Sample records for heating space heating

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  5. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  6. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  7. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  8. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  9. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  10. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  11. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  12. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  13. Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature...

  14. Walley's Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Walley's Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Walley's...

  15. Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  16. Warner Springs Ranch Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warner Springs Ranch Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Warner...

  17. Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature...

  18. Klamath Apartment Buildings (13) Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apartment Buildings (13) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath Apartment Buildings (13) Space Heating Low Temperature...

  19. Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  20. Shoshone Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shoshone Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Shoshone Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature...

  1. Hot Springs National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Springs National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  2. Wiesbaden Motel & Health Resort Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motel & Health Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wiesbaden Motel & Health Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  3. Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature...

  4. Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low...

  5. Modesto Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Modesto Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  6. Jackson Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jackson Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  7. Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  8. Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  9. Glenwood Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Glenwood Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  10. Pagosa Springs Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  11. Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  12. Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  13. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

  14. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Homes & Buildings Space Heating and Cooling Basics Space Heating and Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:04pm Addthis A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and...

  15. Fairmont Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center1 Fairmont Hot Springs Resort is a Space Heating low temperature direct use geothermal facility in Fairmont, Montana. This article is...

  16. East Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space Heating...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name East Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space...

  17. Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for...

  18. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's presentation about passive solar building design and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications.

  19. Lightning Dock Geothermal Space Heating Project: Lightning Dock...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dock KGRA, New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Lightning Dock Geothermal Space Heating Project: Lightning Dock KGRA, New...

  20. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  1. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

  2. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

  3. INTEGRATED CO2 HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS FOR SPACE HEATING AND HOT WATER HEATING IN LOW-ENERGY HOUSES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    designed as stand-alone systems, i.e. a heat pump water heater (HPWH) in combination with separate units

  4. Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combined with heat pump improve the thermal performance of the heat pump and the global system. The performances of the heating system combining heat pump and solar collectors are higher than that of solar heating system with solar collectors and storage...

  5. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  6. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  7. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyGlossaryProgramRussiaSpace Heating and Cooling Basics Space

  8. 1 CO2 Heat Pump System for Space Heating and Hot Water Heating in Low-Energy Houses and Passive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designed as a stand-alone system, i.e. a heat pump water heater in combination with a separate unit for

  9. "Table HC8.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Urban/Rural Location...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by UrbanRural Location, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" "Space Heating...

  10. "Table HC10.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Space Heating Usage...

  11. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  12. List of Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other Alternative FuelEnergy JumpsourceSpace Heat

  13. A simplistic model of cyclic heat transfer phenomena in closed spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclic heat transfer inside closed spaces is investigated analytically using a simple heat transfer model. The model consists of a gas layer exchanging heat with two bounding parallel walls that pulsate against each other in the transverse direction. Correlations for the magnitude and the phase lag of the heat transfer are obtained. Also, an expression for the power loss due to the cyclic heat transfer is presented. It is shown that the loss approaches zero as the heat transfer process approaches either isothermal or adiabatic conditions. The power loss is shown to be a strong function of the phase angle between the bulk gas temperature and the heat transfer.

  14. Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Z.; Zheng, M.; Liu, W.; Wang, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage. In this system, solar energy is the major heat source for a heat pump, and the supplementary heat source is soil. The disagreement in time between the space heat load and heat collected by solar...

  15. Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

  16. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  17. Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the simulation and the analysis of a solar flat plate collectors combined with a compression heat pump is carried out. The system suggested must ensure the heating of a building without the recourse to an auxiliary energy source...

  18. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  19. SURVEY OF ADVANCED HEAT PUMP DEVELOPMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING* Phillip D. Fairchild

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;SURVEY OF ADVANCED HEAT PUMP DEVELOPMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING* Phillip D. Fairchild Energy Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory it*~~ ~Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT Because of the heat pump energy research organiza- tions. This paper presents a survey of heat pump RD&D projects with special

  20. 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-42 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined. Assumptions The heat engine and the refrigerator operate steadily. Analysis (a) The highest

  1. City of Twenty-Nine Palms Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Palms Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location Twenty-Nine Palms, California Coordinates 34.1355582, -116.0541689 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"...

  2. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space temperature, occupant thermal comfort, cooling and heating loads, HVAC equipment sizes, energy consumption, utility cost, air emissions, water usage, renewable

  3. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space temperature, occupant thermal comfort, cooling and heating loads, HVAC equipment sizes, energy consumption, utility cost, air emissions, water usage, renewable

  4. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  5. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer in Confined Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Pool boiling is an effective method used in many technical applications for a long time. Its highly efficient heat transfer performance results from not only the convection effect but also the phase change process in pool boiling. Pool boiling...

  6. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5732E An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings Author(s), Hung Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH than 7 trillion Joules of site energy annually [USDOE]. Analyzing building space heating performance

  7. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Hung-Wen; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space heating is the largest energy end use, consuming more than 7 quintillion joules of site energy annually in the U.S. building sector. A few recent studies showed discrepancies in simulated space-heating energy use among different building energy modeling programs, and the simulated results are suspected to be underpredicting reality. While various uncertainties are associated with building simulations, especially when simulations are performed by different modelers using different simulation programs for buildings with different configurations, it is crucial to identify and evaluate key driving factors to space-heating energy use in order to support the design and operation of low-energy buildings. In this study, 10 design and operation parameters for space-heating systems of two prototypical office buildings in each of three U.S. heating climates are identified and evaluated, using building simulations with EnergyPlus, to determine the most influential parameters and their impacts on variations of space-heating energy use. The influence of annual weather change on space-heating energy is also investigated using 30-year actual weather data. The simulated space-heating energy use is further benchmarked against those from similar actual office buildings in two U.S. commercial-building databases to better understand the discrepancies between simulated and actual energy use. In summary, variations of both the simulated and actual space-heating energy use of office buildings in all three heating climates can be very large. However these variations are mostly driven by a few influential parameters related to building design and operation. The findings provide insights for building designers, owners, operators, and energy policy makers to make better decisions on energy-efficiency technologies to reduce space-heating energy use for both new and existing buildings.

  8. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar energy system was constructed with the new 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while the auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors, manufactured by Solaron Corporation, are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7800 ft/sup 2/. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. No freeze protection or storage is required for this system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  9. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer in Confined Space 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    on pool boiling. In the study, confinement was achieved by placing a flat plate over heated surface. The flat plate has a hole in the middle, and there is a gap between the flat plate and the heater. The diameters of hole are 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm; the gap...

  10. Sodium Based Heat Pipe Modules for Space Reactor Concepts: Stainless Steel SAFE-100 Core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S. [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for advanced space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration applications. Long life heat pipe modules, with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental lifetime evaluations, would be necessary to establish the viability of any of these candidates, including the heat pipe reactor option. A hardware-based program was initiated to establish the infrastructure necessary to build heat pipe modules. This effort, initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory and referred to as the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, set out to fabricate and perform non-nuclear testing on a modular heat pipe reactor prototype that can provide 100-kWt from the core to an energy conversion system at 700 deg. C. Prototypic heat pipe hardware was designed, fabricated, filled, closed-out and acceptance tested. (authors)

  11. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  12. Performance predictions and measurements for space-power-system heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature liquid metal heat pipes designed for space power systems have been analyzed and tested. Three wick designs are discussed and a design rationale for the heat pipe is provided. Test results on a molybdenum, annular wick heat pipe are presented. Performance limitations due to boiling and capillary limits are presented. There is evidence that the vapor flow in the adiabatic section is turbulent and that the transition Reynolds number is 4000.

  13. Close-spaced thermionic converters with active spacing control and heat-pipe isothermal emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, G.O.; Koester, J.K.; Chang, J.; Britt, E.J.; McVey, J.B. [Space Power, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermionic converters with interelectrode gaps smaller than 10 microns are capable of substantial performance improvements over conventional ignited mode diodes. Previous devices which have demonstrated operation at such small gaps have done so at low power densities and emitter temperatures. Higher power operation requires overcoming two primary design issues: thermal distortion of the emitter due to temperature gradients and degradation of the in-gap spacers at higher emitter temperatures. This work describes two innovations for solution of these issues. The issue of thermal distortion was addressed by an isothermal emitter incorporating a heat-pipe into its structure. Such a heat-pipe emitter, with a single-crystal emitting surface, was fabricated and characterized. Finite-element computational modeling was used to analyze its distortion with an applied heat flux. The calculations suggested that thermal distortion would be significantly reduced as compared with a solid emitter. Ongoing work and preliminary experimental results are described for a system of active interelectrode gap control. In the present design an integral transducer determines the interelectrode gap of the converter. Initial designs for spacing actuators and their required cesium vapor seals are discussed. A novel hot-shell converter design incorporating active spacing control and low-temperature seals is presented. A converter incorporating the above features would be capable of near ideal-converter performance at high power densities. In addition, active spacing control can potentially completely eliminate short-circuit failures in thermionic converter systems.

  14. Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use-acceptable refrigerants. Whether involving design of specific new products or refriger- ants to which the entire industry

  15. Practical Analysis of a New Type Radiant Heating Technology in a Large Space Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, G.; Cao, G.; Gang, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the fields of heating in large space and building energy conservation? In an attempt to conserve energy and reduce energy loss, it has become necessary to seek effective means of reducing heat loss in energy consumption. The development of improved means...

  16. Practical Analysis of a New Type Radiant Heating Technology in a Large Space Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, G.; Cao, G.; Gang, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the fields of heating in large space and building energy conservation? In an attempt to conserve energy and reduce energy loss, it has become necessary to seek effective means of reducing heat loss in energy consumption. The development of improved means...

  17. Heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishman, P.J.

    1983-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system utilizing solar panels and buried ground conduits to collect and store heat which is delivered to a heatpump heat exchanger. A heat-distribution fluid continuously circulates through a ground circuit to transfer heat from the ground to the heat exchanger. The ground circuit includes a length of buried ground conduit, a pump, a check valve and the heat exchanger. A solar circuit, including a solar panel and a second pump, is connected in parallel with the check valve so that the distribution fluid transfers solar heat to the heat exchanger for utilization and to the ground conduit for storage when the second pump is energized. A thermostatically instrumented control system energizes the second pump only when the temperature differential between the solar panel inlet and outlet temperatures exceeds a predetermined value and the ground temperature is less than a predetermined value. Consequently, the distribution fluid flows through the solar panel only when the panel is capable of supplying significant heat to the remainder of the system without causing excessive drying of the ground.

  18. "Table HC9.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Climate Zone...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Climate Zone, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Climate Zone1" ,,"Less than 2,000 CDD and --",,,,"2,000 CDD or More and Less than 4,000...

  19. "Table HC4.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing...

  20. "Table HC3.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing...

  1. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Fields, Paul R. (Chicago, IL)

    1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  2. Heat pipe cooled reactors for multi-kilowatt space power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranken, W.A.; Houts, M.G.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) to radiator heat pipes.

  3. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  4. Interaction of a solar space heating system with the thermal behavior of a building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilmer, C.; Warren, M.L.; Auslander, D.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal behavior of a building in response to heat input from an active solar space heating system is analyzed to determine the effect of the variable storage tank temperature on the cycling rate, on-time, and off-time of a heating cycle and on the comfort characteristics of room air temperature swing and of offset of the average air temperature from the setpoint (droop). A simple model of a residential building, a fan coil heat-delivery system, and a bimetal thermostat are used to describe the system. A computer simulation of the system behavior has been developed and verified by comparisons with predictions from previous studies. The system model and simulation are then applied to determine the building response to a typical hydronic solar heating system for different solar storage temperatures, outdoor temperatures, and fan coil sizes. The simulations were run only for those cases where there was sufficient energy from storage to meet the building load requirements.

