilation rates increase, benefits gained fordetermined that increases in ventilation rates above 10 Ls -

Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Related  to  Residential  Ventilation  Requirements”.  Rudd,  A.   2005.   “Review  of  Residential  Ventilation and  Matson  N.E. ,  “Residential  Ventilation  and  Energy 

Sherman, Max

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Design methods for displacement ventilation: Critical review.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement Ventilation. ASHRAE Research project-RP-949.displacement ventilation. ASHRAE Transaction, 96 (1). Ar ???due to displacement ventilation. ASHRAE Transaction, 96 (1).

Schiavon, Stefano

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor. By means of testing data analysis, it is indicated that several problems such as unsuitable operation schedule of the chiller, low COP, irrational matching of pump and motor, unbalanced conditions of chilled water flow, and low working stability and efficiency ratio of the pump are existent. The paper presents suggestions for improvement with relevance based on the induction and analysis of system fault found in measurements.

Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Analysis of Air Conditioning Effectiveness vs. Outdoor Conditions: Traditional Bins or Joint Frequency Bins?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are a number of methods used to estimate the effectiveness of air conditioning equipment in handling loads. Full hourly computer simulations are probably the most accurate, but lack flexibility and are more cumbersome to use than more compact approaches. Alternately, some form of binned weather data has been used with load and performance estimation carried out for each of the bin weather conditions. The most common binning method puts weather into bins of dry bulb temperature with mean coincident wet bulb temperatures. Mean coincident humidity terms lose the extreme humidity levels that commonly exist. This can lead one to assume that conditions will be held at all times, while in fact the humidity loads will not be met and discomfort, among other consequences, will result. Three-dimensional plots of the joint frequency results clearly illustrate problem areas. A better procedure, it will be shown, is to use a joint frequency bin data set, which puts hours of occurrence into a matrix with dry bulb ranges on one axis and humidity ratio ranges on the second axis. This form of binning is easily accomplished if a utility like BinMaker is used to generate the binned data set.

Cohen, B. M.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the summer of previous years, Kuwait faced a series of power shortages emphasizing the need for urgent commissioning of power generation projects. It is estimated that the demand for electricity is growing at an average of 6.2% per year, encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS) system is one of the available techniques that can be utilized to reduce peak electricity demand of buildings when national electricity consumption is at its highest level. This paper demonstrates that the use of CWTS system reduces the peak power demand and energy consumption of AC systems for design day conditions by 36.7% - 87.5% and 5.4% - 7.2%, respectively. This reduction depends on selected operating strategies as compared with conventional AC system. Furthermore, results show that the annual energy consumption of CWTS systems decreases by between 4.5% and 6.9% compared with conventional systems, where chillers and pumps significantly contribute to this reduction.

Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Measuring Residential Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Residential Ventilation Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices and System Flow Verification J. Chris Stratton, Iain S. Walker, Craig P. Wray Environmental Energy Technologies Division October 2012 LBNL-5982E 2 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor the Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

386

Energy Basics: Ventilation Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

building through the roof, walls, and windows. Heat-reflecting roofs, insulation, and energy efficient windows will help to reduce that heat conduction. Radiation is heat...

387

3172, Page 1 International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 16-19, 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

insulation, thermal conductivity, heat transfer, moisture accumulation, chiller pipelines ABSTRACT Mechanical of pipe insulation systems had quite different water absorption rates due to different characteristics

Ghajar, Afshin J.

388

Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical power that commonly occur around 15:00 h. The working hours for these building are generally between 07:00 and 14:00 h and their peak demand exceeds 600 MW. The smart operation strategies implemented in these buildings included pre-closing treatment (PCT) between 13:00 and 14:00 h and time-of-day control (TDC) after 14:00 h. Also de-lamping was carried out in some of the buildings to readjust the higher than recommended illumination levels. This paper presents the achievements of implementing these smart operations strategies in Justice Palace Complex (JPC) as a case study. The peak load of this building was 3700 kW. The achievements are summarized as an all time saving of 22 kW by de-lamping, an additional saving of 27 kW through TDC of lighting, direct savings between 13:00 and 22:00 h by closing supply and return air fans of 52 air-handling units with a connected load 400 kW, and an additional saving of 550 kW during the same period by optimizing the cooling production and distribution. In conclusion project achieved an overall reduction in power demand of around 20% between 13:00 to 17:00 h and reduction ranging from 7% to 15% between 17:00 to 20:00 h.

Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis of coordinative optimization control for variable chilled water temperature and variable chilled water flow to obtain better power savings is put forward. According to typical meteorological year data, hourly air conditioning load of whole year for every typical room has been calculated with the transmission function method. In order to guarantee each typical room, the highest cooling load rate is used as an input parameter for optimization calculation. Based on the surface cooler check model, the smallest energy consumption of chiller and chiller water pump was taken as the objective function of the optimization model. The performance characteristics of a chiller, water pump, regulation valve and pipeline are taken into account, and the optimization chilled water temperature and chilled water flow were carried out. The case study for a commercial building in Guangzhou showed that the annual power consumption of the chillers and pumps of the air conditioning system is lower by 17% only with employment of variable water flow regulation by pump frequency conversion. In the case of optimization control with coordinative control of variable chilled water temperature and variable chilled water flow, the annual power consumption of the chillers and pumps of the air conditioning system is reduced by 22% in presence of remarkable power saving effects. Increasing the chilled water temperature will reduce the dehumidified capability of the air cooler, and the indoor relative humidity will increase. The simulation showed that the adjustment optimized process meets the comfort of each typical room. The lower the cooling load rate is, the more obvious the effect of power-saving is. The highest power-saving rate appears in December, which is 36.7%. Meanwhile, the least rate appears in July, which is only 14.5%.

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Dehumidification Performance of Unitary Rooftop Air Conditioning Systems: K-Mart Demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applying various HVAC options--including heat pipe heat exchangers, reduced airflow, low temperature air, and modified fan operation--reduced the average relative humidity of a K-Mart store on the Mississippi coast during the hot humid summer season to below 50 percent. This demonstration will help utilities recommend the best practices for their retail customers.

1996-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

392

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Energy conservation by adaptive control for a solar heated building  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Identification and optimal control techniques are combined to form an adaptive optimal control strategy which is used to minimize the auxiliary energy consumption for a solar heated building. The adaptive optimal control strategy is described and application of the adaptive optimal controller to the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in an appropriate building is modeled. The building used is the newly completed National Security and Resources Study Center (NSRSC) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). The NSRSC uses an 8000 sq. ft. solar collector to provide energy for heating and cooling the building. A cost functional to define optimal performance of the HVAC system and an identification process to produce a linearized building model are combined to yield an adaptive linear regulator solution. Although solar energy is used for both heating and cooling the NSRSC, only the results from the heating simulation are available for presentation here. Energy savings predicted by the model when compared to a conventional control system are described and an alternate system configuration is briefly discussed. Plans for actual implementation of the adaptive optimal controller are discussed.

Farris, D.R.; Melsa, J.L.; Murray, H.S.; McDonald, T.E.; Springer, T.E.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Multi-Source Hydronic Heat Pump System Performance Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An extensive independent evaluation recently was completed of the Multi-Source Hydronic Heat Pump (MSHHP) system, a proprietary heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system developed by Meckler Systems Group. The MSHHP tests were conducted on a unique test bed designed and constructed by National Technical Systems (NTS) through a research and development grant program funded by Southern California Edison Company. This paper outlines testing methods and results, including evaluations of peak power and energy savings allowed by the innovative system. The main difference between the MSHHP and a conventional HVAC system is use of a chilled water "diversity" cooling loop interconnecting air to water coils (located at each water source heat pump unit) with a central chilled water storage tank. The MSHHP system uses significantly less energy than a conventional HVAC system, and lowers peak demand by shifting required electrical energy consumption to lower-cost, off-peak and mid-peak rates. Lower heat pump capacities are a main feature of the MSHHP. This is accomplished by pre-cooling return air from the zone space, a process that also allows the heat pump to operate at a higher Coefficient of Performance (COP), thereby contributing to further energy savings.

