National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for heating season performance

  1. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  2. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  3. Microsoft Word - Heating Oil Season.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4-2015 Heating Oil Season Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Trigger Mechanism (Cents per Gallon, Except Where Noted) Week Residential Heating Oil Price Average Brent Spot Price ...

  4. Nebraska Preparing for the Upcoming Heating Season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    N E B R A S K A Nebraska "Preparing for the Upcoming Heating Season" E N E R G Y O F F I C E State Heating Oil and Propane Conference October 8, 2014 Profile of Nebraska Population - 1,868,516 Occupied Housing Units - 733,570 Occupied Housing by Fuel Used for Home Heating in 2012 Natural Gas 63% Fuel Oil and Kerosene 0.50% Electricity 26% Propane 8% Wood 1.60% All Other Fuels 0.09% Coal or Coke 0.01% Solar Energy 0.04% No Fuel Used 0.20% http://www.neo.ne.gov/statshtml/75.html History

  5. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  6. Nebraska Preparing for the Upcoming Heating Season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heating Oil Propane Residential Propane Price http:www.neo.ne.govstatshtml86.html Residential Heating Oil Price http:www.neo.ne.govstatshtml87.html Weekly Report Using ...

  7. State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, Betsy

    2002-05-22

    This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

  8. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  9. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, Nick; Poerschke, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  10. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  11. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.

    1997-01-01

    As part of ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. The performance of this premium heating oil is discussed.

  12. Natural gas inventories heading to record levels at start of winter heating season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural gas inventories heading to record levels at start of winter heating season U.S. natural gas inventories are expected to be at record levels to start the winter heating season. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the amount of natural gas stored underground should total almost 4 trillion cubic feet by the beginning of November, reflecting record high natural gas production. Inventories could go even higher if heating demand is not strong during October

  13. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

  14. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  15. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems inmore » terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.« less

  16. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems in terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.

  17. Natural gas inventories to remain high at end of winter heating season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural gas inventories to remain high at end of winter heating season Despite the jump in natural gas use to meet heating demand during the recent winter storm that walloped the East Coast, total U.S. natural gas inventories remain near 3 trillion cubic feet. That's about 20 percent higher than at this time last year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said that by the end of the winter heating season at the close of March, it expects natural gas inventories

  18. Performance characteristics of recently developed high-performance heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlitt, R.

    1995-01-01

    For future space projects such as Earth orbiting platforms, space stations, but also Moon or Mars bases, the need to manage waste heat up to 100 kW has been identified. For this purpose large heat pipe radiators have been proposed with heat pipe lengths of 15 m and heat transport capabilities up to 4 kW. It is demonstrated that conventional axially grooved heat pipes can be improved to provide 1 kWm heat transport capability. Higher heat loads can be handled only by high-composite wick designs with large liquid cross sections and circumferential grooves in the evaporator. With these high-performance heat pipes, heat transfer coefficients of about 200 kW/m{sup 2}K and transport capabilities of 2 kW over 15 m can be reached. Configurations with liquid fillets and axially tapered liquid channels are proposed to improve the ability of the highly composite wick to prime.

  19. Performance of a hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phetteplace, G.; Sullivan, W.

    1998-10-01

    In climates dominated by air conditioning, a few so-called hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been built. The hybrid system uses both a ground-coupled heat exchanger and a cooling tower, thereby reducing the amount of ground-coupling heat exchanger necessary. Although this concept has been shown to be feasible, the performance of such a system has not been measured in detail. Since it may be possible to achieve significant performance improvements in such systems by modifying the design and operational practices, detailed performance monitoring of such systems is needed. This paper describes a project that has been undertaken to collect performance data from a hybrid GCHP system at Fort Polk, LA. This paper presents performance data for a period of about 22 months, including data from portions of two heating and cooling seasons. The energy input to the GCHPs themselves will be presented, as well as the energy rejected to the ground in the cooling mode and that extracted from the ground in the heating mode. Energy flows in the cooling tower also will be addressed, along with the power consumption of the circulating pumps and the cooling tower.

  20. Direct contact heat exchanger performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, E. F.

    1981-03-12

    Although the final performance result of a DCHE is the cost of the net electricity produced, the best performance cannot be achieved without optimizing the components of the system as well as the whole system. Thus collection and analysis of data on the internal performance of the column assists in optimizing the operation of the particular column as well as in suggesting ways for improving the operation and design of future columns.

  1. Demonstration and Performance Monitoring of Foundation Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration and Performance Monitoring of Foundation Heat Exchangers in Low Load, High Performance Research Homes Demonstration and Performance Monitoring of Foundation Heat ...

  2. Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Entering the 2000-2001 Heating Season

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  3. Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial Applications Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial Applications Credit: S-RAM Credit: S-RAM Lead ...

  4. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Water Heating Systems Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, ...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W. Travis; Groll, Eckhard A.; Braun, James E.

    2014-06-01

    The primary goals of the proposed project were to develop, test, and evaluate a high performance and cost-effective vapor compression air-source heat pump for use in cold climate regions. Vapor compression heat pumps are a proven technology, and have been used for many years to meet heating requirements for buildings in residential, commercial, and industrial applications. However, in climate regions that experience very low outdoor ambient temperatures both the heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of traditional air-source vapor compression heat pumps drops dramatically with a decrease in the outdoor air temperature. The efficiency of heat pumping equipment has improved substantially over the past 20 years; however, the efficiencies of the highest rated equipment on the market are approaching practical limits that cannot be surpassed without modifications to the basic cycle and possibly the use of additional hardware. In this report, three technologies to improve the efficiency of vapor compression systems are described. These are a) vapor injected compression, b) oil flooded compression and c) hybrid flow control of the evaporator. Compressor prototypes for both, oil flooded and vapor injected compression were developed by Emerson Climate Technologies. For the oil flooded compressor, the oil injection port location was optimized and an internal oil separator was added using several design iterations. After initial testing at Emerson Climate Technologies, further testing was done at Purdue University, and compressor models were developed. These models were then integrated into a system model to determine the achievable improvement of seasonal energy efficiency (SEER) for Minneapolis (Minnesota) climate. For the oil flooded compression, a 34% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency was found while a 21% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency ratio was found for the vapor injected compression. It was found that one benefit of both tested

  6. High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Sandia-developed rotating heat exchanger

  7. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This sourcebook introduces industry to process heating basics, performance opportunities for fuel and electric based systems, waste heat management and where they can find help on ...

  8. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It is not intended to be a comprehensive technical text on improving process heating ... Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Third Edition ...

  9. Performance evaluation of low heat rejection engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, X.; Wang, W.G.; Bata, R.M. ); Gao, X. )

    1994-10-01

    Improving the performance of the Chinese B135 six-cylinder direct injection turbocharged and turbocompounded Low Heat Rejection Engine (LHRE) was based on experimental and analytical studies. The studies were primarily applied on a B1135 single-cylinder LHR engine and a conventional water-cooled B1135 single-cylinder engine. Performance of the B1135 LHRE was worse than that of the conventional B1135 due to a deterioration in the combustion process of the B1135 LHRE. The combustion process was improved and the fuel injection system was redesigned and applied to the B135 six-cylinder LHRE. The new design improved the performance of the LHRE and better fuel economy was realized by the thermal energy recovered from the exhaust gases by the turbocompounding system.

  10. Impact of Installation Faults on Heat Pump Performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hourahan, Glenn; Baxter, Van D.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies and surveys indicate that typically-installed HVAC equipment operate inefficiently and waste considerable energy due to varied installation errors (faults) such as improper refrigerant charge, incorrect airflow, oversized equipment, and leaky ducts. This article summarizes the results of a large United States (U.S.) experimental/analytical study (U.S. contribution to IEA HPP Annex 36) of the impact that different faults have on the performance of an air-source heat pump (ASHP) in a typical U.S. single-family house. It combines building effects, equipment effects, and climate effects in an evaluation of the faults impact on seasonal energy consumption through simulations of the house/ASHPmore » pump system.« less

  11. Impact of Installation Faults on Heat Pump Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hourahan, Glenn; Baxter, Van D.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies and surveys indicate that typically-installed HVAC equipment operate inefficiently and waste considerable energy due to varied installation errors (faults) such as improper refrigerant charge, incorrect airflow, oversized equipment, and leaky ducts. This article summarizes the results of a large United States (U.S.) experimental/analytical study (U.S. contribution to IEA HPP Annex 36) of the impact that different faults have on the performance of an air-source heat pump (ASHP) in a typical U.S. single-family house. It combines building effects, equipment effects, and climate effects in an evaluation of the faults impact on seasonal energy consumption through simulations of the house/ASHP pump system.

  12. Performance of Integrated Hydronic Heating Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    2007-12-20

    A variety of system configurations are used in North America to meet the heating and domestic hot water needs of single-family homes. This includes, for example: warm air furnaces with electric water heaters; boilers with integrated hot water coils; and boilers with 'indirect' hot water storage tanks. Integrated hydronic systems which provide both heat and hot water are more popular only in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic regions. For those making decisions about configurations of these integrated hydronic systems, including control options, little information is available concerning the annual energy cost implications of these decisions. This report presents results of a project to use a direct load emulation approach to measure the performance of hydronic systems, develop performance curves, and to provide decision tools to consumers. This is a laboratory measurement system involving direct energy input and output measurements under different load patterns. These results are then used to develop performance correlations for specific systems that can be used to predict energy use in specific applications. A wide range of system types have been tested under this project including conventional boilers with 'tankless' internal coils for domestic hot water production, boilers with indirect external storage tanks, tank type water heaters which may also be used for space heating, condensing oil- and gas-fired systems, and systems with custom control features. It is shown that low load and idle energy losses can have a very large impact on the total annual energy use and that the potential energy savings associated with replacing old equipment with newer, high efficiency equipment with low losses at idle or low load can be in the 25% range. These savings are larger than simple combustion efficiency measurements would indicate.

  13. Solar energy system performance evaluation: seasonal report for Elcam Tempe Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The analysis used is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for at least one full season of operation. The objective of the analysis is to report the long-term field performance of the installed system and to make technical contributions to the definition of techniques and requirements for solar energy system design. The solar system, Elcam-Tempe, was designed to supply commercial domestic hot water heating systems that utilize two, four by eight foot flat plate collectors to heat water in a fifty-two gallon preheat tank or a fifty-two gallon domestic hot water (DHW) tank. The DHW tank provides hot water to the Agriculture Department residence at Arizona State University. The system uses an automatic cascade control system to control three independent actuators, the coolant circulation pump, the cascade valve, and the electric heating element. The system provides freeze protection by automatically circulating hot water from the hot water tank through the collectors when the collector outlet temperature is below a specified value. The building is a single story residence located at the agriculture experiment farm of the Arizona State University. The Elcam-Tempe Solar Energy System has four modes of operation.

  14. Passive solar/earth sheltered office/dormitory cooling season thermal performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous detailed hourly thermal performance measurements have been taken since February 1982 in and around an occupied, underground, 4000 ft/sup 2/ office/dormitory building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This building has a number of energy saving features which have been analyzed relative to their performance in a southeastern US climate and with respect to overall commercial building performance. This analysis documents cooling season performance, as well as effects of earth contact, interior thermal mass, an economizer cycle and interface of an efficient building envelope with a central three-ton heat pump. The Joint Institute Dormitory obtains a cooling energy savings of about 30% compared with an energy-efficient, above-grade structure and has the potential to save as much as 50%. The proper installation of the overhand, interior thermal mass, massive supply duct system, and earth contact team up to prevent summertime overheating. From May through September, this building cost a total of $300 (at 5.7 cents/kWh) to cool and ventilate 24 hours per day. Besides thermal performance of the building envelope, extensive comfort data was taken illustrating that at least 90% of the occupants are comfortable all of the time according to the PMV measurements.

  15. Performance of a drain-back solar heating and hot water system with auxiliary heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaki, S.

    1984-03-01

    The principal objective of the project was to test and evaluate the BNL collectors in a space heating system. When the BNL collectors delaminated under stagnation conditions, they were replaced with the Chamberlain collectors which were previously used on solar house III, and tests were continued to evaluate performance of a drain-back system. Results leading to the following conclusions are discussed. (1) The Chamberlain collectors have deteriorated in performance compared to previous seasons. Where daily efficiency of 41% were attained in 1978 to 1979 and 1979 to 1980, efficiency was 37%. System efficiency of 29% compares to 30% in prior years. (2) Solar contribution to DHW heating is low, and is probably the result of the artificially imposed load profile and the low recovery rate of the double-wall heat exchanger. (3) System efficiency can be improved by reducing thermal losses from storage.

  16. Performance bound for real OTEC heat engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.

    1987-01-01

    Maximum power and efficiency at the maximum power of an irreversible OTEC heat engine are treated. When time is explicitly considered in the energy exchanges between the heat engine and its surroundings, it is found that there is a bound on the efficiency of the real OTEC heat engine at the maximum power condition. This bound can guide the evaluation of existing OTEC systems or influence design of future OTEC heat engines.

  17. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Third Edition | Department of Energy Third Edition Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Third Edition This sourcebook introduces industry to process heating basics, performance opportunities for fuel and electric based systems, waste heat management and where they can find help on optimizing these important industrial systems. Over the years AMO has worked with the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA) in its development. IHEA's mission is to

  18. Cooling season performance of an earth-sheltered office/dormitory building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.

    1984-07-01

    Detailed hourly measurements taken in and around an underground office-dormitory building for two summers document energy savings; whole building-component interface problems; and specific cooling contributions from earth contact, interior thermal mass, and an economizer. The Joint Institute Dormitory (JID) saves about 30% compared with well-built above-grade buildings in a climate typical of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and has the potential to save as much as 50%. The detailed measurements, which include extensive thermal comfort data, indicate that at least 90% of the occupants are comfortable all of the time. The thermal performance measurements and analysis determine that the peak cooling requirement of this building is 50% less than that of well-built above-grade structures, permitting a cost savings on installed cooling capacity. The dominant building components contributing to the good thermal performance are the structural thermal mass, the earth-covered roof, and the earth contact provided by the bermed walls and slab floor. The 372-m/sup 2/ (4000 gross ft/sup 2/) building used about $300 (at 5.7 cents/kWh) to cool and ventilate from May through September. Eliminating a number of building design and construction anomalies could improve the whole-building performance and reduce the seasonal cooling cost another $85. Close examination of the thermal performance of this building revealed that a very efficient heat pump and thermally sound envelope do not necessarily produce otpimum performance without careful attention given to component interface details. 8 references, 24 figures, 12 tables.

  19. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcbook for Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    A sourcebook designed to provide process heating system users with a reference outlining opportunities to improve system performance and optimize energy efficiency in industrial energy systems.

  20. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Second Edition | Department of Energy Second Edition Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition This sourcebook describes basic process heating applications and equipment, and outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements. It also discusses the merits of using a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. It is not intended to be a comprehensive technical text on improving process heating

  1. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 2, Heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Federal Government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US Government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer; Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  2. Predicts the Steady-State Heating and Cooling Performance of Electric Heat Pump

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-01-13

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a leader in the development of analytical tools for the design of electrically driven, air-to-air heat pumps. Foremost among these tools is the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, which can be used to predict the steady-state heating and cooling performance of an electrically driven, air-source heat pump. This version is three to five times faster than the earlier version, easier to use and more versatile.

  3. Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles | Department of Energy 70_shakouri_2011_p.pdf (856.16 KB) More Documents & Publications High Performance Zintl Phase TE Materials with Embedded Particles High performance Zintl phase TE materials with embedded nanoparticles High performance Zintl phase TE materials with embedded nanoparticles

  4. Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research ...

  5. Solar energy system performance evaluation: seasonal report for Solaron-Akron, Akron, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The long-term field performance of the installed system and technical contributions to the definition of techniques and requirements for solar energy system design are reported. The Solar Energy System was designed by Solaron Corporation, Denver, Colorado, to provide an 1840 square foot floor area with space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) for a dual-level single family residence in Akron, Ohio. The Solar Energy System uses air as the heat transport medium, has a 546 square foot flat plate collector array subsystem, a 270 cubic foot rock thermal storage bin subsystem, a domestic hot water preheat tank, pumps, controls and transport lines. The auxiliary space heating subsystem is an air to liquid heat pump coupled with a 1000 gallon water storage tank. Electricity provides auxiliary energy for both space heating and DHW subsystems.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of High Performance Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A; Berry, Robert; Durfee, Neal; Baxter, Van D

    2016-01-01

    Integrated heat pump (IHP) technology provides significant potential for energy savings and comfort improvement for residential buildings. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a high performance IHP that provides space heating, cooling, and water heating services. Experiments were conducted according to the ASHRAE Standard 206-2013 where 24 test conditions were identified in order to evaluate the IHP performance indices based on the airside performance. Empirical curve fits of the unit s compressor maps are used in conjunction with saturated condensing and evaporating refrigerant conditions to deduce the refrigerant mass flowrate, which, in turn was used to evaluate the refrigerant side performance as a check on the airside performance. Heat pump (compressor, fans, and controls) and water pump power were measured separately per requirements of Standard 206. The system was charged per the system manufacturer s specifications. System test results are presented for each operating mode. The overall IHP performance metrics are determined from the test results per the Standard 206 calculation procedures.

  7. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  8. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  9. Performance of dehumidifying heat exchangers with and without wetting coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, K.; Webb, R.L.

    1999-11-01

    Limited previous work has shown that use of special hydrophilic coatings will provide lower air pressure drop in finned tube heat exchangers operated under dehumidifying conditions. However, no detailed work has been reported on the effect of different coating types, or different fin surface geometries on the wet pressure drop. In this study, wind tunnel tests were performed on three different fin geometries (wavy, lanced, and louver) under wet and dry conditions. All dehumidification tests were done for fully wet surface conditions. For each geometry, the tests were performed on uncoated and coated heat exchangers. For all three fin geometries, the wet-to-dry pressure drop ratio was 1.2 at 2.5 m/s frontal air velocity. The coatings have no influence on the wet or dry heat transfer coefficient. However, the wet surface heat transfer coefficient was 10 to 30% less than the dry heat transfer coefficient, depending on the particular fin geometry. The effect of the fin press oil on wet pressure drop was also studied. If the oil contains a surfactant, good temporary wetting can be obtained on an uncoated surface; however, this effect is quickly degraded as the oil is washed from the surface during wet operation. This work also provides a critical assessment of data reduction methods for wet surface operation, including calculation of the fin efficiency.

  10. Performance of Gas-Engine Driven Heat Pump Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdi Zaltash; Randy Linkous; Randall Wetherington; Patrick Geoghegan; Ed Vineyard; Isaac Mahderekal; Robert Gaylord

    2008-09-30

    Air-conditioning (cooling) for buildings is the single largest use of electricity in the United States (U.S.). This drives summer peak electric demand in much of the U.S. Improved air-conditioning technology thus has the greatest potential impact on the electric grid compared to other technologies that use electricity. Thermally-activated technologies (TAT), such as natural gas engine-driven heat pumps (GHP), can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. GHP offers an attractive opportunity for commercial building owners to reduce electric demand charges and operating expenses. Engine-driven systems have several potential advantages over conventional single-speed or single-capacity electric motor-driven units. Among them are variable speed operation, high part load efficiency, high temperature waste heat recovery from the engine, and reduced annual operating costs (SCGC 1998). Although gas engine-driven systems have been in use since the 1960s, current research is resulting in better performance, lower maintenance requirements, and longer operating lifetimes. Gas engine-driven systems are typically more expensive to purchase than comparable electric motor-driven systems, but they typically cost less to operate, especially for commercial building applications. Operating cost savings for commercial applications are primarily driven by electric demand charges. GHP operating costs are dominated by fuel costs, but also include maintenance costs. The reliability of gas cooling equipment has improved in the last few years and maintenance requirements have decreased (SCGC 1998, Yahagi et al. 2006). Another advantage of the GHP over electric motor-driven is the ability to use the heat rejected from the engine during heating operation. The recovered heat can be used to supplement the vapor compression cycle during heating or to supply other process loads, such as water heating. The use of the engine waste heat results in greater

  11. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  12. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  13. A performance data network for solar process heat systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, G.; Hale, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    A solar process heat (SPH) data network has been developed to access remote-site performance data from operational solar heat systems. Each SPH system in the data network is outfitted with monitoring equipment and a datalogger. The datalogger is accessed via modem from the data network computer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The dataloggers collect both ten-minute and hourly data and download it to the data network every 24-hours for archiving, processing, and plotting. The system data collected includes energy delivered (fluid temperatures and flow rates) and site meteorological conditions, such as solar insolation and ambient temperature. The SPH performance data network was created for collecting performance data from SPH systems that are serving in industrial applications or from systems using technologies that show promise for industrial applications. The network will be used to identify areas of SPH technology needing further development, to correlate computer models with actual performance, and to improve the credibility of SPH technology. The SPH data network also provides a centralized bank of user-friendly performance data that will give prospective SPH users an indication of how actual systems perform. There are currently three systems being monitored and archived under the SPH data network: two are parabolic trough systems and the third is a flat-plate system. The two trough systems both heat water for prisons; the hot water is used for personal hygiene, kitchen operations, and laundry. The flat plate system heats water for meat processing at a slaughter house. We plan to connect another parabolic trough system to the network during the first months of 1996. We continue to look for good examples of systems using other types of collector technologies and systems serving new applications (such as absorption chilling) to include in the SPH performance data network.