  5. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  6. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  7. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  8. Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

  9. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

  10. Heat Transfer -1 A satellite in space orbits the sun. The satellite can be approximated as a flat plate with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Heat Transfer - 1 A satellite in space orbits the sun. The satellite can be approximated as a flat plate with dimensions and properties given below. (a) Calculate the solar heat flux (W/m2 is at a distance where the solar heat flux (as defined above) is 500 W/m2 , and the flat plate is oriented

  11. Heat transfer from combustion gases to a single row of closely spaced tubes in a swirl crossflow Stirling engine heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankston, C.P.; Back, L.H.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an experimental program to determine the heat-transfer characteristics of a combustor and heat-exchange system in a hybrid solar receiver which utilizes a Stirling engine. The system consists of a swirl conbustor with a crossflow heat exchanger composed of a single row of 48 closely spaced curved tubes. In the present study, heat-transfer characteristics of the combustor/heat-exchanger system without a Stirling engine have been studied over a range of operating conditions and output levels using water as the working fluid. Non-dimensional heat-transfer coefficients based on total heat transfer have been obtained and are compared with available literature data. The results show significantly enhanced heat transfer for the present geometry and test conditions. Also, heat transfer along the length of the tubes is found to vary, the effect depending upon test condition.

  12. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

  13. Heat pump apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  14. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Hua

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for ground-source heat pumps. in ASHRAE Summer Meeting.savings of ground source heat pump systems in Europe: Afor ground-source heat pumps: A literature review,

  15. INTERACTION OF A SOLAR SPACE HEATING SYSTEM WITH THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilmer, Christian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P(t) UAB time constant. Heat input power from a fan coil orof a building in response to heat input from an active solarS.R. of a building under heat input conditions for active

  16. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouofSolvingexplore correlation613Space4

  17. Modeling of Heat Transfer in Geothermal Heat Exchangers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, P.; Man, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been gaining increasing popularity for space conditioning in residential and commercial buildings. The geothermal heat exchanger (GHE) is devised for extraction or injection of thermal energy from...

  18. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  19. Geothermal heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aureille, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the viability of geothermal heating projects in energy and economic terms and to provide nomograms from which an initial estimate may be made without having to use data-processing facilities. The effect of flow rate and temperature of the geothermal water on drilling and on the network, and the effect of climate on the type of housing are considered.

  20. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

  1. Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire offers a rebate for residential solar water-heating systems and solar space-heating systems. The rebate is equal to $1,500 for systems with an annual estimated output of 5.5 MMBTU to...

  2. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  3. Modelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    production and space cooling at the same time. An answer to a dual energy demand is the heat pump, sinceModelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Paul Byrne1 *, Jacques-012-0089-0 #12;1. ABSTRACT The heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) carries out space heating

  4. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  5. An Analysis of Predicted vs. Monitored Space Heat Energy Use in 120 Homes : Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglass, John G.; Young, Marvin; Washington State Energy Office.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SUNDAY thermal simulation program was used to predict space heat energy consumption for 120 energy efficient homes. The predicted data were found to explain 43.8 percent of the variation in monitored space heat consumption. Using a paired Student's to test, no statistically significant difference could be found between mean predicted space heat and monitored space heat for the entire sample of homes. The homes were grouped into seven classes, sub-samples by total heat loss coefficient. An intermediate class (UA = 300--350 Btu/{degrees}F) was found to significantly over-predict space heat by 25 percent. The same class was over-predicted by 16 percent in the analogous Cycle 1 research, but the sample size was smaller and this was not found to be statistically significant. Several variables that were not directly included as inputs to the simulation were examined with an analysis of covariance model for their ability to improve the simulation's prediction of space heat. The variables having the greatest effect were conditioned floor area, heating system type, and foundation type. The model was able to increase the coefficient of determination from 0.438 to 0.670; a 54 percent increase. While the SUNDAY simulation program to aggregate is able to predict space heat consumption, it should be noted that there is a considerable amount of variation in both the monitored space heat consumption and the SUNDAY predictions. The ability of the program to accurately model an individual house will be constrained by both the quality of input variables and the range of occupant behavior. These constraints apply to any building model.

  6. An Analysis of Predicted vs. Monitored Space Heat Energy Use in 120 Homes :Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglass, John G.; Young, Marvin; Washington State Energy Office.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SUNDAY thermal simulation program was used to predict space heat energy consumption for 120 energy efficient homes. The predicted data were found to explain 43.8 percent of the variation in monitored space heat consumption. Using a paired Student`s to test, no statistically significant difference could be found between mean predicted space heat and monitored space heat for the entire sample of homes. The homes were grouped into seven classes, sub-samples by total heat loss coefficient. An intermediate class (UA = 300--350 Btu/{degrees}F) was found to significantly over-predict space heat by 25 percent. The same class was over-predicted by 16 percent in the analogous Cycle 1 research, but the sample size was smaller and this was not found to be statistically significant. Several variables that were not directly included as inputs to the simulation were examined with an analysis of covariance model for their ability to improve the simulation`s prediction of space heat. The variables having the greatest effect were conditioned floor area, heating system type, and foundation type. The model was able to increase the coefficient of determination from 0.438 to 0.670; a 54 percent increase. While the SUNDAY simulation program to aggregate is able to predict space heat consumption, it should be noted that there is a considerable amount of variation in both the monitored space heat consumption and the SUNDAY predictions. The ability of the program to accurately model an individual house will be constrained by both the quality of input variables and the range of occupant behavior. These constraints apply to any building model.

  7. Dead heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Boyle, R.H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the prospect of global warming. This paper proposes a workable solution, and a road map for getting there. The author explains how we became addicted to fossil fuels and evokes a bleak picture should this dependence continue. But the book also explores how industry can become a vehicle for solving, instead of precipitating, the global environmental crisis. The decoupling of energy from pollution can be accomplished without sacrificing prosperity by powering the economy with solar energy. Dead Heat takes us step by step to a greenhouse-friendly world fueled only by the sun.

  8. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  9. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  10. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  11. Study on the heat transfer and pattern formation of an evaporating binary liquid in view of space experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolper, Pierre

    fluid dynamics simulations are performed using the software ComSol (finite elements methodStudy on the heat transfer and pattern formation of an evaporating binary liquid in view of space numerical simulations Investigate heat transfer and pattern formation for a set of parameters Identify

  12. Optimal heat-reversible snap joints for frame-panel assembly in aluminum space frame automotive bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

    Optimal heat-reversible snap joints for frame-panel assembly in aluminum space frame automotive, snap-fit joints, aluminum space frame 1 INTRODUCTION Aluminum space frame (AFS) automotive bodies to dramatically improve the recyclability of aluminum space frame (ASF) bodies by enabling clean separation

  13. INTERACTION OF A SOLAR SPACE HEATING SYSTEM WITH THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilmer, Christian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar con- trols test facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory The interaction of baseboard, radiant panel, and furnace heating

  14. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat consumption of a low energy multifamily complex in Switzerland based on long-term experimental data,

  15. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  16. Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L. D.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, heat driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid is reactive...

  17. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  18. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  19. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  20. San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility San Bernardino District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating...

  1. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  2. Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating...

  3. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  4. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Midland District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Midland,...

  5. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  6. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  7. "Table HC11.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal4362 Home324

  8. "Table HC12.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal4362780324

  9. Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat pump system used for recycling and reusing waste heat in s high school bathroom was minutely analyzed in its coefficient of performance, onetime utilization ratio of energy, economic property and so on. The results showed that this system...

  10. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -expanding variety of industrial processes. One notable application in recent years has been for combustion airs preheat of fired heaters in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. Another recent development has been a waste heat recovery boiler using heat...

  11. Industrial food processing and space heating with geothermal heat. Final report, February 16, 1979-August 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunze, J.F.; Marlor, J.K.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A competitive aware for a cost sharing program was made to Madison County, Idaho to share in a program to develop moderate-to-low temperature geothermal energy for the heating of a large junior college, business building, public shcools and other large buildings in Rexburg, Idaho. A 3943 ft deep well was drilled at the edge of Rexburg in a region that had been probed by some shallower test holes. Temperatures measured near the 4000 ft depth were far below what was expected or needed, and drilling was abandoned at that depth. In 1981 attempts were made to restrict downward circulation into the well, but the results of this effort yielded no higher temperatures. The well is a prolific producer of 70/sup 0/F water, and could be used as a domestic water well.

  12. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  13. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  14. Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic concepts of heat recovery are defined as they apply to the industrial community. Methods for locating, ranking, and developing heat recovery opportunities are presented and explained. The needs for useful heat 'sinks' are emphasized as equal...

  15. Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic concepts of heat recovery are defined as they apply to the industrial community. Methods for locating, ranking, and developing heat recovery opportunities are presented and explained. The needs for useful heat 'sinks' are emphasized as equal...

  16. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transient the heat transfer model. T h i s required the roofto develop and calibrate heat transfer models to be able toE S station, the heat transfer models described i n sections

  17. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  18. U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FEMP case study overview of the geothermal/ground source heat pump project at the U.S. Army Fort Knox Disney Barracks.

  19. Industrial and Commercial Heat Pump Applications in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niess, R. C.

    compression cycle. Using readily available fluorocarbon refrigerants as the heat pump working fluid, this cycle is commonly used because of its wide application opportunities. Compressed Vapors Heat Pump Compressor Heat Sink PrOCess (Condenser... and refrigerants most commonly used and the open-cycle mechanical vapor compression heat pumps. Waste heat sources, heat loads served by heat pumps--and typical applications using heat pumps for large-scale space heating, domestic water heating, and industrial...

  20. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

    1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  1. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  2. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  3. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  5. Multigroup half space moment approximations to the radiative heat transfer equations q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coudière, Yves

    cooling) over astrophysics to combustion (e.g., in gas turbine combustion chambers). Since radiative heat into direction l 2 ½À1; 1. Furthermore, T ðx; tÞ is the material temperature. The heat conductivity is denoted with the following boundary conditions. For the material temper

  6. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  7. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  8. Mass and Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building...

  9. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  10. Retrofitting the heating system for NASA's space shuttle engine test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arceneaux, T.W. (NASA, St. Louis, MO (US))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The John C. Stennis Space Center is one of nine NASA field installations and is the second largest NASA Center, occupying 13,480 acres (55 km{sup 2}) and surrounded by a 125,327-acre (507 km{sup 2}) unpopulated buffer zone. Since its beginnings, the center has been the prime NASA installation for static firing. This paper reports that because of the critical nature of the center's missions, precise instrumentation and comfortable personnel environments must be constantly and efficiency maintained. When the site was built nearly 30 years ago, two main boiler plants were installed. One was in the base area (which houses administrative and engineering offices) and the second was in the test area where the test stands and test support buildings are located. These two boiler plants generated high pressure, high temperature water (400{degrees} F, 400 psi; 204{degrees} C, 2,756 kPa) that was used for heating, reheating and absorption cooling. This high temperature hot water (HTHW) was circulated by pumps to various buildings on the site through an underground piping network. Once in the buildings, the HTHW passed through absorption chillers for cooling and high temperature-to-medium temperature water converters for heating and reheating.