Meckler, M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Survey on Electricity Consumption Characteristics of Homethe stakes for energy consumption are high, as we hope atAir Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries

McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas… (more)

Lee, Kyoung Ok

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

A database of PFT ventilation measurements  

SciTech Connect

About five years ago, a method for measuring the ventilation flows of a building was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This method is based on the use of a family of compounds known as perfluorocarbon tracers or PFTs. Since 1982, BNL has measured ventilation in more than 4000 homes, comprising about 100 separate research projects throughout the world. This measurement set is unique in that it is the only set of ventilation measurements that acknowledge and measure the multizone characteristics of residences. Other large measurement sets assume that a home can be treated as a single well-mixed zone. This report describes the creation of a database of approximately half of the PFT ventilation measurements made by BNL over the last five years. The PFT database is currently available for use on any IBM PC or Apple Macintosh based personal computer system. In addition to its utility in modeling indoor pollutant dispersion, this database may also be useful to those people studying energy conservation, thermal comfort and heating system design in residential buildings. 2 refs.

D' Ottavio, T.W.; Goodrich, R.W.; Spandau, D.J.; Dietz, R.N.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Mass and Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building (air to air heat exchanger). In my papers I use (water to air heat exchanger) as a heat recovery and I use the water as a mass recovery. The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines.

Hindawai, S. M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Active vibration reduction applied to the compressor of an air?conditioning unit for trams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the framework of the European Integrated Project InMAR (intelligent materials for active noise reduction)active vibration control and active structural acoustic control approaches are applied to an HVAC (heating

Joachim Bös; Enrico Janssen; Michael Kauba; Dirk Mayer

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Indoor sound criteria according to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air?Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)—An introduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ASHRAE TC?2.6 Sound and Vibration Controltechnical committee has been activity involved with development

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

ASHRAE and residential ventilation  

SciTech Connect

In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the logical place to provide leadership. This leadership has been demonstrated most recently by the publication of the first nationally recognized standard on ventilation in homes, ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2003, which builds on work that has been part of ASHRAE for many years and will presumably continue. Homeowners and occupants, which includes virtually all of us, will benefit from the application of Standard 62.2 and use of the top ten list. This activity is exactly the kind of benefit to society that the founders of ASHRAE envisioned and is consistent with ASHRAE's mission and vision. ASHRAE members should be proud of their Society for taking leadership in residential ventilation.

Sherman, Max H.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

FEMP--Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

heat pump-like an air conditioner or refrigera- heat pump-like an air conditioner or refrigera- tor-moves heat from one place to another. In the summer, a geothermal heat pump (GHP) operating in a cooling mode lowers indoor temperatures by transferring heat from inside a building to the ground outside or below it. Unlike an air condition- er, though, a heat pump's process can be reversed. In the winter, a GHP extracts heat from the ground and transfers it inside. Also, the GHP can use waste heat from summer air-conditioning to provide virtually free hot-water heating. The energy value of the heat moved is typically more than three times the electricity used in the transfer process. GHPs are efficient and require no backup heat because the earth stays at a relatively moderate temperature throughout the year.

403

Heat pipe dehumidification for supermarket energy savings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines the possibility of using a heat pipe installed in the air conditioning unit of a supermarket to increase the level of dehumidification of the inside air. This dehumidification is expected to reduce the ...

Oliver, Eric M. (Eric Michael)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment Sign up for e-mail updates on regulations for this and other products...

405

CX-005018: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-005018: Categorical Exclusion Determination Facility Heating, Air Conditioning, and Ventilation System Conversion to Ground Source Heat Pump (Phase 2)...

406

Building Technologies Office: Appliance Standards and Rulemaking...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Groups Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Certification Working Group All notices, public comments, public meeting...

407

CX-007957: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

existing heating, ventilation and air conditioning system with closed loop ground source heat pump at the Tolland Town Hall. CX-007957.pdf More Documents & Publications...

408

Energy audits reveal significant energy savings potential in India`s commercial air-conditioned building sector  

SciTech Connect

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began its Energy Management Consultation and Training (EMCAT) project in India. The EMCAT project began in 1991 as a six-year (1991--1997) project to improve India`s technological and management capabilities for both the supply of energy and its efficient end use. The end-use component of EMCAT aims for efficient energy utilization by industries and other sectors such as the commercial sector. A specific task under the end-use component was to conduct energy surveys/audits in high energy-use sectors, such as air-conditioned (AC) buildings in the commercial sector, and to identify investment opportunities that could improve energy utilization. This article presents results of pre-investment surveys that were conducted at four commercial air-conditioned facilities in 1995. The four facilities included two luxury hotels in New Delhi, and one luxury hotel and a private hospital in Bombay. Energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) were explored in three major energy-using systems in these buildings: air-conditioning, lighting, and steam and domestic hot water systems.