  14. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  15. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosia, G.; Ragona, R.

    2015-12-10

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  16. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  17. Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation: seasonal report for Wormser, Columbia, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    The Wormser Solar Energy System located in a four unit townhouse apartment (5400 square feet) in Columbia, South Carolina was designed to provide 50% of the hot water and 70% of the space heating by the Wormser Scientific Corporation, Stamford, Connecticut. The Solar Energy System consists of 266 ft/sup 2/ of pyramidal optics, flat-plate liquid collectors, a solar window area of 1152 ft/sup 2/, a 2500 gallon thermal water storage tank, an energy transport system (water), heat exchangers, pumps, controls and four domestic hot water (DHW) tanks. Electrical elements in each domestic hot water tank provide necessary auxiliary energy for hot water. Four multifunctional heat pumps, supplied with solar heated water provide space heating energy to the apartments, collector freeze protection is provided through the location of the collectors inside the attic. The system with six modes of operation became oprational in February 1978. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, maintenance, summary and conclusions.

  18. Technical Highlight: NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters.

  19. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  20. Performance of Variable Capacity Heat Pumps in a Mixed Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Jackson, Roderick K

    2012-04-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps represent the next wave of technology for heat pumps. In this report, the performance of two variable capacity heat pumps (HPs) is compared to that of a single or two stage baseline system. The units were installed in two existing research houses located in Knoxville, TN. These houses were instrumented to collect energy use and temperature data while both the baseline systems and variable capacity systems were installed. The homes had computer controlled simulated occupancy, which provided consistent schedules for hot water use and lighting. The temperature control and energy use of the systems were compared during both the heating and cooling seasons. Multiple linear regression models were used along with TMY3 data for Knoxville, TN in order to normalize the effect that the outdoor air temperature has on energy use. This enables a prediction of each system's energy use over a year with the same weather. The first system was a multi-split system consisting of 8 indoor units and a single outdoor unit. This system replaced a 16 SEER single stage HP with a zoning system, which served as the baseline. Data was collected on the baseline system from August 2009 to December 2010 and on the multi-split system from January 2011 to January 2012. Soon after the installation of the multi-split system, some of the smaller rooms began over-conditioning. This was determined to be caused by a small amount of continuous refrigerant flow to all of the indoor units when the outdoor unit was running regardless of whether they were calling for heat. This, coupled with the fact that the indoor fans run continuously, was providing enough heat in some rooms to exceed the set point. In order to address this, the indoor fans were disabled when not actively heating per the manufacturer's recommendation. Based on the measured data, the multi-split system was predicted to use 40% more energy in the heating season and 16% more energy in the cooling season than the

  1. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Dryers, Evaporators, Fans, Heat Exchangers, HVAC Systems, Pumps Author: Bela G. Liptak ... Modeling of Gas-Fired Furnaces and Boilers and Other Industrial Heating ...

  2. A solar thermal cooling and heating system for a building: Experimental and model based performance analysis and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Yin, Hongxi; Archer, David H.

    2010-02-15

    A solar thermal cooling and heating system at Carnegie Mellon University was studied through its design, installation, modeling, and evaluation to deal with the question of how solar energy might most effectively be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building. This solar cooling and heating system incorporates 52 m{sup 2} of linear parabolic trough solar collectors; a 16 kW double effect, water-lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chiller, and a heat recovery heat exchanger with their circulation pumps and control valves. It generates chilled and heated water, dependent on the season, for space cooling and heating. This system is the smallest high temperature solar cooling system in the world. Till now, only this system of the kind has been successfully operated for more than one year. Performance of the system has been tested and the measured data were used to verify system performance models developed in the TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program (TRNSYS). On the basis of the installed solar system, base case performance models were programmed; and then they were modified and extended to investigate measures for improving system performance. The measures included changes in the area and orientation of the solar collectors, the inclusion of thermal storage in the system, changes in the pipe diameter and length, and various system operational control strategies. It was found that this solar thermal system could potentially supply 39% of cooling and 20% of heating energy for this building space in Pittsburgh, PA, if it included a properly sized storage tank and short, low diameter connecting pipes. Guidelines for the design and operation of an efficient and effective solar cooling and heating system for a given building space have been provided. (author)

  3. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  4. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

  5. Effect of seasonal changes in quantities of biowaste on full scale anaerobic digester performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illmer, P. Gstraunthaler, G.

    2009-01-15

    A 750,000 l digester located in Roppen/Austria was studied over a 2-year period. The concentrations and amounts of CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S and several other process parameters like temperature, retention time, dry weight and input of substrate were registered continuously. On a weekly scale the pH and the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and volatile fatty acids (acetic, butyric, iso-butyric, propionic, valeric and iso-valeric acid) were measured. The data show a similar pattern of seasonal gas production over 2 years of monitoring. The consumption of VFA and not the hydrogenotrophic CH{sub 4} production appeared to be the limiting factor for the investigated digestion process. Whereas the changes in pH and the concentrations of most VFA did not correspond with changes in biogas production, the ratio of acetic to propionic acid and the concentration of H{sub 2} appeared to be useful indicators for reactor performance. However, the most influential factors for the anaerobic digestion process were the amount and the quality of input material, which distinctly changed throughout the year.

  6. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

  7. Solar energy system performance evaluation seasonal report for Elcam San Diego, San Diego, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The solar energy system, Elcam San Diego, was designed to supply domestic hot water heating for a single family residence located in Encinitas, California. The contents of this document have been divided into System Description, Performance Assessment, Operating Energy, Energy Savings, Maintenance and Summary and Conclusions. The system is a Sunspot two tank cascade type, where solar energy is supplied to either a 66 gallon preheat tank (solar storage) or a 40 gallon domestic hot water tank. Water is pumped directly from one of the two tanks, through the 65 square feet collector array and back into the same tank. Freeze protection is provided by automatically circulating hot water from the hot water tank through the collectors and exposed plumbing when freezing conditions exist. Auxiliary energy is supplied by natural gas. The Elcam San Diego solar energy system has three modes of operation.

  8. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 1, Cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer, Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  9. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models. 2012 ASHRAE Winter Conference, Chicago, IL, January 21-25, 2012. NREL Report ...

  10. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  11. Heat leak performance of SSC collider dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisend, J.G. II; Levin, M.; Franks, D.; Pletzer, R.; Augustynowicz, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Boroski, W.B.

    1993-09-01

    The large number of superconducting dipoles in the SSC results in a stringent heat leak budget for each dipole. Ensuring that the dipoles meet this budget is vital to the successful operation or the collider. This work surveys heat leak measurements taken during 4 different magnet string tests. These tests involved both 40 mm and SO mm aperture dipoles. In these experiments the heat leak to the 80 K shield, 20 K shield and cold mass are measured. The results are compared to predictions from a computational thermal model of the dipole cryostat. Discrepancies are seen between the predicted and measured values. Possible explanations for these discrepancies are given.

  12. Building America Expert Meeting: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Water heating represents a major residential energy end use, especially in highly efficient homes where space conditioning loads and energy use has been significantly reduced. Future efforts to reduce water heating energy use requires the development of an improved understanding of equipment performance, as well as recognizing system interactions related to the distribution system and the fixture use characteristics. By bringing together a group of water heating experts, we hope to advance the shared knowledge on key water heating performance issues and identify additional data needs that will further this critical research area.

  13. Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Lead Performer: S-RAM - Franklin, TN Partners: -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Purdue University - West Lafayette, IN -- ReGen Power - Canning Vale 6155, Western Australia

  14. Evaluating the performance of passive-solar-heated buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of evaluating the thermal performance of passive-solar buildings are reviewed. Instrumentation and data logging requirements are outlined. Various methodologies that have been used to develop an energy balance for the building and various performance measures are discussed. Methods for quantifying comfort are described. Subsystem and other special-purpose monitoring are briefly reviewed. Summary results are given for 38 buildings that have been monitored.

  15. Performance analysis of a latent heat storage system with phase change material for new designed solar collectors in greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benli, Hueseyin; Durmus, Aydin

    2009-12-15

    The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the rise in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind the efforts for more effectively utilize various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. In this study, the thermal performance of a phase change thermal storage unit is analyzed and discussed. The storage unit is a component of ten pieced solar air collectors heating system being developed for space heating of a greenhouse and charging of PCM. CaCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O was used as PCM in thermal energy storage with a melting temperature of 29 C. Hot air delivered by ten pieced solar air collector is passed through the PCM to charge the storage unit. The stored heat is utilized to heat ambient air before being admitted to a greenhouse. This study is based on experimental results of the PCM employed to analyze the transient thermal behavior of the storage unit during the charge and discharge periods. The proposed size of collectors integrated PCM provided about 18-23% of total daily thermal energy requirements of the greenhouse for 3-4 h, in comparison with the conventional heating device. (author)

  16. Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, James; Aldrich, Robb

    2015-08-01

    CARB observed a wide range of operating efficiencies and outputs from site to site. Maximum capacities were found to be generally in line with manufacturer's claims as outdoor temperatures fell to -10°F. The reasons for the wide range in heating performance likely include: low indoor air flow rates, poor placement of outdoor units, relatively high return air temperatures, thermostat set back, integration with existing heating systems, and occupants limiting indoor fan speed. Even with lower efficiencies than published in other studies, most of the heat pumps here still provide heat at lower cost than oil, propane, or certainly electric resistance systems.

  17. Development of a High Performance Air Source Heat Pump for the US Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shen, Bo; Gao, Zhiming; Baxter, Van D; Iu, Ipseng

    2011-01-01

    Heat pumps present a significant advantage over conventional residential heating technologies due to higher energy efficiencies and less dependence on imported oil. The US development of heat pumps dates back to the 1930 s with pilot units being commercially available in the 1950 s. Reliable and cost competitive units were available in the US market by the 1960 s. The 1973 oil embargo led to increased interest in heat pumps prompting significant research to improve performance, particularly for cold climate locations. Recent increasing concerns on building energy efficiency and environmental emissions have prompted a new wave of research in heat pump technology with special emphasis on reducing performance degradation at colder outdoor air temperatures. A summary of the advantages and limitations of several performance improvement options sought for the development of high performance air source heat pump systems for cold climate applications is the primary focus of this paper. Some recommendations for a high performance cold climate heat pump system design most suitable for the US market are presented.

  18. High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of high-performance thermoelectric devices for vehicle waste heat recovery will include fundamental research to use abundant promising low-cost thermoelectric materials, thermal management and interfaces design, and metrology

  19. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in High-Performance H-mode Plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    H-mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in High-Performance H-mode Plasmas ...

  20. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%–118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%–100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  1. Multiwalled carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composite films as high performance flexible electric heating elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Jing; Jeong, Young Gyu, E-mail: ygjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Organic Materials and Textile System Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-04

    High performance elastomeric electric heating elements were prepared by incorporating various contents of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix by using an efficient solution-casting and curing technique. The pristine MWCNTs were identified to be uniformly dispersed in the PDMS matrix and the electrical percolation of MWCNTs was evaluated to be at ?0.27?wt.?%, where the electrical resistivity of the MWCNT/PDMS composite films dropped remarkably. Accordingly, the composite films with higher MWCNT contents above 0.3?wt.?% exhibit excellent electric heating performance in terms of temperature response rapidity and electric energy efficiency at constant applied voltages. In addition, the composite films, which were thermally stable up to 250?C, showed excellent heating-cooling cyclic performance, which was associated with operational stability in actual electric heating applications.

  2. Performance of a solar heating system on the LSU field house determined from test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, D.; Whitehouse, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data was collected and analyzed for a solar heating system installed on the Field House at Louisiana State University. The solar system performed as expected for periods that it operated. Problems encountered are discussed. Efficiency of flat-plate collectors used was determined. 2 refs.

  3. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Wayne Rigby, John Wallace, Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 deg C) and high ({approx}800 deg C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 deg C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 x 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 deg C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 deg C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  4. Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Diesel Engines | Department of Energy an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-04_briggs.pdf (486.62 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel

  5. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 1. Cask handling experience and decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Doman, J.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Guenther, R.J.; Creer, J.M.; King, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report documents a heat transfer and shielding performance test conducted on a Ridihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2023 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The testing effort consisted of three parts: pretest preparations, performance testing, and post-test activities. Pretest preparations included conducting cask handling dry runs and characterizing BWR spent fuel assemblies from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three backfill environments. Post-test activities included calorimetry and axial radiation scans of selected fuel assemblies, in-basin sipping of each assembly, crud collection, video and photographic scans, and decontamination of the cask interior and exterior.

  6. The magic school bus TV project. Final technical performance report, July 1, 1992--July 31, 1995. Season III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    For Season III, our goal has been to produce 13 new episodes that can optimally benefit from our research and experience in developing this unique series. With a total of 39 episodes, MSB`s third season will move the production from a weekly to a daily series, airing Monday to Friday and Sundays on PBS. As we delivered the 13 Season II episodes to PBS during fall of 1995, we also completed 13 more scripts for Season III production. During the remaining portion of Season III, these 13 scripts are being animated and prepared for delivery to PBS for an October 7th, 1996 launch date. Based on staggered phases of production used since the project`s inception, the development of science topics and show scripting for Season IV occurs at the same time that Season III shows are in animation and post-production. Thus, topics for Season IV shows are being selected, and science research and scripting have also begun during this time period. Both the National Science Foundation and PBS have made a commitment to Season IV, and a proposal has been submitted to Microsoft for consideration.

  7. Performance analysis of solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fadhel, M.I.; Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W.

    2010-11-15

    A solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been studied under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia. The system consists of four main components: solar collector (evacuated tubes type), storage tank, solid-gas chemical heat pump unit and dryer chamber. A solid-gas chemical heat pump unit consists of reactor, condenser and evaporator. The reaction used in this study (CaCl2-NH{sub 3}). A simulation has been developed, and the predicted results are compared with those obtained from experiments. The maximum efficiency for evacuated tubes solar collector of 80% has been predicted against the maximum experiment of 74%. The maximum values of solar fraction from the simulation and experiment are 0.795 and 0.713, respectively, whereas the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump (COP{sup h}) maximum values 2.2 and 2 are obtained from simulation and experiments, respectively. The results show that any reduction of energy at condenser as a result of the decrease in solar radiation will decrease the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump as well as decrease the efficiency of drying. (author)

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Williamson and R. Aldrich

    2015-09-01

    To better understand and characterize heating performance, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), monitored seven inverter-driven ASHPs across the northeast United States during the winter of 2013–2014.

  9. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82?ºC (180?ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  10. Performance of a small underfed wood chip-fired stoker in a hot air-heated home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide space heat for a home using forest biomass presently not in demand by industry, and by using a convenient, automatic, low-emission heating system. A stoker firing wood chips was installed in a home, and chips were prepared for it from the residues of a softwood clearcut. Residues from 1 and a quarter acre provided enough fuel to heat the house for the heating season. The chip-fired heating system was convenient, maintained the house at whatever temperature was set on the room thermostat, and generated little creosote or wood smoke. It was better at converting fuel to heat than the previous combustion heating systems in the house, with steady-state combustion efficiency of approximately 75% and longer-term appliance efficiency of 69%. Electric energy required for heating hot water was reduced approximately 27% as a result of a preheating coil located in the chip-fired furnace. The major cause of heat interruptions was jamming of the stoker which occurred on the average of every 18 and a half days. Clearing such jams was simple. The system operated safely throughout the test period.

  11. Statistical comparison of ICRF and NBI heating performance in JET-ILW L-mode plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lerche, E.; Van Eester, D.; Jacquet, Ph.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Graham, M.; Matthews, G.; Monakhov, I.; Rimini, F.; Colas, L.; Czarnecka, A.; Vries, P. de; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    After the change over from the C-wall to the ITER-like Be/W wall (ILW) in JET, the radiation losses during ICRF heating have increased and are now substantially larger than those observed with NBI at the same power levels, in spite of the similar global plasma energies reached with the two heating systems. A comparison of the NBI and ICRF performances in the JET-ILW experiments, based on a statistical analysis of ?3000 L-mode discharges, will be presented.

  12. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed

  13. Monitoring of the performance of a solar heated and cooled apartment building. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vliet, G.C.; Srubar, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    An all-electric apartment building in Texas was retrofitted for solar heating and cooling and hot water. The system consists of an array of 1280 square feet of Northrup concentrating tracking collectors, a 5000-gallon hot water storage vessel, a 500-gallon chilled water storage vessel, a 25-ton Arkla Industries absorption chiller, and a two-pipe hydronic air conditioning system. The solar air conditioning equipment is installed in parallel with the existing conventional electric heating and cooling system, and the solar domestic water heating serves as preheat to the existing electric water heaters. The system was fully instrumented for monitoring. Detailed descriptions are given of the solar system, the performance monitoring system, and the data reduction processes. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  14. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick; Im, Piljae

    2012-04-01

    ) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of excavation

  15. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  16. Field Study of Performance, Comfort, and Sizing of Two Variable-Speed Heat Pumps Installed in a Single 2-Story Residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Odukomaiya, Adewale O [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    With the recent advancements in the application of variable-speed (VS) compressors to residential HVAC systems, opportunities are now available to size heat pumps (HPs) to more effectively meet heating and cooling loads in many of the climate zones in the US with limited use of inefficient resistance heat. This is in contrast to sizing guidance for traditional single-speed HPs that limits the ability to oversize with regard to cooling loads, because of risks of poor dehumidification during the cooling season and increased cycling losses. VS-drive HPs can often run at 30-40% of their rated cooling capacity to reduce cycling losses, and can adjust fan speed to provide better indoor humidity control. Detailed air-side performance data was collected on two VS-drive heat pumps installed in a single unoccupied research house in Knoxville, TN, a mixed-humid climate. One system provided space conditioning for the upstairs, while the other unit provided space conditioning for the downstairs. Occupancy was simulated by operating the lights, shower, appliances, other plug loads, etc. to simulate the sensible and latent loads imposed on the building space by internal electric loads and human occupants according to the Building America Research Benchmark (2008). The seasonal efficiency and energy use of the units are calculated. Annual energy use is compared to that of the single speed minimum efficiency HPs tested in the same house previously. Sizing of the units relative to the measured building load and manual J design load calculations is examined. The impact of the unit sizing with regards to indoor comfort is also evaluated.