  11. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  12. Mass and Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - 1 - MASS AND HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM SALAH MAHMOUD HINDAWI DIRECTOR HINDAWI FOR ENGINEERING SERVICES & CONTRACTING NEW DAMIETTA , EGYPT ABSTRACT : In the last few years heat recovery was under spot . and in air conditioning fields... ) as a heat recovery . and I use the water as a mass recovery . The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines . THE BENEFIT OF THIS SYSTEM ARE : 1) Using the heat energy from...

  13. Solar space- and water-heating system at Stanford University. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of an active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating solar system for the Central Food Services Building is discussed. The closed-loop drain-back system is described as offering dependability of gravity drain-back freeze protection, low maintenance, minimal costs, and simplicity. The system features an 840 square-foot collector and storage capacity of 1550 gallons. The acceptance testing and the predicted system performance data are briefly described. Solar performance calculations were performed using a computer design program (FCHART). Bidding, costs, and economics of the system are reviewed. Problems are discussed and solutions and recommendations given. An operation and maintenance manual is given in Appendix A, and Appendix B presents As-built Drawings. (MCW)

  14. Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.

    ~C. T min Table 3. Problem Table Algorithm Applied to Petrochemicals Process Interval GJ ltiour 'Temperatures ! C! 2 ) ? ~ Cold. Hot Aecumulated Heat Heat FJ.owa Interval Streams StrePlS Deficit. Input OUtput -OUtt!utInput. 20 30 -2... of heat which can be passed on in this manner is performed in column 2 and column 3 of Table 3. It is initially assumed that the heat input from external utilities is zero. This is represented in Table 3 by a zero input to the top interval. Having...

  15. Evaluation and demonstration of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized services for new and rehabilitated multifamily buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belkus, P. [Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (US); Tuluca, A. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (US)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general objective of this research was aimed at developing sufficient technical and economic know-how to convince the building and design communities of the appropriateness and energy advantages of decentralized space and water heating for multifamily buildings. Two main goals were established to guide this research. First, the research sought to determine the cost-benefit advantages of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized systems for multifamily applications based on innovative gas piping and appliance technologies. The second goal was to ensure that this information is made available to the design community.

  16. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experimental data, Energy and Buildings 36, 543-555. O.G.consumption for heating, Energy and Buildings 43, 2662-2672.reduction for a net zero energy building, ACEEE Summer Study

  17. HEATING6 verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, C.B.; Childs, K.W.; Giles, G.E.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The HEATING series of general purpose, finite-difference, conduction heat transfer codes have been in use for many years. During this time the codes have been used extensively, and a general confidence has been developed in regard to their accuracy. However, there has never been a formal verification in a published, citable document. This report documents just such a verification study for the latest code in the HEATING series, HEATING6. This study confirms that HEATING6 is capable of producing accurate results for a large class of heat transfer problems. 11 refs., 170 figs., 82 tabs.

  18. Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) [3] Yayun FAN. Experimental study on a heat pump technology in solar thermal utilization[J]. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica, Oct.,2002; Vol.23,No.5 ? 581-585.(In Chinese) [4] Nengxi JIANG. Air-conditioning Heat Pump Technology and Its Applications...

  19. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  20. Earth Planets Space, 57, 895902, 2005 Short time-scale heating of the Earth's mantle by ice-sheet dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanyk, Ladislav

    by modeling the linear response of a self-gravitating viscoelastic planet, the gravity field anoma- lies haveEarth Planets Space, 57, 895­902, 2005 Short time-scale heating of the Earth's mantle by ice-scale energy transfer from the ice sheet loading and unloading processes to the Earth's interior via viscous

  1. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  2. DistrictHeating Nuevasaladecalderasydistribucin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    DistrictHeating Nuevasaladecalderasydistribución decaloreneláreauniversitariade AZapateira Jesús, difusión. DISTRICT HEATING O CALEFACCIÓN DE BARRIO #12;MATERIALIZACIÓN INTEGRACIÓN VISUAL DE ELEMENTOS rendimiento global de la instalación. - Contabilización de pérdidas en tuberías de distribución. #12;DISTRICT

  3. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

  4. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ing the Market for Home Heating and Cooling Equipment," LBLestimating the market shares of space-heating technologiesestimating the market shares of space-heating technologies

  5. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    among different space heating technologies to household andhousehold's choice of heating technology is modeled jointlymodel five space heating technologies given central cooling

  6. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    passive and hybrid space heating systems. Space Cooling Aand hybrid solar heating and cooling systems. Experimentspassive, and hybrid systems for heating, cooling, and

  7. MA HEAT Loan Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

  8. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  9. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  10. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  11. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, M. E.; Solomon, N. G.; Tabb, E. S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVREY M. E. Ward and N. G. Solomon E. S. Tabb Solar Turbines International and Gas Research Institute San Diego, California Chicago, Illinois ABSTRACT i I One hundred fifty reports were reviewed along with interviews... tests, promising low temperature heat exchanger tube alloys and coated surfaces were identified. 1INTROUCTION of advanced technology heat recovery techniques 1_ Recovering waste heat from the flue gases of the pr~ary objective. Specific objectives...

  12. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulmschneider, Peter

    mechanisms. 1. The acoustic heating theory Only a few years after Edlen's (1941) discovery that the solar acoustic wave radiation- · b. field acoustic wave Figure 1. Panel a: Acoustic heating in late-type stars: effective temperature TeJ f, gravity g and mixing length parameter fr. Panel b: Acoustic heating in early

  14. Heat Transfer Guest Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

  15. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To install and monitor an innovative WaterFurnace geothermal system that is technologically advanced and evolving; To generate hot water heating from a heat pump that uses non-ozone depleting refrigerant CO2. To demonstrate the energy efficiency of this system ground source heat pump system.

  16. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  17. Heat exchange assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2004-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  18. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  19. Heat transfer probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  20. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  1. Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of New York began offering a corporate income tax credit for biodiesel purchases used for residential space heating and water heating beginning in 2006. The original credit was authorized...

  2. Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of New York began offering a personal income tax credit for biodiesel purchases used for residential space heating and water heating beginning in 2006. The original credit was authorized...

  3. Bio-Heating Oil Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maryland allows individuals and corporations to take an income tax credit of $0.03/gallon for purchases of biodiesel used for space heating or water heating. The maximum credit is $500 per year. It...

  4. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  5. Applied heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)

  6. Measured Impact on Space Conditioning Energy Use in a Residence Due to Operating a Heat Pump Water Heater inside the Conditioned Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact on space conditioning energy use due to operating a heat pump water heater (HPWH) inside the conditioned space is analyzed based on 2010-2011 data from a research house with simulated occupancy and hot water use controls. The 2700 ft2 (345 m2) house is located in Oak Ridge, TN (mixed-humid climate) and is equipped with a 50 gallon (189 l) HPWH that provided approximately 55 gallons/d (208 l/d) of hot water at 120 F (46 C) to the house during the test period. The HPWH has been operated every other week from December 2010 through November 2011 in two modes; a heat pump only mode, and a standard mode that utilizes 15355 Btu/hr (4500 W) resistance heating elements. The energy consumption of the air-source heat pump (ASHP) that provides space conditioning for the house is compared for the two HPWH operating modes with weather effects taken into account. Impacts during the heating and cooling seasons are compared.

  7. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  8. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henley, Marion

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  9. "Table HC14.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used" "Heat Pump",0.6,"Q","N","Q" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,0.6,"Q",0.5 "SteamHot Water System","Q","Q","N","Q" "Built-in Electric Units",2.2,0.7,"Q",0.5 "Built-in Pipeless...

  10. "Table HC12.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used" "Heat Pump",0.6,"Q","Q","Q" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,0.9,0.5,0.3 "SteamHot Water System","Q","Q","Q","N" "Built-in Electric Units",2.2,0.6,0.4,0.3 "Built-in Pipeless...

  11. "Table HC13.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Heat Pump",0.6,0.4,0.3,"Q","N" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,0.7,0.3,0.2,"Q" "SteamHot Water System","Q","N","N","N","N" "Built-in Electric Units",2.2,0.4,0.3,"Q","N" "Built-in...

  12. "Table HC15.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Heat Pump",0.6,"N","N","N","Q" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,"Q","Q","Q",0.3 "SteamHot Water System","Q","N","N","N","N" "Built-in Electric Units",2.2,"Q","Q","N",0.3 "Built-in...

  13. "Table HC11.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Northeast Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used" "Heat Pump",0.6,"N","N","N" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,"Q","Q","Q" "SteamHot Water System","Q","Q","Q","Q" "Built-in Electric Units",2.2,0.4,"Q",0.2 "Built-in Pipeless...

  14. Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat

  15. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  16. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  17. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  18. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  19. Summer HeatSummer Heat Heat stress solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    occur (then drink a lightly salted beverage like a sports drink). The water's temperature should be cool How should gardeners avoid becoming a safety threat to themselves and others when it's hot? Start to the heat. Become a weather watcher. Set up a small weather station (with a high/low thermom eter, rain

  20. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  1. Modelling the impact of user behaviour on heat energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combe, Nicola Miss; Harrison, David Professor; Way, Celia Miss

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    come from space heating within homes (Boardman, 2007). If weassociated with heating the home must be an imperative. Theheating and hot water energy consumption of the homes (Zack

  2. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Promoting Combined Heat and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    residential applications the heat can be used for domestic hot water, space heating, absorption cooling, or dehumidifying at the building where it is produced. CHP systems consist...

  3. Heat storage duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

  4. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  5. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  6. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  7. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the TechnologySystem ......

  8. Heat rejection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  9. Pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection system for in-situ nondestructive inspection of Space Shuttle RCC heat shields.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Walkington, Phillip D.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) heat shield components on the Space Shuttle's wings must withstand harsh atmospheric reentry environments where the wing leading edge can reach temperatures of 3,000 F. Potential damage includes impact damage, micro cracks, oxidation in the silicon carbide-to-carbon-carbon layers, and interlaminar disbonds. Since accumulated damage in the thick, carbon-carbon and silicon-carbide layers of the heat shields can lead to catastrophic failure of the Shuttle's heat protection system, it was essential for NASA to institute an accurate health monitoring program. NASA's goal was to obtain turnkey inspection systems that could certify the integrity of the Shuttle heat shields prior to each mission. Because of the possibility of damaging the heat shields during removal, the NDI devices must be deployed without removing the leading edge panels from the wing. Recently, NASA selected a multi-method approach for inspecting the wing leading edge which includes eddy current, thermography, and ultrasonics. The complementary superposition of these three inspection techniques produces a rigorous Orbiter certification process that can reliably detect the array of flaws expected in the Shuttle's heat shields. Sandia Labs produced an in-situ ultrasonic inspection method while NASA Langley developed the eddy current and thermographic techniques. An extensive validation process, including blind inspections monitored by NASA officials, demonstrated the ability of these inspection systems to meet the accuracy, sensitivity, and reliability requirements. This report presents the ultrasonic NDI development process and the final hardware configuration. The work included the use of flight hardware and scrap heat shield panels to discover and overcome the obstacles associated with damage detection in the RCC material. Optimum combinations of custom ultrasonic probes and data analyses were merged with the inspection procedures needed to properly survey the heat shield panels. System features were introduced to minimize the potential for human factors errors in identifying and locating the flaws. The in-situ NDI team completed the transfer of this technology to NASA and USA employees so that they can complete 'Return-to-Flight' certification inspections on all Shuttle Orbiters prior to each launch.