Singh, G.; Presny, D.; Fafard, C. [Resource Management Associates of Madison, Inc., WI (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

Performance assessment and improvement of an existing air conditioning system of a supermarket: a case study on bi-lo supermarket  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bi-Lo Supermarket in this study is located in sub-tropical coastal area in Queensland, Australia. The main objective of air conditioning in any building or supermarket is to provide comfort to the occupants and patrons of the conditioned space, an objective ... Keywords: air conditioning systems, design principles, performance improvement, supermarket

M. Hansen; M. G. Rasul

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Thermal Energy Storage for the Small Packaged Terminal Air Conditioning Unit. Quarterly progress report, February 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To finalize the IceBear design for full-scale production, build two preproduction prototypes, and confirm cost projections for production and market analysis. The 5 tasks being carried out are: Task 1--Finalize thermal energy storage tank design; Task 2--Finalize internal heat exchanger; Task 3--Finalize refrigerant management and control components; Task 4--Preproduction prototype laboratory testing; and Task 5--Reporting.

NONE

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increased cost per unit of energy at times of peak demandminimizing energy costs and operation during peak timesenergy and cost impacts of ventilation vary with weather and time

Sherman, Max H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Numerical investigation of transient heat and mass transfer in a parallel-flow liquid-desiccant absorber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

model for heat and mass transfer processes in internallyof coupled heat and mass transfer processes in liquidHeat and mass transfer in liquid des- iccant air-conditioning process

Diaz, Gerardo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Ventilation and Work Performance in Office Work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A). When ventilation rate increases from V to V\\, the ratiowork when ventilation rates increase. Field studies withper 10 L/s person increase in ventilation rate and relative

Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Lei, Q.H.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Development of a laminar flow desiccant bed for solar air conditioning application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mass transfer in silica gel beds of different configurations is reviewed in connection with use in the Solar-Desiccant-Evaporative Cooling System. A laminar flow, coated-sheet concept is proposed since it ensures a low pressure drop and minimal solid side mass transfer resistance. A preliminary bed design gives 1/3 the pressure drop of a previous packed particle bed design and a large reduction in volume and silica gel inventory. The construction of a packing module and test rig is described, and test results reported for a particle size of 0.12 mm (60 to 200 mesh) with a passage width of about 1.5 mm. In order to compare theory and experiment, an existing code, NUMINT, which solves the partial differential equations governing heat and mass transfer in silica gel beds, was revised to include the effects of substrate heat capacity, and non-adiabatic operation. Comparisons between theory and experiment were found to be generally satisfactory, though it was found that specification of the bed initial water content for adsorption tests presented some difficulties. The effect of solid side mass transfer resistance was found to be small, which suggests that an optimum design may incorporate a larger particle size. Topics for further work are suggested.

Kim, S.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

VENTILATION (HVAC) FAILURE (BUILDING WIDE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VENTILATION (HVAC) FAILURE (BUILDING WIDE) A failure or shutdown of the ventilation system will be signaled by cessation of the audible background "rumbling" sound of the building's HVAC system. As building durations. NOTE: Due to unpredictable pressure differentials in and around the labs during an HVAC failure

Strynadka, Natalie

416

RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

while still providing ventilation for adequate indoor air quality. Various ASHRAE Standards (e.g., 62 to the ASHRAE Standard 119 levels while still providing adequate ventilation through infiltration or mechanical alternatives. Various ASHRAE Standards are used to assist us. ASHRAE Standard 119-19885 classifies the envelope

417

Innovative Energy Efficient Industrial Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper was written to describe an innovative “on-demand” industrial ventilation system for woodworking, metalworking, food processing, pharmaceutical, chemical, and other industries. Having analyzed existing industrial ventilation in 130 factories, we found striking dichotomy between the classical “static” design of ventilation systems and constantly changing workflow and business demands. Using data from real factories, we are able to prove that classical industrial ventilation design consumes 70 % more energy than necessary. Total potential electricity saving achieved by using on-demand systems instead of classically designed industrial ventilation in the U.S. could be 26 billion kWh. At the average electricity cost of 7 cents per kWh, this would represent $1.875 billion. Eighty such systems are already installed in the USA and European Union.