  17. Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, James; Aldrich, Robb

    2015-08-19

    Traditionally, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) have been used more often in warmer climates; however, some new ASHPs are gaining ground in colder areas. These systems operate at subzero (Fahrenheit) temperatures and many do not include backup electric resistance elements. There are still uncertainties, however, about capacity and efficiency in cold weather. Also, questions such as “how cold is too cold?” do not have clear answers. These uncertainties could lead to skepticism among homeowners; poor energy savings estimates; suboptimal system selection by heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning contractors; and inconsistent energy modeling. In an effort to better understand and characterize the heating performance of these units in cold climates, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), monitored seven inverter-driven, ductless ASHPs across the Northeast. Operating data were collected for three Mitsubishi FE18 units, three Mitsubishi FE12 units, and one Fujitsu 15RLS2 unit. The intent of this research was to assess heat output, electricity consumption, and coefficients of performance (COPs) at various temperatures and load conditions. This assessment was accomplished with long- and short-term tests that measured power consumption; supply, return, and outdoor air temperatures; and airflow through the indoor fan coil.

  18. Heat

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Release date: April 2015 Revised date: May 2016 Heat pumps Furnaces Indiv- idual space heaters District heat Boilers Pack- aged heating units Other All buildings 87,093 80,078 11,846 8,654 20,766 5,925 22,443 49,188 1,574 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,699 868 1,091 1,747 Q 400 3,809 Q 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 7,590 1,038 1,416 2,025 Q 734 4,622 Q 10,001 to 25,000 14,105 12,744 1,477 2,233 3,115 Q 2,008 8,246 Q 25,001 to 50,000 11,917 10,911 1,642 1,439 3,021 213 2,707

  19. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brantley, Vanston R.; Miller, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistance heaters. Temperature sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct temperatures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electronics is required to operate the instrument.

  20. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brantley, V.R.; Miller, D.R.

    1982-05-18

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistane heaters. Temperature-sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive-heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct tempertures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional-frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electrons is required to operate the instrument.

  1. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  2. Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season ... reduce standby heat losses by 25%-45% and save you around 4%-9% in water heating costs. ...

  3. Solar Heat Gain Through Fenestration Systems Containing Shading: Procedures for Estimating Performance from Minimal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.

    2000-08-01

    The computational methods for calculating the properties of glazing systems containing shading from the properties of their components have been developed, but the measurement standards and property data bases necessary to apply them have not. It is shown that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about the shading. Detailed formulas are presented, and performance multipliers are defined for the approximate treatment of simple glazings with shading. As higher accuracy is demanded, the formulas become very complicated.

  4. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holiday Release Schedule The Heating Oil and Propane Update is produced during the winter heating season, which extends from October through March of each year. The standard ...

  5. Instrumented performance study of a passive solar heated earth sheltered residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarnell, R.C.; Yarnell, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a one year effort to gather performance data on an earth sheltered, passive solar house located in Carson City, Nevada. Automatic equipment logged insolation and temperature data for a one (1) year period commencing shortly after completion of construction of the structure and its occupancy by the owners. The use of a recording micrologger reflects an effort to obtain unbiased, factual data on the performance of the house and to reduce the impact of subjective perceptions of the occupants' comfort on the report. Raw data was gathered continuously. A pyranometer measured the amount of whole sky solar radiation. Results were recorded as Btu's per square foot. Thermistors measured temperatures of: (a) outdoor ambient air, (b) indoor living room ambient air, (c) indoor greenhouse ambient air, (d) dining room mass wall, (e) greenhouse mass wall, (f) perimeter earth-sheltered wall, and (g) solar heated DHW storage tank. An event counter recorded user operated insulating adjustments (raising and lowering of insulating of curtains) and auxiliary heating (building or stoking a fire in the wood burning stove).

  6. Shape optimization of a printed-circuit heat exchanger to enhance thermal-hydraulic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. M.; Kim, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is recently considered as a recuperator for the high temperature gas cooled reactor. In this work, the zigzag-channels of a PCHE have been optimized by using three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis and response surface approximation (RSA) modeling technique to enhance thermal-hydraulic performance. Shear stress transport turbulence model is used as a turbulence closure. The objective function is defined as a linear combination of the functions related to heat transfer and friction loss of the PCHE, respectively. Three geometric design variables viz., the ratio of the radius of the fillet to hydraulic diameter of the channels, the ratio of wavelength to hydraulic diameter of the channels, and the ratio of wave height to hydraulic diameter of the channels, are used for the optimization. Design points are selected through Latin-hypercube sampling. The optimal design is determined through the RSA model which uses RANS derived calculations at the design points. The results show that the optimum shape enhances considerably the thermal-hydraulic performance than a reference shape. (authors)

  7. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Scale Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Mahderekal, Dr. Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Building space cooling is, and until 2040 is expected to continue to be, the single largest use of electricity in the residential sector in the United States (EIA Energy Outlook 2015 .) Increases in electric-grid peak demand leads to higher electricity prices, system inefficiencies, power quality problems, and even failures. Thermally-activated systems, such as gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP), can reduce peak demand. This study describes the performance of a residential scale GHP. It was developed as part of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) that was authorized by the Department of Energy (DOE) between OAK Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Southwest Gas. Results showed the GHP produced 16.5 kW (4.7 RT) of cooling capacity at 35 C (95 F) rating condition with gas coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.99. In heating, the GHP produced 20.2 kW (5.75 RT) with a gas COP of 1.33. The study also discusses other benefits and challenges facing the GHP technology such as cost, reliability, and noise.

  8. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  9. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  10. Performance of a CEBAF production cavity after high-temperature heat treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneisel, P.; Rao, M.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF`s production cavities are tested in a vertical configuration after appropriate chemical surface treatment prior to installation into the accelerator. The performance of these cavities is excellent, often exceeding the specifications of E{sub acc}=5 MV/m at 2 K by factors of 2 to 3. In such cases the cavities are often limited by thermal-magnetic breakdown. A cavity that exhibited a limiting gradient of E{sub acc} {le} 16.4 MV/m has been heat-treated at 1400{degrees}C for 6 hours in the presence of titanium as a solid state gettering material to improve the thermal stability of the niobium. After the heat treatment a gradient of E{sub acc}=20.5 MV/m corresponding to a peak surface electric field of E{sub peak}=52 MV/m has been measured. In addition to the cavity results, data on thermal conductivity and tensile properties of samples which have undergone the same treatments as the cavity are reported.

  11. Building America Case Studies for New Homes: Performance and Costs of Ductless Heat Pumps in Marine Climate High-Performance Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Woods is a sustainable community built by Habitat for Humanity in 2013. This community comprises 30 homes that are high-performance and energy-efficient. With support from Tacoma Public Utilities and the Bonneville Power Administration, the BA-PIRC team is researching the energy performance of these homes and the ductless heat pumps they employ.

  12. Performance and analysis of absorption experiments on x-ray heated low-Z constrained samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.W.; Cauble, R.; Perry, T.S.; Springer, P.T.; Fields, D.F.; Bach, D.R.; Serduke, F.J.D.; Iglesias, C.A.; Rogers, F.J.; Nash, J.K.; Chen, M.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Goldstein, W.H.; Ward, R.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Doyas, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Back, C.A.; Davidson, S.J.; Foster, J.M.; Smith, C.C.

    1996-05-01

    Results of experiments on the absorption of niobium in a hot, dense plasma are presented. These results represent a major step in the development of absorption techniques necessary for the quantitative characterization of hot, dense matter. A general discussion is presented of the requirements for performing quantitative analysis of absorption spectra. Hydrodynamic simulations are used to illustrate the behavior of tamped X-ray-heated matter and to indicate effects that can arise from the two dimensional aspects of the experiment. The absorption spectrum of a low-Z material, in this case aluminum, provides a temperature diagnostic and indicates the advance of the absorption measurement technique to the level of application. The experimental technique is placed in context with a review of other measurements using absorption spectroscopy to probe hot, dense matter.

  13. Geothermal Heat Pump Energy Savings Performance Contract at Fort Polk, LA: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick; Shonder, John A; Gordon, Richard; Giffin, Tom

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of 4,003 military family housing units have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorecent lights, low-flow shower heads, and attic insulation, were installed. An independent evaluation of the Fort Polk energy savings performance contract was carried out. Findings indicate that the project has resulted in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing, for a typical meteorological year. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by about 6,761 kW, which is 40.2% of the pre-retrofit peak demand. Natural gas savings are about 260,000 therms per year. In addition, the energy savings performance contract has allowed the Army to effectively cap its future expenditures for family housing HVAC maintenance at about 77% of its previous costs. Given these successful results, the Fort Polk performance contract can provide a model for other contracts in both the public and private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to outline the method by which the contract was engineed and implemented, both from the standpoint of the facility owner (the U.S. Army) and the energy services company that is carrying out the contract. The lessons learned from this experience should be useful to other owners, service companies, and investors in the implementation of future service contracts. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the 'apparent' energy savings observed in the monitored data and not to be mistaken for the 'contract' energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the 'contracted' energy savings, the 'apparent' energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in the indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  14. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  15. Demonstration and Performance Monitoring of Foundation Heat Exchangers (FHX) in Ultra-High Energy Efficient Research Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, Piljae; Hughes, Patrick; Liu, Xiaobing

    2012-01-01

    The more widespread use of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems has been hindered by their high first cost, which is mainly driven by the cost of the drilling and excavation for installation of ground heat exchangers (GHXs). A new foundation heat exchanger (FHX) technology was proposed to reduce first cost by placing the heat exchanger into the excavations made during the course of construction (e.g., the overcut for the basement and/or foundation and run-outs for water supply and the septic field). Since they reduce or eliminate the need for additional drilling or excavation, foundation heat exchangers have the potential to significantly reduce or eliminate the first cost premium associated with GSHPs. Since December 2009, this FHX technology has been demonstrated in two ultra-high energy efficient new research houses in the Tennessee Valley, and the performance data has been closely monitored as well. This paper introduces the FHX technology with the design, construction and demonstration of the FHX and presents performance monitoring results of the FHX after one year of monitoring. The performance monitoring includes hourly maximum and minimum entering water temperature (EWT) in the FHX compared with the typical design range, temperature difference (i.e., T) across the FHX, and hourly heat transfer rate to/from the surrounding soil.

  16. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  17. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  18. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; BushPE, John D

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  19. Effect of transient body force on the performance of an axial grooved heat pipe. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to determine the effect of transient body forces on the performance of an ammonia/aluminum axial groove heat pipe. The effects of increased body forces on the dryout and rewet performance were simulated by tilting the heat pipe to different inclination angles. Theoretical calculations predicted the dryout length varied with different final inclination angles. The steady state experimental work was performed by tilting the heat pipe from 0 degrees to different final inclination angles for a long period of time until totally dryout occurred. Then, from the plot of the changing temperature at each location along the heat pipe, the dryout length could be predicted. Under steady state condition, the percent error between the experimental and theoretical data differed by as low as 50%. The transient experimental work was performed by tilting the heat pipe from different initial inclination angles to different final inclination angles under three duration conditions. The time for the heat pipe to dryout, rewet, and return to the initial condition was observed as a function of the initial inclination angles, the final inclination angles, and duration of the heat pipe at the final angle. The results revealed that the larger body force (or the larger final inclination angle) increased the dryout length, and increased the time to return to its initial condition. The duration of the adverse angle had less of an effect on the time to rewet. But the initial inclination angle has a strong effect on the time to rewet. When the initial inclination angle was 0 degrees, it took around 3 to 6 seconds to rewet. When the initial inclination angle became 1 degrees, it took around 5 to 12 seconds to rewet. When the initial inclination angle was 1.25 degrees, it took around 15 to 17 seconds to rewet.

  20. Solar heat pump systems with refrigerant-filled collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dell, M.P.; Beckman, W.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The heat pump system with a refrigerant-filled evaporator consists of a standard air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat pump that utilizes a solar panel as the evaporator. A combination of solar energy and convection heat transfer acts as the ''free'' energy absorbed by the collector/evaporator. In this paper, the seasonal performance of such systems for industrial applications will be presented. Performance of collector/evaporator heat pumps will be compared with alternative heat pump and solar systems. The benefits of covered and coverless collector/evaporators will be discussed. Results to date have shown that refrigerant-filled collector heat pumps do not perform as well as conventional heat pumps at small collector areas but have as much as 15% performance improvement over conventional heat pumps at an appropriate collector area.

  1. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  3. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-02-01

    This is one in a series of sourcebooks to help manufacturers optimize their industrial systems; this particular sourcebook addresses process heating systems.

  4. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  5. Geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Fort Polk, LA: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Gordon, R.; Giffin, T.

    1997-08-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of 4,003 military family housing units have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow shower heads, and attic insulation, were installed. An independent evaluation of the Fort Polk ESPC was carried out. Findings indicate that the project has resulted in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing, for a typical meteorological year. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak demand. Natural gas savings are about 260,000 therms per year. In addition, the ESPC has allowed the Army to effectively cap its future expenditures for family housing HVAC maintenance at about 77% of its previous costs. Given these successful results, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other ESPCs in both the public and the private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to outline the method by which the ESPC was engineered and implemented, both from the standpoint of the facility owner (the US Army) and the energy services company (ESCO) which is carrying out the contract. The lessons learned from this experience should be useful to other owners, ESCOs and investors in the implementation of future ESPCs. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  6. Monitoring and evaluating ground-source heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoltz, S.V.; Cade, D.; Mason, G.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the measured performance of four advanced residential ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems. The GSHP systems were developed by WaterFurnace International to minimize the need for electric resistance backup heating and featured multiple speed compressors, supplemental water heating, and at most sites, multiple-speed fans. Detailed data collected for a complete year starting in June 1994 shows that the advanced design is capable of maintaining comfort without the use of electric resistance backup heating. In comparison with a conventional air-source heat pump, the advanced-design GSHP reduced peak heating demand by more than 12 kilowatts (kW) per residence and provided energy savings. The report describes the cooling and heating season operation of the systems, including estimated seasonal efficiency, hours of operation, and load profiles for average days and peak days. The electrical energy input, cooling output, and efficiency are presented as a function of return air temperature and ground loop temperature.

  7. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Suntec solar collector with heat-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Suntec solar collector, with heat-formed glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  8. Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-08-01

    Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks Geothermal heat pumps, one of the clean energy technology stars Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are one of the most cost-effective heating, cooling, and water heating systems available for both residential and commercial buildings. GHPs extract heat from the ground during the heating season and discharge waste heat to the ground during the cooling season. The U.S. Environmental Protecti

  9. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part I: Experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    Two-phase flow pattern and heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant-oil mixture flow boiling inside small tubes with inside diameters of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm are investigated experimentally. The test condition of nominal oil concentration is from 0% to 5%, mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat flux from 3.2 to 14 kW m{sup -2}, evaporation temperature of 5 C, inlet quality from 0.1 to 0.8, and quality change from 0.1 to 0.2. Wavy, wavy-annular, annular and mist-annular flow pattern in 6.34 mm tube are observed, while only slug-annular and annular flow pattern are observed in 2.50 mm tube. Oil presence can make annular flow to form early and to retard to diminish in quality direction at nominal oil concentration {>=}3%. Augmentation effect of oil on heat transfer coefficient becomes weakened or even diminishes for small diameter tube while detrimental effect of oil on small tube performance becomes more significant than large tube. For both test tubes, variation of heat transfer coefficient and enhanced factor with oil concentration is irregular. Two-phase heat transfer multiplier with refrigerant-oil mixture properties increases consistently and monotonically with local oil concentration at different vapor quality. (author)

  10. Effect of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance of R-134a and R-22 in tube bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A.; Pate, M.B.

    1996-11-01

    This study evaluates the effects of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance. Tests were conducted with refrigerant R-134a and triangular-pitch tube bundles made from enhanced-condensation, enhanced-boiling, low-finned, and plain-surface tubes. A 340-SUS polyol-ester (POE) oil was used for the R-134a testing because this lubricant is being integrated into industry for use with this refrigerant. Refrigerant was sprayed onto the tube bundles with low-pressure-drop, wide-angle nozzles located directly above the bundle. Collector testing was conducted with both R-134a and R-22 to determine the percentage of refrigerant contacting the tue bundle. It was found that small concentrations of the polyol-ester lubricant yielded significant improvement in the heat transfer performance of R-134a. The shell-side heat transfer coefficient was more dependent on lubricant concentration than on film-feed supply rate within the range of the respective parameters evaluated in this study. As expected, pure R-22 results show higher heat transfer coefficients than those obtained with pure R-134a at the same saturation temperature of 2.0 C (35.6 F).

  11. Building America Case Study: Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates - Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    New inverter-driven ASHPs are gaining ground in colder climates. These systems operate at sub-zero temperatures without the use of electric resistance backup. There are still uncertainties, however, about cold-climate capacity and efficiency in cold weather and questions such as measuring: power consumption, supply, return, and outdoor air temperatures, and air flow through the indoor fan coil. CARB observed a wide range of operating efficiencies and outputs from site to site. Maximum capacities were found to be generally in line with manufacturer's claims as outdoor temperatures fell to -10 degrees F. The reasons for the wide range in heating performance likely include: low indoor air flow rates, poor placement of outdoor units, relatively high return air temperatures, thermostat set back, integration with existing heating systems, and occupants limiting indoor fan speed. Even with lower efficiencies than published in other studies, most of the heat pumps here still provide heat at lower cost than oil, propane, or certainly electric resistance systems.

  12. Survey of manufacturers of high-performance heat engines adaptable to solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stine, W. B.

    1984-06-15

    This report summarizes the results of an industry survey made during the summer of 1983. The survey was initiated in order to develop an information base on advanced engines that could be used in the solar thermal dish-electric program. Questionnaires inviting responses were sent to 39 companies known to manufacture or integrate externally heated engines. Follow-up telephone communication ensured uniformity of response.

  13. Thermal hydraulic performance testing of printed circuit heat exchangers in a high-temperature helium test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Xiaodong Sun; Richard E. Glosup; Richard N. Christensen; Michael W. Patterson

    2014-04-01

    In high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, such as a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation with an indirect power cycle and/or process heat applications. Currently, there is no proven high-temperature (750800 C or higher) compact heat exchanger technology for high-temperature reactor design concepts. In this study, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), a potential IHX concept for high-temperature applications, has been investigated for their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under high operating temperatures and pressures. Two PCHEs, each having 10 hot and 10 cold plates with 12 channels (semicircular cross-section) in each plate are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and tested for their performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The PCHE inlet temperature and pressure were varied from 85 to 390 C/1.02.7 MPa for the cold side and 208790 C/1.02.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the mass flow rate of helium was varied from 15 to 49 kg/h. This range of mass flow rates corresponds to PCHE channel Reynolds numbers of 950 to 4100 for the cold side and 900 to 3900 for the hot side (corresponding to the laminar and laminar-to-turbulent transition flow regimes). The obtained experimental data have been analyzed for the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the heat transfer surface of the PCHEs and compared with the available models and correlations in the literature. In addition, a numerical treatment of hydrodynamically developing and hydrodynamically fully-developed laminar flow through a semicircular duct is presented. Relations developed for determining the hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct and the friction factor (or pressure drop) in the hydrodynamic entry length region for laminar flow through a semicircular duct are given. Various hydrodynamic

  14. Optical and heat transfer performance of a novel non-imaging concentrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellami, Nazmi Mallick, Tapas K.; Meng, Xian-long; Xia, Xin-Lin; Knox, Andrew R.

    2015-09-28

    In this study, the Crossed Compound Parabolic Concentrator CCPC is modified to demonstrate for the first time a new generation of solar concentrators working simultaneously as an electricity generator and thermal collector. It is designed to have two complementary surfaces, one reflective and one absorptive, and is called an absorptive/reflective CCPC (AR-CCPC). Usually, the height of the CCPC is truncated with a minor sacrifice of the geometric concentration. These truncated surfaces rather than being eliminated are instead replaced with absorbent surfaces to collect heat from solar radiation. The optical, thermal and total efficiency of the AR-CCPC was simulated and compared for different geometric concentration ratios varying from 3.6x to 4x. It was found that the combined electrical and thermal efficiency of the AR-CCPC 3.6x/4x remains constant and high all day long and the overall efficiency reach up to 94%. In addition, the temperature distributions of AR-CCPC surfaces and the assembled solar cell were simulated based on those heat flux boundary conditions. It shows that the adding of thermal absorbent surface can apparently increase the wall temperature.