  10. Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cawley, R.

    heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks. INTRODUCTION A need for descriptors to evaluate systems that condition space and heat domestic water has been recognized for several... added to and used by the water from the desuperheated refrigerant - heat normally provided by the electric water heater's resistance elements. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT The system considered for this study is best described by U.S. Patent No. 4...

  11. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  12. IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS #12;ii IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS............................................................... 2 1.3. Overview of the Parameter Estimation Water-to-Water Heat Pump Model ........... 5 1

  13. First university owned district heating system using biomass heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Highlights · First university owned district heating system using biomass heat · Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance · Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 · Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill

  14. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tiles for thermal energy storage,” working paper, Colorado1991). Wallboard with latent heat storage for passive solarR. (2000). Thermal energy storage for space cooling, Pacific

  15. aps high heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a stiff parameter denoted as 1. The model problem Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 5 Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The heat pump...

  16. aging heat treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The effects of outdoor heat exchanger...

  17. alloys heat treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The effects of outdoor heat exchanger...

  18. air heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 1320 ? low temperature water...

  19. anisothermal heat treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The effects of outdoor heat exchanger...

  20. air source heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 1320 ? low temperature water...

  1. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

  2. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  3. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  4. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  5. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  6. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Technical progress report, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The systematic development of the residential combustion system is divided into three phases. Only Phase I is detailed here. Phase I constitutes the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of a pulse combustor sized for residential space heating. Phase II is an optional phase to develop an integrated system including a heat exchanger. Phase III is projected as a field test of the integrated coal-fired residential space heater. The Phase I effort was nearing completion during this reporting period and a final report is in preparation. The configuration testing was completed early in the period and based upon results of the configuration tests, an optimized configuration for the experimental development testing was chosen. The refractory-lined chambers were fabricated and tested from mid-September through early October. The tandem unit was operated on dry micromized coal without support gas or excitation air for periods lasting from one to three hours. Performance was stable and turndown ratios of 3:1 were achieved during the first three-hour test. A early commercial residential heating system configuration has been identified on the basis of the development testing conducted throughout the first phase of this effort. The development effort indicates that the residential unit goals are achievable with some additional product improvement effort to increase carbon burn-out efficiency, reduce CO emissions and develop a reliable and compact dry, ultrafine coal feed system (not included in the present effort).

  7. Geothermal heating for Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallis, F.; Schaper, J.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of geothermal resources in the town of Caliente, Nevada (population 600) has been the objective of two grants. The first grant was awarded to Ferg Wallis, part-owner and operator of the Agua Caliente Trailer Park, to assess the potential of hot geothermal water for heating the 53 trailers in his park. The results from test wells indicate sustainable temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/F. Three wells were drilled to supply all 53 trailers with domestic hot water heating, 11 trailers with space heating and hot water for the laundry from the geothermal resource. System payback in terms of energy cost-savings is estimated at less than two years. The second grant was awarded to Grover C. Dils Medical Center in Caliente to drill a geothermal well and pipe the hot water through a heat exchanger to preheat air for space heating. This geothermal preheater served to convert the existing forced air electric furnace to a booster system. It is estimated that the hospital will save an average of $5300 in electric bills per year, at the current rate of $.0275/KWH. This represents a payback of approximately two years. Subsequent studies on the geothermal resource base in Caliente and on the economics of district heating indicate that geothermal may represent the most effective supply of energy for Caliente. Two of these studies are included as appendices.

  8. Solar heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  9. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru, E-mail: babac@itu.edu.tr [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey)] [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Reese, Jason M. [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  10. Improved solar heating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  11. Heating 7. 2 user's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATING is a general-purpose conduction heat transfer program written in Fortran 77. HEATING can solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time- and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may also be anisotropic. Materials may undergo change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heat-generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-environment or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. General gray-body radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING uses a runtime memory allocation scheme to avoid having to recompile to match memory requirements for each specific problem. HEATING utilizes free-form input. Three steady-state solution techniques are available: point-successive-overrelaxation iterative method with extrapolation, direct-solution, and conjugate gradient. Transient problems may be solved using any one of several finite-difference schemes: Crank-Nicolson implicit, Classical Implicit Procedure (CIP), Classical Explicit Procedure (CEP), or Levy explicit method. The solution of the system of equations arising from the implicit techniques is accomplished by point-successive-overrelaxation iteration and includes procedures to estimate the optimum acceleration parameter.

  12. Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heat flow values as high as several watts per meter squared can be found. Systematic interpretation of heat flow patterns sheds light on heat transfer mechanisms at depth on...

  13. Economic Options for Upgrading Waste Heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat...

  14. Economic Options for Upgrading Waste Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat...

  15. Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L. D.

    for water and gas connections, and temperature variations. Recent work on heat pump cycles using complex compound reactions includes development of energy storage systems at laboratories in Europe (11) and the United States (12), and residential...ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, hl~a: driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid...

  16. ELECTRIC CO-HEATING: A METHOD FOR EVALUATING SEASONAL HEATING EFFICIENCIES AND HEAT LOSS RATES IN DWELLINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effi~ ciency of Fossil~Fired Heating Systems for LabelingInfo. Division, Ext. 6782 Electric Co-heating: A Methodfor Evaluating Seasonal Heating Efficiencies and Heat Loss

  17. Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Thursday, October 9, 2014 List of Attendees OrganizationAttendees DOE - John Cymbalsky - Ashley Armstrong - Johanna...

  18. City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility City of Klamath Falls...

  19. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time:...

  20. Proceedings: Heat exchanger workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer processes are of controlling importance in the operation of a thermal power plant. Heat exchangers are major cost items and are an important source of problems causing poor power plant availability and performance. A workshop to examine the improvements that can be made to heat exchangers was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on June 10-11, 1986, in Palo Alto, California. This workshop was attended by 25 engineers and scientists representing EPRI-member utilities and EPRI consultants. A forum was provided for discussions related to the design, operation and maintenance of utility heat transfer equipment. The specific objectives were to identify research directions that could significantly improve heat exchanger performance, reliability and life cycle economics. Since there is a great diversity of utility heat transfer equipment in use, this workshop addressed two equipment categories: Boiler Feedwater Heaters (FWH) and Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG). The workshop was divided into the following panel sessions: functional design, mechanical design, operation, suggested research topics, and prioritization. Each panel session began with short presentations by experts on the subject and followed by discussions by the attendees. This report documents the proceedings of the workshop and contains recommendations of potentially valuable areas of research and development. 4 figs.

  1. Micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  2. Integrating preconcentrator heat controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Arakaki, Lester H. (Edgewood, NM); Varley, Eric S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

  3. Ceramic heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaHaye, P.G.; Rahman, F.H.; Lebeau, T.P.; Severin, B.K.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A tube containment system is disclosed. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture. 6 figs.

  4. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  5. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe ...

  6. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  7. Optimization of Heat Exchanger Cleaning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegell, J. H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of heat integration systems is quantified in terms of the amount of heat that is recovered. This decreases with time due to increased fouling of the heat exchange surface. Using the "Total Fouling Related Expenses (TFRE)" approach...

  8. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  9. Molecular heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvira Segal; Abraham Nitzan

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a novel molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation waveforms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

  10. Specifying Waste Heat Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    or hydrochloric acid vapor should be mentioned upfront so the HRSG designer can take proper precauations while designing the unit.Material selection is also impacted by the presence of corrosive gases.If partial pressure of hydrogen is high in the gas stream...SPECIFYING WASTE HEAT BOILERS V.Ganapathy.ABCO Industries Abilene,Texas ABSTRACT Waste heat boilers or Heat Recovery Steam 'Generators(HRSGs) as they are often called are used to recover energy from waste gas streams in chemical plants...

  11. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  12. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space-Heating Supply Hour Load (kW) Storage CHP NG Fig. 14Space-Heating Supply Load (kW) Storage Hour CHP NG Fig. 15Supply Load (kW) Storage CHP NG Hour Fig. 16 July Weekday

  13. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

  14. "Table HC10.4 Space Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal43 Lighting24

  15. "Table HC10.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal43

  16. "Table HC11.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal4362 Home3245

  17. "Table HC12.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal43627803245

  18. Liquid Phase Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mordt, E. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature Water (HTW) central district heating systems are far superior to steam systems in large, spread out installations such as airports, universities and office complexes. Water, pressurized to keep it in the liquid state, is distributed at 400o...

  19. Composite heat damage assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Philpot, H.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Powell, G.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

  20. Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to develop, design and test compressors built to meet the needs of the mechanically demanding industrial heat pump applications which often require high compression ratios and temperatures in excess of 200 degrees F. This paper will review the theoretical...

  1. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e l Atmosphere ceiling, back panel roof, exposed roof insideSAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A Thesis submitted i no n Convection Exposed Roof Temperature Seasonal Temperature

  2. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    under the offset unit's solar panel, the hf formula (16) wasdrop below the angle unit's solar panel at night time. D u rfor both the units, the solar panel covered roof was a heat

  3. Passive solar heating analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, R.W.; Mc Farland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book discusses about the design of solar heating systems. The terms and symbols are clearly defined. Step-by-step procedures are indicated. Worked examples are given with tables, graphs, appendixes.

  4. Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

    dampened because there is a current abundance of the basic sources of industrial energy (namely oil and natural gas). Meanwhile, Mycom used the window of the current opportunities to develop, design and test compressors built to meet the needs... requirements of the compressors which constitute the heart and soul of the system. It will also provide a quick survey of the available types of compressors for heat pumping and some of the industrial processes where simultaneous heating and cooling...

  5. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  6. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  7. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  8. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  9. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  10. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  11. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P. (San Ramon, CA)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  12. PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP W. D. C. Richards and W. L. Auxer) which employs a natural gas fired Stirling engine to drive a Rankine cycle vapor compressor is presently by the heat pump effect. The Stirling engine/Rankine cycle refrigeration loop heat pump being developed would

  13. Waste Heat Recovery Using a Circulating Heat Medium Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, E., Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by a circulating heat medium loop where waste heat is recovered for useful purposes. The heat medium chosen is turbine fuel. It is pumped around the refinery to pick up heat at the crude distilling unit, the hydrocracker, the catalytic cracker...

  14. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  15. Heat transfer in the plate heat exchanger of an ammonia-synthesis column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obolentsev, Y.G.; Chus', M.S.; Norobchanskii, O.A.; Teplitshi, Y.S.; Tovazhnyanskii, L.L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planning and construction of high-capacity synthetic ammonia plants requires the development and fabrication of unique, high unit-power equipment with high technical and economic characteristics. In foreign and domestic practice, tubular heat exchangers with relatively low heat-transfer coefficients are used. Plate heat exchangers are a promising alternative. They are compact and have a high heat energy efficiency and a relatively small metal content. To make an experimental check of the operating capability of a plate heat exchanger under ammonia production conditions, a welded plate heat exchanger was designed for an ammonia synthesis column 800mm in diameter. On prolonged testing (four years), the device provided an autothermal operating mode in the column and the heat transfer coefficient was practically constant for fixed space velocities. Consequently, the heat exchange surface was not contaminated significantly with catalyst dust, confirmed by visual observation of the heat exchanger after disassembly.