Litomisky, A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Why We Ventilate - Recent Advances  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WHY WE VENTILATE: WHY WE VENTILATE: Recent Advances Max Sherman BA Stakeholders meeting ASHRAE BIO  Distinguished Lecturer  Exceptional Service Award  Board of Directors; TechC  Chair of committees:  62.2; Standards Committee  TC 4.3; TC 2.5  Holladay Distinguished Fellow OVERVIEW QUESTIONS  What is Ventilation? What is IAQ?  What functions does it provide?  How much do we need? Why?  How should ventilations standards be made? LBL has working on these problems Who Are You?  Engineers (ASHRAE Members & not);  architects,  contractors,  reps,  builders,  vendors,  code officials WHAT IS VENTILATION  Medicine: To Exchange Air In the Lungs  Latin: Ventilare, "to expose to the wind"  Today: To Bring In Outdoor Air And Replace

419

Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution Title Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5795E Year of...

420

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies October 7, 2013 - 11:50am Addthis Photo of a dark brown perforated metal...

422

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable Classroom...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable Classroom Field Study Interim Report Title Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable Classroom Field Study Interim...

423

Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

air quality. There are four basic mechanical whole-house ventilation systems -- exhaust, supply, balanced, and energy recovery. Comparison of Whole-House Ventilation Systems...

424

RESIDENTIAL INTEGRATED VENTILATION ENERGY CONTROLLER - Energy ...  

A residential controller is described which is used to manage the mechanical ventilation systems of a home, installed to meet whole-house ventilation requirements, at ...

425

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Passive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to Maintain Indoor Air Quality in Houses. ”Passive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to Maintain Indoor Air Quality in Houses."

Walker, Iain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Operational test report integrated system test (ventilation upgrade)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operational Final Test Report for Integrated Systems, Project W-030 (Phase 2 test, RECIRC and HIGH-HEAT Modes). Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks, including upgraded vapor space cooling and filtered venting of tanks AY101, Ay102, AZ101, AZ102.

HARTY, W.M.

1999-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

427

Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences  

SciTech Connect

A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Study of the test method for prediction of air conditioning equipment seasonal performance  

SciTech Connect

The test procedure, Method of Testing, Rating and Estimating the Seasonal Performance of Central Air-Conditioners and Heat Pumps Operating in the Cooling Mode, has been analyzed. The analysis of the test procedure incorporated two main functions: (1) to determine the validity of the test procedure; and (2) to determine if there are other alternate methods of obtaining the same results with less testing burden. Data were collected from industry and analyzed for any significant trends. Certain conclusions are drawn about the energy efficiency ratios, degradation coefficients and seasonal energy efficiency ratios. An error analysis was performed on the test procedure to determine the approximate amount of error when using this procedure. A semi-empirical model assuming a first order system response was developed to determine the factors that affect the part-load and cooling-load factors. The corresponding transient characteristics are then determined in terms of a single time constant. A thermostat demand cycle is used to determine the relationship between on-time and cycle-time. Recommendations are made regarding an alternate method being used to determine the seasonal energy efficiency ratio.

Thomas, S.B.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

, 2011 , 2011 Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Welcome to the Webinar! We will start at 2:00 PM Eastern Time Be sure that you are also dialed into the telephone conference call: Dial-in number: 888-324-9601; Pass code: 5551971 Download the presentation at: www.buildingamerica.gov/meetings.html Building Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Building America: Introduction November 1, 2011 Cheryn Engebrecht Cheryn.engebrecht@nrel.gov Building Technologies Program Building Technologies Program eere.energy.gov * Reduce energy use in new and existing residential buildings * Promote building science and systems engineering / integration approach * "Do no harm": Ensure safety, health and durability are maintained or improved * Accelerate adoption of high performance technologies

430

The effect of location on the predicted performance of a heat pump water heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the HPWH extracts energy from the air in its environment, the question arises as to how this energy extraction would affect the house heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system if the HPWH were located in a conditioned space of a household. A second question concerns the savings obtained by locating the HPWH in an unconditioned space such as a garage or basement. The effect of locating the HPWH in the conditioned spaces of houses with a high-performance heat pump as well as resistance- gas- and oil-heated houses with a high performance electric air conditioner was studied. All calculations were made on a desktop computer. Weather bin data and inlet water temperatures for each city were used to calcuate the energy consumption for the house first with a resistance water heater, and then with a HPWH. The difference between these values was used to calculate the performance factor (PF) of the HPWH. The HPWH will add to the house heating load in winter and lessen the house cooling load in summer.