  15. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Testing Ductless Heat Pumps in High-Performance Affordable Housing, the Woods at Golden Given - Tacoma, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    The Woods is a 30-home, high- performance, energy efficient sustainable community built by Habitat for Humanity (HFH). With Support from Tacoma Public Utilities, Washington State University (part of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction) is researching the energy performance of these homes and the ductless heat pumps (DHP) they employ. This project provides Building America with an opportunity to: field test HVAC equipment, ventilation system air flows, building envelope tightness, lighting, appliance, and other input data that are required for preliminary Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) modeling and ENERGY STAR® field verification; analyze cost data from HFH and other sources related to building-efficiency measures that focus on the DHP/hybrid heating system and heat recovery ventilation system; evaluate the thermal performance and cost benefit of DHP/hybrid heating systems in these homes from the perspective of homeowners; compare the space heating energy consumption of a DHP/electric resistance (ER) hybrid heating system to that of a traditional zonal ER heating system; conduct weekly "flip-flop tests" to compare space heating, temperature, and relative humidity in ER zonal heating mode to DHP/ER mode.

  16. Solar heat gain through fenestration systems containing shading: Summary of procedures for estimating performance from minimal data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2001-03-01

    The computational methods for calculating the properties of glazing systems containing shading from the properties of their components have been developed, but the measurement standards and property data bases necessary to apply them have not. It is shown that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about the shading. Detailed formulas are presented, and performance multipliers are defined for the approximate treatment of simple glazings with shading. As higher accuracy is demanded, the formulas become very complicated.

  17. DOE Science Showcase - Heat Pump Research | OSTI, US Dept of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HEATING PERFORMANCE GEOTHERMAL HEATING WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMPS EVALUATION DOCUMENT ... Geothermal Heat Pumps - Heating Mode Cooling Mode Animations Heat Pump Water Heaters ...

  18. Experience with thermal storage in tanks of stratified water for solar heating and load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildin, M.W.; Witkofsky, M.P.; Noble, J.M.; Hopper, R.E.; Stromberg, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results have been obtained for performance of stratified tanks of water used to store heating and cooling capacity in a 5574 m/sup 2/ university building. The major sources of energy used to charge the heated tanks were solar energy, obtained via collectors on the roof of the building, and excess heat recovered from the interior of the building via thermal storage and electric-driven heat pump/chillers. Through stratification of the water in the storage tanks and an appropriate system operating strategy, 40 percent of the building's total heating needs were supplied by solar energy during the first four months of 1981. Month-long thermal efficiencies of the storage array ranging from 70 percent during the heating season to nearly 90 percent during the cooling season, were measured. Work is underway to improve the performance of thermal storage.

  19. Propane - A Mid-Heating Season Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report will analyze some of the factors leading up to the rapid increase in propane demand and subsequent deterioration in supply that propelled propane prices to record high levels during December and early January.

  20. Performance of AGR-1 High-Temperature Reactor Fuel During Post-Irradiation Heating Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A; Hunn, John D; Demkowicz, Paul; Reber, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The fission product retention of irradiated low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 experiment has been evaluated at temperatures of 1600 1800 C during post-irradiation safety tests. Fourteen compacts (a total of ~58,000 particles) with a burnup ranging from 13.4 to 19.1% FIMA have been tested using dedicated furnace systems at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The release of fission products 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, 155Eu, 90Sr, and 85Kr was monitored while heating the fuel specimens in flowing helium. The behavior of silver, europium, and strontium appears to be dominated by inventory that was originally released through intact SiC coating layers during irradiation, but was retained in the compact at the end of irradiation and subsequently released during the safety tests. However, at a test temperature of 1800 C, the data suggest that release of these elements through intact coatings may become significant after ~100 h. Cesium was very well retained by intact SiC layers, with a fractional release <5 10-6 after 300 h at 1600 C or 100 h at 1800 C. However, it was rapidly released from individual particles if the SiC layer failed, and therefore the overall cesium release fraction was dominated by the SiC defect and failure fractions in the fuel compacts. No complete TRISO coating layer failures were observed after 300 h at 1600 or 1700 C, and 85Kr release was very low during the tests (particles with breached SiC, but intact outer pyrocarbon, retained most of their krypton). Krypton release from TRISO failures was only observed after ~210 h at 1800 C in one compact. Post-safety-test examination of fuel compacts and particles has focused on identifying specific particles from each compact with notable fission product release and detailed analysis of the coating layers to understand particle behavior.

  1. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) Weekly Trigger Report...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Weekly Trigger Report Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) Weekly Trigger Report The weekly report for the current heating oil season shows the differential levels required ...

  2. MEASURED SPACE CONDITIONING PERFORMANCE OFA VERTICAL-BORE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP (GSHP) OVER TWELVE MONTHS UNDER SIMULATED OCCUPANCY LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents monthly performance metrics of a 7.56 kW (2.16 ton) GSHP serving the space conditioning loads of a 251m2 (2700ft2) residential home with a phase change material in its envelope, and a single vertical-bore 94.5m (310 ft) ground loop. The same ground loop also serviced a ground source heat pump water heater. Envelope characteristics are discussed briefly in the context of reducing thermal losses. Data on entering water temperatures, energy extracted from the ground, energy delivered/removed, compressor electricity use, COP, GSHP run times (low and high compressor stages), and the impact of fan and pump energy consumption on efficiency are presented for each month. Both practical as well as research and development issues are discussed. The findings suggest that GSHPs represent a practical technology option to reduce source energy reduction and greenhouse emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 target of generating over 25% of heat consumed in the EU from renewable energy.

  3. Estimated Maintenance Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump Energy Savings Performance Contract at Fort Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. These retrofits were performed by an energy services company at no up-front cost to the Army. The company has also assumed responsibility for maintenance of all equipment installed. In return, it receives a percentage of the energy and maintenance savings realized by the Army. In developing the energy savings performance contract, the Army estimated its pre-retrofit maintenance costs from bids received on a request for proposals. In this paper, a more rigorous cost estimate is developed, based on a survey of maintenance records for the pre-retrofit HVAC equipment. The reliability of the equipment is also estimated using an actuarial method to determine the number of units requiring replacement each year and the effect of these replacements on annual maintenance costs.

  4. Estimated maintenance cost savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. These retrofits were performed by an energy services company at no up-front cost to the Army. The company has also assumed responsibility for maintenance of all the equipment installed. In return, it receives a percentage of the energy and maintenance savings realized by the Army. In developing the energy savings performance contract, the Army estimated its pre-retrofit maintenance costs from bids received on a request for proposals. In this paper, a more rigorous cost estimate is developed, based on a survey of maintenance records for the pre-retrofit HVAC equipment. The reliability of the equipment is also estimated using an actuarial method to determine the number of units requiring replacement each year and the effect of these replacements on annual maintenance costs.

  5. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power Multifamily Performance Program-- Sea Park East 150 kW CHP System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Overview of Sea Park East 150 kilowatt (kW) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System in Brooklyn, New York

  6. Operation and performance of a 350 kW (100 RT) single-effect/double-lift absorption chiller in a district heating network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweigler, C.J.; Preissner, M.; Demmel, S.; Hellmann, H.M.; Ziegler, F.F.

    1998-10-01

    The efficiency of combined heat, power, and cold production in total energy systems could be improved significantly if absorption chillers were available that could be driven with limited mass flows of low-temperature hot water. In the case of district heat-driven air conditioning, for example, currently available standard absorption chillers are often not applied because they cannot provide the low hot water return temperature and the specific cooling capacity per unit hot water mass flow that are required by many district heating networks. Above all, a drastic increase in the size of the machine (total heat exchanger area) due to low driving temperature differences if of concern in low-temperature applications. A new type of multistage lithium bromide/water absorption chiller has been developed for the summertime operating conditions of district heating networks. It provides large cooling of the district heating water (some 30 K) and large cooling capacity per unit hot water mass flow. Two pilot plants of this novel absorption chiller were designed within the framework of a joint project sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF), a consortium of 15 district heating utilities, and two manufacturers. The plants have been operated since summer 1996 in the district heating networks of Berlin and Duesseldorf. This paper describes the concept, installation, and control strategy of the two pilot plants, and it surveys the performance and operating experience of the plants under varying practical conditions.

  7. 2015 Open Season

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Open Season which will run from Monday, November 9, 2015 through Monday, December 14, 2015.  During the annual Open Season period employees can enroll, change, or cancel an existing enrollment in...

  8. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Respondents Q1: What is the purpose of this survey? The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA-877, "Winter Heating Fuels Telephone Survey," is designed to collect data on State-level stocks and residential prices of No. 2 heating oil and propane during the heating season. The data are used to monitor the prices of propane and No. 2 heating oil during the heating season, and to report to the Congress and others when requested. Q2: How does the survey work? The EIA-877

  9. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  10. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  11. Advanced Heat Transfer Technologies Increase Vehicle Performance and Reliability; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes NREL's work with heat transfer technologies to keep hybrid electric and all-electric vehicle power electronic components cool.

  12. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  13. Vertical ground heat exchanger borehole grouting: Field application studies and in-situ thermal performance testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.

    1998-05-01

    This report summarizes one of a series of EPRI- and National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA)-sponsored research efforts on vertical ground heat exchanger grout and grouting techniques as applied to geothermal heat pumps. In particular, this effort studied actual in-field installation issues for various grout mixtures and types of grouting equipment in different parts of the country.

  14. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  15. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  16. Influences of peripherally-cut twisted tape insert on heat transfer and thermal performance characteristics in laminar and turbulent tube flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eiamsa-ard, Smith [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Seemawute, Panida [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Wongcharee, Khwanchit [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand)

    2010-09-15

    Effects of peripherally-cut twisted tape insert on heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance factor characteristics in a round tube were investigated. Nine different peripherally-cut twisted tapes with constant twist ratio (y/W = 3.0) and different three tape depth ratios (DR = d/W = 0.11, 0.22 and 0.33), each with three different tape width ratios (WR = w/W = 0.11, 0.22 and 0.33) were tested. Besides, one typical twisted tape was also tested for comparison. The measurement of heat transfer rate was conducted under uniform heat flux condition while that of friction factor was performed under isothermal condition. Tests were performed with Reynolds number in a range from 1000 to 20,000, using water as a working fluid. The experimental results revealed that both heat transfer rate and friction factor in the tube equipped with the peripherally-cut twisted tapes were significantly higher than those in the tube fitted with the typical twisted tape and plain tube, especially in the laminar flow regime. The higher turbulence intensity of fluid in the vicinity of the tube wall generated by the peripherally-cut twisted tape compared to that induced by the typical twisted tape is referred as the main reason for achieved results. The obtained results also demonstrated that as the depth ratio increased and width ratio decreased, the heat transfer enhancement increased. Over the range investigated, the peripherally-cut twisted tape enhanced heat transfer rates in term of Nusselt numbers up to 2.6 times (turbulent regime) and 12.8 times (laminar regime) of that in the plain tube. These corresponded to the maximum performance factors of 1.29 (turbulent regime) and 4.88 (laminar regime). (author)

  17. CHP in ESPC: Implementing Combined Heat and Power Technologies Using Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs): Webinar Transcript

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Kurmit Rockwell:Welcome.  I'm Kurmit Rockwell, the ESPC Program Manager for DOE's Federal Energy Management Program.  In this presentation we will introduce you to the basics of combined heat and...

  18. TSPA Model Development and Sensitivity Analysis of Processes Affecting Performance of a Salt Repository for Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The document describes the initial work on designing and developing requirements for a total system performance assessment (TSPA) model that can support preliminary safety assessments for a mined geologic repository for high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in salt host rock at a generic site. A preliminary generic salt TSPA model for HLW/SNF disposal has been developed and tested for an isothermal repository in salt, for emplaced waste that is assumed to have no decay heat; for salt repositories containing heat-generating HLW/SNF, the present study develops model requirements based on features, events, and processes (FEPs) screening and proposed sensitivity analyses for heat-generating waste. These may better guide the construction of a more representative salt TSPA model.

  19. A comparison of the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of R-134a-lubricant mixtures in different diameter smooth tubes and micro-fin tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    The average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during evaporation and condensation are reported for mixtures of R-134a and an ester lubricant in tubes of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the R-134a-lubricant mixtures in these tubes and determine the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube. The performance benefits of the tubes with 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter are compared to those of smaller tubes with 9.52 mm (3/8 in.) outer diameter. The lubricant used was a 169 SUS penta erythritol ester mixed-acid lubricant. The lubricant concentration was varied from 0--5.1% in the mixture. The average heat transfer coefficients in the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) micro-fin tube were 50--150% higher than those for the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) smooth tube, while pressure drops in the micro-fin tube were 5% to 50% higher than in the smooth tube. The addition of lubricant degraded the average heat transfer coefficients in all cases except during evaporation at low lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops were always increased with the addition of lubricant. The experimental results also indicate that tube diameter has some effect on the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube over that of the smooth tube.

  20. Building America Case Study: Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates - Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates Location: CT, MA, and VT Partners: Efficiency Vermont, efficiencyvermont.com Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, carb-swa.com Building Component: Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning Application: New and retrofit; single- family and multifamily Year Tested: 2013-2014 Climate Zone(s):

  1. Four seasons of giving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dec. 2015-Jan. 2016 all issues All Issues submit Four seasons of giving We value a culture of giving and appreciate our employees' on-going volunteerism throughout Northern New...

  2. OPEN SEASON CHECK LIST

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FSAFEDS brochure https:www.fsafeds.comGEMFSAFEDSFormsOPM- FSA-OVTF-10-031.pdf Talk to an FSAFEDS representative Open Season benefits fair Contact your agency HR staff...

  3. Thermal barrier coatings: Coating methods, performance, and heat engine applications. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning conference proceedings on coating methods, performance evaluations, and applications of thermal barrier coatings as protective coatings for heat engine components against high temperature corrosions and chemical erosions. The developments of thermal barrier coating techniques for high performance and reliable gas turbines, diesel engines, jet engines, and internal combustion engines are presented. Topics include plasma sprayed coating methods, yttria stabilized zirconia coatings, coating life models, coating failure and durability, thermal shock and cycling, and acoustic emission analysis of coatings. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Thermal barrier coatings: Coating methods, performance, and heat engine applications. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning conference proceedings on coating methods, performance evaluations, and applications of thermal barrier coatings as protective coatings for heat engine components against high temperature corrosions and chemical erosions. The developments of thermal barrier coating techniques for high performance and reliable gas turbines, diesel engines, jet engines, and internal combustion engines are presented. Topics include plasma sprayed coating methods, yttria stabilized zirconia coatings, coating life models, coating failure and durability, thermal shock and cycling, and acoustic emission analysis of coatings. (Contains a minimum of 243 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Thermal barrier coatings: Coating methods, performance, and heat engine applications. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning conference proceedings on coating methods, performance evaluations, and applications of thermal barrier coatings as protective coatings for heat engine components against high temperature corrosions and chemical erosions. The developments of thermal barrier coating techniques for high performance and reliable gas turbines, diesel engines, jet engines, and internal combustion engines are presented. Topics include plasma sprayed coating methods, yttria stabilized zirconia coatings, coating life models, coating failure and durability, thermal shock and cycling, and acoustic emission analysis of coatings. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Thermal barrier coatings: Coating methods, performance, and heat engine applications. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning conference proceedings on coating methods, performance evaluations, and applications of thermal barrier coatings as protective coatings for heat engine components against high temperature corrosions and chemical erosions. The developments of thermal barrier coating techniques for high performance and reliable gas turbines, diesel engines, jet engines, and internal combustion engines are presented. Topics include plasma sprayed coating methods, yttria stabilized zirconia coatings, coating life models, coating failure and durability, thermal shock and cycling, and acoustic emission analysis of coatings. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  8. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  9. Hodges residence: performance of a direct gain passive solar home in Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBtu) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBtu) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 Btu/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollowcore floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.

  10. Hodges residence: performance of a direct gain passive solar home in Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges Residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBTU) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBTU) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 BTU/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollow-core floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.

  11. Numerical analysis of heat transfer by conduction and natural convection in loose-fill fiberglass insulation--effects of convection on thermal performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmas, A.A.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1992-04-01

    A two-dimensional code for solving equations of convective heat transfer in porous media is used to analyze heat transfer by conduction and convection in the attic insulation configuration. The particular cases treated correspond to loose-fill fiberglass insulation, which is characterized by high porosity and air permeability. The effects of natural convection on the thermal performance of the insulation are analyzed for various densities, permeabilities, and thicknesses of insulation. With convection increasing the total heat transfer through the insulation, the thermal resistance was found to decrease as the temperature difference across the insulating material increases. The predicted results for the thermal resistance are compared with data obtained in the large-scale climate simulator at the Roof Research Center using the attic test module, where the same phenomenon has already been observed. The way the wood joists within the insulation influence the start of convection is studied for differing thermophysical and dynamic properties of the insulating material. The presence of wood joists induces convection at a lower temperature difference.

  12. Measured water heating performance of a vertical-bore water-to-water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for domestic water heating over twelve months under simulated occupancy loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents monthly performance metrics of a 5.275 kW (1.5 ton) WW-GSHP providing 227 L day-1 domestic hot water at 49 C. Daily water use is simulated as stipulated in the Building America Research Benchmark Definition capturing the living habits of the average U.S household. The 94.5m vertical-bore ground loop is shared with a separate GSHP for space conditioning the 251m2 residential home. Data on entering water temperatures, energy extracted from the ground, delivered energy, compressor electricity use, COP, WW-GSHP run times, and the impact of fan and pump energy consumption on efficiency are presented for each month. Factors influencing performance metrics are highlighted.

  13. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate Windermere, Florida Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more read- ily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. A key feature of an HPWH unit is that it is a hybrid system. When conditions are favorable, the unit will operate in heat pump mode (using a vapor compression system that extracts heat from the surrounding air) to effciently provide domestic hot water (DHW). Homeowners need not

  14. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  15. Home Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Your choice of heating technologies impacts your energy bill. Learn about the different options for heating your home.

  16. Review of Test Procedure for Determining HSPFs of Residential Variable-Speed Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.

    2015-08-01

    This report reviews the suitability of the existing Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings and testing requirements for the current generation of variable-speed (VS) air-source heat pumps. Recent field test results indicate larger discrepancies between rated HSPF and field-observed HSPF for VS models than for single-speed models in the same houses. These findings suggest that the heating season test and ratings procedure should be revisited for VS heat pumps. The ratings and testing procedures are described in ANSI/AHRI 210/240 (2008) for single-speed, two-capacity, and variable-speed units. Analysis of manufacturer and independent test performance data on VS units reveals why the current VS testing/ratings procedure results in overly optimistic HSPF ratings for some VS units relative to other types of heat pumps. This is due to a combination of extrapolation of low speed test data beyond the originally anticipated ambient temperature operating range and the constraints of unit controls, which prevent low speed operation over the range of ambient temperatures assumed in the procedure for low speed. As a result, the HSPFs of such units are being overpredicted relative to those for single- and two-capacity designs. This overprediction has been found to be significantly reduced by use in the HSPF ratings procedure of an alternative higher-load heating load line, described in a companion report (Rice et al., 2015).

  17. Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call ...