  16. Toolbox Safety Talk Heat Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Toolbox Safety Talk Heat Stress Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health Section for inducing heat stress. When the body is unable to cool itself by sweating, several heat-induced illnesses Stress · Know signs/symptoms of heat-related illnesses; monitor yourself and coworkers. · Block out

  17. temperature heat pumps applied to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    losses (waste heat) 250-300°C......1100°C ~ 100 TWh/year Low temperature thermal losses (waste heat) 25°C;Waste heat recovery (1) In a decreasing energetic interest order Achema 2012 Frankfurt June 21th 2012>>Twaste #12;Waste heat recovery (2) Achema 2012 Frankfurt June 21th 2012 There is no interesting thermal

  18. Heat distribution ceramic processing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered heat distributor system is provided for use in a microwave process. The multi-layered heat distributors includes a first inner layer of a high thermal conductivity heat distributor material, a middle insulating layer and an optional third insulating outer layer. The multi-layered heat distributor system is placed around the ceramic composition or article to be processed and located in a microwave heating system. Sufficient microwave energy is applied to provide a high density, unflawed ceramic product.

  19. Heat and Power Systems Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spriggs, H. D.; Shah, J. V.

    HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS DESIGN H. D. Spriggs and J. V. Shah, Leesburg. VA ABSTRACT The selection of heat and power systems usually does not include a thorough analysis of the process heating. cooling and power requirements. In most cases..., these process requirements are accepted as specifications before heat and power systems are selected and designed. In t~is article we describe how Process Integration using Pinch Technology can be used to understand and achieve the minimum process heating...

  20. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  1. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

  2. Overshooting by differential heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrássy, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the long nuclear time scale of stellar main-sequence evolution, even weak mixing processes can become relevant for redistributing chemical species in a star. We investigate a process of "differential heating," which occurs when a temperature fluctuation propagates by radiative diffusion from the boundary of a convection zone into the adjacent radiative zone. The resulting perturbation of the hydrostatic equilibrium causes a flow that extends some distance from the convection zone. We study a simplified differential-heating problem with a static temperature fluctuation imposed on a solid boundary. The astrophysically relevant limit of a high Reynolds number and a low P\\'eclet number (high thermal diffusivity) turns out to be interestingly non-intuitive. We derive a set of scaling relations for the stationary differential heating flow. A numerical method adapted to a high dynamic range in flow amplitude needed to detect weak flows is presented. Our two-dimensional simulations show that the flow reaches a sta...

  3. DHE (downhole heat exchangers). [Downhole Heat Exchangers (DHE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culver, G.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of downhole heat exchangers (DHE) for residential or commercial space and domestic water heating and other applications has several desirable features. Systems are nearly or completely passive -- that is, no or very little geothermal water or steam is produced from the well either reducing or completely eliminating surface environmental concerns and the need for disposal systems or injection wells. Initial cost of pumps and installation are eliminated or reduced along with pumping power costs and maintenance costs associated with pumping often corrosive geothermal fluids. Many residential and small commercial systems do not require circulating pumps because the density difference in the incoming and outgoing sides of the loop are sufficient to overcome circulating friction losses in the entire system. The major disadvantage of DHEs is their dependence on natural heat flow. In areas where geological conditions provide high permeability and a natural hydraulic gradient, DHEs can provide a substantial quantity of heat. A single 500-ft (152 m) well in Klamath Falls, Oregon, supplies over one megawatt thermal and output is apparently limited by the surface area of pipe that can be installed in the well bore. In contrast, DHEs used in conjunction with heat pumps may supply less than 8 KW from a well of similar depth. Here output is limited by conductive heat flow with perhaps a small contribution from convection near the well bore. The highest capacity DHE reported to date, in Turkey, supplies 6 MW thermal from an 820-ft (250 m) well. There were two main goals for this project. The first was to gather, disseminate and exchange internationally information on DHES. The second was to perform experiments that would provide insight into well bore/aquifer interaction and thereby provide more information on which to base DHE designs. 27 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. 1.12.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/24 8. Heat pumps, heat pipes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    of low-temperature (waste) heat, replacing sources of (unnecessarily) high temperature heat (and, 3) outside water heat and 4) heat from another indoor space, or 5) waste heat from a process1.12.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/24 8. Heat

  5. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  6. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  7. Heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels. Latent heat models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumpinsky, E. [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States)] [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Latent heat models were developed to calculate heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels for two cases: (1) heating with a condensable fluid flowing through coils and jackets; (2) vacuum reflux cooling with an overhead condenser. In either case the mathematical treatment, based on macroscopic balances, requires no iterative schemes. In addition to providing heat-transfer coefficients, the models predict flow rates of service fluid through the coils and jackets, estimate the percentage of heat transfer due to latent heat, and compute reflux rates.

  8. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    models: aggregated by SMSA market share central cooling all gas space heat all oilmodels: aggregated by regions market share central cooling all gas space heat all oil

  9. HEATING 7. 1 user's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATING is a FORTRAN program designed to solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three- dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time- and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may be anisotropic. Materials may undergo change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heating generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-boundary or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. General graybody radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING is variably dimensioned and utilizes free-form input. Three steady-state solution techniques are available: point-successive-overrelaxation iterative method with extrapolation, direct-solution (for one-dimensional or two-dimensional problems), and conjugate gradient. Transient problems may be solved using one of several finite-difference schemes: Crank-Nicolson implicit, Classical Implicit Procedure (CIP), Classical Explicit Procedure (CEP), or Levy explicit method (which for some circumstances allows a time step greater than the CEP stability criterion). The solution of the system of equations arising from the implicit techniques is accomplished by point-successive-overrelaxation iteration and includes procedures to estimate the optimum acceleration parameter.

  10. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  11. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  12. Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of each approach as a function of the source and sink temperatures and magnitude of heat flow. Generic heat pumps and vapor recompression designs are explained, costed, estimated in performance, and evaluated as a function of the economic parameters...

  13. HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDERGROUND HEATING EXPERIMENTS IN GRANITE, STRIPA, SWEDEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Session on Heat Transfer in Nuclear Waste Disposal, C'.heat transfer processes associated with underground nuclear wasteheat transfer and related processes in an un­ derground environment similar to that expected in a mined nuclear waste

  14. TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating purposes. BACKGROUND The reduction of heat transfer rates by the use of thermal infraredheating applications should become available on the marketplace. Due to their high reflectivity to thermal infrared

  15. Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this paper is to examine the methods and economics of recovering low level heat through heat pumps and vapor recompression. Actual commercially available equipment is considered to determine the near-term and future economic viability...

  16. Heat Transfer Derivation of differential equations for heat transfer conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veress, Alexander

    ) or kW *h or Btu. U is the change in stored energy, in units of kW *h (kWh) or Btu. qx is the heat conducted (heat flux) into the control volume at surface edge x, in units of kW/m2 or Btu/(h-ft2). qx volume is positive), in kW/m3 or Btu/(h-ft3) (a heat sink, heat drawn out of the volume, is negative

  17. Design of Heat Exchanger for Heat Recovery in CHP Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozman, T. A.; Kaur, B.; Lee, J.

    with a heat exchanger to work as a Combined Heat and Power system for the University which will supplement the chilled water supply and electricity. The design constraints of the heat recovery unit are the specifications of the turbine and the chiller...

  18. Heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels. Sensible heat models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumpinsky, E. [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States). Research and Development Dept.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient models for sensible heat were developed to assess the thermal performance of agitated vessels with coils and jackets. Performance is quantified with the computation of heat-transfer coefficients by introducing vessel heating and cooling data into model equations. Of the two model categories studied, differential and macroscopic, the latter is preferred due to mathematical simplicity and lower sensitivity to experimental data variability.

  19. Temperature and Heat Transfer Measurements Cengiz Camci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    mainly because of thermal reasons. Satel- lite thermal management systems, hot sections of propulsion systems, combustors, aerodynamic heating of supersonic/ hypersonicvehiclesurfaces is not meaningful, since there are no agitated particles in empty space. A body in which "thermal agitation

  20. Heat Recovery from Coal Gasifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, H.; Lou, S. C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with heat recovery from pressurized entrained and fixed bed coal gasifiers for steam generation. High temperature waste heat, from slagging entrained flow coal gasifier, can be recovered effectively in a series of radiant...

  1. Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost, webinar-based training on Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems. The webinar will focus the effective use of central heat pump water heaters...

  2. Heat Pumps - Theory and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altin, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compressors (heat pumps) with actual applications in Monsanto. Guidelines for possible application areas are drawn from the analysis, and conclusions are drawn both about the usefulness of exergy analysis and about the heat pump application areas....

  3. Geothermal Heat Pump Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) offers rebates of $3,000 for residential geothermal heat pump systems and up to $4,500 for non-residential geothermal heat pump systems. The residential...

  4. Heat Pipes: An Industrial Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the basics of heat pipe exchangers. Included are how they are constructed, how they operate, where they have application, and various aspects of evaluating a potential application. After discussing the technical aspects of heat...

  5. Challenges in Industrial Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dafft, T.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation will address several completed and working projects involving waste heat recovery in a chemical plant. Specific examples will be shown and some of the challenges to successful implementation and operation of heat recovery projects...

  6. Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and Thermal/Energy Sciences Naval Postgraduate School Monterey-track faculty position at the assistant professor level in the areas of Heat Transfer and Thermal/Fluid Sciences

  7. Heat Pipes: An Industrial Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the basics of heat pipe exchangers. Included are how they are constructed, how they operate, where they have application, and various aspects of evaluating a potential application. After discussing the technical aspects of heat...

  8. Challenges in Industrial Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dafft, T.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation will address several completed and working projects involving waste heat recovery in a chemical plant. Specific examples will be shown and some of the challenges to successful implementation and operation of heat recovery projects...

  9. Low Level Heat Recovery Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    level heat recovery technology. This paper discusses heat distribution systems, latest developments in absorption refrigeration and organic Rankine cycles, and pressure, minimization possibilities. The relative merits and economics of the various...

  10. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the choice of space heating technology is depen- dent on thefor Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling,"fuel or technology for residential space heating. The

  11. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the solar-heated hot water. This heater can be seen inwater (solar heated, boosted, or heated entirely in the auxiliary heater)

  12. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar heating and cooling systems covering a wide range ofpractical heating and cooling system configurations andexperimental heating and cooling system, the main purpose of

  13. Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating...

  14. HEAT AND MOISTURE TRANSFER THROUGH CLOTHING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voelker, Conrad; Hoffmann, Sabine; Kornadt, Oliver; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Huizenga, Charlie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. C. Eberhart (ed), Heat transfer in medicine and biology.between convective heat transfer and mass transferConvective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for

  15. Heat and moisture transfer through clothing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voelker, Conrad; Hoffmann, Sabine; Kornadt, Oliver; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Huizenga, Charlie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. C. Eberhart (ed), Heat transfer in medicine and biology.Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients forbetween convective heat transfer and mass transfer

  16. Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ann E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 175 stroke2001). 2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 177

  17. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Ü. C. Hardal; Özgür E. Müstecapl?oglu

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart.