Levins, W.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Positive Pressure Ventilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to the fire and can increase the rate of heat and energy being released. ... of vents open were altered to examine capability and optimization of each. ...

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

432

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADVANCED HEAT EXCHANGER MODEL FOR STEADY STATE AND FROSTING CONDITIONS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Air-to-refrigerant fin-and-tube heat exchangers are a key component in the heating, air conditioning and refrigeration industry. Considering their dominance, the industry has focused immensely on… (more)

Singh, Varun

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Energy and economic performance analysis of an open cycle solar desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system for application in Hong Kong  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, a transient simulation model and the EnergyPlus were used to study the energy performance and economical feasibility for integrating a solar liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a conventional vapor compression air-conditioning system for the weather condition of Hong Kong. The vapor compression system capacity in the solar assisted air-conditioning system can be reduced to 19 kW from original 28 kW of a conventional air-conditioning system as a case study due to the solar desiccant cooling. The economical performance of the solar desiccant dehumidification system is compared with that of the conventional air-conditioning system. The results show that the energy saving potentials due to incorporation of the solar desiccant dehumidification system in a traditional air-conditioning system is significant for the hot wet weather in Hong Kong due to higher COP resulted from higher supply chilled water temperature from chiller plants. The annual operation energy savings for the hybrid system is 6760 kWh and the payback period of the hybrid system is around 7 years. The study shows that the solar assisted air-conditioning is a viable technology for utilizations in subtropical areas. (author)

Li, Yutong; Lu, Lin; Yang, Hongxing [Renewable Energy Research Group (RERG), Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom (China)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Monitored energy use of homes with geothermal heat pumps: A compilation and analysis of performance. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The performance of residential geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) was assessed by comparing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and whole house energy use of GHP houses and control houses. Actual energy savings were calculated and compared to expected savings (based on ARI ratings and literature) and predicted savings (based on coefficient of performance - COP - measurements). Differences between GHP and control houses were normalized for heating degree days and floor area or total insulation value. Predicted savings were consistently slightly below expected savings but within the range of performance cited by the industry. Average rated COP was 3.4. Average measured COP was 3.1. Actual savings were inconsistent and sometimes significantly below predicted savings. No correlation was found between actual savings and actual energy use. This suggests that factors such as insulation and occupant behavior probably have greater impact on energy use than type of HVAC equipment. There was also no clear correlation between climate and actual savings or between climate and actual energy use. There was a trend between GHP installation date and savings. Newer units appear to have lower savings than some of the older units which is opposite of what one would expect given the increase in rated efficiencies of GHPs. There are a number of explanations for why actual savings are repeatedly below rated savings or predicted savings. Poor ground loop sizing or installation procedures could be an issue. Given that performance is good compared to ASHPs but poor compared to electric resistance homes, the shortfall in savings could be due to duct leakage. The takeback effect could also be a reason for lower than expected savings. Occupants of heat pump homes are likely to heat more rooms and to use more air-conditioning than occupants of electric resistance homes. 10 refs., 17 figs., 10 tabs.

Stein, J.R.; Meier, A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying  

SciTech Connect

Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

Andrew Lowenstein

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

436

The effect of hardware configuration on the performance of residential air conditioning systems at high outdoor ambient temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study was performed which investigated the effect of hardware configuration on air conditioning cooling system performance at high outdoor temperatures. The initial phase of the investigation involved the testing of ten residential air conditioning units in psychrometric rooms at Texas A&M University. All units were tested using ARI Standard 210/240 (1989) test procedures. Tests were conducted at indoor conditions of 80'F (26.7'C) db and 67'F (19.4'C) wb, and outdoor db temperatures of 82'F (27.8'C), 95-F (35-C), 100-F (37.8-C), 105-F (40.6-C), 1 10-F (43.3-C), and 120-F (48.90C). The second phase of the research involved the analysis of manufacturers' published cooling performance data for various hardware configurations. For the experimental work, measurements were taken to determine total capacity, system power, EER, and power factor. These results were then compared to manufacturers' predicted values. For the capacity, the experimental results were an average of 2.6% below the manufacturers' published values for outdoor temperatures from 85'F (29.4'C) to 115'F (46.l'C). Experimental power measurements were on average 0.4% above manufacturers' listed results. For the EER, experimental results were an average of 2.9% less than the manufacturers' predicted values. The power factors of all units were above 0.95 for the tested outdoor temperatures. In the analysis of manufacturers' published data, relationships between steady-state performance, cyclic performance, and hardware configuration were investigated for a variety of air conditioning units. A statistical relationship was found between the SEER of a unit and its corresponding EER. The split-system units possessed greater increases in EER for a given increase in SEER than the package or two-speed units. Averages values of EER/SEER for EER's at 95F (350C) were highest for the split-system units, followed by the package and two-speed units, respectively. Normalized capacity, power, and EER curves were investigated at outdoor temperatures from 85F (29.40C) to 115OF (46.1"C). On average, the two-speed units showed the smallest decrease in capacity with an increase in outdoor temperature, followed by the split-system and package-system units. The smallest power increase and smallest EER decrease with an increase in outdoor temperature were exhibited by the split-system units, followed by the two-speed and package-system units.

Bain, Joel Alan

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Ventilation andleakage. The ASHRAE Handbook of fundamentals (ASHRAE 2009),

Sherman, Max

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Sound quality descriptors for HVAC equipment from ARI Standards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) has several standards that provide methods to evaluate the sound quality of heating ventilating and air?conditioning (HVAC) equipment. These include Standard 270 Sound rating of outdoor unitary equipment

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Energy effectiveness of simultaneous heat and mass exchange devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous heat and mass exchange devices such as cooling towers, humidifiers and dehumidifiers are widely used in the power generation, desalination, air conditioning, and refrigeration industries. For design and rating ...

Narayan, G. Prakash

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Ventilating Beta Plane Leases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theory of warm water lenses on beta planes is extended to include heat exchange between the lenses and their environment. The motivation for this study comes from recent observations of Gulf Stream warm core rings, which clearly show that ...

William K. Dewar

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

CX-006109: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Conservation Block Grant Program. 1) Energy efficiency retrofits, including new roofs, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, lighting upgrades and controls,...

442

Microsoft Word - 04-ACRONYM LIST.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GWSB - Glass Waste Storage Building HATF - High Activity TRU Facility HEU - Highly Enriched Uranium HTF - H-Tank Farm HVAC - Heating, ventilation and air-condition HW - Heavy...

443

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Project DE-EE0000727 Dodge City Unified School District Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Retrofit with Ground Source...

444

Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

conceptual engineering technology skills among graduates of community college programs in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) and related...

445

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Download CX-002821: Categorical Exclusion Determination Teutopolis Community Unit School District 50 - Geothermal Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Project CX(s)...

446

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: American Recovery and Reinvestme...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Project DE-EE0000727 Dodge City Unified School District Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Retrofit with Ground Source...

447

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Office of Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2, 2010 CX-004383: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pine Hall Brick Company Energy Efficiency Improvements for Lighting, Kiln and Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning...

448

Environmental Energy Technologies Division News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

as building type, floor area, age, and occupancy; and by system features such as lighting and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). The tool also enables users to...

449

Controlled Photolytic Release of Biocides for High Efficiency ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Airborne microorganisms—bacteria, viruses, and fungi—that enter heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and deposit on ...

450

CONTAM Overview - Species and Contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... These include air movements into, out of, and within a building system; heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; removal by ...

451

c23a.xls  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. HVAC Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. Due to rounding, data may not sum...

452

December 24, 2008 Opt of Commerce, NIST Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... today is too much in the hands of A} sales oriented people ... coating reducing the burden on Heating-Ventilating-AirConditioning (HVAC) systems; 7 ...

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

453

MALWARE RISKS AND MITIGATION REPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of crimeware profit from the sale or lease ... black market forums and legitimate sales channels ... heating, ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC) and power ...

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

454

August 18, 2011 Mr. Jon Boyens Senior Advisor Computer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... For example, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning ... companies would be qualified to sell to CCI customers or that products for sale to the ...

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

455

CX-006019: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) units; and installation of energy efficiency lighting, exit lights, and parking lot lights; and replace exit lights and...

456

Country Review of Energy-Efficiency Financial Incentives in the Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

incentive GHG greenhouse gas HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt hour PACE property-assessed clean energy

Can, Stephane de la Rue du

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Training the Next Generation of Commercial Building ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment, in these buildings, is controlled by a thermostat and other systems (lights and plugs) have ...

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

458

CX-000083: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination Harrison County's Replacement of?Existing Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Systems CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11182009 Location(s): Harrison...

459

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: DD4M Air Duct Design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

friction, constant velocity and or static regain procedures to design air ducts for air conditioning, heating, ventilation and materials handling. Allows 1000 duct sections...

460

CX-000098: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Churchill County's Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Retrofit CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11242009 Location(s): Churchill...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

CX-006188: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-006188: Categorical Exclusion Determination B-3 Area 160 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Upgrades Date: 07112011 Location(s): Morgantown, West Virginia...

462

CX-000061: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-000061: Categorical Exclusion Determination Greenville's Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Boiler Retrofit CX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1 Date: 11122009...

463

CX-006566: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination La Puente City Hall Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System Date: 08252011 Location(s): LaPuente, California Office(s):...

464

CX-001145: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Ford Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Project CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03082010 Location(s): Asuza,...

465

CX-001144: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Ford Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Project CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03082010 Location(s): Northville,...

466

CX-009282: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Big 8 - 922, 920, 921 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Upgrades; 921, 74 Roof Replacement; HPSB Upgrades CX(s) Applied: B2.1,...

467

ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW FOR CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

consists of the following: replacing windows, installing a new heating, ventilation and air conditioning system, removing and filling in an existing floor drain, replacing...

468

A Potential Path to Emissions-Free Fossil EnergyA Potential Path...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a Difference Incorporation of a new CO2 sorbent into commercial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems will save energy and reduce operating costs. HVAC is one...

469

Modeling and Identification for HVAC Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems consist of all the equipment that control the conditions and distribution of indoor air. Indoor air must be… (more)

Scotton, Francesco

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Algoritmi per la previsione del carico in applicazioni HVAC.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Il lavoro si pone come obiettivo l’applicazione di metodi e algoritmi per la previsione del carico in sistemi HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning). La… (more)

Simmini, Francesco

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

HVAC system study: a data-driven approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The energy consumed by heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems has increased in the past two decades. Thus, improving efficiency of HVAC systems… (more)

Xu, Guanglin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

System-Level Monitoring and Diagnosis of Building HVAC System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is an indoor environmental technology that is extensively instrumented for large-scale buildings. Among all subsystems of buildings, the HVAC… (more)

Wu, Siyu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides practical guidelines that can be used by power plant personnel to diagnose and troubleshoot heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and component performance problems.

2001-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

474

Table C3. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity for Sum ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

specifically for that particular end use. HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals.

475

Commercialization-Analysis-&-Roadmap-  

Industrial!Heating!Ventilation!Air!Conditioning!(HVAC),!own!meltgblown!technology! http://bit.ly/KDU3P5!! Filtration(Group(Inc.((USA)(

476

c1a.xls  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. HVAC Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. Due to rounding, data may not sum to...

477

System dynamics based models for selecting HVAC systems for office buildings: a life cycle assessment from carbon emissions perspective.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study aims to explore the life cycle environmental impacts of typical heating ventilation and air condition (HVAC) systems including variable air volume (VAV) system,… (more)

Chen, S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

The impact of filter loading on residential hvac performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Buildings are the primary user of energy in the USA. Within homes, the heating, ventilation, and air condition (HVAC) system is the largest energy consumer.… (more)

Kruger, Abraham J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Tecniche di machine learning per la ricerca guasti in impianti HVAC.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Il corretto funzionamento degli impianti di tipo HVAC (Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning) di taglia medio/grande, risulta cruciale al fine di garantire un adeguato livello… (more)

Corso, Lorenzo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

CX-002726: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Laboratory Replace existing boilers with high efficiency boilers, improve steam distribution systems, new heating, ventilating, and air conditioning controls, and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating ventilating air-conditioning" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner 4th Civil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, which provides highly efficient heat and cooling year-round by precisely regulating refrigerant flow to maximize system efficiency...

482

2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner 4th Civil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, which provides highly e cient heat and cooling year-round by precisely regulating refrigerant flow to maximize system e ciency...

483

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area PowerAdministratio...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

February 3, 2012 CX-007818: Categorical Exclusion Determination Weld Substation Control Building