  18. Performance of the biose cascade-INEL manufactured solar home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, A S; Liebelt, K H; Scofield, M P; Shinn, N R

    1980-01-01

    Two manufactured active solar homes using air collectors and rock storage were designed, bult and are being tested. The cooperative, DOE-funded project involves. Boise Cascade Corporation and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The two primary goals of the project are to develop an active solar heating system that is cost-effective now, and to provide significant market penetration through the involvement of Boise Cascade, a major manufacturer of factory built houses. A brief discussion of the houses and solar systems is included, with more detailed discussion of the desktop-computer based data acquisition system and initial performance results. The 1979 cooling season data indicated a need for modifications to achieve adequate cooling system performance. Data from the heating season showed good agreement with calculations, especially the house heat loss coefficient. However, solar heating fractions were lower than predicted and an examination of the collector operating efficiency showed the collector losses to be approximately three times higher than predicted. Tests are underway to better understand the large collection losses. Comparison of the performance data and f-chart predictions shows significant differences, with predicted solar fractions being lower than actual. The solar domestic hot water preheating system performed reasonably well, with significant thermal losses noticed from the auxiliary hot water heater. Recommendations are made for the design of solar air-heating systems.

  19. Heating Oil and Propane Update - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    all Petroleum Reports Heating Oil and Propane Update Note: The heating season is over. Data for residential and wholesale prices for heating oil and propane will return in October 2016. Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season, which extends from October through March. Propane Heating oil Residential propane graphs Residential Propane (dollars per gallon)more price data › change from 03/28/16 week ago year ago U.S. Average 2.008 -0.006 -0.284 East

  20. Collaborative National Program for the Development and Performance Testing of Distributed Power Technologies with Emphasis on Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soinski, Arthur; Hanson, Mark

    2006-06-28

    A current barrier to public acceptance of distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) technologies is the lack of credible and uniform information regarding system performance. Under a cooperative agreement, the Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) and the U.S. Department of Energy have developed four performance testing protocols to provide a uniform basis for comparison of systems. The protocols are for laboratory testing, field testing, long-term monitoring and case studies. They have been reviewed by a Stakeholder Advisory Committee made up of industry, public interest, end-user, and research community representatives. The types of systems covered include small turbines, reciprocating engines (including Stirling Cycle), and microturbines. The protocols are available for public use and the resulting data is publicly available in an online national database and two linked databases with further data from New York State. The protocols are interim pending comments and other feedback from users. Final protocols will be available in 2007. The interim protocols and the national database of operating systems can be accessed at www.dgdata.org. The project has entered Phase 2 in which protocols for fuel cell applications will be developed and the national and New York databases will continue to be maintained and populated.

  1. Check Heat Transfer Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Transfer Surfaces Check Heat Transfer Surfaces This tip sheet discusses the importance of checking heat transfer surfaces in process heating systems. PROCESS HEAT TIP SHEET #4 Check Heat Transfer Surfaces (September 2005) (330.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) Introduction

  2. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and ...

  3. Get Ahead of the Heating Season with an Energy Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The sight of my breath was a reminder that soon I'll be running my heater again and will want to run it as little as possible while staying comfortable.

  4. State heating oil and propane program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The following is a report of New Hampshire's participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPS) for the 1990--91 heating season. The program is a joint effort between participating states and the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EYE) to collect retail price data for heating oil and propane through phone surveys of 25 oil and 20 propane retailers in New Hampshire. SHOPS is funded through matching grants from DOE and the participating state. (VC)

  5. Geothermal Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Heat Pump Basics Geothermal Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:12am Addthis Text Version Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange medium for heat. Although many parts of the country experience seasonal temperature extremes-from scorching heat in the summer to sub-zero cold in the winter-the ground a few feet below the earth's surface remains at a relatively constant temperature. Depending on the latitude, ground temperatures range from 45°F

  6. Gas-fueled absorption heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florette, M.; Peuportier, B.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using an absorption heat pump for residential space heating, French investigators are studying both theoretically and experimentally, the performance of the absorption cycle in terms of its efficiency and suitability to space-heating conditions. A 10-kW pilot unit is supplying data on design criteria, heat-exchange fluid selection, and heat and mass balances.

  7. A Woman of All Seasons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Woman of All Seasons Pittsburgh, Pa. - Lilas Soukup, a 35-year employee at NETL, has been recognized by the Pittsburgh Federal Executive Board (FEB) as the 2013 Woman of the Year....

  8. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  9. The season of giving begins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The season of giving begins Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit The season of giving begins Lab employees encouraged to donate to area communities. September 1, 2016 Los Alamos employees organize food for the Holiday Food Drive. Los Alamos employees organize food for the Holiday Food Drive. Contacts Director, Community Partnerships Office Kathy Keith Email Editor Whitney

  10. Seasonal cycle dependence of temperature fluctuations in the atmosphere. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, B.F.

    1994-08-01

    The correlation statistics of meteorological fields have been of interest in weather forecasting for many years and are also of interest in climate studies. A better understanding of the seasonal variation of correlation statistics can be used to determine how the seasonal cycle of temperature fluctuations should be simulated in noise-forced energy balance models. It is shown that the length scale does have a seasonal dependence and will have to be handled through the seasonal modulation of other coefficients in noise-forced energy balance models. The temperature field variance and spatial correlation fluctuations exhibit seasonality with fluctuation amplitudes larger in the winter hemisphere and over land masses. Another factor contributing to seasonal differences is the larger solar heating gradient in the winter.

  11. Four Seasons Windpower, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seasons Windpower, LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Four Seasons Windpower, LLC Address: 1697 Wilbur Road Place: Medina, Ohio Zip: 44256 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product:...

  12. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  13. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  14. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  15. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  16. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  17. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  19. Effect of fins and repeated-rib roughness on the performance characteristics of a reactor vessel air cooling system for LMFBR shutdown heat removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, F.B.; Chawla, T.C.; Pedersen, D.R.; Tessier, J.H.; Webb, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a totally passive cooling system for shutdown heat removal that rejects heat from the reactor vessel by radiation to the guard vessel and from the guard vessel to a circulating air stream driven by natural convection is a key feature of the US Department of Energy's liquid-metal reactor advanced design study concepts. General Electric refers to the system as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) and Rockwell International as the Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (RACS). The circulating air stream is contained in the annular passage formed with guard vessel wall and the duct wall surrounding the guard vessel. Specifically, the RVACS/RACS is designed to assure adequate cooling of the reactor vessel under abnormal operational conditions associated with loss of heat removal through the normal heat transport path via the steam generator system or the DRACS, if available. To enhance the heat transfer, longitudinal radial fins or repeated ribs can be attached to the duct wall and/or the guard vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to summarize the status of the analytical work on the development of an optimum design configuration for the RVACS/RACS.

  20. Guide to Home Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Get the most out of your heating and cooling systems, including types, how to choose, and performing maintenance.

  1. Practical Physiological Monitoring Protocol for Heat Strain Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R B; Johnson, J S; Burastero, S R; Gilmore, O

    2003-07-01

    This protocol is indicated when employees are: (1) Exposed to Heat Stress above the TLV; (2) Performing low to moderate work rates with rare excursions to heavy rates; NOT for heavy and very heavy work rates or requiring peak outputs for extended periods; and, (3) Determined to need physiological heat strain monitoring by the cognizant Industrial Hygienist. The requirements are: (1) A work/rest regimen must be established at outset and adjusted as needed during operations (see Appendix A); (2) On-going data collection and review; (3) Rest times must be increased if indicated; (4) Intended for normal, healthy adults. Seasonal medical screening is recommended; and (5) Training for affected employees regarding this protocol, hydration, self-limitation, lifestyle effects and signs, symptoms and treatment of heat related illnesses. This protocol is to aid industrial hygienists in assessing individual physiological response to employee heat exposures, and provides guidance to identify and reduce heat strain as needed. Physiological monitoring is recommended when heat exposure exceeds the TLV by {ge} 2 C and/or when evaporative cooling is limited or eliminated. Typically, this occurs when the use of personal protective equipment includes impermeable or water vapor restrictive outer garments. This protocol is used to identify when heat strain may be excessive. This is determined through measurements taken during each rest period. If decision criteria are exceeded, changes in work practices shall be implemented immediately to reduce employee heat strain and prevent heat related illnesses up to and including heat stroke, a life threatening condition. This protocol may not be appropriate under all conditions. Sound Industrial Hygiene professional judgment is required. Because the measurements for this protocol occur during the rest phase of the work/rest regimen, the conditions affecting employee heat strain during the work phase must be carefully weighed. Work rate

  2. NREL GHP [Geothermal Heat Pump] Showcase: GHP Installation and Intensive in situ and Performance Monitoring at NREL's Solar Radiation and Research Laboratory; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-07-01

    This document provides an overview of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) showcase at NREL and how it will help the SRRL site move forward with the goal of being a model of sustainability within the NREL campus, providing an effective demonstration of GHP systems and needed space conditioning for laboratory expansion.

  3. Stirling and Vuilleumier heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurm, J.

    1990-01-01

    The book discuses the design, application, and performance evaluation of integrated engine-refrigerator heat pumps and provides an overview of heat pump theory, including a unique comparative analysis of six integrated Stirling and Vuilleumier heat pumps and their advantages in applications. It also evaluates the effect of key components on performance; lists and documents computer programs for comparative analysis; and summarizes current hardware development programs.

  4. Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating Component and System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaClair, Tim J; Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Wang, Mingyu; WolfeIV, Edward; Craig, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Cabin heating of current electric vehicle (EV) designs is typically provided using electrical energy from the traction battery, since waste heat is not available from an engine as in the case of a conventional automobile. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required for space heating of an EV can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, its driving range can be reduced very significantly during the winter season, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage from an advanced phase change material (PCM) has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The present paper focuses on the modeling and analysis of this electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) and is a companion to the paper Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating. A detailed heat transfer model was developed to simulate the PCM heat exchanger that is at the heart of the ePATHS and was subsequently used to analyze and optimize its design. The results from this analysis were integrated into a MATLAB Simulink system model to simulate the fluid flow, pressure drop and heat transfer in all components of the ePATHS. The system model was then used to predict the performance of the climate control system in the vehicle and to evaluate control strategies needed to achieve the desired temperature control in the cabin. The analysis performed to design the ePATHS is described in detail and the system s predicted performance in a vehicle HVAC system is presented.

  5. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-08-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  6. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  7. Thermal-barrier coatings: coating methods, performance, and heat-engine applications. July 1982-April 1989 (Citations from the EI Engineering Meetings data base). Report for July 1982-April 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations from conference proceedings concerning coating methods, performance evaluations, and applications of thermal-barrier coatings as protective coatings for heat-engine components against high temperature corrosions and chemical erosions. The developments of thermal barrier-coating techniques for high performance and reliable gas turbines, diesel engines, jet engines, and internal combustion engines are presented. Topics include plasma-sprayed-coating methods, yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings, coating-life models, coating failure and durability, thermal shock and cycling, and acoustic-emission analysis of coatings. (Contains 101 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes, Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  9. Comparative performance indices for solar batch water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Aaboe, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    A simple method is developed to allow direct comparison of various solar batch water heaters. Certain system variables must be determined by calculation or measurement which may vary with season. These include Thermal Efficiency of Collection, Tank R value, Collector Surface to Tank Volume Ratio, Clear Day Collection Period in Hours, System Cost, and Installed Solar Heatings Fraction (optional). These variables are used to compute any one of four performance indices. This method allows a valid comparison not only between various solar batch water heaters but between other types of solar water heaters as well. This system may be used by consumers or designers to choose the most cost and performance effective options.

  10. Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clyne, R.

    1999-09-30

    Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.

  11. An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

  12. Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).

  13. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  14. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  15. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  16. Energy performance analysis of prototype electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of three newly developed prototype electrochromic devices. The DOE-2.1 E energy simulation program was used to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electric energy use and peak demand as a function of window type and size. The authors simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated locations of Phoenix, AZ and Miami, FL. Heating energy use was also studied in the heating-dominated location of Madison, WI. Daylight illuminance was used to control electrochromic state-switching. Two types of window systems were analyzed; i.e., the outer pane electrochromic glazing was combined with either a conventional low-E or a spectrally selective inner pane. The properties of the electrochromic glazings are based on measured data of new prototypes developed as part of a cooperative DOE-industry program. The results show the largest difference in annual electric energy performance between the different window types occurs in Phoenix and is about 6.5 kWh/m{sup 2} floor area (0.60 kWh/ft{sup 2}) which can represent a cost of about $.52/m{sup 2} ($.05/ft{sup 2}) using electricity costing $.08/kWh. In heating-dominated locations, the electrochromic should be maintained in its bleached state during the heating season to take advantage of beneficial solar heat gain which would reduce the amount of required heating. This also means that the electrochromic window with the largest solar heat gain coefficient is best.

  17. Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing expensive heat losses from industrial heating equipment, such as furnaces. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #7 Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment (January 2006) (277.28 KB) More Documents & Publications Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A

  18. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-02-28

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein.

  19. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-03-18

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein.

  20. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-03-18

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized.

  1. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  2. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  3. Seasonal Tips | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    where it's 72 degrees and sunny year-round. But unfortunately, most of us don't. And to stay comfortable, we need heat and hot coffee in the winter, and air-conditioning and...

  4. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief | Department of Energy Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief This technical brief is a guide to help plant operators reduce waste heat

  5. Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Calculate Reset OUTPUT SECTION Performance per Heat Pump Your Choice Existing Heat Pump Base Model FEMP Recommended Level Best Available Cooling Efficiency EER Heating Efficiency ...

  6. Evaluation of Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Performance and the Enhanced Control Algorithm on Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Flexible Research Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, Piljae; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-06-01

    A research project “Evaluation of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Systems Performance and the Enhanced Control Algorithm on Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Flexible Research Platform” was performed to (1) install and validate the performance of Samsung VRF systems compared with the baseline rooftop unit (RTU) variable-air-volume (VAV) system and (2) evaluate the enhanced control algorithm for the VRF system on the two-story flexible research platform (FRP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Based on the VRF system designed by Samsung and ORNL, the system was installed from February 18 through April 15, 2014. The final commissioning and system optimization were completed on June 2, 2014, and the initial test for system operation was started the following day, June 3, 2014. In addition, the enhanced control algorithm was implemented and updated on June 18. After a series of additional commissioning actions, the energy performance data from the RTU and the VRF system were monitored from July 7, 2014, through February 28, 2015. Data monitoring and analysis were performed for the cooling season and heating season separately, and the calibrated simulation model was developed and used to estimate the energy performance of the RTU and VRF systems. This final report includes discussion of the design and installation of the VRF system, the data monitoring and analysis plan, the cooling season and heating season data analysis, and the building energy modeling study

  7. Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN DOE Funding: 500,000 Project Term: Oct. 2013 - ...

  8. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Institute A directory listing air conditioning, heating, and heat pump products that meet energy performance tiers established by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency. ...

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  10. Process Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Heating Systems Process Heating Systems Best operating practices and advanced process heating technologies can lead to significant energy savings at your plant. Use the software tools, training, and publications listed below to optimize performance and save energy. Process Heating Tools Tools to assess your energy system: Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) Qualified Specialists Qualified Specialists have passed a rigorous competency examination on a specific industrial

  11. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  12. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  13. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  14. Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season Nominal Prices (dollars per gallon) WTI Crude Oil (Spot) a 1.38 1.11 1.24 1.08 1.06 1.07 -21.4 -4.5 -13.7 Brent Crude Oil Price (Spot) 1.47 1.20 1.33 1.08 1.08 1.08 -26.1 -10.2 -18.8 U.S. Refiner Average Crude Oil Cost 1.37 1.14 1.25 1.00 1.03 1.02 -26.6 -8.8 -18.5 Wholesale Gasoline Price b 2.01 1.84 1.93 1.58 1.46 1.52 -21.6 -20.6 -21.1 Wholesale Diesel Fuel Price b 1.89 1.61 1.75 1.41 1.43 1.42 -25.4 -11.4 -18.8 Regular Gasoline Retail Price c 2.67 2.60

  15. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  16. Heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, V. J.

    1981-02-10

    A solar energy heating apparatus is described comprising means for concentrating solar energy incident thereon at an absorption station, an absorber located at the said absorption station for absorbing solar energy concentrated thereat, a first passageway associated with the said energy concentrating means for directing fluid so as to be preheated by the proportion of the incident energy absorbed by the said means, a second passageway associated with the absorber for effecting principal heating of fluid directed therethrough. The second passageway is such that on directing fluid through the first passageway it is initially preheated by the proportion of the incident energy absorbed by the energy concentrating means, the preheated fluid thereafter being directed to the second passageway where the principal heating takes place.

  17. An analysis of representative heating load lines for residential HSPF ratings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C. Keith; Shen, Bo; Shrestha, Som S.

    2015-07-01

    This report describes an analysis to investigate representative heating loads for single-family detached homes using current EnergyPlus simulations (DOE 2014a). Hourly delivered load results are used to determine binned load lines using US Department of Energy (DOE) residential prototype building models (DOE 2014b) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The selected residential single-family prototype buildings are based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2006) in the DOE climate regions. The resulting load lines are compared with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Standard 210/240 (AHRI 2008) minimum and maximum design heating requirement (DHR) load lines of the heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) ratings procedure for each region. The results indicate that a heating load line closer to the maximum DHR load line, and with a lower zero load ambient temperature, is more representative of heating loads predicted for EnergyPlus prototype residential buildings than the minimum DHR load line presently used to determine HSPF ratings. An alternative heating load line equation was developed and compared to binned load lines obtained from the EnergyPlus simulation results. The effect on HSPF of the alternative heating load line was evaluated for single-speed and two-capacity heat pumps, and an average HSPF reduction of 16% was found. The alternative heating load line relationship is tied to the rated cooling capacity of the heat pump based on EnergyPlus autosizing, which is more representative of the house load characteristics than the rated heating capacity. The alternative heating load line equation was found to be independent of climate for the six DOE climate regions investigated, provided an adjustable zero load ambient temperature is used. For Region IV, the default DOE climate region used for HSPF ratings, the higher load line results in an ~28

  18. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  19. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  20. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  1. Heat exchanger bypass test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1995-01-26

    This test report documents the results that were obtained while conducting the test procedure which bypassed the heat exchangers in the HC-21C sludge stabilization process. The test was performed on November 15, 1994 using WHC-SD-CP-TC-031, ``Heat Exchanger Bypass Test Procedure.`` The primary objective of the test procedure was to determine if the heat exchangers were contributing to condensation of moisture in the off-gas line. This condensation was observed in the rotameters. Also, a secondary objective was to determine if temperatures at the rotameters would be too high and damage them or make them inaccurate without the heat exchangers in place.

  2. Seasonal thermal energy storage program. Progress report, January 1980-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minor, J.E.

    1981-05-01

    The objectives of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program is to demonstrate the economic storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis, using heat or cold available from waste sources or other sources during a surplus period to reduce peak period demand, reduce electric utilities peaking problems, and contribute to the establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. Aquifers, ponds, earth, and lakes have potential for seasonal storage. The initial thrust of the STES Program is toward utilization of ground-water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage. Program plans for meeting these objectives, the development of demonstration programs, and progress in assessing the technical, economic, legal, and environmental impacts of thermal energy storage are described. (LCL)

  3. Electrochemical heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B.; Holley, Charles E.; Houseman, Barton L.; Sibbitt, Jr., Wilmer L.

    1978-01-01

    Electrochemical heat engines produce electrochemical work, and mechanical motion is limited to valve and switching actions as the heat-to-work cycles are performed. The electrochemical cells of said heat engines use molten or solid electrolytes at high temperatures. One or more reactions in the cycle will generate a gas at high temperature which can be condensed at a lower temperature with later return of the condensate to electrochemical cells. Sodium, potassium, and cesium are used as the working gases for high temperature cells (above 600 K) with halogen gases or volatile halides being used at lower temperature. Carbonates and halides are used as molten electrolytes and the solid electrolyte in these melts can also be used as a cell separator.

  4. Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool April 10, 2014 - 3:34pm Addthis Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool The Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) introduces methods to improve thermal efficiency of heating equipment. This tool helps industrial users survey process heating equipment that consumes fuel, steam, or electricity, and identifies the most energy-intensive equipment. The tool can be used to perform a heat balance that

  5. Final Report on Work Performed Under Agreement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-15

    Solutia Performance Films, utilizing funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Buildings Technologies Program, completed research to develop, validate, and commercialize a range of cost-effective, low-emissivity energy-control retrofit window films with significantly improved emissivity over current technology. These films, sold under the EnerLogic® trade name, offer the energy-saving properties of modern low-e windows, with several advantages over replacement windows, such as: lower initial installation cost, a significantly lower product carbon footprint, and an ability to provide a much faster return on investment. EnerLogic® window films also offer significantly greater energy savings than previously available with window films with similar visible light transmissions. EnerLogic® window films offer these energy-saving advantages over other window films due to its ability to offer both summer cooling and winter heating savings. Unlike most window films, that produce savings only during the cooling season, EnerLogic® window film is an all-season, low-emissivity (low-e) film that produces both cooling and heating season savings. This paper will present technical information on the development hurdles as well as details regarding the following claims being made about EnerLogic® window film, which can be found at www.EnerLogicfilm.com: 1. Other window film technologies save energy. EnerLogic® window film's patent-pending coating delivers excellent energy efficiency in every season, so no other film can match its annual dollar or energy consumption savings. 2. EnerLogic® window film is a low-cost, high-return technology that compares favorably to other popular energy-saving measures both in terms of energy efficiency and cost savings. In fact, EnerLogic® window film typically outperforms most of the alternatives in terms of simple payback. 3. EnerLogic® window film provides unparalleled glass insulating capabilities for window film products. With its

  6. Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tundee, Sura; Terdtoon, Pradit; Sakulchangsatjatai, Phrut; Singh, Randeep; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0 m{sup 2} and a depth of 1.5 m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16 27'N102 E). Heat was successfully extracted from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond by using a heat pipe heat exchanger made from 60 copper tubes with 21 mm inside diameter and 22 mm outside diameter. The length of the evaporator and condenser section was 800 mm and 200 mm respectively. R134a was used as the heat transfer fluid in the experiment. The theoretical model was formulated for the solar pond heat extraction on the basis of the energy conservation equations and by using the solar radiation data for the above location. Numerical methods were used to solve the modeling equations. In the analysis, the performance of heat exchanger is investigated by varying the velocity of inlet air used to extract heat from the condenser end of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE). Air velocity was found to have a significant influence on the effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger. In the present investigation, there was an increase in effectiveness by 43% as the air velocity was decreased from 5 m/s to 1 m/s. The results obtained from the theoretical model showed good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  7. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  8. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  9. Design, development and testing of a solar-powered multi-family residential size prototype turbocompressor heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-03-01

    A program described to design, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing of a prototype solar-powered Rankine cycle turbocompressor heat pump module for a multi-family residential building is presented. A solar system designed to use the turbocompressor heat pump module including all of the subsystems required and the various system operating modes is described in Section I. Section II includes the preliminary design analyses conducted to select the heat pump module components and operating features, working fluid, configuration, size and performance goals, and estimated performance levels in the cooling and heating modes. Section III provides a detailed description of the other subsystems and components required for a complete solar installation. Using realistic performance and cost characteristics for all subsystems, the seasonal performance of the UTC heat pump is described in various US locations. In addition, the estimated energy savings and an assessment of the economic viability of the solar system is presented in Section III. The detailed design of the heat pump module and the arrangement of components and controls selected to conduct the laboratory performance tests are described in Section IV. Section V provides a description of the special laboratory test facility, including the subsystems to simulate the collectors and storage tanks for building load and ambient conditions and the instrumentation, monitoring, and data acquisition equipment. The test results and sample computer analyses and comparisons with predicted performance levels are presented in Section VI. Various appendices provide supplementary and background information concerning working fluid selection (A), configuration selection (B), capacity control concepts (C), building models (D), computer programs used to determine component and system performance and total system economics (E), and weather data (F).

  10. ARM - Lesson Plans: Reason for the Seasons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reason for the Seasons Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Reason for the Seasons Objective The objective of this activity is to understand the reasons for the seasons and to study the motion of the earth. Materials Each student or group of students will need the

  11. Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency, call slides and discussion summary. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (2.92 MB) More Documents & Publications Hit the Road: Applying Lessons from National Campaigns to a Local Context (201) Strengthening the Front

  12. Microsoft Word - S08364_SeasonalVariation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater Constituents and Seasonal Variation at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site February 2012 LMS/RVT/S08364 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Evaluation of Groundwater Constituents and Seasonal Variation, Riverton, Wyoming February 2012 Doc. No. S08364 Page 1 Evaluation of Groundwater Constituents and Seasonal Variation at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site Executive Summary Historical groundwater monitoring at the Riverton site included collecting

  13. Preparing for Hurricane Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preparing for Hurricane Season Preparing for Hurricane Season June 1, 2015 - 9:49am Addthis Patricia A. Hoffman Patricia A. Hoffman Assistant Secretary, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability Hurricane season in the Atlantic begins today and will last through November 30. As the lead Federal agency responsible for coordinating the response to major energy disruptions, the Department of Energy works closely with other Federal agencies, State, local and tribal governments, and our

  14. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Seasonal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the seasonal variation of land cover which is dominated by the agricultural land use, primarily winter wheat production. http:gi.ssec.wisc.eduairsknutesonindex.html...

  15. Cover Heated, Open Vessels | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown

  16. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MI -- Optimized Thermal Systems - College Park, MD Purdue prototype system Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Lead Performer: Unico Systems - St....

  17. In-Situ Measurement of Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation in Damp Heat Stress Testing for Estimation of Low-Light Power Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-08-01

    The extent of potential-induced degradation of crystalline silicon modules in an environmental chamber is estimated using in-situ dark I-V measurements and applying superposition analysis. The dark I-V curves are shown to correctly give the module power performance at 200, 600 and 1,000 W/m2 irradiance conditions, as verified with a solar simulator. The onset of degradation measured in low light in relation to that under one sun irradiance can be clearly seen in the module design examined; the time to 5% relative degradation measured in low light (200 W/m2) was 28% less than that of full sun (1,000 W/m2 irradiance). The power of modules undergoing potential-induced degradation can therefore be characterized in the chamber, facilitating statistical analyses and lifetime forecasting.

  18. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  19. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  20. Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-15

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

  1. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  2. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, P.J.

    1983-12-08

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  3. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-01-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  4. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-04-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  5. Number 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1991/92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1992-06-01

    During the 1991--92 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1991 through March, 1992. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1991--1992 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data and responses to the events which unfolded during the 1991--1992 heating season.

  6. Supercharger for Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercharger for Heat Pumps in Cold Climates Thomas J. Walter Mechanical Solutions, Inc. tjw@mechsol.com 518-320-8552 April 3, 2013 DOE SBIR Grant No. SC0006162 Concept is similar to superchargers for piston engine aircraft 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Electrically driven heat pumps are an effective method of extracting heat from ambient air. As air temperature falls, however, heat pump performance falls off, essentially limiting

  7. Heat pipe methanator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  8. Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates The ...

  9. Solar Domestic Water Heating: a Roof-Integrated Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-03

    This fact sheet describes an evaluation of the performance of a roof-integrated solar water heating system.

  10. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  11. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  12. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  13. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, Chuck; Nelson, Eric; Armer, James; Johnson, Tim; Hirsch, Adam; Doebber, Ian

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  14. Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado.

  15. Energy Savings Week: Lowering Energy Bills with Efficient Home Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With winter in full swing in many parts of the U.S., your thermostat may be getting more attention than usual. Whether you have a furnace, boiler, or heat pump system, you want to make sure your home stays warm—especially as holiday guests arrive. Fortunately, the Energy Department’s efforts to improve efficiency standards is paying dividends with energy bills associated with heating and appliances lower compared to past holiday seasons.

  16. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  17. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William R.; Cassano, Anthony A.; Dunbobbin, Brian R.; Rao, Pradip; Erickson, Donald C.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

  18. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  19. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  20. Solar heating panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellsworth, R.L.

    1983-01-18

    A solar heating panel for collecting solar heat energy and method for making same having a heat insulative substrate with a multiplicity of grooves and structural supporting ribs formed therein covered by a thin, flexible heat conductive film to form fluid conducting channels which in turn are connected to manifolds from which fluid is directed into the channels and heated fluid is removed therefrom.

  1. High temperature absorption heat pump for industrial usage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bugarel, R.; Morillon, R.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study has demonstrated that an absorption heat pump with a water-lithium bromide thermodynamic couple has a practical coefficient of performance of 1.4-1.6 when providing a 280/sup 0/F heat source. The ability to serve as a high-temperature heat source makes this heat pump suitable for certain industrial processes such as drying.

  2. Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China...

  3. Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land cover ... Title: Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land ...

  4. Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial ...

  5. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. |...

  6. Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skupinski, R.C.; Tower, L.K.; Madi, F.J.; Brusk, K.D.

    1993-04-01

    The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

  7. NOVA Making Stuff Season 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leombruni, Lisa; Paulsen, Christine Andrews

    2014-12-12

    Over the course of four weeks in fall 2013, 11.7 million Americans tuned in to PBS to follow host David Pogue as he led them in search of engineering and scientific breakthroughs poised to change our world. Levitating trains, quantum computers, robotic bees, and bomb-detecting plants—these were just a few of the cutting-edge innovations brought into the living rooms of families across the country in NOVA’s four-part series, Making Stuff: Faster, Wilder, Colder, and Safer. Each of the four one-hour programs gave viewers a behind-the-scenes look at novel technologies poised to change our world—showing them how basic research and scientific discovery can hold the keys to transforming how we live. Making Stuff Season 2 (MS2) combined true entertainment with educational value, creating a popular and engaging series that brought accessible science into the homes of millions. NOVA’s goal to engage the public with such technological innovation and basic research extended beyond the broadcast series, including a variety of online, educational, and promotional activities: original online science reporting, web-only short-form videos, a new online quiz-game, social media engagement and promotion, an educational outreach “toolkit” for science educators to create their own “makerspaces,” an online community of practice, a series of nationwide Innovation Cafés, educator professional development, a suite of teacher resources, an “Idealab,” participation in national conferences, and specialized station relation and marketing. A summative evaluation of the MS2 project indicates that overall, these activities helped make a significant impact on the viewers, users, and participants that NOVA reached. The final evaluation conducted by Concord Evaluation Group (CEG) confidently concluded that the broadcast, website, and outreach activities were successful at achieving the project’s intended impacts. CEG reported that the MS2 series and website content were

  8. A simplified model for heat transfer in heat exchangers and stack plates for thermoacoustic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Herman, C.

    1999-07-01

    A simplified model of heat transfer in heat exchangers and stack plates of thermoacoustic devices was developed. The model took advantage of previous results regarding the thermal behavior of the thermoacoustic core for investigations of the performance of heat exchangers attached to the core. Geometrical and operational parameters as well as thermophysical properties of the heat exchangers, the plate, and the working medium were organized into dimensionless groups that allowed to account for their impact on the performance of the heat exchangers. Numerical simulations with the model were carried out. Nonlinear temperature distributions and heat fluxes near the edge of the stack plate were observed. Effects of different parameters on the thermal performance of the heat exchangers were investigated.

  9. Hydroxide absorption heat pumps with spray absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summerer, F.; Alefeld, G.; Zeigler, F.; Riesch, P.

    1996-11-01

    The absorber is one of the most expensive components of an absorption heat pump or chiller, respectively. In order to reduce the cost of a heat exchanger, much effort is invested into searching for additives for heat transfer enhancement. Another way to reduce heat exchanger cost, especially for machines with low capacities, is to use an adiabatic spray absorber. The basic principles of the spray absorber is to perform heat and mass transfer separated from each other in two different components. In this way the heat can be rejected effectively in a liquid-liquid heat exchanger, whereas the mass transfer occurs subsequently in a simple vessel. The spray technique can not only save heat exchanger cost in conventional absorption systems working with water and lithium bromide, it also allows the use of quite different working fluids such as hydroxides, which have lower heat transfer coefficients in falling films. Moreover, the separated heat transfer can easily be performed in a liquid-to-air heat exchanger. Hence it is obvious to use hydroxides that allow for a high temperature lift for building an air-cooled chiller with spray absorber. In this presentation theoretical and experimental investigations of the spray absorber as well as the setup will be described. Finally, possible applications will be outlined.

  10. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  11. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  12. Concentrating solar heat collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattor, A.P.

    1980-09-23

    A heat storage unit is integrated with a collection unit providing a heat supply in off-sun times, and includes movable insulation means arranged to provide insulation during off-sun times for the heat storage unit.

  13. Foundation heat exchangers for residential ground source heat pump systems Numerical modeling and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Lu; Cullin, James; Spitler, Jeffery; Im, Piljae; Fisher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A new type of ground heat exchanger that utilizes the excavation often made for basements or foundations has been proposed as an alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers. This article describes a numerical model that can be used to size these foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems. The numerical model is a two-dimensional finite-volume model that considers a wide variety of factors, such as soil freezing and evapotranspiration. The FHX numerical model is validated with one year of experimental data collected at an experimental house located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The model shows good agreement with the experimental data-heat pump entering fluid temperatures typically within 1 C (1.8 F) - with minor discrepancies due to approximations, such as constant moisture content throughout the year, uniform evapotranspiration over the seasons, and lack of ground shading in the model.

  14. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  15. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  16. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) (3.31 MB) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical ...

  17. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  18. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  19. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  20. Geothermal heating retrofit at the Utah State Prison Minimum Security Facility. Final report, March 1979-January 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report is a summary of progress and results of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project. Initiated in 1978 by the Utah State Energy Office and developed with assistance from DOE's Division of Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies PON program, final construction was completed in 1984. The completed system provides space and water heating for the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. It consists of an artesian flowing geothermal well, plate heat exchangers, and underground distribution pipeline that connects to the existing hydronic heating system in the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. Geothermal water disposal consists of a gravity drain line carrying spent geothermal water to a cooling pond which discharges into the Jordan River, approximately one mile from the well site. The system has been in operation for two years with mixed results. Continuing operation and maintenance problems have reduced the expected seasonal operation from 9 months per year to 3 months. Problems with the Minimum Security heating system have reduced the expected energy contribution by approximately 60%. To date the system has saved the prison approximately $18,060. The total expenditure including resource assessment and development, design, construction, performance verification, and reporting is approximately $827,558.

  1. Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariol Charles; Nicholas Deskevich; Vipin Varkey; Robert Voigt; Angela Wollenburg

    2004-04-29

    Heat treatment practices used by steel foundries have been carefully studied as part of comprehensive heat treatment procedure qualification development trials. These studies highlight the relationships between critical heat treatment process control parameters and heat treatment success. Foundry heat treatment trials to develop heat treatment procedure qualifications have shed light on the relationship between heat treatment theory and current practices. Furnace load time-temperature profiles in steel foundries exhibit significant differences depending on heat treatment equipment, furnace loading practice, and furnace maintenance. Time-temperature profiles of furnace control thermocouples can be very different from the time-temperature profiles observed at the center of casting loads in the furnace. Typical austenitization temperatures and holding times used by steel foundries far exceed what is required for transformation to austenite. Quenching and hardenability concepts were also investigated. Heat treatment procedure qualification (HTPQ) schema to demonstrate heat treatment success and to pre-qualify other alloys and section sizes requiring lesser hardenability have been developed. Tempering success is dependent on both tempering time and temperature. As such, furnace temperature uniformity and control of furnace loading during tempering is critical to obtain the desired mechanical properties. The ramp-up time in the furnace prior to the establishment of steady state heat treatment conditions contributes to the extent of heat treatment performed. This influence of ramp-up to temperature during tempering has been quantified.

  2. Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification -- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Voigt

    2004-10-15

    Heat treatment practices used by steel foundries have been carefully studied as part of comprehensive heat treatment procedure development trials. These studies highlight the relationships between critical heat treatment process control parameters and heat treatment success. Foundry heat treatment trials to develop heat treatment procedure qualification have shed light on the relationship between heat treatment theory and current practices. Furnace load time-temperature profiles in steel foundries exhibit significant differences depending on heat treatment equipment, furnace loading practice, and furnace maintenance. Time-temperature profiles of the furnace control thermocouples can be very different from the time-temperature profiles observed at the center of casting loads in the furnace. Typical austenitrization temperatures and holding times used by steel foundries far exceed what is required for transformation to austenite. Quenching and hardenability concepts were also investigated. Heat treatment procedure qualification (HTPQ) schema to demonstrate heat treatment success and to pre-qualify other alloys and section sizes requiring lesser hardenability have been developed. Tempering success is dependent on both tempering time and temperature. As such, furnace temperature uniformity and control of furnace loading during tempering is critical to obtain the desired mechanical properties. The ramp-up time in the furnace prior to the establishment of steady state heat treatment conditions contributes to the extent of heat treatment performed. This influence of ramp-up to temperature during tempering has been quantified.

  3. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  5. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  6. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. ... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery ......

  7. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    among the most effcient and comfortable heating and cooling technologies available because they use the earth's natural heat to provide heating, cooling, and often, water heating. ...

  8. Do-it-yourself solar heating. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, J.

    1984-01-01

    Presented is a do-it-yourself method of building a solar greenhouse for the purpose of heating a house. During the operational periods, following the construction of the greenhouse, severe problems were encountered. The heat losses at night during the heating season lowered temperatures inside the greenhouse to below freezing on some occasions. Overheating was a problem encountered during the summer months. Daily high and low temperatures are recorded for both inside and outside of the greenhouse. The payback period for the present greenhouse was calculated to be approximately 21.5 years. Recommendations for improving the greenhouse design and efficiency are included. (BCS)

  9. Heat pipe effect in porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, M.

    1992-12-01

    In this thesis a parametric study of the thermal and hydrologic characteristics of the fractured porous tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada was conducted. The effects of different fracture and matrix properties including permeability, thermal conductivity, specific heat, porosity, and tortuosity on heat pipe performance in the vicinity of the waste package were observed. Computer simulations were carried out using TOUGH code on a Cray YMP-2 supercomputer. None of the fracture parameters affected the heat pipe performance except the mobility of the liquid in the fracture. Matrix permeability and thermal conductivity were found to have significant effect on the heat pipe performance. The effect of mass injection was studied for liquid water and air injected at the fracture boundary. A high rate of mass injection was required to produce any effect on the heat pipe. The fracture-matrix equilibrium is influenced by the matrix permeability and the matrix thermal conductivity.

  10. Water Heating R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D Water Heating R&D Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) - Oak Ridge, TN ... PROJECT OBJECTIVE Water heating accounts for 13% of primary energy consumption in ...

  11. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  12. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  13. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-05-05

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  14. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  15. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  16. Geothermal Heat Pump Profitability in Energy Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    If geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are to make a significant mark in the market, we believe that it will be through energy service pricing contracts offered by retailcos. The benefits of GHPs are ideally suited to energy service pricing (ESP) contractual arrangements; however, few retailcos are thoroughly familiar with the benefits of GHPs. Many of the same barriers that have prevented GHPs from reaching their full potential in the current market environment remain in place for retailcos. A lack of awareness, concerns over the actual efficiencies of GHPs, perceptions of extremely high first costs, unknown records for maintenance costs, etc. have all contributed to limited adoption of GHP technology. These same factors are of concern to retailcos as they contemplate long term customer contracts. The central focus of this project was the creation of models, using actual GHP operating data and the experience of seasoned professionals, to simulate the financial performance of GHPs in long-term ESP contracts versus the outcome using alternative equipment. We have chosen two case studies, which may be most indicative of target markets in the competitive marketplace: A new 37,000 square foot office building in Toronto, Ontario; we also modeled a similar building under the weather conditions of Orlando, Florida. An aggregated residential energy services project using the mass conversion of over 4,000 residential units at Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Our method of analyses involved estimating equipment and energy costs for both the base case and the GHP buildings. These costs are input in to a cash flow analysis financial model which calculates an after-tax cost for the base and GHP case. For each case study customers were assumed to receive a 5% savings over their base case utility bill. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to determine how key variables affect the attractiveness of a GHP investment.

  17. Energy Risk Predictions for the 2015 Hurricane Season (June 2015) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Risk Predictions for the 2015 Hurricane Season (June 2015) Energy Risk Predictions for the 2015 Hurricane Season (June 2015) This presentation is from a DOE-NASEO webinar held June 23, 2015, on forecasting energy infrastructure risk for the 2015 hurricane season. A variety of sources predict a below-normal season, with hurricane intensity lower than the 1981-2010 averages. The presentation includes an overview of hurricane season classification, historic impacts, and

  18. Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Embedded Nanoparticles Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles 2011 DOE ...

  19. Nanolubricants to Improve Chiller Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Approach * Pool-boiling rig used to measure heat transfer performance of R134ananolubricant mixtures with nanoparticle of varied ...

  20. Comparison of natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, J.; Liu, W.

    1998-09-15

    Thermosyphon heat exchangers are used in indirect solar water heating systems to avoid using a pump to circulate water from the storage tank to the heat exchanger. In this study, the authors consider the effect of heat exchanger design on system performance. They also compare performance of a system with thermosyphon flow to the same system with a 40W pump in the water loop. In the first part of the study, the authors consider the impact of heat exchanger design on the thermal performance of both one- and two-collector solar water heaters. The comparison is based on Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) OG300 simulations. The thermosyphon heat exchangers considered are (1) a one-pass, double wall, 0.22 m{sup 2}, four tube-in-shell heat exchanger manufactured by AAA Service and Supply, Inc., (the Quad-Rod); (2) a two-pass, double wall, 0.2 m{sup 2}, tube-in-shell made by Heliodyne, Inc., but not intended for commercial development; (3) a one-pass, single wall, 0.28 m{sup 2}, 31 tube-in-shell heat exchanger from Young Radiator Company, and (4) a one-pass single-wall, 0.61 m{sup 2}, four coil-in-shell heat exchanger made by ThermoDynamics Ltd. The authors compare performance of the systems with thermosyphon heat exchangers to a system with a 40 W pump used with the Quad-Rod heat exchanger. In the second part of the study, the effects of reducing frictional losses through the heat exchanger and/or the pipes connecting the heat exchanger to the storage tank, and increasing heat transfer area are evaluated in terms of OG300 ratings.

  1. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E.; Van Konynenburg, Richard; VanSant, James H.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  2. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Saro, Robert; Bateman, Willis

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  3. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J.; Taher, Mahmoud A.

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  4. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects AS-IHP System Concept Sketch. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: Lennox Building-Integrated Heat & Moisture Exchange (SBIR Phase 2B) Lead Performer: Architectural Applications - Portland, Oregon Partner: Oregon State University - Corvallis, Oregon Left: Environmental chamber to

  5. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems (August 20, 2009) (494.7 KB) More

  6. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  7. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1990--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The following is a report of New Hampshire`s participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPS) for the 1990--91 heating season. The program is a joint effort between participating states and the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EYE) to collect retail price data for heating oil and propane through phone surveys of 25 oil and 20 propane retailers in New Hampshire. SHOPS is funded through matching grants from DOE and the participating state. (VC)

  8. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clothes Dryer Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Schematics of a heat pump clothes dryer<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Schematics of a heat pump clothes dryer Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: GE Appliances - Louisville, KY DOE Funding: $1,000,000 Cost Share: Provided by CRADA partner Project Term: Oct. 2013 - Sept. 2016 Project Objective The central objective of this project is to design and develop a heat pump clothes dryer

  9. Building America Webinar: New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat Pumps Study: Resistance is Futile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar will focus on the use of ductless heat pumps (DHP) as a hybrid “all-electric” heating system in new high-performance homes. In a DHP/hybrid heating system, the DHP fan coil is located...

  10. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  11. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  12. Advanced Rotating Heat Exchangers | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2006 (Westphalen, D., Roth, K. W. and Brodrick,J. (2006) 'Heat transfer enhancement', ASHRAE Journal,48(4), 68-71.) Contacts DOE Technology Manager: Tony Bouza Performer: Omar ...

  13. Geothermal heat pumps for federal buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-09-02

    Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) can provide significant energy savings to a wide range of Federal facilities. GHP equipment can be obtained and installed at no up-front cost through Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) through energy service companies (ESCOs).

  14. Advanced Rotating Heat Exchangers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D., Roth, K. W. and Brodrick,J. (2006) 'Heat transfer enhancement', ASHRAE Journal,48(4), 68-71.) Contacts DOE Technology Manager: Tony Bouza Performer: Ed Vineyard,...

  15. Evaporative heat transfer in beds of sensible heat pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arimilli, R.V.; Moy, C.A.

    1989-03-01

    An experimental study of boiling/evaporative heat transfer from heated spheres in vertical packed beds with downward liquid-vapor flow of Refrigerant-113 was conducted. Surface superheats of 1 to 50{degrees}C, mass flow rates of 1.7 to 5.6 Kg/min, sphere diameters of 1.59 and 2.54 cm, quality (i.e., mass fraction of vapor) of the inlet flow of 0.02 to 1.0, and two surface conditions were considered. Instrumented smooth and rough aluminum spheres were used to measure the heat transfer coefficients under steady state conditions. Heat transfer coefficients were independently determined for each sphere at three values three values of surface superheat. The quantitative results of this extensive experimental study are successfully correlated. The correlation equation for the boiling heat transfer coefficients is presented in terms of a homogeneous model. The correlation may be used in the development of numerical models to simulate the transient thermal performance of packed bed thermal energy storage unit while operating as an evaporator. The boiling of the liquid-vapor flow around the spheres in the packed bed was visually observed with a fiber-optic baroscope and recorded on a videotape. The visualization results showed qualitatively the presence of four distinct flow regimes. One of these occurs under saturated inlet conditions and are referred to as the Low-quality, Medium-quality, and High-quality Regimes. The regimes are discussed in detail in this paper.

  16. Low-temperature central heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colonna, A.; Dore, B.

    1982-01-01

    As more efficient condensing boilers are introduced and as more homeowners install effective insulation, engineers should consider two possibilities when designing new central-heating systems - the use of properly sized radiators operating at moderate water temperatures (100-120/sup 0/F) and the installation of heating systems under the floor, which ensures that the space heat is evenly distributed. In field tests, low-temperature radiators performed better than conventional models, with no significant adverse effect on comfort levels. G.D.F. also examined floating-late floor heaters, which incorporate an insulated concrete plate supporting a coiled, imbedded network of tubes with a floating concrete plate on top. Their essential advantages is the freeing of more living space to the occupants. Their use is recommended in multifamily dwelling rather than individual homes.

  17. Heat flux solarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sartarelli, A.; Vera, S.; Cyrulies, E.; Echarri, R.; Samson, I.

    2010-12-15

    The solarimeter presented in this work is easy to assemble. It is calibrated and its performance is validated by means of Hottel's method. Finally, the curves obtained with this solarimeter are compared to the ones obtained with a commercial solarimeter. This device is based on the evaluation of the heat flow in a metal rod. In consequence, measurements are not affected by ambient temperature variations. On the other hand, there is a linear relationship between the temperatures measured at the rod ends and the incident radiation, as can be concluded both from the theory of its operation and the calibration lines obtained. The results obtained from the global irradiance measurements in the area of Los Polvorines (Buenos Aires Province), together with a preliminary evaluation of the solarimeter's response time, are presented in this work. (author)

  18. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  19. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  20. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  1. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  2. Simplified method for calculating heating and cooling energy in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Garnier, J.Y.

    1981-10-01

    A microcomputer-based program, Computerized, Instrumented, Residential Audit (CIRA), for determining economically optimal mixes of energy-saving measures in existing residential buildings was developed which requires extensive calculation of heating and cooling energy consumptions. In this paper, a simplified method of calculation that satisfies the requirements of speed and memory imposed by the type of microcomputer on which CIRA runs is presented. The method is based on monthly calculations of degree days and degree nights for both heating and cooling seasons. The base temperatures used in calculating the degree days and degree nights are derived from thermostat settings, solar and internal gains, sky radiation losses, and the thermal characteristics of the building envelope. Thermostat setbacks are handled by using the concept of effective thermal mass of the house. Performance variations of HVAC equipment with changes of part load and ambient conditions are taken into account using correlation curves based on experimental data. Degree days and nights for different base temperatures are evaluated by using a climate-specific empirical correlation with monthly average daily and nightly temperatures. Predictions obtained by this method and by DOE-2.1 are compared for the so-called Hastings ranch house for seven different climates in the United States. Heating and cooling energy consumptions predicted by CIRA lie generally within +- 10% of DOE-2.1 predictions.

  3. Solar Heat-Pipe Receiver Wick Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C.E.

    1998-12-21

    Stirling-cycle engines have been identified as a promising technology for the conversion of concentrated solar energy into usable electrical power. In previous experimented work, we have demonstrated that a heat pipe receiver can significantly improve system performance-over a directly-illuminated heater head. The design and operating conditions of a heat pipe receiver differ significantly from typical laboratory heat pipes. New wick structures have been developed to exploit the characteristics of the solar generation system. Typically, these wick structures allow vapor generation within the wick. Conventional heat pipe models do not handle this enhancement yet it can more than double the performance of the wick. In this study, I develop a steady-state model of a boiling-enhanced wick for a solar heat pipe receiver. The model is used for design-point calculations and is written in FORTRAN90. Some limited comparisons have been made with actual test data.

  4. Experimental investigation of a reticulated porous alumina heat exchanger for high temperature gas heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, A; Chandran, RB; Davidson, JH

    2015-01-22

    The present study presents an experimental study of a prototype counter-flow heat exchanger designed to recover sensible heat from inert and reactive gases flowing through a high temperature solar reactor for splitting CO2. The tube-in-tube heat exchanger is comprised of two concentric alumina tubes, each filled with reticulated porous alumina with a nominal porosity of 80% and pore density of 5 pores per inch (ppi). The RPC provides high heat transfer surface area per unit volume (917 m(-1)) with low pressure drop. Measurements include the permeability, inertial coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient, effectiveness and pressure drop. For laminar flow and an inlet gas temperature of 1240 K, the overall heat transfer coefficients are 36-41 W m(-2) K-1. The measured performance is in good agreement with a prior CFD model of the heat exchanger. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heat pipe heat transport system for the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alger, D.L.

    1992-08-01

    Life issues relating to a sodium heat pipe heat transport system are described. The heat pipe system provides heat, at a temperature of 1050 K, to a 50 kWe Stirling engine/linear alternator power converter called the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC). The converter is being developed under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration program. Since corrosion of heat pipe materials in contact with sodium can impact the life of the heat pipe, a literature review of sodium corrosion processes was performed. It was found that the impurity reactions, primarily oxygen, and dissolution of alloy elements were the two corrosion process likely to be operative in the heat pipe. Approaches that are being taken to minimize these corrosion processes are discussed.

  6. Fusion heating technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    John Lawson established the criterion that in order to produce more energy from fusion than is necessary to heat the plasma and replenish the radiation losses, a minimum value for both the product of plasma density and confinement time t, and the temperature must be achieved. There are two types of plasma heating: neutral beam and electromagnetic wave heating. A neutral beam system is shown. Main development work on negative ion beamlines has focused on the difficult problem of the production of high current sources. The development of a 30 keV-1 ampere multisecond source module is close to being accomplished. In electromagnetic heating, the launcher, which provides the means of coupling the power to the plasma, is most important. The status of heating development is reviewed. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), lower hybrid heating (HHH), and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are reviewed.

  7. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  9. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Atmospheric Heat Budget shows where the atmospheric heat energy comes from and where it goes. Practically all this energy ultimately comes from the sun in the form of the ...

  10. ARM - Heat Index Calculations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Heat Index Calculations Heat Index is an index that ...

  11. Electron Heat Transport Measured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Transport Measured in a Stochastic Magnetic Field T. M. Biewer, * C. B. Forest, ... limit of s &29; 1, RR assumed the electron heat flux to be diffusive, obeying Fourier's ...

  12. Heat Management Strategy Trade Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

    2009-09-01

    This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

  13. Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys and Coatings for Die inserts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Heat Checking and ...

  14. Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used ...

  15. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  16. Halide and Oxy-halide Eutectic Systems for High Performance High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Halide and Oxy-halide Eutectic Systems for High Performance High Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids Halide and Oxy-halide Eutectic Systems for High Performance High Temperature Heat ...

  17. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  18. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  19. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Hansen, Leif J.; Evans, David B.

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  20. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  1. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to $2.97 per gallon. That's down $1.05 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.94 per gallon, down 6.7 cents from last week, and down $1.07

  2. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to $2.91 per gallon. That's down $1.10 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.88 per gallon, down 6.8 cents from last week, and down $1.13

  3. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to $2.84 per gallon. That's down $1.22 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.80 per gallon, down 7.4 cents from last week, and down $1.23

  4. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.1 cents from a week ago to $2.89 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.84 per gallon, down 5.4 cents from last week

  5. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to $3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.01 per gallon, down 3.6 cents from last week, and down $1.01

  6. MA HEAT Loan Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

  7. Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes have been investigated. Economic studies of the use of heat-pipe based recuperators in industrial furnaces have been conducted and payback periods determined as a function of material, fabrication, and installation cost.

  8. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  9. HEAT TRANSFER MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

    1961-07-11

    A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

  10. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery .......................................................................................... 2 5 1.2. Challenges and Barriers for Waste Heat Recovery ..................................................................... 13 6 1.3. Public

  11. Smart Grid Week: Hurricane Season and the Department's Efforts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Week: Hurricane Season and the Department's Efforts to Make the Grid More Resilient to Power Outages Smart Grid Week: Hurricane Season and the Department's Efforts to Make the Grid ...

  12. Reduce Waste and Save Energy this Holiday Season | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reduce Waste and Save Energy this Holiday Season Reduce Waste and Save Energy this Holiday Season December 5, 2014 - 9:55am Addthis Wrap your gifts with recycled paper to reduce ...

  13. Multi-function fuel-fired heat pump CRADA

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    date: 01-Oct-2010 Planned end date: 30-Sept-2015 Key ... heating 4) 1 to 2 kW electricity generation capability ... performance * electric consumption * gas consumption * ...

  14. Analysis & Tools to Spur Increased Deployment of " Waste Heat...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    largest community-owned electric utility that has created the Nation's top performing renewable energy program, and ClimateMaster, a leading manufacturer of geothermal heat pumps,...

  15. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air Conditioning Research Institute A directory listing air conditioning and heat pump products that meet energy performance tiers established by the Consortium for Energy...

  16. Estimated Maintenance Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contract at Fort Polk, LA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimated Maintenance Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump Energy Savings Performance Contract at ...

  17. Cooling, Heating, and Power for Commercial Buildings - Benefits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings - Benefits Analysis, April 2002 Cooling, Heating, and Power for Commercial Buildings - Benefits Analysis, April 2002 In this paper, an analysis was performed ...

  18. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.; Pourpoint, Timothee L.; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used. The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters are varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each heat exchanger are identified by finding the conditions over which the heat removal from the solid bed enables a complete and continuous hydriding reaction. The most efficient solution is a design example that achieves the target effectiveness of 95%.

  19. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.; Pourpoint, Timothee L.; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used. The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters aremore » varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each heat exchanger are identified by finding the conditions over which the heat removal from the solid bed enables a complete and continuous hydriding reaction. The most efficient solution is a design example that achieves the target effectiveness of 95%.« less

  20. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1993-05-01

    During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  1. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1990/91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  2. February most likely month for flu season to peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February most likely month for flu season to peak February most likely month for flu season to peak The Los Alamos team's model is an ongoing research project that forecasts the current flu season probabilistically, similar to best-practice forecasts of weather, presidential elections, and sporting events. December 20, 2015 The Los Alamos team's model is an ongoing research project that forecasts the current flu season probabilistically, similar to best-practice forecasts of weather,

  3. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  4. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for ...

  6. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    defined as geothermal heat pump unit with all the necessary functional components, except for installation materials. These include geothermal heat pump, air handler, heat ...

  7. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  8. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  9. Heat recovery casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawn, J.

    1980-10-01

    Plants and factories could apply a great variety of sources and uses for valuable waste heat. Applications may be evaluated on the basis of real use for a specific waste heat, high-enough temperature and quality of work, and feasibility of mechanical heat transfer method. Classification may be by temperature, application, heat-transfer equipment, etc. Many buildings and industrial processes lend themselves well to heat-recovery strategies. Five case histories describe successful systems used by the Continental Corporation Data Center; Nabisco, Inc.; Kasper Foundry Company; Seven Up Bottling Company of Indiana; and Lehr Precision Tool company. (DCK)

  10. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  11. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...

  12. Heat pump apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A.; Horowitz, Jeffrey S.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  13. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  14. Radial Flow Bearing Heat Exchanger | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radial Flow Bearing Heat Exchanger Radial Flow Bearing Heat Exchanger Sandia's Radial Flow Heat Exchanger Sandia's Radial Flow Heat Exchanger Lead Performer: Sandia National Laboratories - Albuquerque, NM Partners: -- Tribologix - Golden, CO -- United Technologies Research Center - East Hartford, CT -- University of Maryland - College Park, MD -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Whirlpool - Benton Harbor, MI -- Optimized Thermal Systems - College Park, MD DOE Funding: $5,472,285

  15. Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool Fact Sheet | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Assessment and Survey Tool Fact Sheet Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool Fact Sheet This fact sheet describes how industrial plants can improve their process heating system performance using AMO's Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) PHAST Fact Sheet (714.05 KB) More Documents & Publications Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) Introduction Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity Reduce Air Infiltration in

  16. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ARI-320 Water-Source Heat Pumps 10 ARI-325 Ground Water-Source Heat Pumps 13 ARI-330 Ground Source Closed-Loop Heat Pumps 11 ARI-870 Direct Geoexhange Heat Pumps 2 Other Non-ARI ...

  17. Cold Climates Heat Pump Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Heat pumps provide an efficient heating method; however they suffer from sever capacity and performance degradation at low ambient conditions. This has deterred market penetration in cold climates. There is a continuing effort to find an efficient air source cold climate heat pump that maintains acceptable capacity and performance at low ambient conditions. Systematic optimization techniques provide a reliable approach for the design of such systems. This paper presents a step-by-step approach for the design optimization of cold climate heat pumps. We first start by describing the optimization problem: objective function, constraints, and design space. Then we illustrate how to perform this design optimization using an open source publically available optimization toolbox. The response of the heat pump design was evaluated using a validated component based vapor compression model. This model was treated as a black box model within the optimization framework. Optimum designs for different system configurations are presented. These optimum results were further analyzed to understand the performance tradeoff and selection criteria. The paper ends with a discussion on the use of systematic optimization for the cold climate heat pump design.

  18. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  19. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1977-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  20. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  1. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool Home Heating Systems Heat Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto...

  2. Replacing Resistance Heating with Mini-Split Heat Pumps, Sharon, Connecticut (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  3. Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases -

  4. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  5. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  6. Heat storage duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

  7. Hydride heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

  8. Wood and Pellet Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Looking for an efficient, renewable way to heat your home? Wood or pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood and pellet stoves are efficient heaters.

  9. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  10. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2011-06-28

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  11. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    12 1 18 (*) 2 1 Q 6 Buildings without Cooling ... 30 1 (*) 4 (*) 14 (*) 4 (*) 1 6 Water-Heating Energy Source Electricity ... 402 21 57 42...

  12. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  13. New Mexico Heat Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    This is an updated and simplified version of the New Mexico heat flow data already on the NGDS that was used for Play Fairway analysis.

  14. Heat rejection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tokarz, Richard D.; Parry, Jr., Harvey L.; Braun, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  15. Ductless Heat Pumps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  16. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  17. Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Systems Geothermal Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Watch how geothermal heat ... As with any heat pump, geothermal and water-source heat pumps are able to heat, cool, and, ...

  18. Field Monitoring Protocol: Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Tomerlin, J.; Winkler, J.; Hancock, E.

    2011-03-01

    The report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential Mini-Split Heat Pump. It will be used in high-performance retrofit applications, and as part of DOE's Building America residential research program.

  19. Field Monitoring Protocol. Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Dane; Fang, Xia; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon; Hancock, E.

    2011-03-01

    This Building America program report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential mini-split heat pump, which will be used in high-performance retrofit applications.

  20. Dynamic simulation models and performance of an OTEC power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wormley, D.N.; Carmichael, D.A.; Umans, S.

    1983-08-01

    In this study, the aspects of plant performance which influence the potential for integration of an OTEC plant into a utility grid are considered. A set of simulation models have been developed for the evaluation of OTEC dynamic plant performance. A detailed nonlinear dynamic model has been forumlated which is useful for the assessment of component performance including heat exchangers, turbines, pumps and control systems. A reduced order linear model has been developed which is useful for studies of plant stability, control system development and transient performance of the plant connected to a utility grid. This model is particularly suitable for transient dynamic studies of an OTEC plant as a unit in a utility grid. A quasi-steady power availability model has also been developed which is useful to determine plant ouput power as a function of ocean thermal gradients so that the influence of daily and seasonal temperature variations may be easily computed. The study has found no fundamental technical barriers which would prohibit the interconnection of an OTEC plant into a utility grid. It has also shown that detailed consideration of turbine nozzle angle control is merited and such a control has the potential to provide superior performance in comparison to turbine bypass valve control.

  1. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

    1992-03-24

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

  2. Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1 Combined Heat and Power overview ........................................................................................... 2 5 1.2 Benefits of CHP for the Nation ...................................................................................................... 4 6 1.3 Benefits of CHP for

  3. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  4. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  5. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  6. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  7. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  8. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonde, Wayne L.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

  9. Geothermal Heat Pumps - Heating Mode | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Mode Geothermal Heat Pumps - Heating Mode In winter, fluid passing through this vertical, closed loop system is warmed by the heat of the earth; this heat is then transferred to the building. Heating Mode Animated Slide (PowerPoint 493 KB) Note: To view this animation in PowerPoint use 'Slide Show' mode. Simple illustration showing the transfer of heat from the ground to a building space to provide space heating. Simple illustration showing the transfer of heat from the ground to a

  10. Solar heating panel arrangement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, M.K.

    1983-07-12

    A solar heating panel arrangement and method are disclosed wherein a plurality of spherical lenses transmit and focus solar radiation onto the upper surface of a fluid passage for various relative positions of the sun. The upper surface of the passage is in heat transfer proximity to the fluid therein, causing solar radiation focused thereon to be transferred to the fluid in the form of heat. Solar radiation not directly incident on the lenses may be reflected onto them to increase the amount of solar energy available for transfer to the fluid. A supplementary insulating flow of fluid may also be provided above the passage to absorb heat passing upwardly therefrom and retain the heat within the system.

  11. Improved solar heating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  12. Solar heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  13. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a Knudsen heat capacity as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  14. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  15. Visual investigation on the heat dissipation process of a heat sink by using digital holographic interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Bingjing; Zhao, Jianlin Wang, Jun; Di, Jianglei; Chen, Xin; Liu, Junjiang

    2013-11-21

    We present a method for visually and quantitatively investigating the heat dissipation process of plate-fin heat sinks by using digital holographic interferometry. A series of phase change maps reflecting the temperature distribution and variation trend of the air field surrounding heat sink during the heat dissipation process are numerically reconstructed based on double-exposure holographic interferometry. According to the phase unwrapping algorithm and the derived relationship between temperature and phase change of the detection beam, the full-field temperature distributions are quantitatively obtained with a reasonably high measurement accuracy. And then the impact of heat sink's channel width on the heat dissipation performance in the case of natural convection is analyzed. In addition, a comparison between simulation and experiment results is given to verify the reliability of this method. The experiment results certify the feasibility and validity of the presented method in full-field, dynamical, and quantitative measurement of the air field temperature distribution, which provides a basis for analyzing the heat dissipation performance of plate-fin heat sinks.

  16. Stirling heat pump external heat systems: An appliance perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Thomas, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    A major issue facing the Stirling Engine Heat Pump is system cost, and, in particular, the cost of the External Heat System (EHS). The need for high temperature at the heater head (600{degree}C to 700{degree}C) results in low combustion system efficiencies unless efficient heat recovery is employed. The balance between energy efficiency and use of costly high temperature materials is critical to design and cost optimization. Blower power consumption and NO{sub x} emissions are also important. A new approach to the design and cost optimization of the EHS system was taken by viewing the system from a natural gas-fired appliance perspective. To develop a design acceptable to gas industry requirements, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) code considerations were incorporated into the design process and material selections. A parametric engineering design and cost model was developed to perform the analysis, including the impact of design on NO{sub x} emissions. Analysis results and recommended EHS design and material choices are given.

  17. Stirling heat pump external heat systems: An appliance perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilakis, A.D. ); Thomas, J.F. )

    1992-01-01

    A major issue facing the Stirling Engine Heat Pump is system cost, and, in particular, the cost of the External Heat System (EHS). The need for high temperature at the heater head (600{degree}C to 700{degree}C) results in low combustion system efficiencies unless efficient heat recovery is employed. The balance between energy efficiency and use of costly high temperature materials is critical to design and cost optimization. Blower power consumption and NO{sub x} emissions are also important. A new approach to the design and cost optimization of the EHS system was taken by viewing the system from a natural gas-fired appliance perspective. To develop a design acceptable to gas industry requirements, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) code considerations were incorporated into the design process and material selections. A parametric engineering design and cost model was developed to perform the analysis, including the impact of design on NO{sub x} emissions. Analysis results and recommended EHS design and material choices are given.

  18. Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corrective Measures Analysis > Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures Released: June 4, 2010 Download Full Report (PDF) This special report examines an underlying cause of the seasonal pattern in the balancing item published in the Natural Gas Monthly. Research finds that a significant portion of data collected on EIA’s primary monthly natural gas

  19. Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-12-03

    A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.

  20. Building America Webinar: New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat Pumps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Study: Resistance is Futile | Department of Energy New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat Pumps Study: Resistance is Futile Building America Webinar: New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat Pumps Study: Resistance is Futile This webinar will focus on the use of ductless heat pumps (DHP) as a hybrid "all-electric" heating system in new high-performance homes. In a DHP/hybrid heating system, the DHP fan coil is located in the main living area in combination with electric resistance zone

  1. Building America Webinar: New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat Pumps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Study: Resistance is Futile | Department of Energy New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat Pumps Study: Resistance is Futile Building America Webinar: New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat Pumps Study: Resistance is Futile This webinar on June 24, 2015, focused on the use of ductless heat pumps (DHP) as a hybrid "all-electric" heating system in new high-performance homes. In a DHP/hybrid heating system, the DHP fan coil is located in the main living area in combination with electric

  2. Radiant Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Systems » Radiant Heating Radiant Heating In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. Radiant heating systems supply heat directly to the floor or to panels in the wall or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer -- the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and

  3. Department of Energy Prepares for Hurricane Season | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is taking to prepare for hurricane season in the United States. ... the Gulf of Mexico and refineries along the shore. ... oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve available for ...

  4. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor’s Seasonal Fluctuations, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, June 7, 2012.

  5. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program ...

  6. BPA revises policy for managing seasonal power oversupply

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    policy-for-managing-seasonal-power-oversupply Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects...

  7. Computer simulation of heat transfer from earth sheltered structures: A comparison of varying levels of earth sheltering in five different climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meixel, G.D.

    1980-12-01

    Computer predictions of the HVAC energy consumption for single story office buildings with varying levels of earth-sheltering indicate that significant energy savings are possible with fully-bermed and bermed-and-covered configurations. As shown by the computer analysis, increased earth-sheltering reduced uncontrolled infiltration; improved the thermal performance of the walls, roof, and floor; and located the windows for more favorable passive solar gain. For example, 50% reductions in winter heating energy for Boston occurred with the fully-bermed and the bermed-and-covered configuration. Earth-sheltering also significantly reduced the predicted peak heating and cooling loads. The Boston heating season showed the most favorable response with the fully-covered office building having a peak heating load only 35% of that for the above-grade configuration. In Manila the predicted peak cooling load for the fully-covered building is 63% of that for the slab-on-grade configuration. Details of the impact of earth-sheltering on the single story office building model are presented for each of the five locations.

  8. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar...

  9. Integrating preconcentrator heat controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchier, Francis A.; Arakaki, Lester H.; Varley, Eric S.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

  10. Micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  11. Computational model of miniature pulsating heat pipes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Mario J.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The modeling work described herein represents Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) portion of a collaborative three-year project with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) and the University of Missouri to develop an advanced, thermal ground-plane (TGP), which is a device, of planar configuration, that delivers heat from a source to an ambient environment with high efficiency. Work at all three institutions was funded by DARPA/MTO; Sandia was funded under DARPA/MTO project number 015070924. This is the final report on this project for SNL. This report presents a numerical model of a pulsating heat pipe, a device employing a two phase (liquid and its vapor) working fluid confined in a closed loop channel etched/milled into a serpentine configuration in a solid metal plate. The device delivers heat from an evaporator (hot zone) to a condenser (cold zone). This new model includes key physical processes important to the operation of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (e.g. dynamic bubble nucleation, evaporation and condensation), together with conjugate heat transfer with the solid portion of the device. The model qualitatively and quantitatively predicts performance characteristics and metrics, which was demonstrated by favorable comparisons with experimental results on similar configurations. Application of the model also corroborated many previous performance observations with respect to key parameters such as heat load, fill ratio and orientation.

  12. Technical evaluation of a solar heating system having conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    A simple innovative solar heating design (Solar Option One) using conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab was constructed. An objective of hybrid solar design is to combine the relative advantages of active and passive design approaches while minimizing their respective disadvantages. A test house using the Solar Option One heating system was experimentally monitored to determine its energy based performance during the 1982-83 heating season. The test residence is located in Lyndonville, Vermont, an area which has a characteristically cold and cloudy climate. The two story residence has a floor area of about 1400 square feet and is constructed on a 720 square foot 5.5 inch thick floor slab. A 24 inch packed gravel bed is located beneath the slab and the slab-gravel bed is insulated by two inches of polystyrene insulation. The test building is of frame construction and uses insulation levels which have become commonplace throughout the country. The structure would not fall into the superinsulated category but was tightly constructed so as to have a low infiltration level. The building is sun-tempered in that windows were concentrated somewhat on the South side and all but avoided on the North. A solar greenhouse on the South side of the building was closed off from the structure permanently throughout the testing so as to better observe the solar heating invention without confounding variables. The monitoring equipment generated an internal gain of about 17,000 BTUs per day, roughly the equivalent of occupancy by two persons. A full description of the experimental testing program is given. System efficiency and performance are reported.

  13. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  14. Stirling engine heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

    1988-06-28

    A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

  15. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    versus mini-splits being used in high performance (high R value enclosurelow air leakage) houses, often configured as a simplified distribution system (one heat source per floor). ...

  16. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time: ...

  17. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture ... Contact: John Hules, JAHules@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 6008 2011-01-11-Heat-Battery.jpg A ...

  18. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Water Heating September 2, 2015 - 11:07am Addthis Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo...

  19. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe ...

  20. Radiant Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radiant heating systems supply heat directly to the floor or to ... of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and ... wood-fired boilers, solar water heaters, or a combination ...

  1. Renewable Heat NY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    NOTE: On August 2015, NYSERDA increased the incentive levels for technologies offered under the Renewable Heat NY program. In general, new incentives fund up to 45% of the total project cost, which...

  2. Passive solar heating analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, R.W.; Mc Farland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses about the design of solar heating systems. The terms and symbols are clearly defined. Step-by-step procedures are indicated. Worked examples are given with tables, graphs, appendixes.

  3. HEAT TRANSFER METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.

    1960-08-30

    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  4. Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

    2008-07-01

    Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

  5. Heat exchanger restart evaluation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-03-18

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein.

  6. Design of panel heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohle, J.; Klan, H.

    2000-07-01

    Panel heating and cooling systems use controlled temperature surfaces in the floor, walls, or ceiling of a conditioned space. The temperature is maintained by a circulating fluid through a circuit embedded in the panel. Heat transfer occurs by radiation and convection to or from a room. The performance of these systems may be determined by design calculations or testing. Thermal testing and system analysis by experiments are costly and inefficient. For different closed panel systems, finite element-based models and programs were developed by which temperature distribution in the construction, interdependence between performance and mean carrier fluid temperature, panel surface temperature, and room temperature can be calculated. One single power function product of all relevant parameters has been derived as an algorithm for performance calculations of panel heating and cooling systems, which can be adapted for other systems. Findings have been verified by experiment for floor heating panels with best results. These basic equations provided the design standards for German Standard DIN 4725, ''Thermal Output of Floor Heating'', which has been adopted as European Standard EN 1264. Finite element method calculation results were also compared with results from design calculations based on the ASHRAE method.

  7. Heat exchange apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  8. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

    1985-01-01

    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  9. Freezable heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M.; Sanzi, James L.

    1981-02-03

    A heat pipe whose fluid can be repeatedly frozen and thawed without damage to the casing. An additional part is added to a conventional heat pipe. This addition is a simple porous structure, such as a cylinder, self-supporting and free standing, which is dimensioned with its diameter not spanning the inside transverse dimension of the casing, and with its length surpassing the depth of maximum liquid.

  10. Cold Climate Heat Pumps Using Tandem Compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D

    2016-01-01

    In cold climate zones, e.g. ASHRAE climate regions IV and V, conventional electric air-source heat pumps (ASHP) do not work well, due to high compressor discharge temperatures, large pressure ratios and inadequate heating capacities at low ambient temperatures. Consequently, significant use of auxiliary strip heating is required to meet the building heating load. We introduce innovative ASHP technologies as part of continuing efforts to eliminate auxiliary strip heat use and maximize heating COP with acceptable cost-effectiveness and reliability. These innovative ASHP were developed using tandem compressors, which are capable of augmenting heating capacity at low temperatures and maintain superior part-load operation efficiency at moderate temperatures. Two options of tandem compressors were studied; the first employs two identical, single-speed compressors, and the second employs two identical, vapor-injection compressors. The investigations were based on system modeling and laboratory evaluation. Both designs have successfully met the performance criteria. Laboratory evaluation showed that the tandem, single-speed compressor ASHP system is able to achieve heating COP = 4.2 at 47 F (8.3 C), COP = 2.9 at 17 F (-8.3 C), and 76% rated capacity and COP = 1.9 at -13 F (-25 C). This yields a HSPF = 11.0 (per AHRI 210/240). The tandem, vapor-injection ASHP is able to reach heating COP = 4.4 at 47 F, COP = 3.1 at 17 F, and 88% rated capacity and COP = 2.0 at -13 F. This yields a HSPF = 12.0. The system modeling and further laboratory evaluation are presented in the paper.

  11. District heating strategy model: community manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  12. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  13. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  14. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  15. Roadmap for Process Heating Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Glass * Metal (ferrous and non- ferrous * Resin and plastic * Heat forming * Thermal forming * Paint and organic ... process heating into the Industries of the Future framework. ...

  16. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Type of Activity 2008 2009 Geothermal Heat Pump or System Design 17 17 Prototype Geothermal Heat Pump Development 12 13 Prototype Systems Geothermal Development 5 7 Wholesale ...

  17. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you want an energy-efficient way to heat your swimming pool, consider using a heat pump pool heater in mild climates.

  18. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  19. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Geothermal heat pump shipments by origin, 2008 and 2009 (rated capacity in tons) Origin ... Administration (EIA), Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey

  20. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 Geothermal heat pump domestic shipments by customer type, 2008 and 2009 (rated capacity ... Administration (EIA), Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey

  1. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Geothermal heat pump domestic shipments by sector and model type, 2009 (rated capacity ... Administration (EIA), Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey

  2. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Geothermal heat pump shipments by model type, 2000 - 2009 (number of units) ARI-320 ... Administration (EIA), Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

  3. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Rated capacity of geothermal heat pump shipments by model type, 2000 - 2009 (tons) ARI-320 ... Administration (EIA), Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

  4. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change

  5. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY14Q4 Quad Chart

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Q4: Charles E. Andraka * Heat pipe advanced wick development * Performance testing completed on both heat pipe wicks. Both met throughput requirements * Long term testing initiated...

  6. Secondary Heat Exchanger Design and Comparison for Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush; Michael McKellar; Michael Patterson; Eung Soo Kim

    2012-06-01

    The goals of next generation nuclear reactors, such as the high temperature gas-cooled reactor and advance high temperature reactor (AHTR), are to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology, giving rise to the following study. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more efficient conversion cycles, such as the Rankine super critical and subcritical cycles. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers—helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger—as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with the following three different options: (1) A single heat exchanger transfers all the heat (3,400 MW(t)) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants; (2) Two heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants, each exchanger transfers 1,700 MW(t) with a parallel configuration; and (3) Three heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants. Each heat exchanger transfers 1,130 MW(t) with a parallel configuration. A preliminary cost comparison will be provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations.

  7. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  8. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2012-07-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  9. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2015-03-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  10. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2015-12-08

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  11. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of the Gap Heat Transfer Model in BISON.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Schmidt, Rodney C.; Williamson, Richard; Perez, Danielle

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes the result of a NEAMS project focused on sensitivity analysis of the heat transfer model in the gap between the fuel rod and the cladding used in the BISON fuel performance code of Idaho National Laboratory. Using the gap heat transfer models in BISON, the sensitivity of the modeling parameters and the associated responses is investigated. The study results in a quantitative assessment of the role of various parameters in the analysis of gap heat transfer in nuclear fuel.

  13. Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California, September 2008 | Department of Energy Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California, September 2008 Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California, September 2008 This 2008 report analyzes the economic and environmental performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems in power interruption intolerant commercial facilities in California.Through a series of three case studies, key trade-offs are analyzed with regard to the

  14. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Presents successful incorporation of one of the most promising classes of the new materials, the skutterudites, into a working automotive TEG prototype and test results on its performance deer11_meisner.pdf (1.17 MB) More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Develop Thermoelectric

  15. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: A.O. Smith Inc. - Milwaukee, WI DOE Funding: $2,000,000 Cost Share: Provided by CRADA partners Project Term: October 1, 2013 - September 30, 2016 Project Objective The objective of this project is to develop a gas-fired absorption heat pump water heater for the commercial

  16. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2014-01-01

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer

  17. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  18. Semi volatile organic compounds in ambient PM2.5. Seasonal trends and daily resolved source contributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juergen Schnelle-Kreis; Martin Sklorz; Juergen Orasche; Matthias Stoelzel; Annette Peters; Ralf Zimmermann

    2007-06-01

    Concentrations of ambient semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the PM2.5 fraction of Augsburg, Germany, have been monitored on a daily basis from January 2003 through December 2004. Samples were taken in a large garden in the city center. Quantitative analysis of n-alkanes, alkanones, alkanoic acid methylesters, long chain linear alkyl benzenes and toluenes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxidized PAH, and some abietan type diterpenes was done. All compounds showed distinct seasonal variations in concentration. Most compounds showed highest concentrations during the cold seasons, but some n-alkanones and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecanone showed maximum concentration during summer. Changes in patterns between and within compound classes were obvious, e.g., the hopane pattern exhibited a strong seasonal variation. The main source related contributions to changes observed were discussed. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) for the statistical investigation of the data set, five factors have been separated. These factors are dominated by the pattern of single sources or groups of similar sources: factor 1, lubricating oil; factor 2, emissions of unburned diesel and heating oil consumption; factor 3, wood combustion; factor 4, brown coal combustion; and factor 5, biogenic emissions and transport components. Like the SVOC, the factors showed strong seasonality with highest values in winter for factors 1-4 and in summer for factor 5. 56 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heaters | Department of Energy Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters heat_pump_water_heater_testing.pdf (565.45 KB) More Documents & Publications Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid

  20. Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pumps Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pumps Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pumps Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: -- ASHRAE - Atlanta, GA -- Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) - Arlington, VA DOE Funding: $960,000 Project Term: October 2011 - September 2015 Project Objective HVAC and water heating services to U.S. buildings are responsible for about 56% of all residential