  18. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  19. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  20. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  1. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  2. Energy Saving Guidelines for Portland State University Heating and Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caughman, John

    Energy Saving Guidelines for Portland State University Heating and Ventilation Conditioned spaces will be heated to a temperature range of 67-70 in the winter and cooled, where applicable, to a temperature range will not be allowed, unless approval from FPM has been granted for cases where spaces cannot otherwise be heated

  3. Heat Pump Strategies and Payoffs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After evaluating numerous waste heat sources and heat pump designs for energy recovery, we have become aware that a great deal of confusion exists about the economics of heat pumps. The purpose of this article is to present some simple formulas...

  4. Industrial Heat Pump Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Brush, F. C.

    with operating the evaporator. The open-cycle heat pump design uses an electrically driven centrifugal compressor to recover the latent heat of the water vapor generated by the evaporator. (Steam was the original heat source but is now only needed for start...

  5. Heat Pump Strategies and Payoffs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After evaluating numerous waste heat sources and heat pump designs for energy recovery, we have become aware that a great deal of confusion exists about the economics of heat pumps. The purpose of this article is to present some simple formulas...

  6. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  7. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  8. Industrial Heat Recovery - 1982

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Csathy, D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    like: "Vertical, natural circulation boilers are intrinsically mbre reliable than horizontal, forced circula tion boilers.",4 and " it will be seen that horizontal tubes have much lower heat fluxes at burnout than do vertical ones, though...-steam density difference dia gram (Figure 1) has been presented repeat edly in order to indicate a significant density difference between the two phases (even close to the critical pressure) which induces natural circulation. However, this diagra...

  9. Effect of rib spacing on heat transfer and friction in a rotating two-pass rectangular (AR=1:2) channel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yao-Hsien

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The research focuses on testing the heat transfer enhancement in a channel for different spacing of the rib turbulators. Those ribs are put on the surface in the two pass rectangular channel with an aspect ratio of AR=1:2. The cross section...

  10. A Study of Wind Energy Use for Space Heating in Prince Edward Island1 Larry Hughes, Mandeep Dhaliwal, Aaron Long, Nikita Sheth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200605 A Study of Wind Energy Use for Space Heating in Prince Edward Island1 Larry Hughes, Mandeep Dhaliwal, Aaron Long, Nikita Sheth Energy Research Group Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada 19 April 2006 1 This paper has been accepted

  11. Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

  12. U.S. geothermal district heating : barriers and enablers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur H

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal district heating experience in the U.S. is reviewed and evaluated to explore the potential impact of utilizing this frequently undervalued renewable energy resource for space and hot water heating. Although the ...

  13. air heat exchanger: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

  14. air heat exchangers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

  15. Heat Transport in Groundwater Systems--Laboratory Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, D. B.; Reddell, D. L.

    Solar energy is a possible alternate energy source for space heating. A method of economic long term solar energy storage is needed. Researchers have proposed storing solar energy by heating water using solar collectors and injecting the hot water...

  16. areas heat shinku: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Analysis for Applying the Double-Stage Coupled Heat Pump System in the Villa of Cold Area Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The conventional heating mode is a...

  17. auxiliary radiofrequency heating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atalar, Ergin 3 Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: This paper presents two common...

  18. auxiliary heating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topic Index 1 Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: This paper presents two common...

  19. Thermionic generator module with heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner-Richardson, K.; Ernst, D.M.

    1993-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic converter module is described comprising: a first heat pipe with an annular casing which has a first surface located on an inside surface of the annular casing, at least part of the first surface of the casing of the first heat pipe having constructed upon it a thermionic converter emitter located so that heat will be transferred by conduction from the first heat pipe casing to the thermionic converter emitter; a second heat pipe with a casing which has a second surface, the second surface being located within the first surface of the annular casing of the first heat pipe so that it is surrounded by the first surface; a thermionic converter collector located so as to transfer heat by conduction to the second surface of the casing of the second heat pipe with the thermionic converter collector being adjacent to the thermionic converter emitter but being separated from the thermionic converter emitter by an inter electrode space; and end fitting structures located so that, with the thermionic converter collector and the thermionic converter emitter, they complete an enclosure around the inter electrode space and form an evacuated enclosure within which are located the thermionic converter collector and the thermionic converter emitter.

  20. Design Development Analyses in Support of a Heat pipe-Brayton Cycle Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeve, Brian E. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Kapernick, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the power systems under consideration for future space exploration applications, including nuclear electric propulsion or as a planetary surface power source, is a heat pipe-cooled reactor coupled to a Brayton cycle. In this system, power is transferred from the heat pipes to the Brayton gas via a heat exchanger attached to the heat pipes. This paper discusses the fluid, thermal and structural analyses that were performed in support of the design of the heat exchanger to be tested in the SAFE-100 experimental program at the Marshall Space Flight Center. An important consideration throughout the design development of the heat exchanger was its capability to be utilized for higher power and temperature applications. This paper also discusses this aspect of the design and presents designs for specific applications that are under consideration. (authors)

  1. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  2. Using a cold radiometer to measure heat loads and survey heat leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P. [Cryogenics and Fluids Branch, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  3. Performance Optimization of an Irreversible Heat Pump with Variable-temperature Heat Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Y.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An irreversible cycle model of a heat pump operating between two variable-temperature heat reservoirs is established and used to analyze the performance of the heat pump affected by heat resistances, heat leakage and internal dissipation...

  4. Performance Optimization of an Irreversible Heat Pump with Variable-temperature Heat Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Y.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An irreversible cycle model of a heat pump operating between two variable-temperature heat reservoirs is established and used to analyze the performance of the heat pump affected by heat resistances, heat leakage and internal dissipation...

  5. Development of a Heat Transfer Model for the Integrated Facade Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, X.; Archer, D. H.; Claridge, D. E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the heat transfer process of facade heating (mullion radiators) in a pilot research project in Pittsburgh, PA. The heat transfer model for facade heating is developed and verified by measured data. The comparison shows that the heat transfer model predicts...

  6. Development of a Heat Transfer Model for the Integrated Facade Heating 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, X.; Archer, D. H.; Claridge, D. E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the heat transfer process of facade heating (mullion radiators) in a pilot research project in Pittsburgh, PA. The heat transfer model for facade heating is developed and verified by measured data. The comparison shows that the heat transfer model predicts...

  7. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar heated, boosted, or heated entirely in the auxiliary heater)for the solar-heated hot water. This heater can be seen insolar heating and cooling system, showing plumbing runs containing solenoid valves, auxiliary heater (

  8. Visual Simulation of Heat Shimmering and Mirage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Klaus

    and the surrounding air. We introduce a heat transfer model between the heat source objects and the ambient flow the heat sources to the ambient flow. Although heat transfer modeling has been used before in computer

  9. Heat Supply Who What Where and -Why

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    ................................................. 6 District-heating (DH) supply: key figures .............................. 6 What is biomass Geothermics ..........................................................................11 Waste for heat supplyHeat Supply in Denmark Who What Where and - Why #12;Title: Heat Supply in Denmark - Who What Where

  10. absorption heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat... Erickson, D. C. 1983-01-01 26...

  11. apparent molal heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: efficient use of renewable energy in district heating individual heat pumps solar heating and wood pellets individual heat pumps, solar heating and...

  12. apparent molar heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: efficient use of renewable energy in district heating individual heat pumps solar heating and wood pellets individual heat pumps, solar heating and...

  13. Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas:14:9a.0 Home7.4 Space

  14. Table HC9.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas:14:9a.05a.4 Space

  15. Table HC6.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly Download:Stocks by3a.7 Million04 Space

  16. "Table HC13.4 Space Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home Appliances Housing1324

  17. "Table HC14.4 Space Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home Appliances783

  18. "Table HC7.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home72 Home8 Water0 Home25

  19. "Table HC9.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Climate Zone, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home72 Home8 Water00 Home25

  20. North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview: Installation of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Replacement of Aging Heat Pumps. Alignment with Furmans Sustainability Goals.

  1. Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for...

  2. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite TE modules were...

  3. Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

  4. Solar heated rotary kiln

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shell, Pamela K. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  5. Gelling by Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandalo Roldan-Vargas; Frank Smallenburg; Walter Kob; Francesco Sciortino

    2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a simple model, a binary mixture of patchy particles, which has been designed to form a gel upon heating. Due to the specific nature of the particle interactions, notably the number and geometry of the patches as well as their interaction energies, the system is a fluid both at high and at low temperatures, whereas at intermediate temperatures the system forms a solid-like disordered open network structure, i.e. a gel. Using molecular dynamics we investigate the static and dynamic properties of this system.

  6. Heat Transfer Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefevre, M. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    crossflow and counterflow plume. 3) COMBINATION OF HET AND DRY TOWERS When there is not enough water available to provide the makeup for a conventional wet cooling tower, the only solution is to use "DRY" cooling to dissipate part of the heat load. a... 11. The water is cooled first in the DRY section because DRY cooling is much more expensive than WET cooling and this arrangement leads to the smallest DRY tower. It must also be kept in mind that the DRY tower has a physical cooling limit equal...

  7. Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined Heat

  8. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric Heat

  9. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartment of EnergyHearingsWater Heating »

  10. Heat Source Lire,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartment of EnergyHearingsWater Heating

  11. Heat Pump Markets UK in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Heat Pump Markets UK in Europe IEA Heat Pump Workshop 13. November 2012 Zoltan Karpathy #12;2 Excellence in Market Intelligence Agenda About BSRIA WMI UK in the European Heat Pump Market Heating BSRIA WMI UK in the European Heat Pump Market Heating Technologies in New and Existing Buildings Hybrid

  12. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Murphy, Richard W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

  13. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

  14. Magnetically driven quantum heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrique Muñoz; Francisco J. Peña

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the efficiency of two different schemes for a magnetically driven quantum heat engine, by considering as the working substance a single nonrelativistic particle trapped in a cylindrical potential well, in the presence of an external magnetic field. The first scheme is a cycle, composed of two adiabatic and two isoenergetic reversible trajectories in configuration space. The trajectories are driven by a quasistatic modulation of the external magnetic-field intensity. The second scheme is a variant of the former, where the isoenergetic trajectories are replaced by isothermal ones, along which the system is in contact with macroscopic thermostats. This second scheme constitutes a quantum analog of the classical Carnot cycle.

  15. Heat pump with freeze-up prevention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

  16. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  17. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Ü. C. Hardal; Özgür E. Müstecapl?oglu

    2015-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum physics has revolutionized the classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. It modernized our society with many advances such as lasers and transistors. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to the quantum regimes. Inevitably, development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires investigations of thermodynamical principles from quantum mechanical perspective, and motivates the emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate on whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative that quantum coherence can be a catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work capability of the QHE becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up a QHE, our results reveal a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart.

  18. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  19. Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers combined heat and power (CHP) technologies and their applications.

  20. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill, PA); Lackey, Robert S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fagan, Jr., Thomas J. (Penn HIlls, PA); Veyo, Stephen E. (Murrysville, PA); Humphrey, Joseph R. (Grand Rapids, MI)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module 10, an air mover module 12, and a resistance heat package module 14, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor 36 in a space adjacent the heat exchanger 28, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown in FIGS. 4-7 to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations.

  1. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  2. Replacing Resistance Heating with Mini-Split Heat Pumps, Sharon, Connecticut (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - address heat tolerance Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    greenhouses... temperature and flows are suggested for spas and pools, space and district heating, greenhouse and aquaculture... pond heating, and industrial applications....

  4. Energy-efficient water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

  5. Heat sinking for printed circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, S.K.; Richardson, G.; Pinkerton, A.L.

    1984-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat pak or other solid-state device mounted on a printed circuit board directly over a hole extends therethrough so that the bottom of the pak or device extends beyond the bottom of the circuit board. A heat sink disposed beneath the circuit board contacts the bottom of the pak or device and provides direct heat sinking thereto. Pressure may be applied to the top of the pak or device to assure good mechanical and thermal contact with the heat sink.

  6. Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Spring 2014 Heat Transfer - 2 A thin electronic chip is in the shape of a square wafer, b = 1 cm surface of the chip with a heat transfer coefficient of h = 100 W/m2 -K. Assume the chip has a uniform per side with a mass of m = 0.3 grams and specific heat of C = 103 J/kg-K. The chip is mounted

  7. Enhanced heat transfer using nanofluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Stephen U. S. (Lisle, IL); Eastman, Jeffrey A. (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to a method of and apparatus for enhancing heat transfer in fluids such as deionized water. ethylene glycol, or oil by dispersing nanocrystalline particles of substances such as copper, copper oxide, aluminum oxide, or the like in the fluids. Nanocrystalline particles are produced and dispersed in the fluid by heating the substance to be dispersed in a vacuum while passing a thin film of the fluid near the heated substance. The fluid is cooled to control its vapor pressure.

  8. Sodium heat engine electrical feedthrough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Neill (Dearborn, MI)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a hermetically sealed feedthrough structure.

  9. Cyclotron subharmonics resonant (CSR) heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abe, H.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cyclotron subharmonics resonant (CSR) heating mechanism is studied using particle simulation codes with an emphasis on the relationship between CSR and the nonlinear Landua damping.

  10. High Heat Flux Components Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitley, J.B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose is the development of the technologies necessary to design, build and operate high heat flux components such as actively cooled limiters, divertor collector plates, R.F. antennas, mirror end cells, mirror halo collectors, direct convertor collectors, and neutral beam dumps. These components require an integrated design that considers the plasma-materials interaction (PMI) issues, heat removal problems and materials issues (including possible low Z coatings and claddings). As a general definition, high heat flux components see heat fluxes ranging from 1 to 100 MW/m/sup 2/. Suitable materials include copper and copper alloys.

  11. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural convection can provide adequate heat distribution in many situtations that arise in buildings. This is appropriate, for example, in passive solar buildings where some rooms tend to be more strongly solar heated than others or to reduce the number of heating units required in a building. Natural airflow and heat transport through doorways and other internal building apertures is predictable and can be accounted for in the design. The nature of natural convection is described, and a design chart is presented appropriate to a simple, single-doorway situation. Natural convective loops that can occur in buildings are described and a few design guidelines are presented.

  12. Heating Season Has Ended An Update On The Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heating Season Has Ended An Update On The Numbers Heating Season Has Ended The snow in the mid to last at least 10 days!! So, we are declaring an end to the heating season and entering late into what season, if your space falls out of range or the ventilation does not appear to work properly, please

  13. Holographic Heat Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clifford V. Johnson

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

  14. Cooling by heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mari; J. Eisert

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the idea of actually cooling quantum systems by means of incoherent thermal light, hence giving rise to a counter-intuitive mechanism of "cooling by heating". In this effect, the mere incoherent occupation of a quantum mechanical mode serves as a trigger to enhance the coupling between other modes. This notion of effectively rendering states more coherent by driving with incoherent thermal quantum noise is applied here to the opto-mechanical setting, where this effect occurs most naturally. We discuss two ways of describing this situation, one of them making use of stochastic sampling of Gaussian quantum states with respect to stationary classical stochastic processes. The potential of experimentally demonstrating this counter-intuitive effect in opto-mechanical systems with present technology is sketched.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  16. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  17. Geothermal space heating applications for the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana. Final report, August 20, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birman, J.H.; Cohen, J.; Spencer, G.J.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a first-stage evaluation of the overall feasibility of utilizing geothermal waters from the Madison aquifer in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana for space heating are reported. A preliminary assessment of the resource characteristics, a preliminary design and economic evaluation of a geothermal heating district and an analysis of environmental and institutional issues are included. Preliminary investigations were also made into possible additional uses of the geothermal resource, including ethanol production. The results of the resource analysis showed that the depth to the top of the Madison occurs at approximately 5,500 feet at Poplar, and the Madison Group is characterized by low average porosity (about 5 percent) and permeability (about 0.004 gal/day-ft), and by hot water production rates of a few tens of gallons per minute from intervals a few feet thick. The preliminary heating district system effort for the town of Poplar included design heat load estimates, a field development concept, and preliminary design of heat extraction and hot water distribution systems. The environmental analysis, based on current data, indicated that resource development is not expected to result in undue impacts. The institutional analysis concluded that a Tribal geothermal utility could be established, but no clear-cut procedure can be identified without a more comprehensive evaluation of legal and jurisdistional issues. The economic evaluation found that, if the current trend of rapidly increasing prices for fossil fuels continues, a geothermal heating district within Poplar could be a long-term, economically attractive alternative to current energy sources.

  18. Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Generalized Divided Flow Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, K. P.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of a "Divided-flow" heat exchanger is generalized by locating the shell inlet (or outlet) nozzle off-center such that the two shell sub-streams are unequal and traverse unequal flow paths. The governing equations for heat transfer...

  19. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

  20. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

  1. Heat Plan DenmarkHeat Plan Denmark Anders Dyrelundy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the supply and the demand side · An eye-opener for the Danish politicians · Could be a model for otherHeat Plan DenmarkHeat Plan Denmark Anders Dyrelundy Market Manager for Energy and Climate Rambøll Möller · The first study in Denmark, really to integrate the energy and building sectors ­ to combine

  2. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    64.9 1.4 7.9 9.5 0.5 30.6 0.3 2.1 1.4 3.9 7.3 Principal Building Activity Education ... 37.6 1.5 7.5 8.4 1.1 11.5 0.2 1.6 0.4 3.3 2.1...

  3. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4 2 Q 14 1 35 1 1 3 Food Service ... 63 3 8 7 3 12 4 20 (*) 1 4 Health Care ... 73 2 10 12 1 31 (*) 2 1 3 11 Inpatient...

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    101.2 38.0 7.8 7.2 7.8 20.0 2.5 5.6 1.2 2.8 8.4 Energy Management and Control System (EMCS) For Lighting ... 112.6 37.8 11.5 9.1 6.2 26.1 1.9...

  5. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 119 2 2 10 Food Service ... 217 10 28 24 10 42 13 70 2 2 15 Health Care ... 248 6 34 42 2 105 1 8 4 10 36 Inpatient...

  6. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 258.3 43.1 17.4 14.8 40.4 25.4 63.5 42.1 1.0 1.0 9.5 Health Care ... 187.7 70.4 14.1 13.3 30.2 33.1 3.5 2.6 1.2 3.2...

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil and

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil andRevised:

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil

  11. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil

  12. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8 34.0

  13. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8

  14. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8

  15. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8

  16. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.848.0 1.8

  17. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.848.0

  18. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.848.0890

  19. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100

  20. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100

  1. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100

  2. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100Released:

  3. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop

  5. The effects of airflow modulation and multi-stage defrost on the performance of an air source heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, William Vance

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This transfer of heat energy from a low temperature ambient to the high temperature conditioned space is accomplished by the input of electrical energy to the compressor. During the heating season, the heat pump transfers heat energy from the low temperature... pump refrigeration circuit includes a compressor, an indoor heat exchanger, an outdoor heat exchanger, an expansion device, and fans to transfer heat energy from a low temperature heat energy source to a higher temperature heat energy sink...

  6. Allegations that low-cost solar space heating systems are being ruled out in the solar in Federal Buildings Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are given of an examination of allegations that Marshall Space Flight Center, in its role as technical reviewer for the DOE, arbitrarily recommended requirements which would effectively rule out the use of low-cost solar space heating systems in the solar in Federal Buildings Demonstration Program. The examination addressed whether Marshall's recommended requirements and its evaluation of the low-cost system in question were based on supporting criteria and data, and was not a technical assessment of the allegations. It was concluded that Marshall's recommended requirements and evaluation of the low-cost system in question were indeed based on supporting criteria and data, and were based on guidelines commonly used in the heating and cooling industry and on data collected by eight independent laboratories. The background information, a discussion of the findings, and a chronology of key events surrounding Marshall's recommended requirements and its evaluation are presented. (LEW)

  7. PREDICTING THE TIME RESPONSE OF A BUILDING UNDER HEAT INPUT CONDITIONS FOR ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Mashuri L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Systems for Heating and Cooling. May, 1978. (Washington:Hemisphere heating, Publishing Corp. , 1978),INPUT CONDITIONS FOR ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS Mashuri L.

  8. auxiliary heating system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute...

  9. advanced heat engines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    project is funded by the Singapore National Research Foundation 16 Advanced Mechanical Heat Pump Technologies for Industrial Applications Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  10. advanced heat engine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    project is funded by the Singapore National Research Foundation 16 Advanced Mechanical Heat Pump Technologies for Industrial Applications Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  11. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  12. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas generator with waste heat recovery at a facilityCCHP locations that are using waste heat for cooling alsouse some of the waste heat directly for water or space

  13. A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR THE COMMON PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Michael J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive and Hybrid Heating Cooling Systems Michael]. Holtz,PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS Michael J.of passive and hybrid space heating and cooling systems are

  14. HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rucklidge, Alastair

    become fragmented and twisted, and where they generate the necessary energy to heat the solar coronaHEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS David Alexander and Neal E. Hurlburt Lockheed Martin Solar, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 9EW, UK Abstract We present our results of a hybrid model of sunspots

  15. HEATING7.3. 1,2, or 3-d Heat Conduction Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATING7.2I and 7.3 is the most recent developmant in a series of heat-transfer codes and obsoletes all previous versions. HEATING can solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one, two, or three-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical coordinates or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time and temperature dependent. The thermal conductivity can be anisotropic. Materials may undergo a change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heat-generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time and position dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface to environment or surface to surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time-and/or temperature dependent. General graybody radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING uses a run time memory allocation scheme to avoid having to recompile to match memory requirements for each specific problem. HEATING utilizes free-form input.

  16. Critical heat flux test apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welsh, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA); Doman, Marvin J. (McKeesport, PA); Wilson, Edward C. (West Mifflin, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for testing, in situ, highly irradiated specimens at high temperature transients is provided. A specimen, which has a thermocouple device attached thereto, is manipulated into test position in a sealed quartz heating tube by a robot. An induction coil around a heating portion of the tube is powered by a radio frequency generator to heat the specimen. Sensors are connected to monitor the temperatures of the specimen and the induction coil. A quench chamber is located below the heating portion to permit rapid cooling of the specimen which is moved into this quench chamber once it is heated to a critical temperature. A vacuum pump is connected to the apparatus to collect any released fission gases which are analyzed at a remote location.

  17. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  18. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  19. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  20. IEA HPP Annex 41 Cold Climate Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    of Air-Source Heat Pumps Van D. Baxter Oak Ridge National Laboratory European Heat Pump Summit Nuremberg ­ Cold Climate Heat Pumps Improving low ambient temperature performance of air-source heat pumps as having large number of hours with OD temperature -7 °C (19 °F). Air-source heat pumps (ASHP

  1. Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

  2. Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blum, Helcio

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007): “Market Barriers Affecting Water Heating in Norway. ”heating and cooling energy consumed by centrally installed equipment in order to verify whether a marketheating and cooling. The non-existence of the equipment efficiency-related market

  3. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI); Marsala, Joseph (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1994-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium.

  4. Modeling of Heat Transfer in Geothermal Heat Exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, P.; Man, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , University of Lund, Sweden, [7] Fang, Z., Diao, N., and Cui, P., Discontinuous operation of geothermal heat exchangers [J], Tsinghua Science and Technology. , 2002, 7 194?197. [8] Hellstrom, G., Ground heat storage -- Thermal analysis of duct storage... systems [D], Department of Mathem Sweden, 1991. [9] Mei, V. C. and Baxter, V. D., Performance of a ground-coupled heat pump with multiple dissimilar U-tu Transactions, 1986, 92 Part 2, 22-25. [10] Yavuzturk, C., Spitler, J. D. and Rees, S. J., A...

  5. Quantum Optomechanical Heat Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keye Zhang; Francesco Bariani; Pierre Meystre

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate theoretically a quantum optomechanical realization of a heat engine. In a generic optomechanical arrangement the optomechanical coupling between the cavity field and the oscillating end-mirror results in polariton normal mode excitations whose character depends on the pump detuning and the coupling strength. By varying that detuning it is possible to transform their character from phonon-like to photon-like, so that they are predominantly coupled to the thermal reservoir of phonons or photons, respectively. We exploit the fact that the effective temperatures of these two reservoirs are different to produce a Otto cycle along one of the polariton branches. We discuss the basic properties of the system in two different regimes: in the optical domain it is possible to extract work from the thermal energy of a mechanical resonator at finite temperature, while in the microwave range one can in principle exploit the cycle to extract work from the blackbody radiation background coupled to an ultra-cold atomic ensemble.

  6. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver K. Manuel

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  7. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  8. Heat Pump Cycle with Solution Circuit and Internal Heat Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radermacher, R.

    Vapor compression heat pumps which employ working fluid mixtures rather than pure substances offer significant advantages leading to larger temperature lifts at low pressure ratios or to completely new applications. The main feature of such cycles...

  9. Active heat transfer enhancement in integrated fan heat sinks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staats, Wayne Lawrence

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern computer processors require significant cooling to achieve their full performance. The "efficiency" of heat sinks is also becoming more important: cooling of electronics consumes 1% of worldwide electricity use by ...

  10. Solar steam generation by heat localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghasemi, Hadi

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated ...

  11. Design Considerations for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bywaters, R. P.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recovery design considerations as well as a summary of typical "waste heat" sources and application sites. A procedure for conducting industrial waste heat surveys is presented. Thermodynamic and heat transfer factors are discussed. Problems associated...

  12. Stochastic Ion Heating by Lower Hybrid Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candy, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Tur b ulent S jpectrum Heating S imulations. Run 1A 2A 3ADivision Stochastic Ion Heating by Lower Hybrid Turbulenceweb development in this heating process is also discussed. I

  13. Heating Energy Meter Validation for Apartments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, B.; Li, D.; Hao, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Household heat metering is the core of heating system reform. Because of many subjective and objective factors, household heat metering has not been put into practice to a large extent in China. In this article, the research subjects are second...

  14. Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds Released: October 04, 2011 In a heated battle, ice crystals win the competition for cloud water vapor The mighty cloud ice...

  15. Heating Energy Meter Validation for Apartments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, B.; Li, D.; Hao, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Household heat metering is the core of heating system reform. Because of many subjective and objective factors, household heat metering has not been put into practice to a large extent in China. In this article, the research subjects are second...

  16. Development Requirements for Advanced Industrial Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Bliem, C. J.; Mills, J. I.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE is attempting to advance the use of heat pumps to save energy in industrial processes. The approach has emphasized developing better heat pump technology and transferring that technology to the private sector. DOE requires that heat pump...

  17. Electrolyte injection with electrical resistance heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaimes Gomez, Olmedo

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reservoir to extract hydrocarbons. These processes include the Radio-Frequency Heating of oil shales and tar sands , the Microwave Heating of oil shales ", the Induction Heating , the Electrocarbonization , the Selective ERH and the Electric Preheat...

  18. Heat-Traced Fluid Transfer Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, R. E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT-TRACED FLUID TRANSFER LINES Robert E. Schilling, P.E. Eaton Corporation Aurora, Ohio This paper discusses basic considerations in designing a heat tracing system using either steam or electrical tracing. Four basic reasons to heat...

  19. Development Requirements for Advanced Industrial Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Bliem, C. J.; Mills, J. I.

    DOE is attempting to advance the use of heat pumps to save energy in industrial processes. The approach has emphasized developing better heat pump technology and transferring that technology to the private sector. DOE requires that heat pump...

  20. Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    it work? A geothermal heat pump uses the constant below ground temperature of soil or water to heat and cool your home. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes referred to as...

  1. Design Considerations for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bywaters, R. P.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recovery design considerations as well as a summary of typical "waste heat" sources and application sites. A procedure for conducting industrial waste heat surveys is presented. Thermodynamic and heat transfer factors are discussed. Problems associated...

  2. Computation of radiative heat transport across a nanoscale vacuum gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budaev, Bair V., E-mail: bair@berkeley.edu; Bogy, David B., E-mail: dbogy@berkeley.edu [University of California, Etcheverry Hall, MC 1740, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation heat transport across a vacuum gap between two half-spaces is studied. By consistently applying only the fundamental laws of physics, we obtain an algebraic equation that connects the temperatures of the half-spaces and the heat flux between them. The heat transport coefficient generated by this equation for such structures matches available experimental data for nanoscale and larger gaps without appealing to any additional specific mechanisms of energy transfer.

  3. Solar heat storages in district heating Klaus Ellehauge Thomas Engberg Pedersen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    References 45 Appendix 1 Danish companies 48 #12;6/50 Solar heat storages in district heating networksJuly 2007 . #12;#12;Solar heat storages in district heating networks July 2007 Klaus Ellehauge 97 22 11 tep@cowi.dk www.cowi.com #12;#12;Solar heat storages in district heating networks 5

  4. Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration Peter Meibom Juha of using electrical heat boilers and heat pumps as wind power integration measures relieving the link\\ZRUGV wind power, integration, heat pumps, electric heat boilers ,QWURGXFWLRQ 3UREOHP RYHUYLHZ The Danish

  5. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  6. Heat exchanger with ceramic elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

  7. Heat pump assisted geothermal heating system for Felix Spa, Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosca, Marcel; Maghiar, Teodor

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents a pre-feasibility type study of a proposed heat pump assisted geothermal heating system for an average hotel in Felix Spa, Romania. After a brief presentation of the geothermal reservoir, the paper gives the methodology and the results of the technical and economical calculations. The technical and economical viability of the proposed system is discussed in detail in the final part of the paper.

  8. absorption heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating capacity k jet nozzle Closed Cycles: AbsorptionAdsorption heat pump thermal compressor driven by waste heat1 Industrial heat pumps in Germany - potentials,...

  9. absorption heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating capacity k jet nozzle Closed Cycles: AbsorptionAdsorption heat pump thermal compressor driven by waste heat1 Industrial heat pumps in Germany - potentials,...

  10. advanced heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  11. advanced heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  12. agency heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  13. automotive heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  14. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems This presentation covers...

  15. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the indirect increase in home heating (and the decrease inincrease the home’s heating load in the heating season (Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,

  16. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  17. Cold Climates Heat Pump Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pumps provide an efficient heating method; however they suffer from sever capacity and performance degradation at low ambient conditions. This has deterred market penetration in cold climates. There is a continuing effort to find an efficient air source cold climate heat pump that maintains acceptable capacity and performance at low ambient conditions. Systematic optimization techniques provide a reliable approach for the design of such systems. This paper presents a step-by-step approach for the design optimization of cold climate heat pumps. We first start by describing the optimization problem: objective function, constraints, and design space. Then we illustrate how to perform this design optimization using an open source publically available optimization toolbox. The response of the heat pump design was evaluated using a validated component based vapor compression model. This model was treated as a black box model within the optimization framework. Optimum designs for different system configurations are presented. These optimum results were further analyzed to understand the performance tradeoff and selection criteria. The paper ends with a discussion on the use of systematic optimization for the cold climate heat pump design.

  18. A study of contact angles in porous solids using heat pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Richard Clark

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aviation and Space Conference, 1968, 655-658. 25 Brosens, P. , "Thermionic Converters with Heat Pipe Radiators, " Advances in Energy Conversion Engineering, 1967, 181-187. 33 26 Werner, R. W. , and G. A. Carlson, "Heat Pipe Radiator for Space Power... heat from a nuclear source to a thermionic generator (~29 , since thermionic generators are sensitive to high levels of radiation. Heat pipes have been suggested for controlling cryogenic boiloff in space (~30 . An investigation of using heat pipes...

  19. Internal Heat Transfer Coefficient Determination in a Packed Bed From the Transient Response Due to Solid Phase Induction Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geb, David; Zhou, Feng; Catton, Ivan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Solid Phase Induction Heating Nonintrusive measurementsgeneration rate via induction heating. The fluid temperaturetechnique, induction heating, bypass effect, channeling

  20. Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging...

  1. Solar Water Heating Webinar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Weatherization Assistance Program Pilot Projects Solar Water Heating Webinar Solar Water Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)...

  2. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rcul2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERSJune 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS*

  3. Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer,...

  4. Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  5. Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by reducing expensive heat losses from industrial heating equipment, such as furnaces.

  6. Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap This roadmap establishes a set of high-priority RD&D...

  7. Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    process Produce prototype heat exchangers for electronics cooling and high pressure waste heat recovery power system applications Test integrity and confirm high...

  8. Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and...

  9. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  10. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Prenger, Jr., F. Coyne (Madison, WI)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe of pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  11. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    HUMAN HEALTH SCIENCE BLDG GEO HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Principal Investigator Source Heat Pumps Demo Projects May 20, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential,...

  12. Heat Controller: Noncompliance Determination (2014-SE-15004)...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Heat Controller, Inc. finding that the room air conditioner distributed in commerce by Heat Controller as Comfort Aire brand models...

  13. Harvesting Electricity From Wasted Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwede, Jared

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists as SLAC National Laboratory explain the concept, Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE), and how this process can capture more energy from photovoltaic panels by harnessing heat energy from sunlight.

  14. Sodium heat engine electrical feedthrough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, N.

    1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy is disclosed. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a hermetically sealed feedthrough structure. 4 figs.

  15. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, S.R.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernible pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light. 4 figs.

  16. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, Steven R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernable pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light.

  17. Industrial Heat Pump Design Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    There are numerous industries that can incorporate heat pumps into their operations to save energy costs and payoff the investment in well under two years. Many of these industries can cut energy costs associated with evaporation by over 75...

  18. Harvesting Electricity From Wasted Heat

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schwede, Jared

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists as SLAC National Laboratory explain the concept, Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE), and how this process can capture more energy from photovoltaic panels by harnessing heat energy from sunlight.

  19. Industrial Heat Pump Design Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are numerous industries that can incorporate heat pumps into their operations to save energy costs and payoff the investment in well under two years. Many of these industries can cut energy costs associated with evaporation by over 75...

  20. Mass Save- HEAT Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: For a limited time, expanded HEAT loan offerings are available. These are being funded by a $3.8 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy.