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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Superinsulation in refrigerators and freezers  

SciTech Connect

The results presented here were obtained during Phase 4 of the first CRADA, which had the specific objective of determining the lifetime of superinsulations when installed in simulated refrigerator doors. The second CRADA was established to evaluate and test design concepts proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption in a refrigerator-freezer that is representative of approximately 60% of the US market. The stated goal of this CRADA is to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50%, the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 L) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translates to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research is to facilitate the introduction of efficient appliances by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. In previous work on this project, a Phase 1 prototype refrigerator-freezer achieved an energy consumption of 1.413 kWh/d [Vineyard, et al., 1995]. Following discussions with an advisory group comprised of all the major refrigerator-freezer manufacturers, several options were considered for the Phase 2 effort, one of which was cabinet heat load reductions.

Vineyard, E.; Stovall, T.K.; Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, K.W.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

DOE Resolves Avanti Refrigerator and Freezer Civil Penalty Case  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Today, the Department of Energy announced that it has resolved thecivil penalty action against Mackle Company for its failure to certify that refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers sold under the...

3

Removing Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers after Food has Spoiled  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If food has spoiled in a refrigerator or freezer because of a power outage or some other reason, undesirable odors can result. This publication explains how to eliminate odors from these appliances.

FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

Experimental and cost analyses of a one kilowatt-hour/day domestic refrigerator-freezer  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years, government regulations for energy standards, coupled with the utility industry`s promotion of energy-efficient appliances, have prompted appliance manufacturers to reduce energy consumption in refrigerator-freezers by approximately 40%. Global concerns over ozone depletion have also required the appliance industry to eliminate CFC-12 and CFC-11 while concurrently improving energy efficiency to reduce greenhouse emissions. In response to expected future regulations that will be more stringent, several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed, domestic refrigerator-freezer. The options, such as cabinet and door insulation improvements and a high-efficiency compressor were incorporated into a prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinet and refrigeration system. Baseline energy consumption of the original 1996 production refrigerator-freezer, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. The goal for the project was to achieve an energy consumption that is 50% below in 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard for 20 ft{sup 3} (570 l) units. Based on discussions with manufacturers to determine the most promising energy-saving options, a laboratory prototype was fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the energy consumption of a unit with vacuum insulation around the freezer, increased door thicknesses, a high-efficiency compressor, a low wattage condenser fan, a larger counterflow evaporator, and adaptive defrost control.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Evaluation of design options for improving the energy efficiency of an environmentally safe domestic refrigerator-freezer  

SciTech Connect

In order to reduce greenhouse emissions from power plants and respond to regulatory actions arising from the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed, domestic refrigerator-freezer. The options, such as improved cabinet insulation and high-efficiency compressor and fans, were incorporated into a prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinet and refrigeration system to produce a unit that is superior from an environmental viewpoint due to its lower energy consumption and the use of refrigerant HFC-134a as a replacement for CFC-12. Baseline energy performance of the original 1993 production refrigerator-freezer, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. A detailed refrigerator system computer model was used to evaluate the energy savings for several design modifications that, collectively, could achieve a targeted energy consumption of 1.00 kWh/d for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 l) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. The energy consumption goal represents a 50% reduction in the 1993 NAECA standard for units of this size. Following the modeling simulation, laboratory prototypes were fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the analytical results and aid in improving the model in those areas where discrepancies occurred. While the 1.00 kWh/d goal was not achieved with the modifications, a substantial energy efficiency improvement of 22% (1.41 kWh/d) was demonstrated using near-term technologies. It is noted that each improvement exacts a penalty in terms of increased cost or system complexity/reliability. Further work on this project will analyze cost-effectiveness of the design changes and investigate alternative, more-elaborate, refrigeration system changes to further reduce energy consumption.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program: Analysis of residential refrigerator/freezer performance  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is conducting a large end-use data acquisition program in an effort to understand how energy is utilized in buildings with permanent electric space heating equipment in the Pacific Northwest. The initial portion of effort, known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), was conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The collection of detailed end-use data provided an opportunity to analyze the amount of energy consumed by both refrigerators and separate freezers units located in residential buildings. By obtaining this information, the uncertainty of long- term regional end-use forecasting can be improved and potential utility marketing programs for new appliances with a reduced overall energy demand can be identified. It was found that standby loads derived from hourly averages between 4 a.m. and 5 a.m. reflected the minimum consumption needed to maintain interior refrigerator temperatures at a steady-state condition. Next, an average 24-hour consumption that included cooling loads from door openings and cooling food items was also determined. Later, analyses were conducted to develop a model capable of predicting refrigerator standby loads and 24-hour consumption for comparison with national refrigerator label ratings. Data for 140 residential sites with a refrigeration end-use were screened to develop a sample of 119 residences with pure refrigeration for use in this analysis. To identify those refrigerators that were considered to be pure (having no other devices present on the circuit) in terms of their end-use classification, the screening procedure used a statistical clustering technique that was based on standby loads with 24-hour consumption. 5 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Ross, B.A.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Preliminary selection of refrigerants for dual-circuit and Lorenz refrigerator/freezers  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the preliminary selection of refrigerants for dual-circuit and Lorenz refrigerator/freezers (RFs). Since RFs currently use a fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) as a refrigerant and are the most energy-consuming appliances in most households in the U.S., EPA is concerned about not only RFs' effects on stratospheric ozone depletion but also their impact on the greenhouse effect. Reductions in power consumption will slow the increase in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations in the atmosphere by reducing the utility companies' need for capacity. CO{sub 2} concentrations are believed to be directly related to impacts of the greenhouse effect. For these reasons, EPA believes that finding the most energy-efficient refrigerant(s) and RF design is important when eliminating fully halogenated CFCs. Two new configurations (the dual-circuit and Lorenz RFs) appear to provide energy savings of up to 20% over standard U.S. RF designs.

Bare, J.C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Fridge of the future: Designing a one-kilowatt-hour/day domestic refrigerator-freezer  

SciTech Connect

An industry/government Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established to evaluate and test design concepts for a domestic refrigerator-freezer unit that represents approximately 60% of the US market. The goal of the CRADA was to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50 percent, the 1993 NAECA standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 I) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translated to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research was to facilitate the introduction of cost-efficient technologies by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. A 1996 model refrigerator-freezer was selected as the baseline unit for testing. Since the unit was required to meet the 1993 NAECA standards, the energy consumption was quite low (1.676 kWh/d), thus making further reductions in energy consumption very challenging. Among the energy saving features incorporated into the original design of the baseline unit were a low-wattage evaporator fan, increased insulation thicknesses, and liquid line flange heaters.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Advanced insulations for refrigerator/freezers: The potential for new shell designs incorporating polymer barrier construction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impending phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used to expand foam insulation, combined with requirements for increased energy efficiency, make the use of non-CFC-based high performance insulation technologies increasingly attractive. The majority of current efforts are directed at using advanced insulations in the form of thin, flat low-conductivity gas-filled or evacuated orthogonal panels, which we refer to as Advanced Insulation Panels (AIPs). AIPs can be used in composite with blown polymer foams to improve insulation performance in refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) of conventional design and manufacture. This AIP/foam composite approach is appealing because it appears to be a feasible, near-term method for incorporating advanced insulations into R/Fs without substantial redesign or retooling. However, the requirements for adequate flow of foam during the foam-in-place operation impose limitations on the allowable thickness and coverage area of AIPs. This report examines design alternatives which may offer a greater increase in overall thermal resistance than is possible with the use of AIP/foam composites in current R/F design. These design alternatives generally involve a basic redesign of the R/F taking into account the unique requirements of advanced insulations and the importance of minimizing thermal bridging with high thermal resistance insulations. The focus here is on R/F doors because they are relatively simple and independent R/F components and are therefore good candidates for development of alterative designs. R/F doors have significant thermal bridging problems due to the steel outer shell construction. A three dimensional finite difference computer modeling exercise of a R/F door geometry was used to compare the overall levels of thermal resistance (R-value) for various design configurations.

Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

BTRIC - Refrigerant testing heats up  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cases and three 12 foot freezer cases are in the indoor chamber, and their condenser and compressor rack are in the outdoor one. Plastic tubs filled with water simulate...

13

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These comments...

14

Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water easy. Since refrigeration equipment runs more than heat pumps, energy savings can be large for ground-coupled refrigeration. The paper presents a design procedure for ground loops for heat pumps, hot water, ice machines, and water-cooled refrigeration. It gives an overview of the commercial ground-coupled systems in Louisiana that have both refrigeration and heat pumps. Systems vary from small offices to a three-story office building with 187 tons. A chain of hamburger outlets uses total ground-coupling in all of its stores. A grocery store has ground-coupling for heat pumps and refrigeration. Desuperheaters provide 80 percent of the hot water for a coin laundry in the same building. A comparison of energy costs in a bank with a ground-coupled heat pump system to a similar bank with air-conditioning and gas for heat revealed a 31 percent reduction in utility costs for the ground-coupled building. Two buildings of the Mississippi Power and Light Co. have ground-coupled heat pumps in one, and high efficiency air source heat pumps in the other. Energy savings in nine months was 60,000 kWh (25 percent), and electric peak demand was reduced 42 kW (35 percent).

Braud, H. J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

Barclay, J.A.; Prenger, F.C. Jr.

1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

17

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe of pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Prenger, Jr., F. Coyne (Madison, WI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

19

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Refrigerant testing heats up | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cases and three 12-foot freezer cases are in the indoor chamber; and their condenser and compressor rack are in the outdoor one. Plastic tubs filled with water simulate...

22

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota) Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota) < Back...

23

Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation heat exchanger are found to result in large discrepancies with their own experimental data

Kandlikar, Satish

25

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

New Proposed Standards for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers to Lower Energy Use by as much as Twenty-Five Percent

26

Research of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle Heat Engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper firstly introduces the principles of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle solar power towers This heat engines use solar reservoire. When the refrigerant in an engine cylinder absorbs heat from high-temperature heat sources, refrigerant ... Keywords: refrigerant phase-change cycle, heat engines, finite-time thermodynamics

Dezhong Huang; Fuer Wu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

DOE/EA-1643: Finding of No Significant Impact for 10 CFR Part 431 Commerical Refrigeration Equipment (12/31/08)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator- Freezers without Doors; and Remote Condensing Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator-Freezers December 31, 2008 [6450-01-P] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 [Docket Number: EERE-2006-STD-OI26] RIN 1904-AB59 Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator- . Freezers without

32

DOE/EA-1643: Environmental Assessment for 10 CFR 431 Commercial Refrigeration Equipment (December 2008)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator- Freezers without Doors; and Remote Condensing Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator-Freezers December 2008 CHAPTER 16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS TABLE OF CONTENTS 16.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 16-1 16.2 AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................ 16-1

33

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Is this refrigerator model suitable for frozen vaccine storage? Freezer thermostat dial set to midpoint position: vaccine vial temperatures ...

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

34

Heat pump/refrigerator using liquid working fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat transfer device is described that can be operated as a heat pump or refrigerator, which utilizes a working fluid that is continuously in a liquid state and which has a high temperature-coefficient of expansion near room temperature, to provide a compact and high efficiency heat transfer device for relatively small temperature differences as are encountered in heating or cooling rooms or the like. The heat transfer device includes a pair of heat exchangers that may be coupled respectively to the outdoor and indoor environments, a regenerator connecting the two heat exchangers, a displacer that can move the liquid working fluid through the heat exchangers via the regenerator, and a means for alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the working fluid. The liquid working fluid enables efficient heat transfer in a compact unit, and leads to an explosion-proof smooth and quiet machine characteristic of hydraulics. The device enables efficient heat transfer as the indoor-outdoor temperature difference approaches zero, and enables simple conversion from heat pumping to refrigeration as by merely reversing the direction of a motor that powers the device.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Solana Beach, CA); Knight, William R. (Corvallis, OR); Warkentin, Paul A. (San Diego, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-acceptable refrigerants. Whether involving design of specific new products or refriger- ants to which the entire industryElectric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

36

New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

Brant, B.; Brueske, S. [Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Erickson, D.; Papar, R. [Energy Concepts Co., Annapolis, MD (United States)

1998-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

37

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat recovery system consists of a shell and tube heat exchanger (16"? x 14'0") installed in the compressor hot gas discharge line. Water is recirculated from a 23,000-gallon tempered water storage tank to the heat exchanger by a circulating pump at the rate of 100 gallons per minute. All make-up water to the plant hot water system is supplied from this tempered water storage tank, which is maintained at a constant filled level. Tests to determine the actual rate of heat recovery were conducted from October 3, 1979 to October 12, 1979, disclosing an average usage of 147,000 gallons of hot water daily. These tests illustrated a varied heat recovery of from 0.5 to 1.0 million BTU per hour. The deviations were the result of both changing refrigeration demands and compressor operating modes. An average of 16 million BTU per day was realized, resulting in reduced boiler fuel costs of $30,000 annually, based on the present $.80 per gallon #2 fuel oil price. At the total installed cost of $79,000, including test instrumentation, the project was found to be economically viable. The study has demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of refrigeration waste heat recovery as a positive energy conservation strategy which has broad applications in industry and commerce.

Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Influence of External Heat Source on Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic refrigerants such as CFCs and HCFCs are harmful to the ozone and could cause greenhouse effect. Refrigerant alternatives research is very urgent. CO2 as a natural working fluid has zero ODP and its GWP=1, is receiving more and more attention ... Keywords: Coefficient of Performance, Experimental Investigation, Heat Source, Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System

Liu Yingfu; Xiao Jian; Jin Guangya

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dealing with the terrace in rebuilt refrigerators influences the performance characteristics, performance safety and construction costs. This paper researches the heat transfer of the terrace of the rebuilt refrigerator by the numerical method, analyzes the temperature distribution of the terrace, and supplies guidance for rebuilding refrigerators.

Qu, C.; Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

42

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and2.5,+4.5) million non-vapor compression refrigerators inthe existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover,

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery  

SciTech Connect

An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

44

Control system for heat exchangers fans in a refrigeration system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents a method for controlling evaporator and condenser fans in a refrigeration system. The refrigeration system includes a refrigerant circuit defined by a compressor, a condenser, a throttling device, and an evaporator. The system includes ... Keywords: controlling, fan, refrigeration system, variable frequency drive unit

Cristian Iosifescu; Valeriu Damian; C?lin Ciufudean

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

46

Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

47

Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

48

Unique method for liquid nitrogen precooling of a plate fin heat exchanger in a helium refrigeration cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unique method for liquid nitrogen precooling of a plate fin heat exchanger in a helium refrigeration cycle

Weber, T B; Howell, G; Racine, M; Weisend, J G

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A continuous heat regenerative adsorption refrigerator using spiral plate heat exchanger as adsorbers: improvements  

SciTech Connect

Spiral plate heat exchangers as adsorbers have been proposed, and a prototype heat regenerative adsorption refrigerator using activated carbon-methanol pair has been developed and tested. Various improvements have been made, the authors get a specific cooling power for 2.6 kg-ice/day-kg adsorbent at the condition of generation temperature lower than 100 C. Discussions on the arrangements of thermal cycles and influences of design are shown.

Wang, R.Z.; Wu, J.Y.; Xu, Y.X. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). Inst. of Refrigeration and Cryogenics

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

COFELY Refrigeration | Rdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 CopyrightCOFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

©COFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten. Industrial Design #12;COFELY Refrigeration | Rüdiger Roth | European HeatCOFELY Refrigeration | Rüdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 Seite 1 Copyright©COFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten. #12;COFELY Refrigeration | Rüdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

51

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

52

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Comparing Variable Refrigerant Flow to Traditional Heating and Cooling Technologies: Assessing VRF Performance in Mobile, Alabama  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In America, most conditioned air is delivered by ductwork, which is often made of sheet metal covered in insulation and installed during construction. However, in Japan and Europe, because the office buildings often pre-date the invention of air conditioning, it is easier and more common for refrigerant pipes to run to wall- or ceiling-mounted heat exchangers. Using refrigerant pipes instead of ducting can eliminate duct loss and offer more precise control. Are Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) ...

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

54

Performance Assessment of a Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Air Conditioning System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) technology uses smart integrated controls, variable speed drives, and refrigerant piping to provide energy efficiency, flexible operation, ease of installation, low noise, zone control, and comfort through all-electric technology. This report describes and documents the construction, performance, and application of a heat pump air conditioning system that uses VRF technology8212the Daikin VRV system. This variable refrigerant volume (VRV) system is manufactured by Daikin I...

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

55

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that...

56

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) notice in the August 8, 2012 Federal Register...

57

IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

ANDREWS, J.W.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

VEA-0015 - In the Matter of Sub-Zero Freezer Co. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 - In the Matter of Sub-Zero Freezer Co. 5 - In the Matter of Sub-Zero Freezer Co. VEA-0015 - In the Matter of Sub-Zero Freezer Co. Sub-Zero Freezer Co. (Sub-Zero), GE Appliances (GE), and Whirlpool Corporation (Whirlpool) filed appeals of our November 3, 2000 decision, granting Viking Range Corporation (Viking) a six-month exception from the 2001 energy appliance efficiency standards for built-in refrigerators. Viking Range Corp., 28 DOE ¶ 81,002 (2000). As discussed below, we have granted the appeals in part. As a result, the six-month exception will be limited to 475 refrigerators per month and will be subject to a monthly reporting requirement. vea0015-16-17.pdf More Documents & Publications VEH-0015 - In the Matter of Sub-Zero Freezer Co. VEA-0017 - In the Matter of Whirlpool Corporation

59

Helium-Based Soundwave Chiller: Trillium: A Helium-Based Sonic Chiller- Tons of Freezing with 0 GWP Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Penn State is designing a freezer that substitutes the use of sound waves and environmentally benign refrigerant for synthetic refrigerants found in conventional freezers. Called a thermoacoustic chiller, the technology is based on the fact that the pressure oscillations in a sound wave result in temperature changes. Areas of higher pressure raise temperatures and areas of low pressure decrease temperatures. By carefully arranging a series of heat exchangers in a sound field, the chiller is able to isolate the hot and cold regions of the sound waves. Penn States chiller uses helium gas to replace synthetic refrigerants. Because helium does not burn, explode or combine with other chemicals, it is an environmentally-friendly alternative to other polluting refrigerants. Penn State is working to apply this technology on a large scale.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigeration processes (4 5) Vapor-compression refrigeration processes (4-5) Absorption refrigeration; Gas processing (O2, H2, CO2, LPG, LNG...) (3) Air conditioning, cooling towers, rg/pages/zon Air conditioning, cooling towers, food cooling and freezing (4) Heat pumps, heat pipes, special ww.sgisland.o p p

Zevenhoven, Ron

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The Effect of Circuiting Arrangement on the Thermal Performance of Refrigeration Mixtures in Tube-and-Fin Condensing Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect

For the pure or azeotropic refrigerants typically used in present air conditioning and refrigeration applications, the refrigerant changes phase at a constant temperature. Thus, the refrigerant circuiting arrangement such as crossfiow, counterfiow, or cross-counterflow, has no effect on the thermal performance. For zeotropic refrigerant mixtures, however, the phase-change occurs over a temperature range, or "glide", and the refrigerant circuiting arrangement, or flow path through the heat exchanger, can affect the thermal performance of both the heat exchangers as well as the overall efficiency of the vapor compression cooling cycle. The effects of tsvo diflerent circuiting arrangements on the thermal performance of a zeotropic retligerant mixture and an almost azeotropic refrigerant mixture in a four-row cross-countertlow heat exchanger arrangement are reported here. The two condensers differ only in the manner of circuiting the refrigerant tubes, where one has refrigerant always flowing downward in the active heat transfer region ("identical order") and the other has refrigerant alternating flow direction in the active heat transfer region ("inverted order"). All other geometric parameters, such as bce are% fin louver geometry, refrigerant tube size and enhancement etc., are the same for both heat exchangers. One refrigerant mixture (R-41OA) un&rgoes a small temperature change ("low glide") during phase change, and the other retligerant mixture (a multi- component proprietary mixture) has a substantial temperature change ("high glide") of approximately 10"C during the phase change process. The overall thermal conductance, two-phase conductance, and pressure drop are presented. For the flow conditions of these tests, which are representative of resi&ntial cooling conditions, inverted order circuiting is more desirable than identical order. The potential thermal advantages of the i&ntical order arrangement for high-glide zeotropic refrigerant mixtures are negated by the increased parasitic refrigerant-side pressure drop utiortunately resulting from tkbrication requirements of the identical order circuiting.

Chen, D.T.; Conklin, J.C.

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Effect of surface conditions on boiling heat transfer of refrigerants in shell-and-tube evaporators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental results are presented for the boiling heat transfer performance of R 22 and R 717 on surfaces with porous metallized coatings. A calculational-theoretical model is given for predicting the heat transfer of refrigerants boiling on a bundle of finned tubes.

Danilova, G.N.; Dyundin, V.A.; Borishanskaya, A.V.; Soloviyov, A.G.; Vol'nykh, Y.A.; Kozyrev, A.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources is under investigation in this paper. The proposed cycle combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle. The ejector is driven by the exhausts from the turbine to produce power and refrigeration simultaneously. A simulation was carried out to analyze the cycle performance using R245fa as the working fluid. A thermal efficiency of 34.1%, an effective efficiency of 18.7% and an exergy efficiency of 56.8% can be obtained at a generating temperature of 395 K, a condensing temperature of 298 K and an evaporating temperature of 280 K. Simulation results show that the proposed cycle has a big potential to produce refrigeration and most exergy losses take place in the ejector. (author)

Zheng, B.; Weng, Y.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Commercial Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-split heat pumps have evolved from a technology suitable for residential and light commercial buildings to variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems that can provide efficient space conditioning for large commercial buildings. VRF systems are enhanced versions of ductless multi-split systems, permitting more indoor units to be connected to each outdoor unit and providing additional features such as simultaneous heating and cooling and heat recovery. VRF systems are very popular in Asia and Europe and...

2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

65

VEH-0015 - In the Matter of Sub-Zero Freezer Co. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

VEH-0015 - In the Matter of Sub-Zero Freezer Co. VEH-0015 - In the Matter of Sub-Zero Freezer Co. VEH-0015 - In the Matter of Sub-Zero Freezer Co. Motion for Evidentiary Hearing Sub-Zero Freezer Co. (Sub-Zero) filed a motion for evidentiary hearing with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). The motion relates to Sub-Zero's appeal (Case No. VEA-0015) of our November 3 decision, in which we granted Viking Range Corporation (Viking) a six-month exception from the 2001 energy appliance efficiency standards for built-in refrigerators. Viking Range Corporation, 28 DOE ¶ 81,002 (2000). As discussed below, we have concluded that the motion should be granted in part. veh0015.pdf More Documents & Publications VEA-0015 - In the Matter of Sub-Zero Freezer Co. VEA-0016 - In the Matter of GE Appliances

66

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARD FOR REFRIGERATORS, REFRIGERATOR-  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARD FOR REFRIGERATORS, REFRIGERATOR- , AND FREEZERS - 1. INTRODUCTION AND NEED FOR PROPOSED ACTION ental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation stand licy Act. of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmentd Qu refrigerators, re€iigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National ' ederal Regulations, Parts 1500 through. 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy- efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Consehation Act

67

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigerator operate with propane as well as electricity? [freezer operate with propane as well as electricity? [cooler operate with propane as well as electricity? [

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

69

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

70

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Amarnath, M. Blatt, Variable refrigerant flow: where, why,simulation in the variable refrigerant flow air-conditioningsimulation of the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One Stage Compressor Heat Exchanger Refrigeration Load XBLOne Stage Compressor Heat Exchanger Refrigeration Load XBLcondensers, surface heat exchangers, surface condensers,

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps.

73

Direct Refrigeration from Heat Recovery Using 2-Stage Absorption Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although the cost of some fossil fuels has moderated, the importance of energy conservation by heat recovery has not diminished. The application of waste heat generated steam to produce chilled water is not new. However, there is a newly developed absorption chiller which can produce chilled water 44% more efficiently than the conventional single stage absorption chillers. The new 2-stage parallel flow system makes the chiller package more compact, more efficient, and easier to operate. Many types of waste heat, not just steam, can be used directly in this new chiller without the need for costly recovery and conversion systems.

Hufford, P. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) April 25, 2013 DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards. The Order adopted a Compromise Agreement, which reflected settlement terms between DOE and Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) More Documents & Publications Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355) Schott Gemtron: Order (2013-CE-5358

75

Membrane-Based Absorption Refrigeration Systems: Nanoengineered Membrane-Based Absorption Cooling for Buildings Using Unconcentrated Solar & Waste Heat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: UFL is improving a refrigeration system that uses low quality heat to provide the energy needed to drive cooling. This system, known as absorption refrigeration system (ARS), typically consists of large coils that transfer heat. Unfortunately, these large heat exchanger coils are responsible for bulkiness and high cost of ARS. UFL is using new materials as well as system design innovations to develop nanoengineered membranes to allow for enhanced heat exchange that reduces bulkiness. UFLs design allows for compact, cheaper and more reliable use of ARS that use solar or waste heat.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Stirling alternative. Power systems, refrigerants and heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

This book provides an up-to-date reference on the technology, history, and practical applications of Stirling engines, including recent developments in the field and a convenient survey of the Stirling engine literature. The topics of the book include: fundamentals of Stirling technology, definition and terminology, thermodynamic laws and cycles: some elementary considerations, the Stirling cycle, practical regenerative cycle, theoretical aspects and computer simulation of Stirling machines, mechanical arrangements, control systems, heat exchangers, performance characteristics, working fluids, applications of Stirling machines, advantages of Stirling machines, disadvantages of Stirling machines, Stirling versus internal combustion engines, Stirling versus Rankine engines, applications for Stirling machines, Stirling power systems, the literature and sources of supply, the literature of Stirling engines, and the literature of cryocoolers.

Walker, G.; Reader, G.; Fauvel, O.R.; Bingham, E.R. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Improving the energy efficiency of refrigerators in India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five state-of-the-art, production refrigerators from different manufacturers in India were subjected to a variety of appliance rating and performance evaluation test procedures in an engineering laboratory. Cabinet heat loss, compressor calorimeter, high-ambient pull-down, and closed-door energy consumption tests were performed on each unit to assess the current status of commercially available Indian refrigerators and refrigerator component efficiencies. Daily energy consumption tests were performed at nominal line voltages and at 85% and 115% of nominal voltage to assess the effect of grid voltage variations. These test results were also used to indicate opportunities for effective improvements in energy efficiency. A widely distributed ``generic`` computer model capable of simulating single-door refrigerators with a small interior freezer section was used to estimate cabinet heat loss rates and closed door energy consumption values from basic cabinet and refrigeration circuit inputs. This work helped verify the model`s accuracy and potential value as a tool for evaluating the energy impact of proposed design options. Significant differences ranging from 30 to 90% were seen in the measured performance criterion for these ``comparable`` refrigerators suggesting opportunities for improvements in individual product designs. Modeled cabinet heat loadings differed from experimentally extrapolated values in a range from 2--29%, and daily energy consumption values estimated by the model differed from laboratory data by as little as 3% or as much as 25%, which indicates that refinement of the model may be needed for this single-door refrigerator type. Additional comparisons of experimentally measured performance criteria such as % compressor run times and compressor cycling rates to modeled results are given. The computer model is used to evaluate the energy saving impact of several modest changes to the basic Indian refrigerator design.

Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Commercial Refrigerator Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5351)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

79

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations April 12, 2010 - 7:27pm Addthis The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. Under the subpoena, Arçelik A.S, a Turkish Company is required to submit detailed information about the design, marketing and U.S. sales of its Blomberg brand refrigerator-freezer, model "BRFB1450." The Department also requested testing data from Whirlpool Corporation and Viking Range Corporation for two refrigerator-freezers that the companies

80

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations April 12, 2010 - 7:27pm Addthis The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. Under the subpoena, Arçelik A.S, a Turkish Company is required to submit detailed information about the design, marketing and U.S. sales of its Blomberg brand refrigerator-freezer, model "BRFB1450." The Department also requested testing data from Whirlpool Corporation and Viking Range Corporation for two refrigerator-freezers that the companies

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

How refrigeration, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning service technicians learn from troubleshooting (Dissertation ABstract)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to understand how refrigeration, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (RHVAC) service technicians (techs) learned from troubleshooting. This understanding resulted in instructional and curricular strategies designed to help community colleges prepare vocational students to learn more effectively from informal workplace learning. RHVAC techs were studied because they increasingly learn their trade skills through a combination of formal schooling and informal workplace learning, though many still learn their trade almost exclusively in the workplace. Even those with formal training require considerable workplace experience to become fully competent. Troubleshooting is a major job function for RHVAC service techs, and troubleshooting

Denis F. H. Green

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household Surveys Speaker(s): Essel Ben Hagan Date: July 12, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Robert Van Buskirk Galen Barbose As part of activities to develop refrigerator efficiency standards regulations in Ghana, a national survey on the energy consumption of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers has been conducted. The survey covered 1000 households in urban, peri-urban and rural communities in various parts of the country. The survey found that, on average, refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers in Ghana use almost three times what is allowed by minimum efficiency standards in the U.S., and a few refrigerators had energy use at levels almost ten times the U.S.

83

Lighting Demonstrations in Defense Commissary Freezer Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Defense Commissary Freezer Systems New lighting technology reduces energy consumption while maintaining effective illumination The Defense Commissary Agency operates a...

84

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam single-effect absorption refrigeration, flue gas absorption refrigeration and hot water absorption refrigeration, etc. As a universal criterion, the COP coefficient cannot reflect the difference in availability of driving energy for different chillers. Exergy efficiency of optional chillers in CCHP system was analyzed and compared, which can be regarded as an important reference criterion in comparison of energy efficiency. Furthermore, a new index, relative electricity saving ratio, was put forward for evaluating end energy efficiency of all kinds of chillers in a CCHP system, which indicates actual energy or electricity saving ratio for different absorption chillers with various parameters in contrast to the reference electricity-driven refrigeration scheme.

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

86

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

89

Improvement of xenon purification system using a combination of a pulse tube refrigerator and a coaxial heat exchanger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a compact cryogenic system with a pulse tube refrigerator and a coaxial heat exchanger. This liquefaction-purification system not only saves the cooling power used to reach high gaseous recirculation rate, but also reduces the impurity level with high speed. The heat exchanger operates with an efficiency of 99%, which indicates the possibility for fast xenon gas recirculation in a highpressurized large-scale xenon storage with much less thermal losses.

Chen, Wan-Ting; Cussonneau, J -P; Donnard, J; Duval, S; Lemaire, O; Calloch, M Le; Ray, P Le; Mohamad-Hadi, A -F; Morteau, E; Oger, T; Scotto-Lavina, L; Stutzmann, J -S; Thers, D; Briend, P; Haruyama, T; Mihara, S; Tauchi, T

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

DOE Closes Investigation of Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator September 1, 2010 - 4:37pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Arcelik's Blomberg refrigerator-freezer model # BRFB1450. The Department opened this investigation based on a complaint. DOE subpoenaed information from Arcelik, reviewed Arcelik's response, and performed its own testing of this model. Based on our investigation and test results, DOE has determined this model to be compliant with federal energy conservation standards. Notice of Compliance Determination Addthis Related Articles DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator

91

Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A first-of-its-kind Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) was installed by Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc. in partnership with Energy Concepts Co. at Ultramar Diamond Shamrock's 30,000 barrel per day refinery in Denver, Colorado. The refrigeration unit is designed to provide refrigeration for two process units at the refinery while utilizing waste heat as the energy source. The added refrigeration capacity benefits the refinery by recovering salable products, debottlenecking process units, avoiding additional electrical demand, and reducing the refinery Energy Intensity Index. In addition, the WHAARP unit lowers air pollutant emissions by reducing excess fuel gas that is combusted in the refinery flare. A comprehensive utility and process efficiency Master Plan developed for the Denver refinery by Planetec provided the necessary platform for implementing this distinctive project. The $2.3 million WHAARP system was paid for in part by a $760,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of their "Industry of the Future Program". Total combined benefits are projected to be approximately $1 million/year with a 1.6 year simple payback including the grant funding.

Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

comparison of VAV and VRF air conditioning systems in anThe variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heatthe energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

2004-12 3-1 Conservation Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heating Lighting Lighting Refrigeration Refrigeration Freezer Clothes Dryer Clothes Dryer Dishwasher Cooking Cooking Air Condition ICE ICE Freezer Clothes Washer Clothes Washer Dishwasher Air Condition 0% 10

94

Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AHRI Comments - DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star AHRI Comments - DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star May 9, 2011 P a g e | 1 May 9, 2010 Ms. Ashley Armstrong U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 RE: DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star Dear Ms. Armstrong: I am writing on behalf of the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) to address the proposed DOE requirements for verification testing in support of the Energy Star program. AHRI is the trade association representing manufacturers of heating, cooling, and commercial refrigeration equipment. More than 300 members strong, AHRI is an internationally recognized advocate for the industry, and develops standards for and certifies the performance of many of the

95

Large HVAC Codes and Standards Update 2000: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents EPRI activities in the year 2000 related to building codes and standards. The following activities are covered: attendance at the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) meetings and participation in technical committee and subcommittee meetings related to ASHRAE Standard 90.l; review of relevant U.S Department of Energy (DOE) appliance standards; review of developments of other building energy code organizations; and participation in the E...

2000-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

96

Energy Use of Residential Refrigerators and Freezers: Function...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

These UAF functions were used to project energy use in the nearly 4,000 households in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), a statistical...

97

Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators  

SciTech Connect

This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

Swift, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

High temperature refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

Steyert, Jr., William A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Candidate chemical systems for air cooled, solar powered, absorption air conditioner design. Part II. Solid absorbents, high latent heat refrigerants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work done in attempting to qualify absorption refrigeration systems based on refrigerants with intermediate latent heats of vaporization is summarized. In practice, these comprise methanol, ammonia, and methylamine. A wide variety of organic substances, salts, and mixtures were evaluated in as systematic a manner as possible. Several systems of interest are described. The system, LiClO/sub 3/--LiBr--H/sub 2/O, is a good back up system to our first choice of an antifreeze additive system, and thermodynamically promising but subject to some inconvenient materials limitations. The system, LiBr/ZnBr/sub 2/--methanol, is thermodynamically promising but requires additional kinetic qualification. Chemical stability of the system, LiCNS--ammonia/methylamine with various other third components, does not appear to be adequate for a long-lived system.

Biermann, W. J.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Compare Energy Use in Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pumps Field Demonstration and Computer Model  

SciTech Connect

Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are often regarded as energy efficient air-conditioning systems which offer electricity savings as well as reduction in peak electric demand while providing improved individual zone setpoint control. One of the key advantages of VRF systems is minimal duct losses which provide significant reduction in energy use and duct space. However, there is limited data available to show their actual performance in the field. Since VRF systems are increasingly gaining market share in the US, it is highly desirable to have more actual field performance data of these systems. An effort was made in this direction to monitor VRF system performance over an extended period of time in a US national lab test facility. Due to increasing demand by the energy modeling community, an empirical model to simulate VRF systems was implemented in the building simulation program EnergyPlus. This paper presents the comparison of energy consumption as measured in the national lab and as predicted by the program. For increased accuracy in the comparison, a customized weather file was created by using measured outdoor temperature and relative humidity at the test facility. Other inputs to the model included building construction, VRF system model based on lab measured performance, occupancy of the building, lighting/plug loads, and thermostat set-points etc. Infiltration model inputs were adjusted in the beginning to tune the computer model and then subsequent field measurements were compared to the simulation results. Differences between the computer model results and actual field measurements are discussed. The computer generated VRF performance closely resembled the field measurements.

Sharma, Chandan; Raustad, Richard

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators September 28, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the release of a new proposed energy efficiency standard for residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. The standard, as proposed, could save consumers as much as $18.6 billion over thirty years. The Obama Administration has made efficiency standards a major priority as a way to save energy and money for American families and businesses. Since January 2009, the Department of Energy has finalized new efficiency standards for more than twenty household and commercial products, which will cumulatively save consumers between $250 billion and

102

Technical Subtopic 2.1: Modeling Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Equipment in EnergyPlus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Central Florida/Florida Solar Energy Center, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and several variable-refrigerant-flow heat pump (VRF HP) manufacturers, provided a detailed computer model for a VRF HP system in the United States Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) EnergyPlus? building energy simulation tool. Detailed laboratory testing and field demonstrations were performed to measure equipment performance and compare this performance to both the manufacturer's data and that predicted by the use of this new model through computer simulation. The project goal was to investigate the complex interactions of VRF HP systems from an HVAC system perspective, and explore the operational characteristics of this HVAC system type within a laboratory and real world building environment. Detailed laboratory testing of this advanced HVAC system provided invaluable performance information which does not currently exist in the form required for proper analysis and modeling. This information will also be useful for developing and/or supporting test standards for VRF HP systems. Field testing VRF HP systems also provided performance and operational information pertaining to installation, system configuration, and operational controls. Information collected from both laboratory and field tests were then used to create and validate the VRF HP system computer model which, in turn, provides architects, engineers, and building owners the confidence necessary to accurately and reliably perform building energy simulations. This new VRF HP model is available in the current public release version of DOE?s EnergyPlus software and can be used to investigate building energy use in both new and existing building stock. The general laboratory testing did not use the AHRI Standard 1230 test procedure and instead used an approach designed to measure the field installed full-load operating performance. This projects test methodology used the air enthalpy method where relevant air-side parameters were controlled while collecting output performance data at discreet points of steady-state operation. The primary metrics include system power consumption and zonal heating and cooling capacity. Using this test method, the measured total cooling capacity was somewhat lower than reported by the manufacturer. The measured power was found to be equal to or greater than the manufacturers indicated power. Heating capacity measurements produced similar results. The air-side performance metric was total cooling and heating energy since the computer model uses those same metrics as input to the model. Although the sensible and latent components of total cooling were measured, they are not described in this report. The test methodology set the thermostat set point temperature very low for cooling and very high for heating to measure full-load performance and was originally thought to provide the maximum available capacity. Manufacturers stated that this test method would not accurately measure performance of VRF systems which is now believed to be a true statement. Near the end of the project, an alternate test method was developed to better represent VRF system performance as if field installed. This method of test is preliminarily called the Load Based Method of Test where the load is fixed and the indoor conditions and unit operation are allowed to fluctuate. This test method was only briefly attempted in a laboratory setting but does show promise for future lab testing. Since variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps include an on-board control algorithm to modulate capacity, these systems are difficult to test. Manufacturers do have the ability to override internal components to accommodate certification procedures, however, it is unknown if the resulting operation is replicated in the field, or if so, how often. Other studies have shown that variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps do out perform their single-speed counterparts though these field studies leave as many questions as they do provide answers. The measure

Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Domitrovic, Ron

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

Loveland Water and Power - Refrigerator Recycling Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refrigerator Recycling Program Refrigerator Recycling Program Loveland Water and Power - Refrigerator Recycling Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Maximum Rebate Limit one rebate per account per year Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerator and Freezer Recycling: $35 Loveland Water and Power is providing an incentive for its customers to recycle their old refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old refrigerator. The old refrigerator should be brought outside but remain plugged in so the utility can make it is in working condition. the utility will then take the refrigerator to a recycling facility and issue a $35 bill credit. Other Information

104

Refrigerator recycling and CFCs  

SciTech Connect

Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zerosimulation tool for ground- source heat pump system designflow systems and ground source heat pump systems Abstract

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Solar powered refrigeration apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Solar powered refrigeration apparatus is disclosed in which an absorption refrigeration system is operated directly by solar energy. One end of a heat pipe is thermally connected to the boiler of the absorption refrigeration system, and a solar collector is thermally coupled to the other remote end of the heat pipe. The heat pipe is a sealed, evacuated metal tube partially filled with water. The solar collector is a double walled glass vacuum tube with a central axial opening for accommodating the remote end of the heat pipe. Heat energy collected by the solar collector boils the water in the heat pipe to subsequently condense in the area of the boiler thus transferring heat energy along the heat pipe to the boiler. The heat pipe is installed sloping downwardly away from the boiler to permit the return of condensate down the pipe to the solar collector area thus permitting continuous operation.

Theakston, F.H.

1982-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

108

Memorandum To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) Date: 1/12/2012 Subject: EX PARTE COMMUNICATION MEMO DOE ATTENDEES: Ashley Armstrong, John Cymbalsky, David Case, Laura Barhydt HARDI ATTENDEES: Talbot Gee, Jonathan Melchi AREAS OF DISCUSSION: DOE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. The meeting took place on Thursday January 5 th , 2012 from 2pm to 3-pm. The following topics were discussed. 1.) Sell-Through. HARDI asked for clarification on the DOE's notation on the Framework Document

109

Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle Solar Power Towers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper firstly introduces the principles of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle solar power towers This heat engines use solar reservoire. When the refrigerant in an engine cylinder absorbs heat from high-temperature heat sources, refrigerant ... Keywords: refrigerant phase-change cycle, heat engines, solar power tower, finite-time thermodynamics

Dezhong Huang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systemsAn overview: Part I: Hard control  

SciTech Connect

A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology hard and soft computing/control has nothing to do with the hardware and software that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Nonprofit Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Incentives over $5,000 must be pre-approved Program Info Funding Source Efficiency Vermont Public Benefit Fund Expiration Date 06/30/2013 State Vermont Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Outside Air Economizers: $1,250 Evaporator Fan Motors: $20 - $100 Evaporator Fan Motor Controls: $550 Door/Frame Heater Controls: $50 per door Case Light Occupancy Controls: $40 LED Refrigerator and Freezer Case Light Fixtures: $6 - $15 per foot Energy Star Ice Machines: $50 - $75 Efficient Compressors: $200 Display Case Strip-Curtain and Continuous Covers: $6 per foot

113

Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system. The refrigeration system design involves sizing ofDesign Essentials for Refrigerated Storage Facilities, American Society for Heating Refrigeration anddesign considerations are mostly related to wall and roof types, shell insulation, and the refrigeration

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Covered Product Category: Residential Freezers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Covered Product Category: Residential Freezers Covered Product Category: Residential Freezers Covered Product Category: Residential Freezers October 7, 2013 - 11:18am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential freezers, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases

116

LED Provides Effective and Efficient Lighting in Freezer Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by example, saving energy and taxpayer dollars in federal facilities Spotlight on Design LED Provides Effective and Efficient Lighting in Freezer Storage Room New lighting...

117

Method and apparatus for desuperheating refrigerant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim.

Zess, James A. (Kelso, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop During Condensation of Refrigerants in Microchannels .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Two-phase flow, boiling, and condensation in microchannels have received considerable attention in the recent past due to the growing interest in the high heat fluxes (more)

Agarwal, Akhil

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Chapter 19. Heat Engines and Refrigerators That's not smoke. It's clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cooling towers around a large power plant. The power plant is generating electricity by turning heat Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. electricity by turning heat fuel, into another, such as work. · Chapters 17 and 18 established two laws of thermodynamics Copyright

Dhamala, Mukesh

120

Measured Effects of Retrofits - A Refrigerant Oil Additive and a Condenser Spray Device - On the Cooling Performance of a Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 15-year old, 3-ton single package air-to-air heat pump was tested in laboratory environmental chambers simulating indoor and outdoor conditions. After documenting initial performance, the unit was retrofitted with a prototype condenser water-spray device and retested. Results at standard AM cooling rating conditions (95F outdoor dry bulb and 80167 OF indoor dry bulb/wet bulb temperatures) showed the capacity increased by about 7%, and the electric power demand dropped by about 8%, resulting in a steady-state EER increase of 17%. Suction and discharge pressures were reduced by 7 and 37 psi, respectively. A refrigerant oil additive formulated to enhance refrigerant-side heat transfer was added at a dose of one ounce per ton of rated capacity. and the unit was tested for several days at the same 95F outdoor conditions and showed essentially no increase in capacity, and a slight 3% increase in steady-state EER. Adding more additive lowered the EER slightly. Suction and discharge pressures were essentially unchanged. Our short-term testing showed that the condenser-spray device was effective in increasing the cooling capacity and lowering the electrical demand on an old and relatively inefficient heat pump, but the refrigerant additive had little effect on the cooling performance of our unit Sprayer issues to be resolved include the effect of a sprayer on a new, high-efficiency air conditioner/heat pump, reliable long-term operation, and economics.

Levins, W. P.; Sand, J. R.; Baxter, V. D.; Linkous, R. S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the tower An (earlier) alternative is to use a spray pond to cool water; disadvantages are a large areaRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 7. Air conditioning, cooling towersg, g Ron Zevenhoven ??bo, is the hi htemperature at which condensation begins when air is cooled at constant pressurecooled

Zevenhoven, Ron

122

Heat extraction and refrigeration (HEAR) system. Phase I final progress report. [Restaurant kitchens  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Testing indicates that heat energy available to be recaptured grossly exceeds the capacity of the 1.5 ton medium temperature Freon 12 compressor being utilized. The unit produced 50 pounds of suction pressure with the damper (Figure 4) open and exceeded compressor operational limits with the damper closed. This indicates that the current compressor could be replaced by one of 5 ton capacity since current estimates indicate that 60,000 Btu's are available for recovery. This could be divided between space heating and water heating as required by using separate condensers. There were no real surprises in the feasibility model construction and test phase, and the validity of the assumptions made in the original project description have been established. That is, it has been demonstrated that it is feasible to extract heat from the kitchen exhaust duct in a restaurant and keep the heat pump evaporator clean. It is concluded that work done under this $10,000 grant demonstrated the technical feasibility of the HEAR System. However, additional funding (our original proposal called for a $47,000 grant) would be required to economically evaluate the benefit realized and to advance the HEAR System design to a workable prototype stage.

Venable, B.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

Bennett, G.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

124

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

Bennett, G.A.

1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

125

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Adsorption Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

Wang, Kai [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) February 21, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342)

128

DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator July 8, 2010 - 3:12pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Whirlpool's Maytag refrigerator-freezer model "MSD2578VE." The Department opened this investigation and requested testing data from Whirlpool based on a complaint (April 12, 2010, "DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations"). After reviewing the data and testing this model, the Department has found the model to be compliant with the applicable efficiency standards and has closed the investigation. The Department takes credible allegations seriously and will continue to initiate investigations on products that are

129

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) March 26, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) More Documents & Publications

130

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) March 26, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) More Documents & Publications

131

DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator July 8, 2010 - 3:12pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Whirlpool's Maytag refrigerator-freezer model "MSD2578VE." The Department opened this investigation and requested testing data from Whirlpool based on a complaint (April 12, 2010, "DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations"). After reviewing the data and testing this model, the Department has found the model to be compliant with the applicable efficiency standards and has closed the investigation. The Department takes credible allegations seriously and will continue to initiate investigations on products that are

132

NICE3: Industrial Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect

Energy Concepts has developed an absorption-augmented system as a cost-effective means of achieving more cooling capacity with a substantial reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for industrial refrigeration. It cuts fuel consumption by 30% by combining an internal combustion engine with a mechanical compression refrigeration system and an absorption refrigeration system. The absorption system is powered by engine waste heat. Conventional industrial refrigeration uses mechanical vapor compression, powered by electric motors, which results in higher energy costs. By the year 2010, the new system could cut fuel consumption by 19 trillion Btu and greenhouse emissions by more than 1 million tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

133

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

134

A New Absorption Cycle: The Single-Effect Regenerative Absoprtion Refrigeration Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REGENERATIVE ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION CYCLE ABSTRACT A new absorption cycle , using heat as the energy

Dao, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Covered Product Category: Residential Freezers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Freezers Freezers Covered Product Category: Residential Freezers October 7, 2013 - 11:18am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential freezers, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

136

Dual source heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.100.110.2 Typical refrigerant: R-134a, R- 600a and other hydrocarbons cture:http://1 Air-cooled condensing unit ncompressioisentropicwithprocess isentropicc realc t COP COP · The diagram gives some efficiency data from commercial vapour- 6 some efficiency data from commercial vapour compression refrigerators (T1 = TH, T2 = TL, data from 1976

Zevenhoven, Ron

138

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Overton, Jr., William C. (Los Alamos, NM); Stewart, Walter F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Over-temperature indicator device for freezers  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an over-temperature indicator device for use in freezers having a control box comprising: a cylindrical housing having a mounting face portion adapted for mounting in an opening in the control box, the mounting face portion defining an opening therethrough, a second end of the cylindrical housing opposite the mounting face portion including an end cap means for closing the second end; a bistable thermostat disk mounted within the cylindrical housing adjacent the second end, the thermostat disk abruptly deforming in response to predetermined temperature changes; an indicator pin slidably mounted within the cylindrical housing and having first and second opposed ends, the first opposed end being coextensive with the opening at the mounting face portion. The second opposed end is adjacent the bistable thermostat disk when the indicator pin is in a non-indicating position. The indicator pin is slidable to an indicating position wherein the first opposed end of the pin extends beyond the cylindrical housing; a permanent magnet mounted at the second opposed end of the indicator pin for magnetic engagement with the bistable thermostat disk; and a cup shaped insulating member mounted over the second end of the cylindrical housing to provide a thermal time delay.

Janke, D.E.; Linstromberg, W.J.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment Public Information for Convening Interviews I. What are the substantive issues DOE seeks to address? Strategies for grouping various basic models for purposes of certification; Identification of non-efficiency attributes, which do not impact the measured consumption of the equipment as tested by DOE's test procedure; The information that is certified to the Department; The timing of when the certification should be made relative to distribution in commerce; and Alterations to a basic model that would impact the certification.

142

Roughness and surface material effects on nucleate boiling heat transfer from cylindrical surfaces to refrigerants R-134a and R-123  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effects of the surface roughness of different materials on nucleate boiling heat transfer of refrigerants R-134a and R-123. Experiments have been performed over cylindrical surfaces of copper, brass and stainless steel. Surfaces have been treated by different methods in order to obtain an average roughness, Ra, varying from 0.03 {mu}m to 10.5 {mu}m. Boiling curves at different reduced pressures have been raised as part of the investigation. The obtained results have shown significant effects of the surface material, with brass being the best performing and stainless steel the worst. Polished surfaces seem to present slightly better performance than the sand paper roughened. Boiling on very rough surfaces presents a peculiar behavior characterized by good thermal performance at low heat fluxes, the performance deteriorating at high heat fluxes with respect to smoother surfaces. (author)

Jabardo, Jose M. Saiz [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de la Coruna, Mendizabal s/n Esteiro, 15403 Ferrol, Coruna (Spain); Ribatski, Gherhardt; Stelute, Elvio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense 400 Centro, 13566-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a cryogenic refrigerator which cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1991-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

144

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

145

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a cryogenic refrigerator which cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of {sup 3}He in a single phase {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He solution. The {sup 3}He in superfluid {sup 4}He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid {sup 3}He at an initial concentration in superfluid {sup 4}He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of {sup 4}He while restricting passage of {sup 3}He. The {sup 3}He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1991-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

146

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

149

The Impact of Charge on Performance of an Air-to-Air Heat Pump for R22 and Three Binary Blends of Refrigerants 32 and 134a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted in which the performance of three blends of R134a and R32 were compared to R22. The effect of refrigerant charge and the size of expansion device on the performance of these refrigerants in an air-to-air heat pump operating in the air-conditioning mode was quantified. All tests were conducted according to ASHRAE Standard 116 (1983). The mixtures consisted of 60%/40%, 70%/30% and 80%/20% ratios by mass of R134a and R32. Charge levels of 5, 5.45, 5.90 and 6.00 kilograms (11, 12, 13 and 14 pounds) were tested. At each charge level, outdoor room conditions of 27.8C, 35.0C and 40.6C (82F, 95F and 105F) were tested. For each combination of charge level and outdoor room temperature, orifice diameters of 1.64, 1.78, 1.96 and 2.07 millimeters (0.0645, 0.0700, 0.0770 and 0.0815 inches) were tested. Three variables were used to quantify refrigerant performance: total capacity, total electrical power consumption and coefficient of performance (COP). Several other variables such as mass flow rate, compressor suction pressures and differential pressures were also used to determine system characteristics. The performance of the three mixtures was not as good as the R22. The capacities were between 7 and 17% lower than R22. The energy efficiency ratios were IV within three percent in some cases but the corresponding capacities at these EERs were more than 12% lower than the R22 base case. The best results for a mixture was the 60/40 blend. The capacity was 7.3% lower than the base case and the EER was 8.5% lower.

Robinson, J. H.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Multiple source heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

List of Refrigerators Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigerators Incentives Refrigerators Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 657 Refrigerators Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-657) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial Custom Project Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Tribal Government Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Furnaces Heat pumps Heat recovery Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Processing and Manufacturing Equipment Refrigerators Yes AEP Ohio - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial

152

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and gives it off at higher ail.asp?article temperature (and pressure) and gives it off at higher temperature or no pressure changes Coolant for an engine: e:http://www 8.11.2012?bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering - Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 32/64 pressure changes. Coolant for an engine: not a refrigerant

Zevenhoven, Ron

153

DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator November 9, 2010 - 7:30pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Viking Range Corporation's refrigerator-freezer model VCSB542. The Department initiated this investigation in response to allegations that the model failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. After reviewing data provided by Viking for this model, the Department issued a testing demand on June 16, 2010 and initially tested four units, one of which was defective and replaced by a fifth unit. The test results showed that two Viking units failed the federal energy standard for maximum energy use, while two passed. Because of the wide variation in the

154

DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

into Energy Efficiency of Viking into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator November 9, 2010 - 7:30pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Viking Range Corporation's refrigerator-freezer model VCSB542. The Department initiated this investigation in response to allegations that the model failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. After reviewing data provided by Viking for this model, the Department issued a testing demand on June 16, 2010 and initially tested four units, one of which was defective and replaced by a fifth unit. The test results showed that two Viking units failed the federal energy standard for maximum energy use, while two passed. Because of the wide variation in the

155

A bottle in a freezer Pavel Krejci  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

case of water and ice. There is an abundant classical literature on the study of phase transition a formula for the undercooling coefficient in terms of the elasticity constants, latent heat, and the phase of the phase parameter. Finally, we prove some results on the long time behavior of solutions. Key words: Phase

Rocca, Elisabetta

156

Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. As concerns about climate change intensify, it is becoming increasingly clear that suitable low-GWP refrigerants will be needed for both new and existing residential and commercial heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment. Project Description This project seeks to develop alternative refrigerants for HVAC&R equipment. The overall environmental impacts of alternative refrigerants will be assessed using a life cycle climate performance model that accounts for direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and indirect

157

Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

home. Incentives are available for geothermal heat pumps, air source heat pumps, central air conditioning, lighting, heat pump water heaters, freezers, refrigerators, clothes...

158

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

159

Heat pump with freeze-up prevention  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Comparison of Several Eco-Friendly Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, the operation principles, thermodynamics characteristics, and technical practicability were compared between thermoelectric refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration and adsorption refrigeration. The TE refrigeration is the most well-developed, applicable and competitive technology. Three eco-friendly refrigeration systems are increasingly getting attention, especially in a day with increasingly energy and environmental crises. In summary, thermoelectric refrigeration possesses the following superiorities: a longer developmental period, more perfect techniques, increasing applications, a larger range of refrigerating capacity, and a better economic property in small refrigerating capacity. Thermoelectric refrigeration cannot be replaced in special fields, and its applications have received more and more attention in recovering waste heat. Magnetic refrigeration has been widely applied in lower temperature regions; its application in middle temperature regions is juvenile. In particular, there is no application of this technique in high temperature regions. Adsorption refrigeration is practical only in near room temperatures. Its advantage is that it can be used in some fields where conventional refrigeration cannot be applied, such as in the application of solar energy, geothermal energy, and other renewable energy, and the recovery of residual and waste heat.? Supported by the Young Foundation of Central South University of Forestry & Technology (06002A) The disadvantages are as follows: the cost is expensive, no practical technique is available at present, and thus, it possesses no general superiority versus other refrigeration technologies.

Tang, C.; Luo, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Fluorescent refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

162

Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)] [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state materialan elastic shape memory metal alloyas a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Tools by Country -...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

room, cooler, freezer, refrigerated warehouse Software has been updated. Cool Room Calc cooling load, heat gains, heat loads, air-conditioned room, air conditioner, HVAC, air...

168

EIA - Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Residential...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The end-use services for which equipment stocks are modeled include space conditioning (heating and cooling), water heating, refrigeration, freezers, dishwashers, clothes...

169

Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

List of Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 103 Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 103) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) Utility Rebate Program West Virginia Commercial Industrial Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Programmable Thermostats Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Ground Source Heat Pumps Yes AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility

171

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

172

Thermoacoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoacoustic device having a thermal stack made from a piece of porous material which provides a desirable ratio of thermoacoustic area to viscous area, which has a low resistance to flow, which minimizes acoustic streaming and which has a high specific heat and low thermal conductivity is disclosed. The thermal stack is easy and cheap to form and it can be formed in small sizes. Specifically, in one embodiment, a thermal stack which is formed by the natural structure of a porous material such as reticulated vitreous carbon is disclosed. The thermal stack is formed by machining a block of reticulated vitreous carbon into the required shape of the thermal stack. In a second embodiment, a micro-thermoacoustic device is disclosed which includes a thermal stack made of a piece of porous material such as reticulated vitreous carbon. In another embodiment, a heat exchanger is disclosed which is formed of a block of heat conductive open cell foam material.

Moss, William C. (San Mateo, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Jefferson Lab Science Series - Living and Working in the Freezer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Volcanoes in Virginia! Volcanoes in Virginia! Previous Video (Volcanoes in Virginia!) Science Series Video Archive Next Video (You Already Know This Physics!) You Already Know This Physics! Living and Working in the Freezer Dr. Victoria Hill - Old Dominion University, Bio-Optics Group February 7, 2012 Very little data of any kind exists from the early spring in the Arctic. The reason? It's extremely cold and that makes it difficult to survive, let alone conduct science. From March through the end of April, 2011, scientists from around the world braved temperatures of -48°C in the high Canadian Arctic in the name of science. At the Catlin Arctic Survey's floating 'Ice Base' off Ellef Ringnes Island, Dr. Victoria Hill was investigating how organic material in fresh water near the surface of the

174

Heat Transfer Fluids Containing Nanoparticles  

commercial and industrial heat-transfer applications. ... Refrigeration and other cooling systems Nuclear reactors Aerospace Defense Grinding and ...

175

Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a mucilage glue fiber factory, the design of the refrigeration system takes into account the characteristics of mucilage glue fiber production and fully uses the refrigeration compressor heat to economize energy and reduce the production cost. In this paper, the author introduces different points of this kind of design with conventional design. For efficient use of the compressed heat of the refrigeration system, the designer should calculate the number of condensers according to the changes that the refrigeration system undergoes after using the soft water as cooling water. To economize the investment, the designer should use the refrigeration workshop and the soft water workshop and obtain optimum processing to shorten the duct. Through an economizing energy analysis, the paper demonstrates that an optimum design for a refrigeration system for a mucilage glue factory has a significant energy saving potential.

Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Energy conservation for household refrigerators and water heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy conservation arrangement for household refrigerators and water heaters, in which the source of cold water to the hot water heater is divided and part is caused to flow through and be warmed in the condenser of the refrigerator. The warmed water is then further heated in the oil cooling loop of the refrigerator compressor, and proceeds then to the top of the hot water tank.

Speicher, T. L.

1984-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

178

Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of several installation items on the high outdoor ambient temperature performance of air conditioners. These installation items were: improper amount of refrigerant charge, reduced evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging tests, the indoor room conditions were 80'F (27.8'C) dry-bulb and 50% relative humidity. The outdoor conditions ranged from 95'F (350C) all the way up to 120'F (48.9'C). Charge levels ranged from 30% undercharged to 40% overcharged for the short-tube orifice unit. For the thermal expansion valve (TXV) unit, charge levels ranged from-36% charging to +27% charging. Performance was quantified with the following variables: total capacity, energy efficiency ratio (EER), and power. The performance of the orifice unit was more sensitive to charge than it was for the TXV unit. For the TXV unit on the -27% to +27% charging range, the capacity and EER changed little with charge. A TXV unit and a short-tube orifice unit were also tested for reduced evaporator airflow. As evaporator airflow decreased, the capacity and EER both decreased as expected. However, the drop was not as significant as with the charging tests. For the extreme case of 50% reduced evaporator airflow, neither unit's capacity or EER dropped more than 25%. Return air leakage from hot attic spaces was simulated by assuming adiabatic mixing of the indoor air at normal conditions with the attic air at high temperatures. Effective capacity and EER both decreased with increased return air leakage. However, power consumption was relatively constant for all variables except outdoor temperature, which meant that for the same power consumption, the unit delivered much lower performance when there was return air leakage. The increase in sensible heat ratio (SHR) with increasing leakage showed perhaps the most detrimental effect of return air leakage on performance, which was the inability of the unit to absorb moisture from the environment.

Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Effect of Refrigerant Charge, Duct Leakage, and Evaporator Air Flow on the High Temperature Performance of Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of several installation items on the high outdoor ambient temperature performance of air conditioners. These installation items were: improper amount of refrigerant charge, reduced evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging tests, the indoor room conditions were 80F (27.8C) dry-bulb and 50% relative humidity. The outdoor conditions ranged from 95F (35C) all the way up to 120F (48.9C). Charge levels ranged from 30% undercharged to 40% overcharged for the short-tube orifice unit. For the thermal expansion valve (TXV) unit, charge levels ranged from -36% charging to +27% charging. Performance was quantified with the following variables: total capacity, energy efficiency ratio (EER), and power. The performance of the orifice unit was more sensitive to charge than it was for the TXV unit. For the TXV unit on the -27% to +27% charging range, the capacity and EER changed little with charge. A TXV unit and a short-tube orifice unit were also tested for reduced evaporator airflow. As evaporator airflow decreased, the capacity and EER both decreased as expected. However, the drop was not as significant as with the charging tests. For the extreme case of 50% reduced evaporator airflow, neither unit's capacity or EER dropped more than 25%. Return air leakage from hot attic spaces was simulated by assuming adiabatic mixing of the indoor air at normal conditions with the attic air at high temperatures. Effective capacity and EER both decreased with increased return air leakage. However, power consumption was relatively constant for all variables except outdoor temperature, which meant that for the same power consumption, the unit delivered much lower performance when there was return air leakage. The increase in sensible heat ratio (SHR) with increasing leakage showed perhaps the most detrimental effect of return air leakage on performance, which was the inability of the unit to absorb moisture from the environment.

Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

2007-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

180

DOE Testing Finds Two Kenmore-Brand Freezers Noncompliant | Department of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing Finds Two Kenmore-Brand Freezers Noncompliant Testing Finds Two Kenmore-Brand Freezers Noncompliant DOE Testing Finds Two Kenmore-Brand Freezers Noncompliant August 13, 2012 - 1:53pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's ("DOE") Office of Enforcement recently issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Sears, Roebuck & Co. ("Sears") regarding two Kenmore-brand chest freezers, basic model 255.19502010 ("19502" or "1950") and basic model 255.19702010 ("19702" or "1970"), which are privately labeled and distributed in commerce in the U.S. by Sears and manufactured in China. In late 2011 and early 2012, DOE tested four units of basic model 19702 and four units of basic model 19502. DOE's testing demonstrated that neither basic model is in compliance with federal law. Basic model 19702

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.

Luis A. Correa; Jos P. Palao; Daniel Alonso; Gerardo Adesso

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

182

Louisville Gas and Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for residential customers to upgrade to energy efficiency home appliances and heat and air conditioning equipment. Rebates are offered for refrigerators and freezers, clothes...

183

Kentucky Utilities Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for residential customers to upgrade to energy efficiency home appliances and heat and air conditioning equipment. Rebates are offered for refrigerators and freezers, clothes...

184

An Advanced Solar-Powered Rotary Solid Adsorption Refrigerator with High Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, according to practical consideration, a new solar powered rotary solid adsorption refrigerator system adopting activated carbon fibre + ethanol as its adsorption pair has been designed with higher performance. Moreover, the principle of the refrigeration cycle, different components of the machine, selection of working pairs and feasible theory analysis of the refrigeration system all have been presented in detail. In addition, it shows that the new refrigerator has many great advantages including a simple structure, fast refrigeration, higher thermodynamic coefficient, friendly to the atmospheric environment, etc. This paper explains that the refrigerating process is constant, which has a promising potential for competing the 'intermittent' cycle reported before. Through improving the refrigerant performance of heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent bed, the refrigeration cycle has been advanced from the aspect of utilization of the thermal energy from low-temperature level resources. In addition, it is shown that the commercial solar powered refrigerator will be existent in the near future.

Zheng, A.; Gu, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

Starke, M.R.

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

186

Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics design uses a novel property of certain materials, called magnetocaloric materials, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Calm, J.M.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants  

Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a new magnetic material that can be used at low temperatures (sub liquid hydrogen) for magnetic refrigerators.

189

China Refrigerator Information Label  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-246E China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of Standardization Tomoyuki Sakamoto The Institute of Energy

190

Available Technologies: Convection Heat Pump  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Solar thermal systems; Heating and cooling systems for buildings; Refrigeration; Compressed air source; Recycling waste heat from chimneys

191

Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum [University of Dayton, Ohio; Wenning, Thomas J [ORNL; Sever, Franc [University of Dayton, Ohio; Kissock, Professor Kelly [University of Dayton, Ohio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Energy Saving with Absorption Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absorption refrigeration technology can be an economical and cost effective means of reducing energy cost and/or improving the efficiency and output of your process. We believe the potential benefits of absorption refrigeration technology have generally been overlooked by the process industry. This paper will address the application of the lithium bromide-water cycle in various energy saving modes. A waste heat powered absorption chiller producing chilled water can reduce energy consumption in a process plant by replacing an existing mechanical refrigeration system or replacing cooling tower water with a lower temperature cooling medium at negligible increase in energy cost. A variety of waste heat sources can be used at temperatures as low as 150 F.

Davis, R. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Solar refrigeration in rural West Bengal: Design of a product service system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solarbear is a refrigerator that cools with the heat of the sun only. This technology, more formally known as solar powered adsorption cooling, has been (more)

Van Genuchten, R.P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Detailed CFD modelling of open refrigerated display cabinets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive and detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) modelling of air flow and heat transfer in an open refrigerated display cabinet (ORDC) is performed in this study. The physical-mathematical model considers the flow through the internal ...

Pedro Dinis Gaspar; L. C. Carrilho Gonalves; R. A. Pitarma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

Calm, J.M.

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

Available Technologies: Heat Transfer Interface for Thermo ...  

Refrigeration systems; Internal combustion engines; ... The components of the technology could be used to improve heat transfer in industrial, ...

197

Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alonemaking CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Spray generators for absorption refrigeration systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray generator for an absorption refrigeration system that includes a heat exchanger comprised of a multiplicity of variably spaced heat exchange tubes. The tubes are spaced close together near the top of the heat exchanger and spaced more widely apart near the bottom of the heat exchanger. Dilute absorbent solution is sprayed down through the heat exchanger. The close nesting of the tubes in the top portion of the heat exchanger retards liquid flow and aids heating of the solution. The wide spacing of the tubes in the lower section of the heat exchanger facilitate vapor flow out of the heat exchanger and eliminates liquid "blow-off". The top tubes are covered by a baffle to prevent the liquid solution from splashing out of the heat exchanger off of these top tubes.

Sibley, Howard W. (Baldwinsville, NY)

1979-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

199

Heat Pump Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate...

200

Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers, Final Rule Title Energy Conservation Program: Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Building and Fire Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Factors Affecting the Energy Consumption of Two Refrigerator-Freezers. Factors Affecting the Energy Consumption of Two Refrigerator-Freezers. ...

202

Refrigerated cryogenic envelope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

Loudon, John D. (Boulder, CO)

1976-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

203

Exploring the Limits of Boiling and Evaporative Heat Transfer Using Micro/Nano Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small passages of compact heat-exchangers, Int J Therm Sci,and refrigeration and compact heat exchangers [4], chemical

Lu, Ming-Chang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Heat exchanger-accumulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Annual DOE Active Solar Heating and Cooling Contractors'and Annual DOE Active Solar Heating and Cooling Contractors'refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling

Dao, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Super energy saver heat pump with dynamic hybrid phase change material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heat pump has a refrigerant loop, a compressor in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop, at least one indoor heat exchanger in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop, and at least one outdoor heat exchanger in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop. The at least one outdoor heat exchanger has a phase change material in thermal communication with the refrigerant loop and in fluid communication with an outdoor environment. Other systems, devices, and methods are described.

Ally, Moonis Raza (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John Jager (Knoxville, TN); Rice, Clifford Keith (Clinton, TN)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

209

Application of Cryocoolers to a Vintage Dilution Refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A dilution refrigerator is required for 50mK detector operation of CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search). Besides shielding the dilution refrigerator itself, the liquid nitrogen shield and liquid helium bath in the refrigerator cool the detector cryostat heat shields and cool electronics, resulting in significant external heat loads at 80K and at 4K. An Oxford Instruments Kelvinox 400 has served this role for ten years but required daily transfers of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Complicating the cryogen supply is the location 800 meters below ground in an RF shielded, class 10000 clean room at Soudan, MN. Nitrogen and helium re-liquefiers using cryocoolers were installed outside the clean room and continuously condense room temperature gas and return the liquids to the dilution refrigerator through a transfer line. This paper will describe the design, installation, controls and performance of liquefaction systems.

Schmitt, Richard; Smith, Gary; Ruschman, Mark; /Fermilab; Beaty, Jim; /Minnesota U.

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

210

Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator - Energy ...  

... -phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, ...

211

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Title Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California...

212

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Cain, J.M. (Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States))

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

213

Proceedings: Commercial Refrigeration Research Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving refrigeration systems for commercial use can enhance both utility load factors and supermarket profits. This workshop has pinpointed research needs in commercial refrigeration and systems integration for a supermarket environment.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

COLD STORAGE DESIGN REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COLD STORAGE DESIGN AND REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 1 \\ "..\\- ,,, T I Fishery Leaflet 427 Washington 25, D. C. June 1956 REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART em; COlD STORAGE DESIGN · · · · · 18 Specific design features 0 0 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 19 Refrigerated surfaces 0 · · 0 0 0 · 0

215

Japanese refrigerators field testing  

SciTech Connect

Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

Lou, A.T.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Japanese Refrigerators Field Testing.  

SciTech Connect

Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

Lou, Albert T.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

Calm, J.M.

1992-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

218

Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

French, Patrick D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Butz, James R. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Veatch, Bradley D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); O' Connor, Michael W. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses actual design and modifications for increased system efficiency and includes reduced chilled liquid flow during part load operation, reduced condensing and increased evaporator temperatures for reduced system head, thermosiphon cycle cooling during winter operation, compressor intercooling, direct refrigeration vs. brine cooling, insulation of cold piping to reduce heat gain, multiple screw compressors for improved part load operation, evaporative condensers for reduced system head and pumping energy, and using high efficiency motors.

White, T. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

222

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator Amikam Levy and Ronnie Kosloff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

source to replace mechanical work for driving a heat pump [1]. The first device was developed in 1850 an ab- sorption refrigerator with no moving parts [2]. This idea has been incorporated recently c J h P Tc Th Tw - - - 0 FIG. 1: The quantum trickle: A quantum heat pump des- ignated

Kosloff, Ronnie

223

Development of Refrigerant Change Indicator and Dirty Air Filter Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The most common problems affecting residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are slow refrigerant leaks and dirty air filters. Equipment users are usually not aware of a problem until most of the refrigerant has escaped or the air filter is clogged with dirt. While a dirty air filter can be detected with a technology based on the air pressure differential across the filter, such as a ''whistling'' indicator, it is not easy to incorporate this technology into existing HVAC diagnostic equipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a low-cost, nonintrusive refrigerant charge indicator and dirty air filter detection sensor. The sensors, based on temperature measurements, will be inexpensive and easy to incorporate into existing heat pumps and air conditioners. The refrigerant charge indicator is based on the fact that when refrigerant starts to leak, the evaporator coil temperature starts to drop and the level of liquid subcooling drops. When the coil temperature or liquid subcooling drops below a preset reading, a signal, such as a yellow warning light, can be activated to warn the equipment user that the system is undercharged. A further drop of coil temperature or liquid subcooling below another preset reading would trigger a second warning signal, such as a red warning light, to warn the equipment user that the unit now detects a leak and immediate action should be taken. The warning light cannot be turned off until it is re-set by a refrigeration repairman. To detect clogged air filters, two additional temperature sensors can be applied, one each across the evaporator. When the air filter is accumulating buildup, the temperature differential across the evaporator will increase because of the reduced airflow. When the temperature differential reaches a pre-set reading, a signal will be sent to the equipment user that the air filter needs to be changed. A traditional refrigerant charge indicator requires intrusion into the system to measure the refrigerant high-side and low-side pressures. Once the pressures are known, based on the equipment's refrigerant charging chart? or in most cases, based on the technician's experience? the refrigerant charging status is determined. However, there is a catch: by the time a refrigeration technician is called, most of the refrigerant has already escaped into the atmosphere. The new technology provides a real-time warning so that when, say, 20% of the refrigerant has leaked, the equipment users will be warned, even though the equipment is still functioning properly at rated capacity. Temperature sensors are becoming very accurate and very low in cost, compared with pressure sensors. Using temperature sensors to detect refrigerant charge status is inherently nonintrusive, inexpensive, and accurate. With the addition of two temperature sensors for detecting dirty air filters, the capability of the diagnostic equipment is further enhanced with very little added cost. This report provides laboratory test data on the change of indoor coil refrigerant temperature and subcooling as a function of refrigerant charge for a 2-ton split heat pump system. The data can be used in designing the indicators for refrigerant loss and dirty air filter sensors.

Mei, V.

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

224

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

SciTech Connect

In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to achieve grade 1 on the label are now virtually as stringent as those for US Energy Star-qualified or EU A-grade refrigerators. When the energy information label went into effect in March 2005, refrigerator manufacturers were required to display their declared level of efficiency on the label and report it to the China Energy Label Center (CELC), a newly established unit of CNIS responsible for label program management. Because of the visible nature of the label, it was found, through a METI/IEEJ-supported study, that MEPS non-compliance dropped from 4% to zero after the label became mandatory, and that the percentage of higher-grade refrigerators increased. This suggests that the label itself does have potential for shifting the market to higher-efficiency models (Lin 2007). One challenge, however, of assessing this potential impact is the lack of a comprehensive baseline of market efficiency and a program to evaluate the market impact on a yearly basis. As a result, the impact evaluation in this study draws upon the market transformation experience of the related EU energy information label, for which quantitative assessments of its market impact exist. By assuming a parallel process unfolding in China, it is possible to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. The results of the analysis demonstrates that a robust market transformation program in China focused on the energy information label could save substantial amounts of electricity by 2020, totaling 16.4 TWh annually by that year, compared to a case in which the efficiency distribution of refrigerators was frozen at the 2007 level. Remarkably, the impact of a successful market transformation program with the label would essentially flatten the consumption of electricity for refrigerator use throughout most of the next decade, despite the expectations of continued growth in total stock by nearly 190 million units. At the end of this period, total consumption begins to rise again, as the least efficient of the units have been mostly removed from the market. Such a level of savings would reduce CO{sub

Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Condensation of refrigerants on vertical fluted tubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were run to determine heat transfer performance of single vertical fluted tubes with selected fluids condensing on the outside. Working fluids included six fluorocarbons (Refrigerants 11, 21, 22, 113, 114, and 115) and a hydrocarbon (Refrigerant 600a or isobutane). The nine test tubes were of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.2 m (4 ft) in length with from 0 (smooth) to 60 axial flutes. Condensing heat transfer coefficients ranged from 620 to 7900 W/m/sup 2/ . K (110 to 1400 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/ . /sup 0/F) over the heat flux range of 2000 to 43,000 W/m/sup 2/ (920 to 13,600 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/). All parameters are based on total condensing surface area. The data show that, for a given heat flux, a fluted tube can increase condensing coefficients up to 6.0 times smooth tube values. Further heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the use of drainage skirts on fluted tubes; these skirts effectively divided the 1.2-m (4-ft) tubes into two, four, and eight equal condensing lengths.

Combs, S.K.; Mailen, G.S.; Murphy, R.W.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

SCREW COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS FOR HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression.At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. Therefore it is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design these compression systems to match the refrigeration process. This presentation summarizes separate tests that have been conducted on Sullair compressors at the Superconducting Super-Collider Laboratory (SSCL) in 1993, Howden compressors at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in 2006 and Howden compressors at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2006. This work is part of an ongoing study at JLab to understand the theoretical basis for these efficiencies and their loss

Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Creel, Jonathan; Arenius, Dana; Casagrande, Fabio; Howell, Matt

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.

Mahan, G.D.

1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

228

Dilution Refrigeration of Multi-Ton Cold Masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dilution refrigeration is the only means to provide continuous cooling at temperatures below 250 mK. Future experiments featuring multi-ton cold masses require a new generation of dilution refrigeration systems, capable of providing a heat sink below 10 mK at cooling powers which exceed the performance of present systems considerably. This thesis presents some advances towards dilution refrigeration of multi-ton masses in this temperature range. A new method using numerical simulation to predict the cooling power of a dilution refrigerator of a given design has been developed in the framework of this thesis project. This method does not only allow to take into account the differences between an actual and an ideal continuous heat exchanger, but also to quantify the impact of an additional heat load on an intermediate section of the dilute stream. In addition, transient behavior can be simulated. The numerical model has been experimentally verified with a dilution refrigeration system which has been designed, ...

Wikus, P; CERN. Geneva

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Vaccine refrigerator testing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

For the Central American Health Clinic Project initiated in 1986, Sandia National Laboratories and the Florida Solar Energy Center recognized the need for a test and evaluation program for vaccine refrigeration systems. At the Florida Solar Energy Center, side-by-side testing of three photovoltaic powered vaccine refrigerators began in 1987. The testing was expanded in 1988 to include a kerosene absorption refrigerator. This report presents observations, conclusions, and recommendations derived from testing the four vaccine refrigeration systems. Information is presented pertaining to the refrigerators, photovoltaic arrays, battery subsystems, charge controllers, and user requirements. This report should be of interest to designers, manufacturers, installers, and users of photovoltaic-powered vaccine refrigeration systems and components.

Ventre, G.G. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Kilfoyle, D.; Marion, B. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Magnetic Refrigeration - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 6, 2013 ... Magnetic Refrigeration a 21st Century Highly Efficient and Green Cooling .... In order to advance their incorporation in prototypes and industrial...

231

PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the heat pump effect. The Stirling engine/Rankine cycle refrigeration loop heat pump being developed would and replacement segments of each. The Preliminary Design was completed in 1975. During this phase, several. As a result of this phase, a Stirling/ Rankine, prime mover/refrigeration cycle approach was selected

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

232

Heat reclaiming method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADVANCED HEAT EXCHANGER MODEL FOR STEADY STATE AND FROSTING CONDITIONS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Air-to-refrigerant fin-and-tube heat exchangers are a key component in the heating, air conditioning and refrigeration industry. Considering their dominance, the industry has focused immensely on (more)

Singh, Varun

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Commercial Refrigeration Equipment | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigeration Equipment Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

235

Indoor unit for electric heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

1984-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

236

Water-heating dehumidifier - Energy Innovation Portal  

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator ...

237

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

238

Field performance of residential refrigerators: A comparison with the laboratory test  

SciTech Connect

The field electricity use of 209 refrigerators was compared to their labeled consumption. The mean field use of all units was 1009 kWh/year, 882 kWh/year for top-freezers, and 1366 kWh/year for side-by-sides. There was considerable scatter in the results but, in general, the label overpredicted field use. The relationship could be best described with the formula, Annual Field Use = 0.94 {times} (Annual Label Us) - 85. For a typical unit with a labeled use of 1160 kWh/year, the field use was about 15% lower. There was considerable seasonality in energy use: the peak weeks generally occurred around the beginning of August. However, there was no simple relationship between the label value and the peak-week consumption.

Meier, A.; Jansky, R.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Field performance of residential refrigerators: A comparison with the laboratory test  

SciTech Connect

The field electricity use of 209 refrigerators was compared to their labeled consumption. The mean field use of all units was 1009 kWh/year, 882 kWh/year for top-freezers, and 1366 kWh/year for side-by-sides. There was considerable scatter in the results but, in general, the label overpredicted field use. The relationship could be best described with the formula, Annual Field Use = 0.94 [times] (Annual Label Us) - 85. For a typical unit with a labeled use of 1160 kWh/year, the field use was about 15% lower. There was considerable seasonality in energy use: the peak weeks generally occurred around the beginning of August. However, there was no simple relationship between the label value and the peak-week consumption.

Meier, A.; Jansky, R.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Well simulation using Refrigerant 114  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple method for the investigation of thermodynamic (substance) similarity in the two-phase domain is introduced based on the assumptions of a simplified model fluid. According to this method, the investigation of the conditions for thermodynamic similarity between substances in the two-phase region reveals the important role the latent heat of evaporation (h/sub fg/) plays in the definition of the property scales. These greatly influence the dynamic and geometric similarity of the process under investigation. The introduction of the thermodynamic similarity property scales into the energy conservation equations for a certain process (e.g., flow up a geothermal well) brings forth a thermodynamic length scale and kinetic energy scale. Refrigerant 114 has been examined for similarity with water substance according to this method and found to be adequate for geothermal well simulation in the laboratory. Low pressures and temperatures and a substantial reduction of mass flow rates and geometric scales are a few of the advantages of using R114 for such experiments.

Nikitopoulos, D.E.; Dickinson, D.A.; DiPippo, R.; Maeder, P.F.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

Crunkleton, J.A.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

244

Building and Fire Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... energy consumption. ... Healy, WM; Effect of Usage Conditions on Household Refrigerator-Freezer and Freezer Energy Consumption. ...

245

Building and Fire Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Effect of Usage Conditions on Household Refrigerator-Freezer and Freezer Energy Consumption. Effect of Usage Conditions ...

246

Teton Coin Op Laundry: heat recovery unit. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Experience with a heat recovery unit using Freon 11 refrigerant as a transfer medium is reported. Heat exchangers were fabricated for use in dryer stacks and the waste heat was used in heating the water for the laundry. (MHR)

1984-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

247

Definition: Heat pump | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pump pump Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Heat pump Heating and/or cooling equipment that, during the heating season, draws heat into a building from outside and, during the cooling season, ejects heat from the building to the outside[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a heat source to a heat sink against a temperature gradient. Heat pumps are designed to move thermal energy opposite the direction of spontaneous heat flow. A heat pump uses some amount of external high-grade energy to accomplish the desired transfer of thermal energy from heat source to heat sink. While compressor-driven air conditioners and freezers are familiar examples of heat pumps, the term "heat pump" is more general and applies to

248

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

249

ETME 422 -REFRIGERATION & HVAC SYSTEMS FALL 2011 LEC -10:00 -10:50am M W F RH 312  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10/31/2011 ETME 422 - REFRIGERATION & HVAC SYSTEMS FALL 2011 LEC - 10:00 - 10:50am M W F RH 312 Catalog Description ETME 422 PRINCIPLES OF HVAC I F 3 cr. LEC 3 PREREQUISITE: EMEC 320 or EGEN 324. -- Refrigeration and heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) for comfort and industrial applications

Dyer, Bill

250

Vapor Compression Refrigeration Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ice from central ice-making facilities to household iceboxes. ... that extracts heat from the space to be cooled. ... for another run of the cooling cycle while ...

2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

251

The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar heat; refrigeration loads that can be met either by standard equipment or absorption equivalents; hot-water and space-heating

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

PARAMETER ESTIMATION BASED MODELS OF WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Singapore. ©2006, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www operating refrigerant pressure limits). A design goal must therefore be to control the rise or drop exponent is dependent on the refrigerant type; the values of the isentropic exponents are obtained from

253

Design and installation considerations for refrigerant charged thermosyphoning solar DHW systems  

SciTech Connect

The recent introduction of refrigerants into the realm of passive solar technologies has provided some advantages in performance over the typical liquid solar domestic hot water system. These advantages can be offset by the lack of familiarity by designers or installers with the operation, layout or components of a phase-change thermosyphon water heater. The considerations which were evaluated in the design and installation of a passive solar domestic hot water system in Golden, Colorado, are described. A discussion of collector selection, storage and heat exchanger design, refrigerant type selection, system integration design, and refrigeration requirements is presented.

DeAngelis, M.; Nordham, D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

256

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine Storage ... Suitability of commercial refrigerators for vaccine storage not ...

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

257

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

258

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Magnetocaloric Effect and Enhanced Refrigeration effectiveness in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Magnetocaloric Effect and Enhanced Refrigeration effectiveness in ... Industrial Needs and Applications for Soft Magnetic Materials Industrial...

262

Optimization of the Refrigerant Capacity in Multiphase ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications. Presentation Title, Optimization of the Refrigerant Capacity in Multiphase Magnetocaloric Materials.

263

The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability  

SciTech Connect

This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.

Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Gregory F. Nellis; Douglas T. Reindl

2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

264

Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant reduction in the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of supermarkets can be reached by the combination of several innovative components and the continuous optimization of their operation. A German food retail chain developed a new supermarket concept combining several innovative solutions for the refrigeration, lighting and heating/ventilation with the goal to reduce the energy consumption by about 30% compared to a standard subsidiary. A highly insulated building envelope, the use of daylight and covered refrigeration units contribute jointly to reach the goals. The key component of the concept is a carbon dioxide refrigeration plant with waste heat recovery. To reduce the efficiency losses in supercritical operation, carbon dioxide is cooled through a borehole heat exchanger using the ground as a heat sink. In the paper the design concept, the results of simulation studies and of the first monitoring year are presented and discussed.

Rehault, N.; Kalz, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

University Student Legal Service 160 West Bank Skyway  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resistance to heat pump Residential Appliances 22 170 Clothes Washer, Dishwasher, Refrigerator, Freezer New and dishwashers save significant amounts of water as well as electricity. Similarly, some industrial efficiency

Amin, S. Massoud

266

Heat pump having improved defrost system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

267

Heat pump having improved defrost system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Murphy, Richard W. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

269

Frontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pulse-tube refrigerator shown in Figure 1 dissipates acoustic power by design because power must flowFrontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation S. Backhaus1 , D. Geller2 , B oscillating thermodynamics in a gas in a sealed system. Since then, many related engines and refrigerators

270

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

271

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

Barclay, J.A.

1982-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

274

Investigation of Chlorine-Free Refrigerants for Low-Temperature Supermarket Refrigeration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants, supermarkets are seeking a replacement for R-502, the refrigerant of choice for low-temperature (frozen food) refrigeration. EPRI has conducted field testing to characterize the performance of the new hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) nonchlorinated refrigerants replacements for R-502. Results showed that energy and demand savings can be obtained using these alternative refrigerants with zero ozone-depleting potential.

1996-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

275

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers to someone by E-mail Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on AddThis.com...

276

Pioneering Heat Pump Project Geothermal Project | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

that will serve multiple buildings, converting them from a traditional gas-fired boiler system to ground source heat pumps that use carbon dioxide as the refrigerant source,...

277

Building Technologies Office: Space Heating and Cooling Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(HVAC) and refrigeration. DOE is conducting research into integration of optimized heat exchanger designs into new products and space conditioning systems. DOE projects...

278

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

279

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

SciTech Connect

In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to achieve grade 1 on the label are now virtually as stringent as those for US Energy Star-qualified or EU A-grade refrigerators. When the energy information label went into effect in March 2005, refrigerator manufacturers were required to display their declared level of efficiency on the label and report it to the China Energy Label Center (CELC), a newly established unit of CNIS responsible for label program management. Because of the visible nature of the label, it was found, through a METI/IEEJ-supported study, that MEPS non-compliance dropped from 4% to zero after the label became mandatory, and that the percentage of higher-grade refrigerators increased. This suggests that the label itself does have potential for shifting the market to higher-efficiency models (Lin 2007). One challenge, however, of assessing this potential impact is the lack of a comprehensive baseline of market efficiency and a program to evaluate the market impact on a yearly basis. As a result, the impact evaluation in this study draws upon the market transformation experience of the related EU energy information label, for which quantitative assessments of its market impact exist. By assuming a parallel process unfolding in China, it is possible to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. The results of the analysis demonstrates that a robust market transformation program in China focused on the energy information label could save substantial amounts of electricity by 2020, totaling 16.4 TWh annually by that year, compared to a case in which the efficiency distribution of refrigerators was frozen at the 2007 level. Remarkably, the impact of a successful market transformation program with the label would essentially flatten the consumption of electricity for refrigerator use throughout most of the next decade, despite the expectations of continued growth in total stock by nearly 190 million units. At the end of this period, total consumption begins to rise again, as the least efficient of the units have been mostly removed from the market. Such a level of savings would redu

Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

Mark J. Bergander

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.

Grant, D.C.H.

1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

An overview of the planned Jefferson Lab 12-GeV helium refrigerator upgrade  

SciTech Connect

In February 2006, Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, VA, received Critical Decision 1 (CD-1) approval to proceed with the engineering and design of the long anticipated upgrade to increase the beam energy of CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, from 6 GeV to 12 GeV. This will require the installation of 10 new cryomodules, and additional 2.1-K refrigeration beyond the available 4600 W to handle the increased heat loads. Additionally, a new experimental hall, Hall D, is planned that will require the installation of a small, available refrigerator. This paper will present an overview of the integration of the new proposed refrigeration system into CEBAF, the installation of the available refrigerator for Hall D, and includes planned work scope, current schedule plans and project status.

Arenius, Dana; Creel, Jonathan; Dixon, Kelly; Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Wright, Mathew

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a heat absorption method for an absorption chiller. It comprises: providing a firs absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range, providing a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range; heat exchanging refrigerant and absorber solution; thermal communication with an external heat load. This patent describes a heat absorption apparatus for use as an absorption chiller. It includes: a first absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range; a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range which has a lower maximum temperature relative to the first temperature range; the first circuit having generator means, condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operatively connected together; the second circuit having generator means condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operative connected together; and the first circuit condenser means and the first circuit absorber means being in heat exchange communication with the second circuit generator means.

DeVault, R.C.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

284

Conceptual design of an advanced absorption cycle: the double-effect regenerative absorption refrigeration cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An advanced absorption refrigeration cycle was proposed as a heat-activated refrigeration system. Referred to as the double-effect regenerative absorption cycle of cycle 2R, it improves the performance of the conventional single-effect absorption cycle at high heat source temperatures. The performance of cycle 2R continually improves as input temperatures rise, in contrast to the conventional double-effect absorption cycle that has a sharp cut-off temperature below which it ceases to operate. Cycle 2R operates with two subcycles, the first-effect and the second-effect subcycles.

Dao, K.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Optimal Performance of Quantum Refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. We find that if the energy spectrum of the working medium possesses an uncontrollable gap, then there is a minimum achievable temperature above zero. Such a gap, combined with a negligible amount of noise, prevents adiabatic following during the demagnetization stage which is the necessary condition for reaching $T_c \\to 0$. The refrigerator is based on an Otto cycle where the working medium is an interacting spin system with an energy gap. For this system the external control Hamiltonian does not commute with the internal interaction. As a result during the demagnetization and magnetization segments of the operating cycle the system cannot follow adiabatically the temporal change in the energy levels. We connect the nonadiabatic dynamics to quantum friction. An adiabatic measure is defined characterizing the rate of change of the Hamiltonian. Closed form solutions are found for a const...

Feldmann, Tova

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

A compact rotating dilution refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 0.001 rad/s up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad/s. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

Fear, M J; Chorlton, D A; Zmeev, D E; Gillott, S J; Sellers, M C; Richardson, P P; Agrawal, H; Batey, G; Golov, A I

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor  

SciTech Connect

A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH); Middleton, Marc G. (West Jefferson, OH)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

289

Heat transfer characteristics of a three-phase volume boiling direct contact heat exchanger  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The advantages of direct contact heat transfer over heat transfer utilizing conventional metallic heat exchangers are listed. The performance characteristics of a three-phase direct contact heat exchanger in near counterflow operation were evaluated using water as the continuous phase fluid and refrigerant 113 as the dispersed phase fluid. Conclusions are drawn from the results having to do with refrigerant injection technique, vessel operating height, mass flow rate of refrigerant, water inlet temperature, operation at pinch point temperature differences below 13 to 20/sup 0/C, and operation with a dispersed phase fluid less dense than water. (MHR)

Blair, C.K.; Boehm, R.F.; Jacobs, H.R.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers  

SciTech Connect

Information contained in this reporters designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. Swell measurements have been made on approximately 50% of the proposed elastomers (94 total)in both the lubricant (7 total) and refrigerant (10 total) materials. Swell behavior in the these fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Transport Refrigeration Units: A Technical Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the prospects for operating transport refrigeration systems on electricity while they are stationary at a distribution center or refrigerated warehouses. Because most transport refrigeration units (TRUs) in use today are powered by diesel engines, concentrations of diesel exhaust products including particulate matter occur near these distribution centers. Operating TRUs on electricity would eliminate diesel exhaust emissions concentrations at these facilities, but would increase cos...

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

292

Low heat-leak cryogenic envelope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plurality of cryogenic envelope sections are joined together to form a power transmission line. Each of the sections is comprised of inner and outer tubes having multilayer metalized plastic spirally wrapped within a vacuum chamber formed between the inner and outer tubes. A refrigeration tube traverses the vacuum chamber, but exits one section and enters another through thermal standoffs for reducing heat-leak from the outer tube to the refrigeration tube. The refrigeration tube passes through a spirally wrapped shield within each section's vacuum chamber in a manner so that the refrigeration tube is in close thermal contact with the shield, but is nevertheless slideable with respect thereto.

DeHaan, James R. (Boulder, CO)

1976-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

293

Building Technologies Office: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Use to Save Money. Learn More. News DOE Issues Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Energy Conservation Standard August 29, 2013 DOE Issues...

294

Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants - Energy Innovation Portal  

Magnetic refrigeration is being investigated as an alternative to conventional gas compressor technology ... because of its potential to save energy and ...

295

An Alternative Refrigeration System For Automotive Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The air conditioning systems currently utilized in automobiles are the vapor compression systems. This type of system has many disadvantages: the refrigerant used is not (more)

McLaughlin, Shannon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

have developed a multi-stage refrigerator, designed to recapture and utilize the acoustic energy that would ordinarily be wasted in traditional Stirling configurations. Available...

297

NIST Quantum Refrigerator Offers Extreme Cooling and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST's prototype solid-state refrigerator uses quantum physics in the square chip mounted on the green circuit board to cool the much larger copper ...

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

298

Magnetic Refrigeration a 21 - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Magnetic Refrigeration a 21st Century Highly Efficient and Green ... Alloy Design and Powder Processing of Mn-Al Based Materials for Rare

299

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

300

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines to someone by E-mail Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on AddThis.com...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm...

302

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... style refrigerator and a freezerless household refrigerator used ... possible that the nature of the cooling system and ... model simply do not cool the side ...

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

303

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys Title U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon...

304

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be used to design and optimize refrigeration cycles as wellCOMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATIONTrial Design Fixed state parameters (bar) Refrigeration

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ERKELEY N ATIONAL L ABORATORY China Refrigerator InformationDivision Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of7 Table 2 Coefficient Values for China Refrigerator 2003

Fridley, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Non-CFC vacuum alternatives for the energy-efficient insulation of household refrigerators: Design and use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy efficiency, environmental issues, and market incentives all encourage government and industry to continue work on thin-profile vacuum insulations for domestic refrigerators and freezers (R/Fs). Vacuum insulations promise significant improvement in thermal savings over current insulations; the technical objective of one design is an R-value of better than 10 (hr-ft{sup 2}-F/Btu) in 0.1 in. thickness. If performance is improved by a factor of 10 over that of CFC-blown insulating foams, the new insulations (made without CFCs or other potentially troublesome fill gases) will change the design and improve the efficiency of refrigerators. Such changes will meet the conservation, regulatory, and market drivers now strong in developed countries and likely to increase in developing countries. Prototypes of various designs have been tested in the laboratory and in factories, and results to date confirm the good thermal performance of these thin-profile alternatives. The next step is to resolve issues of reliability and cost effectiveness. 34 refs., 4 figs.

Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

A Critical Analysis of Technological Innovation and Economic Development in Southern California's Urban Water Reuse And Recycling Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and commercial and industrial refrigeration and freezerrefrigeration equipment (except household-type refrigerators, freezers, and air-conditioners) Industrial

Pilip-Florea, Shadrach Jay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Joint heating and cooling with the aid of a solar installation using a glazed regenerator-heater for the solution  

SciTech Connect

A solar unit for the joint production of heating and refrigeration has been designed on the basis of glazed solution regeneration. The unit is similar to installations employing glazed solution regenerators for cooling alone. Equations are presented for calculating specific refrigeration and heating capacities as a function of such factors as meteorological conditions. The calculations show that the unit has good heating and refrigeration capacity and that optimum performance is obtained when water must be heated to 45 to 55 C.

Khandurdev, A.; Kakabaev, A.; Kurbankuliev, Ch.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training #12;Date | 2Refrigeration Flow Coil Design etc. Finger Print Relationship Every evaporator is unique Unstable Region * = examples

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

310

Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When considering electric driven refrigeration compressors, proper integration with the process may result in reduced power consumption. However, the total utility situation must be considered when evaluating the compressor driver. Conversion from steam drivers to electric drivers may be more economical when considering proper process integration. These questions and various scenarios must be addressed in light of the total process requirements and constraints. During the last few years, Union Carbide has successfully applied ADVENT technology to several complex processes that utilize refrigeration systems. In most cases the design of a complex refrigeration system in isolation (i.e., without considering process integration) generally results in non-optimum refrigeration levels and excessive refrigeration consumption. By applying ADVENT Process Integration Technologv to these non-optimal designs, retrofit projects have emerged that clearly identify how to optimize the existing design with good project economics. This paper presents the results of an ADVENT Process Integration Study for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) of Palo Alto, California. The study objective was to demonstrate process synthesis techniques for retrofit design in two industrial refrigeration intensive processes: an olefins process and a beer brewery process. Study results for each retrofit design are explained along with generalized guidelines for application to other processes. An industry scoping portion of the study is discussed in terms of identifying refrigeration intensive processes. Specific and general conclusions are presented to help facilitate proper industrial refrigeration system design throughout the industry.

Witherell, W. D.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on availability of additional R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on the availability of additional quantities of R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

DATES TO REMEMBER Saturday, May 5 by Noon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the microwave, refrigerator, freezer and dishwasher (interiors and exteriors) with an all purpose cleaner

Löffler, Frank E.

314

Buildings consume 41% of the nation's primary energy, of which equipment uses 57% to provide comfortable indoor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Frigidaire, General Electric, and Whirlpool) controlled 95% of the domestic refrigerator- freezer (RF) market

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

315

Dual Heating and Cooling Sorption Heat Pump for a Food Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex compound sorption reactions are ideally suited for use in high temperature lift industrial heat pump cycles. Complex compound heat pumping and refrigeration provides a number of energy-saving advantages over present vapor compression systems beyond the elimination of CFCs. The elimination of moving parts in complex compound equipment lowers maintenance cost. Since ammonia is used as the refrigerant, the replacement of the mechanical compressor by the complex compound allows for direct modular integration into existing refrigeration plants. The availability of waste heat at a user's site allows for the further potential of substantially reduced energy costs.

Rockenfeller, U.; Dooley, B.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Bubble Pump Design for Single Pressure Absorption Refrigeration Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model has been developed for the design and optimization of a small bubble pump to be used in a single pressure absorption refrigeration cycle to lift the working fluid mixture against gravity and overcome flow friction. This analytical model is developed from two-phase flow fundamentals and incorporates the design parameters of the bubble pump. Parametric studies are carried out and a design optimization for maximum efficiency is performed for various operating conditions. Optimum efficiency is defined as the liquid pumped per unit of bubble pump heat input. The results show the optimum bubble pump tube diameter over a range of operating conditions.

Sam V. Shelton; Susan White Stewart

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Optimal Performance of Quantum Refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. We find that if the energy spectrum of the working medium possesses an uncontrollable gap, then there is a minimum achievable temperature above zero. Such a gap, combined with a negligible amount of noise, prevents adiabatic following during the demagnetization stage which is the necessary condition for reaching $T_c \\to 0$. The refrigerator is based on an Otto cycle where the working medium is an interacting spin system with an energy gap. For this system the external control Hamiltonian does not commute with the internal interaction. As a result during the demagnetization and magnetization segments of the operating cycle the system cannot follow adiabatically the temporal change in the energy levels. We connect the nonadiabatic dynamics to quantum friction. An adiabatic measure is defined characterizing the rate of change of the Hamiltonian. Closed form solutions are found for a constant adiabatic measure for all the cycle segments. We have identified a family of quantized frictionless cycles with increasing cycle times. These cycles minimize the entropy production. Such frictionless cycles are able to cool to $T_c=0$. External noise on the controls eliminates these frictionless cycles. The influence of phase and amplitude noise on the demagnetization and magnetization segments is explicitly derived. An extensive numerical study of optimal cooling cycles was carried out which showed that at sufficiently low temperature the noise always dominates restricting the minimum temperature.

Tova Feldmann; Ronnie Kosloff

2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

318

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

319

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Novel materials for laser refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The status of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids is reviewed, and the various factors that limit the performance of current laser-cooling materials are discussed. Efficient optical refrigeration is possible in materials for which {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} < E{sub p}/8, where {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} is the maximum phonon energy of the host material and E{sub p} is the pump energy of the rare-earth dopant. Transition-metal and OH{sup -}impurities at levels >100 ppb are believed to be the main factors for the limited laser-cooling performance in current materials. The many components of doped ZBLAN glass pose particular processing challenges. Binary fluoride glasses such as YF{sub 3}-LiF are considered as alternatives to ZBLAN. The crystalline system KPb{sub 2}CI{sub 5} :Dy{sup 3+} is identified as a prime candidate for high-efficiency laser cooling.

Hehlen, Markus P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

322

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Scaling and Optimization of Magnetic Refrigeration for Commercial Building HVAC Systems Greater than 175 kW in Capacity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) account for approximately one- third of building energy consumption. Magnetic refrigeration presents an opportunity for significant energy savings and emissions reduction for serving the building heating, cooling, and refrigeration loads. In this paper, we have examined the magnet and MCE material requirements for scaling magnetic refrigeration systems for commercial building cooling applications. Scaling relationships governing the resources required for magnetic refrigeration systems have been developed. As system refrigeration capacity increases, the use of superconducting magnet systems becomes more applicable, and a comparison is presented of system requirements for permanent and superconducting (SC) magnetization systems. Included in this analysis is an investigation of the ability of superconducting magnet based systems to overcome the parasitic power penalty of the cryocooler used to keep SC windings at cryogenic temperatures. Scaling relationships were used to develop the initial specification for a SC magnet-based active magnetic regeneration (AMR) system. An optimized superconducting magnet was designed to support this system. In this analysis, we show that the SC magnet system consisting of two 0.38 m3 regenerators is capable of producing 285 kW of cooling power with a T of 28 K. A system COP of 4.02 including cryocooler and fan losses which illustrates that an SC magnet-based system can operate with efficiency comparable to traditional systems and deliver large cooling powers of 285.4 kW (81.2 Tons).

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL; Mallow, Anne M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Empire Electric Association - Residential Energy Efficiency Credit Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Residential State Government Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Water Heating Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount HVAC Equipment: $250 - $300; additional rebates available for higher efficiency levels Controlled Resistance Heating: $24 - $32/kW Terminal Unit Heat Pump: $170 Water Heater: $100; additional rebates available for warranties, timers, and controls Split System A/C: $300/unit Refrigerator/freezer: $90/unit Refrigerator/freezer Recycling: $40 Dishwasher: $60 Clothes Washer: $80 Provider Empire Electric Association, Inc. Empire Electric Association provides financial incentives to its residential consumers who upgrade to energy efficient appliances and HVAC

325

Gunnison County Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gunnison County Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Gunnison County Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Gunnison County Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Dishwashers: $45/unit Clothes Washers: $60/unit Refrigerators: $60/unit Freezers: $60/unit Refrigerator Recycling: $40/unit Freezer Recycling: $40/unit Electric Water Heaters (30-gal capacity, 6-year warranty, mandated EF rating): $70/unit Super Efficient Water Heater: $120/unit (primary heating must be from geothermal heat pump) Water Heaters (lifetime warranty): Additional $25/unit

326

Springfield Utility Board - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Springfield Utility Board - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Springfield Utility Board - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Springfield Utility Board - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Water Heating Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerators/Freezers: $25 Electric Water Heaters: $25 Clothes Washers: $30 - $80 Recycle Refrigerator/Freezer: $25 Duct Sealing/Testing: $150 - $400 Heat Pump: $500 Ductless Heat Pump: $1,000 Insulation: 50% (100% for qualified low income customers) Provider Springfield Utility Board

327

Ameren Missouri (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ameren Missouri (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Ameren Missouri (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs Ameren Missouri (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling: 3 units Program Info State Missouri Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount CFL's: In-store discounts, Online Store Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling: $50 Air Source Heat Pump: $300 - $650 Central AC: $150 - $425 Electronically Commutated Blower Motor: $50 - $100 Geothermal Heat Pump: $600 Diagnostic Tune-Up: $75 Programmable Thermostat: $25 Electric Storage Water Heater: $25

328

Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

Middleton, Marc G. (Wyoming, MI); Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A computer program designed to optimize the size of an evaporative condenser in a two-stage industrial refrigeration plant was created. The program sizes both the high-stage and low-stage compressors and an evaporative condenser. Once the initial system is sized, a year long plant simulation is performed resulting in electric energy consumption profile and an exergy destruction profile for each component and for the system. The program uses actual regional hourly outside dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures for both sizing and simulation. An exergoeconomic optimization uses the results of the simulation combined with component and energy costs to optimize the condenser size such that both plant costs and energy losses are minimized.

Flack, P. J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. Brown (2004). Industrial Refrigeration Best PracticesD. Brown (2004). Industrial Refrigeration Best Practicesoutlet common in industrial refrigeration Source: Wilcox,

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigeration products use vapor compression technology toicemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and+4.5) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Loveland Water & Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Loveland Water & Power is providing an incentive for its customers to recycle their old refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old...

333

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

334

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

336

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0.25 4700 Cold boxes, environmental chambers R-718 Water 212 0 N/A Steam-driven absorption chiller 4750 Older centrifugal chillers (>200 tons) R-12 CFC -20 1 10900 Old refrigerators and vehicle A/C R-13/C mach. R-123 HCFC 81 1.3 77 Newer centrifugal chillers (>200 tons) R-134a HFC -15 0 1430 Refrigerators

Homes, Christopher C.

338

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, D.P.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

339

Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Source Heat Pump Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source Heat Pumps Work This diagram of a split-system heat pump heating cycle shows refrigerant circulating through a closed loop that passes through the wall of a house. Inside the house the refrigerant winds through indoor coils, with a fan blowing across them, and outside the house is another fan and another set of coils, the outdoor coils. A compressor is between the coils on one half of the loop, and an expansion valve is between the coils on the other half. The diagram is explained in the caption. In heating mode, an air-source heat pump evaporates a refrigerant in the outdoor coil; as the liquid evaporates it pulls

340

Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Source Heat Pump Basics Source Heat Pump Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source Heat Pumps Work This diagram of a split-system heat pump heating cycle shows refrigerant circulating through a closed loop that passes through the wall of a house. Inside the house the refrigerant winds through indoor coils, with a fan blowing across them, and outside the house is another fan and another set of coils, the outdoor coils. A compressor is between the coils on one half of the loop, and an expansion valve is between the coils on the other half. The diagram is explained in the caption. In heating mode, an air-source heat pump evaporates a refrigerant in the outdoor coil; as the liquid evaporates it pulls

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Previous work conducted in the laboratory demonstrated optimal control of refrigerant flow and airflow for a breadboard CVSHP (Miller 1987a). This previous work was continued in the present study by investigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Previous work conducted in the laboratory demonstrated optimal control of refrigerant flow optimal refrigerant flow and airflow control settings. Previous studies by Tanaka and Yamanaka (1982 pump were replaced with fine metering hand valves having variable flow area for both heating

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

342

Consumers Power, Inc - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Consumers Power, Inc - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Consumers Power, Inc - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Consumers Power, Inc - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Construction Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heating Heat Pumps Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Weatherization (Insulation): maximum 500 for both self-installed and contractor-installed materials Program Info Expiration Date 9/30/2013 State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Clothes Washers: $60 Refrigerators/Freezers: $15 Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling: $15 Window Replacements: $6 per square foot

343

South River EMC - Energy Efficient Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

South River EMC - Energy Efficient Rebate Program South River EMC - Energy Efficient Rebate Program South River EMC - Energy Efficient Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Construction Design & Remodeling Ventilation Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Clothes Washers: $25 Refrigerators: $25 Freezers: $25 Dishwashers: $25 Programmable Thermostats: $25 Heat Pumps: $200 Geothermal Heat Pumps: $300 Central A/C: $25 - $50 2nd Freezer/Refrigerator Recycling: $50 CFLs, Cold Cathode, LEDs: $1/bulb Lighting System: $0.30/watt saved Weatherization: $100 - $300

344

EA-1643: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

43: Finding of No Significant Impact 43: Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1643: Finding of No Significant Impact Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commerical Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator-Freezers without Doors; and Remote Condensing Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator-Freezers The proposed action is the establishment of new energy conservation standards for commerical refrigeration equipment. DOE is adopting Trial Standard Level 4 for CRE. Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commerical Freezers, and Commercial

345

EA-1643: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Finding of No Significant Impact 3: Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1643: Finding of No Significant Impact Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commerical Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator-Freezers without Doors; and Remote Condensing Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator-Freezers The proposed action is the establishment of new energy conservation standards for commerical refrigeration equipment. DOE is adopting Trial Standard Level 4 for CRE. Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commerical Freezers, and Commercial

346

Tips: Kitchen Appliances | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tips: Kitchen Appliances Tips: Kitchen Appliances Tips: Kitchen Appliances April 24, 2012 - 8:34pm Addthis ENERGY STAR® Refrigerators Are Cool! ENERGY STAR-qualified refrigerators are 20% more energy efficient than non-qualified models. Models with top-mounted freezers use 10-25% less energy than side-by-side or bottom-mount units. ENERGY STAR® Refrigerators Are Cool! ENERGY STAR-qualified refrigerators are 20% more energy efficient than non-qualified models. Models with top-mounted freezers use 10-25% less energy than side-by-side or bottom-mount units. You can save energy in your kitchen through more efficient use of your dishwasher, refrigerator and freezer, and other common appliances. Dishwashers Most of the energy used by a dishwasher is for water heating.

347

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into high efficiency, low emission supermarket refrigeration technologies. Project Description The project involves the development of a supermarket refrigeration system that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption when compared to existing systems. The challenge is to design a system that is capable of achieving low refrigerant leak rates while significantly reducing both the energy consumption and the refrigerant charge size. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between DOE and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Project Goals

348

Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

Chen, Fang C [Knoxville, TN; Mei, Viung C [Oak Ridge, TN

2002-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

349

Low Level Heat Recovery Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With today's high fuel prices, energy conservation projects to utilize low level waste heat have become more attractive. Exxon Chemical Company Central Engineering has been developing guidelines and assessing the potential for application of low level heat recovery technology. This paper discusses heat distribution systems, latest developments in absorption refrigeration and organic Rankine cycles, and pressure, minimization possibilities. The relative merits and economics of the various possibilities and some guidelines on when they should be considered will be presented.

O'Brien, W. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Tunable Magnetic Regenerator/Refrigerant  

Magnetic regenerators utilize the magnetocaloric effect--the ability of a magnetic field to reduce the magnetic part of a solid materials entropy, generating heat, and then removing the magnetic field, permitting the reduction of temperature with the ...

351

Tacoma Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tacoma Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Tacoma Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Tacoma Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Clothes Washers: $50 - $100 Refrigerator/Freezer: $50 Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling: $30 Heat Pump Testing: $150 - $1,250 Lighting (CFL): Discounts and instant rebates at participating local stores Lighting (Fixtures): Up to $20 off new light fixtures at participating local show rooms and distributors Provider

352

Black Hills Energy (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

unit Freezer: 30unit Dishwasher: 30unit RefrigeratorFreezer Recycling: 50unit CFLLED Bulbs: In-store rebates Black Hills Energy (BHE) offers rebates for residential...

353

Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions March 5, 2013 - 10:35am Addthis Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator technology has come a long way since Dr. John Gorrie (1803 - 1855), a forward-looking inventor, was granted U. S. Patent #8080 for mechanical refrigeration in 1851. In those days, ice was expensive, if it was even available: Blocks of natural ice were carved from frozen lakes and rivers and stored in special warehouses under layers of sawdust for insulation. By the 1890s, pollution and sewage dumping caused by population growth compromised sources of pure, natural ice, threatening the brewing, meat-packing, and dairy industries. As these and other industries sought better solutions, modern refrigeration technology started to evolve.

354

VEE-0079 - In the Matter of Diversified Refrigeration, Inc.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Diversified Refrigeration, Inc. (DRI) requests a six-month exception from the 2001 energy appliance efficiency standards for built-in refrigerators that become effective July 1, 2001. As explained...

355

Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional material. This integration not only advances our EMI problem, it is becoming very urgent to design and fabricate the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC

Wang, Wei Hua

356

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature-stabilization means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, C.M.

1981-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

357

Proposed Methodology for LEED Baseline Refrigeration Modeling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This PowerPoint presentation summarizes a proposed methodology for LEED baseline refrigeration modeling. The presentation discusses why refrigeration modeling is important, the inputs of energy models, resources, reference building model cases, baseline model highlights, example savings calculations and results.

Deru, M.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Transient analysis of a two-phase hydrogen heat switch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A transient, thermal analysis of a two-phase hydrogen heat switch is presented. The heat switch has application to a zero-g, no-moving-part magnetic refrigerator that operates between 7 K and 25 K and provides a one-way thermal path for heat rejection from the refrigerator to the 20 K heat sink. Incorporation of the heat switch is dependent on operating frequency. However, the thermal diode operating characteristic and the high axial thermal conductivity of the heat switch provide advantages over other methods. 3 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Prenger, C.; Stewart, W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Electrocaloric devices based on thini-film heat switches  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new approach to refrigeration and electrical generation that exploits the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of these thin-film heat engines can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches would enable thin-film heat engines to outperform conventional vaporcompression devices.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malloy, Kevin J [UNM

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into high efficiency, low emission supermarket refrigeration technologies.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

International Refrigeration Products International Refrigeration Products (room air conditioners) ) ) ) ) ) Case Number: 2012-CE-1510 NOTICE OF PROPOSED CIVIL PENALTY Date issued: July 9, 2012 Number of alleged violations: 5475 (365 days, 15 models) Maximum possible assessment: $1,095,000 Proposed civil penalty: $109,500 The U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") Office of the General Counsel, Office of Enforcement, alleges that International Refrigeration Products ("IRP") has violated cettain provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42 U.S.C. § 6291 et seq. ("the Act"), and 10 C.P.R. § 429.12. Specifically, DOE alleges: 1. IRP has manufactured 1 a variety of Sea Breeze brand room air conditioners, including basic models WA46YR, WA48YRX, WA410YRX, WA412YRX, WH418ZRX,

362

Of Refrigerators & Regulations | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Of Refrigerators & Regulations Of Refrigerators & Regulations Of Refrigerators & Regulations February 8, 2011 - 9:29am Addthis Jesse Lee White House Director of Online Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from The White House Blog. For those interested in the President's remarks to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and his views on the shared responsibilities of government and business to the American people, our post earlier will give a suitable overview. For those interested in the details of the President's Executive Order on reviewing regulations and their impacts on the economy, Cass Sunstein's post this morning will also be of value. But the President also took a moment during his speech to put the debate over regulation in a different perspective, and to break through the false dichotomy so often

363

Absorption Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:11am Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption coolers available that work on the same principal, but are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. These are also called gas-fired coolers. How Absorption Heat Pumps Work Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

364

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

365

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

366

Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

Calm, James M.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

367

TEST RESULTS FOR A STIRLING-ENGINE-DRIVEN HEAT-ACTUATED HEAT PUMP BREADBOARD SYSTEM T.M. Moynihan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

849044 TEST RESULTS FOR A STIRLING-ENGINE-DRIVEN HEAT-ACTUATED HEAT PUMP BREADBOARD SYSTEM T- of the diaphragms, and corresponding displace- resonant -refrigerant compressor through a ment of oil, is a heat-actuated heat pump '_ ~*,^ (HAHP) that was developed for residential appli- -, / Combustor cations

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

368

Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

ASHRAE/NIST Refrigerants Conference International concerns about the impact of refrigerants on climate change drive the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASHRAE/NIST Refrigerants Conference International concerns about the impact of refrigerants conference between ASHRAE and NIST. Supporting Organizations: NOTE: Registration closes Oct. 18 and includes conference proceedings, daily lunch and dinner Monday evening. ASHRAE Members: $425 Non

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

370

Refrigeration needs for sustainable preservation of horticultural products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fresh horticultural products are highly perishable and need refrigeration for further preservation. Refrigeration needs energy consumption with consequent economical cost and damage for the environment. The objective of the present work was to use efficiently ... Keywords: energy efficiency, food salads, halophytes, postharvest technologies, refrigeration, safe food, sustainability

Custdia Gago; Ana Rita Sousa; Miriam Julio; Graa Miguel; Dulce Antunes; Thomas Panagopoulos

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

HANDLING FRESH FISH REFRIGERATION OF FISH -PART 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Fishery Leaflet 427) Cold-Storage Design and Refrigeration Equipment Part 3 (Fisher y Leaflet 429) FactorsHANDLING FRESH FISH REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 2 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH 428 Washington 25, D, C. December 1956 REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART TWO HANDLING FRESH FISH By Charles

373

Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Retrofitting Doors on Open Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases William Goetzler Navigant Consulting, Inc. wgoetzler@navigant.com (781) 270-8351 April 4, 2013 BBA Refrigeration Project Team Images courtesy of REMIS AMERICA, LLC. 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Technology Overview Image from Investigation of Energy- Efficient Supermarket Display Cases. 2004, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Background and Motivation * Adding doors to open cases (retrofits) greatly reduces cold air loss - 50-80% load reduction - Load reduction = system energy savings

374

Energy effectiveness of simultaneous heat and mass exchange devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous heat and mass exchange devices such as cooling towers, humidifiers and dehumidifiers are widely used in the power generation, desalination, air conditioning, and refrigeration industries. For design and rating ...

Narayan, G. Prakash

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Advanced Refrigerant-Based Cooling Technologies for Information and Communication Infrastructure (ARCTIC)  

SciTech Connect

Faster, more powerful and dense computing hardware generates significant heat and imposes considerable data center cooling requirements. Traditional computer room air conditioning (CRAC) cooling methods are proving increasingly cost-ineffective and inefficient. Studies show that using the volume of room air as a heat exchange medium is wasteful and allows for substantial mixing of hot and cold air. Further, it limits cabinet/frame/rack density because it cannot effectively cool high heat density equipment that is spaced closely together. A more cost-effective, efficient solution for maximizing heat transfer and enabling higher heat density equipment frames can be accomplished by utilizing properly positioned ?¢????phase change?¢??? or ?¢????two-phase?¢??? pumped refrigerant cooling methods. Pumping low pressure, oil-free phase changing refrigerant through microchannel heat exchangers can provide up to 90% less energy consumption for the primary cooling loop within the room. The primary benefits of such a solution include reduced energy requirements, optimized utilization of data center space, and lower OPEX and CAPEX. Alcatel-Lucent recently developed a modular cooling technology based on a pumped two-phase refrigerant that removes heat directly at the shelf level of equipment racks. The key elements that comprise the modular cooling technology consist of the following. A pump delivers liquid refrigerant to finned microchannel heat exchangers mounted on the back of equipment racks. Fans drive air through the equipment shelf, where the air gains heat dissipated by the electronic components therein. Prior to exiting the rack, the heated air passes through the heat exchangers, where it is cooled back down to the temperature level of the air entering the frame by vaporization of the refrigerant, which is subsequently returned to a condenser where it is liquefied and recirculated by the pump. All the cooling air enters and leaves the shelves/racks at nominally the same temperature. Results of a 100 kW prototype data center installation of the refrigerant-based modular cooling technology were dramatic in terms of energy efficiency and the ability to cool high-heat-density equipment. The prototype data center installation consisted of 10 racks each loaded with 10 kW of high-heat-density IT equipment with the racks arranged in a standard hot-aisle/cold-aisle configuration with standard cabinet spacing. A typical chilled-water CRAC unit would require approximately 16 kW to cool such a heat load. In contrast, the refrigerant-based modular cooling technology required only 2.3 kW of power for the refrigerant pump and shelf-level fans, a reduction of 85 percent. Differences in hot-aisle and cold-aisle temperature were also substantially reduced, mitigating many issues that arise in purely air-based cooling systems, such as mixing of hot and cold air streams, or from placing high-heat-density equipment in close proximity. The technology is also such that it is able to retro-fit live equipment without service interruption, which is particularly important to the large installed ICT customer base, thereby providing a means of mitigating reliability and performance concerns during the installation, training and validation phases of product integration. Moreover, the refrigerant used in our approach, R134a, is a widely-used, non-toxic dielectric liquid which, unlike water, is non-conducting and non-corrosive and will not damage electronics in the case of a leak?¢????a triple-play win over alternative water-based liquid coolant technologies. Finally, through use of a pumped refrigerant, pressures are modest (~60 psi), and toxic lubricants and oils are not required, in contrast to compressorized refrigerant systems?¢????another environmental win. Project Activities - The ARCTIC project goal was to further develop an

Todd Salamon

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

376

Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Ductless versions of air-source heat pumps. Absorption Heat Pump Uses heat as its energy source. Geothermal Heat Pumps Use the constant temperature of the earth as the exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. Addthis Related Articles A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar.

377

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) | Department  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) July 9, 2012 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) More Documents & Publications

378

Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates annual dynamic load of a real project to calculate the first investments, annual operation cost and LCC (life cycle cost) of the four schemes, which are electric chillers, electric chillers with ice-storage system, absorption refrigerating machines using excess heat from power plant and absorption refrigerating machines using excess heat from power plant along with ice-storage system. On the basis of the results, the paper analyzes the prospect of the absorption refrigeration using municipal excess heat, as well as the reasonable heat price, which provides a theoretical basis for municipal heating and cooling co-generation development.

Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu

2010-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

380

Refrigeration in a world without CFCs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an era of heightened awareness of energy efficiency and the associated environmental impacts, many industries, worldwide, are exploring ``environmentally friendly`` technologies that provide equivalent or improved performance while reducing or eliminating harmful side effects. The refrigeration and air conditioning industry, due to its reliance on CFCs and HCFCs has invested in research in alternatives to the industry standard vapor compression machines. One alternative technology with great promise is chemical absorption. Absorption chillers offer comparable refrigeration output with reduced SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions. Additionally, absorption chillers do not use CFCs or HCFCs, refrigerants that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction for those new to absorption technology as well as a discussion of selected high efficiency cycles and environmental impacts for those familiar with absorption. The introduction will include a brief history of absorption and a description of the basic refrigeration cycle, while the advanced sections will discuss triple-effect technology and a life-cycle or ``systems`` approach to evaluating global warming impacts.

Garland, R.W. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington D.C. (United States); Adcock, P.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

On the performance of ejector refrigeration systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design characteristics of an ejector refrigeration system using R134a with fixed cooling capacity and fixed inlet temperatures of the external fluids at the inlet of the generator, the condenser and the evaporator are presented for different pressures ... Keywords: COP, R-134a, computer simulation, finite size thermodynamics

Abdelouahid Dahmani; Zine Aidoun; Nicolas Galanis

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

ComEd - Smart Ideas for Your Home Efficiency Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Smart Ideas for Your Home Efficiency Program Smart Ideas for Your Home Efficiency Program ComEd - Smart Ideas for Your Home Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Commercial Weatherization Manufacturing Heating Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling: $50 In-store CFL Discounts: 12 bulbs and 6 fixtures Weatherization Incentives: 50% Program Info Funding Source Illinois Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (EEPS) surcharge State Illinois Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting In-store Discounts: varies Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling: $35 Energy Star Clothes Washer Rebate: $75

383

Commissioning and Operational Experience with 1 kW Class Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier for SST?1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The helium refrigerator/liquefier (R/L) for the Steady State Super conducting Tokamak (SST?1) has been developed with very stringent specifications for the different operational modes. The total refrigeration capacity is 650 W at 4.5 K and liquefaction capacity of 200 l/h. A cold circulation pump is used for the forced flow cooling of 300 g/s supercritical helium (SHe) for the magnet system (SCMS). The R/L has been designed also to absorb a 200 W transient heat load of the SCMS. The plant consists of a compressor station

C. P. Dhard; B. Sarkar; Ruchi Misra; A. K. Sahu; V. L. Tanna; J. Tank; P. Panchal; J. C. Patel; G. D. Phadke; Y. C. Saxena

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

385

Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Global Warming Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy

386

Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Analysis of Mass Flow and Enhanced Mass Flow Methods of Flashing Refrigerant-22 from a Small Vessel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mass flow characteristics of flashing Refrigerant-22 from a small vessel were investigated. A flash boiling apparatus was designed and built. It was modeled after the flashing process encountered by the accumulator of air-source heat pump systems. Three small pyrex glass vessels were used to hold the refrigerant and allow for visualization studies of the flashing process. Baseline experiments were run varying initial pressure, initial refrigerant amount, orifice diameter, and vessel geometry. Three sets of experiments were run using two passive enhancement methods (the addition of steel balls and the addition of small amounts of oil) and one active enhancement method (the addition of an immersion heater). Furthermore, a lumped-parameter analytical model was developed from basic thermodynamic principles that predicted the rate of depressurization for the flashing refrigerant. The study showed that the initial refrigerant amount and the orifice size had the greatest influence on the mass flow and pressure characteristics during each sixty second test. The initial pressure and vessel volume had less of an impact under the conditions tested. Two of the enhancement methods consistently increased the amount of refrigerant flashed during the tests as compared to the baseline data for the same initial conditions. The addition a 1 cm layer of 3.6 mm steel balls to the base of the vessel increased the amount flashed from 21% to 81% and the addition of the 215-watt flat-spiral immersion heater the increased the amount flashed from 47% to 111 %. Foaming at the vapor-liquid interface was observed with the refrigerant-oil mixture experiments as two of the eight test conditions averaged an increase while six averaged a decrease, ranging from a 21% increase to a 27% decrease. The analytical depressurization model predicted general pressure and mass flux trends, and revisions to the model improved pressure predictions to within 11%.

Nutter, Darin Wayne

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pumps. DOE EX Parte Memo.pdf More Documents & Publications Status Prospects of Green Data Center Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Regional Standards Enforcement...

389

T N YORK, NEW YORKI AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Along with the world's tallest building, Sears Tower, Chicago also has the world's tallest and second Addison & !,o,!estern Winston Tower Apartments Touhy & Kedzie RECLAIMED LAND As of 1930, land that had outside the plant. A water spray was installed over the refuse pit to reduce dust during the dumping

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

390

Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Solar heat collectors. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains selected patents concerning solar heat collector apparatus and systems. Building panels, air conditioning systems, chemical heat pumps, refrigeration systems, and controls are discussed. Applications include residential and commercial building space and water heating, greenhouse heating, and swimming pool heating. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF AIR AND CO2 IN MICROTUBES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by a cooling capacity, which is delivered in those rooms by heat exchangers where a heat transfer fluid - 2 and Fluid Science, 1-3:17. Mortada S., 2010. "Heat transfer performance of a mini-channel evaporator are mini-channel heat exchangers (MCHE) combining high heat transfer coefficients and low refrigerant

Kandlikar, Satish

393

Rotating heat pipe for air-conditioning  

SciTech Connect

A unique rotary hermetic heat pipe is disclosed for transferring heat from an external source to an external heat sink. The heat pipe has a tapered condensing surface which is curved preferably to provide uniform pumping acceleration, the heat pipe being rotated at a velocity such that the component of centrifugal acceleration in an axial direction parallel to the tapered surface is greater than lG and so that the condensing surface is kept relatively free of liquid at any attitude. The heat pipe may be incorporated in an air conditioning apparatus so that it projects through a small wall opening. In the preferred air conditioning apparatus, a hollow hermetic air impeller is provided which contains a liquefied gaseous refrigerant, such as freon, and means are provided for compressing the refrigerant in the evaporator region of the heat pipe.

Gray, V.H.

1976-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Apparatus and process for the refrigeration, liquefaction and separation of gases with varying levels of purity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the separation and liquefaction of component gasses from a pressurized mix gas stream is disclosed. The process involves cooling the pressurized mixed gas stream in a heat exchanger so as to condensing one or more of the gas components having the highest condensation point; separating the condensed components from the remaining mixed gas stream in a gas-liquid separator; cooling the separated condensed component stream by passing it through an expander; and passing the cooled component stream back through the heat exchanger such that the cooled component stream functions as the refrigerant for the heat exchanger. The cycle is then repeated for the remaining mixed gas stream so as to draw off the next component gas and further cool the remaining mixed gas stream. The process continues until all of the component gases are separated from the desired gas stream. The final gas stream is then passed through a final heat exchanger and expander. The expander decreases the pressure on the gas stream, thereby cooling the stream and causing a portion of the gas stream to liquify within a tank. The portion of the gas which is hot liquefied is passed back through each of the heat exchanges where it functions as a refrigerant.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Apparatus and process for the refrigeration, liquefaction and separation of gases with varying levels of purity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the separation and liquefaction of component gasses from a pressurized mix gas stream is disclosed. The process involves cooling the pressurized mixed gas stream in a heat exchanger so as to condense one or more of the gas components having the highest condensation point; separating the condensed components from the remaining mixed gas stream in a gas-liquid separator; cooling the separated condensed component stream by passing it through an expander; and passing the cooled component stream back through the heat exchanger such that the cooled component stream functions as the refrigerant for the heat exchanger. The cycle is then repeated for the remaining mixed gas stream so as to draw off the next component gas and further cool the remaining mixed gas stream. The process continues until all of the component gases are separated from the desired gas stream. The final gas stream is then passed through a final heat exchanger and expander. The expander decreases the pressure on the gas stream, thereby cooling the stream and causing a portion of the gas stream to liquify within a tank. The portion of the gas which is not liquefied is passed back through each of the heat exchanges where it functions as a refrigerant.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Commissioning Test Results for D-Zero's Helium Refrigerator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The test objectives are: (1) Make liquid helium and measure refrigerator capacity; (2) Measure liquid helium dewar heat leak, transfer line heat leak, and liquid nitrogen consumption rates; (3) Operate all cryogenic transfer lines; (4) Get some running time on all components; (5) Debug mechanical components, instrumentation, DMACs user interface, tune loops, and otherwise shake out any problems; (6) Get some operating time in to get familiar with system behavior; (7) Revise and/or improve operating procedures to actual practice; and (8) Identify areas for future improvement. D-Zero's stand alone helium refrigerator (STAR) liquified helium at a rate of 114 L/hr. This is consistent with other STAR installations. Refrigeration capacity was not measured due to lack of a calibrated heat load. Measured heat leaks were within design values. The helium dewar loss was measured at 2 to 4 watts or 9% per day, the solenoid and VLPC helium transfer lines had a heat leak of about 20 watts each. The liquid nitrogen consumption rates of the mobile purifier, STAR, and LN2 subcooler were measured at 20 gph, 20 to 64 gph, and 3 gph respectively. All cryogenic transfer lines including the solenoid and visible light photon counter (VLPC) transfer lines were cooled to their cryogenic operating temperatures. This included independent cooling of nitrogen shields and liquid helium components. No major problems were observed. The system ran quite well. Many problems were identified and corrected as they came up. Areas for improvement were noted and will be implemented in the future. The instrumentation and control system operated commendably during the test. The commissioning test run was a worthwhile and successful venture.

Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

397

Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 Case Number: 2012-CE-1510 International Refrigeration Products, Respondent ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER Issued: July 20, 2012 By the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Energy: 1. In this Order, I adopt the attached Compromise Agreement entered into between the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") and International Refrigeration Products ("Respondent"). The Compromise Agreement resolves the case initiated to pursue a civil penalty for violations of the compliance certification requirements located at 10 C.P.R. § 429.12. 2. DOE and Respondent have negotiated the terms of the Compromise Agreement that resolve this matter. A copy of the Compromise Agreement is attached hereto and incorporated by reference. 3. After reviewing the terms of the Compromise Agreement and evaluating the facts

399

Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

Luis A. Correa; Jos P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

400

Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool  

SciTech Connect

Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy by choosing the right refrigerator and using it efficiently. These tips explain all sorts of ways you can ensure your refrigerator uses as little energy as possible to keep itself cool. So this week, we're curious: Could you save money with your refrigerator? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Money on Summer Holidays? Have You Seen Energy Efficiency Improvements in Your Neighborhood?

402

Japanese Refrigerators : A Field Performance Analysis : Summary Report.  

SciTech Connect

Society generally expects Japanese refrigerators to be more energy efficient than their American-made counterparts. With increasing attention being focused on appliance energy efficiency, research into operating characteristics of Japanese refrigerators has gained importance. Other projects report the monitored energy use of certain models of Japanese refrigerators. In addition, laboratory tests determined energy consumption of certain refrigerators under controlled conditions. In 1987, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) undertook a project to measure and analyze the energy consumption of 12 Japanese-made refrigerators in the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area. This project's purpose was to collect field data on certain models and compare with that collected in other projects and laboratory tests. Japanese energy consumption figures fall 30--40% below those of DOE. This energy savings, if real, could substantially cut baseload power for utilities. Determining typical refrigerator energy use patterns and which environmental factors effect them helps utilities to forecast demand. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Short, John A.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy by choosing the right refrigerator and using it efficiently. These tips explain all sorts of ways you can ensure your refrigerator uses as little energy as possible to keep itself cool. So this week, we're curious: Could you save money with your refrigerator? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Money on Summer Holidays? Have You Seen Energy Efficiency Improvements in Your Neighborhood?

404

Belgirate, Italy, 28-30 September 2005 MICROMACHINED HEAT EXCHANGER FOR A CRYOSURGICAL PROBE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with large refrigeration capacity [2-4] and techniques for real-time monitoring using ultrasound or magnetic that surrounds the cold end of the probe is controlled by the refrigeration power and surface temperature the design and fabrication of the micromachined recuperative heat exchanger for a Joule-Thomson cryosurgical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pump Systems Pump Systems Heat Pump Systems May 16, 2013 - 5:33pm Addthis A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar. A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar. What does this mean for me? Heat pumps can supply heat, cooling, and hot water. Your climate and site will determine the type of heat pump most appropriate for your home. For climates with moderate heating and cooling needs, heat pumps offer an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Like your refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space to a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. During the heating season, heat pumps move heat from the cool outdoors into

406

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Chapter 13. Absorption Refrigeration  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES LEGACY COLLECTION - Sponsored by OSTI -- Chapter 13. Absorption Refrigeration Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us |...

407

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... may result from planned HVAC outages at night or ... recording data after the refrigerator was powered. ... the length of the power outage and the ...

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

408

The Ghana Refrigerator Efficiency Initiative - An Overview of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

refrigeration services the most expensive of energy services in residential Ghanaian households, posing serious financial burden on households. --The problem that this project...

409

Purchase of newer refrigerators slows during economic downturn ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sales data from the Association of Home Appliance ... Decreasing sales of new refrigerators means slower adoption of new energy-efficient technology and less ...

410

Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

It uses a bottom-up approach to estimate residential end-use consumption and evaluate the energy saving potential for refrigerators. References Retrieved from "http:...

411

Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Refrigeration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Management, and Vending Machine Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Refrigeration, Computer Power Management,...

412

Sustainable design of hydrocarbon refrigerants applied to the hermetic compressor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??International environmental concern led to the control and phase out of traditional chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants (CFCs) under the terms of the Montreal protocol. CFCs used in (more)

Garland, Nigel P.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Magnetocaloric Refrigeration Concepts: Current State of the Art  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Refrigeration devices based on the magnetocaloric effect have been ... Some of the major design choices are then evaluated and, based on...

414

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an Appliance Market...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an Appliance Market Transformation Program Design for Africa Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-61251 Year of...

415

Enhancement of the Refrigerant Capacity in Partially Crystallized Gd ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consequently, the magnetic refrigerant capacity of the partially crystallized alloys is ... Alloy Design and Powder Processing of Mn-Al Based Materials for Rare...

416

Heat pump water heater and method of making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION A: PREINTERVIEW OBSERVATION  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION A: PREINTERVIEW OBSERVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SECTION B: HOUSING TYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SECTION C: HOME HEATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 SECTION D: AIR CONDITIONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 SECTION E: WATER HEATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 SECTION F: LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 SECTION G: APPLIANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Cooking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Refrigerators and Freezers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

418

Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Techs new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Techs design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid ...  

The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigera ...

420

Verification of a level-3 diesel emissions control strategy for transport refrigeration units.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Transport Refrigeration Units (TRUs) are refrigeration systems used to control the environment of temperature sensitive products while they are being transported from one place to (more)

Shewalla, Umesh.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A technology with the potential to create efficient and compact refrigeration devices is an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR). AMRRs exploit the magnetocaloric effect displayed (more)

Tura, Armando

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Trends in the cost of efficiency for appliances and consumer electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Boilers (Final Rule), Washington, DC.Energy Efficiency Standards for Consumer Products: Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers (Final Rule), Washington, DC.Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Energy, 1999. Technical

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Section 5.5.2 Food Service/Laundry Equipment: Greening Federal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Section DOEGO-102001-1165 NRELBK-710-29267 May 2001 96 5.5.2 Food ServiceLaundry Equipment REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS In commissaries, refrigerators and freezers can account for...

424

Hisense USA: Order (2010-CE-1211)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE issued an Order after entering into a Compromise Agreement with Hisense USA Corp. after finding Hisense USA had failed to certify that certain models of residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

425

Energy Simulation of Integrated Multiple-Zone Variable Refrigerant Flow System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We developed a detailed steady-state system model, to simulate the performance of an integrated five-zone variable refrigerant flow (VRF)heat pump system. The system is multi-functional, capable of space cooling, space heating, combined space cooling and water heating, and dedicated water heating. Methods were developed to map the VRF performance in each mode, based on the abundant data produced by the equipment system model. The performance maps were used in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. Using TRNSYS, we have successfully setup and run cases for a multiple-split, VRF heat pump and dehumidifier combination in 5-zone houses in 5 climates that control indoor dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity. We compared the calculated energy consumptions for the VRF heat pump against that of a baseline central air source heat pump, coupled with electric water heating and the standalone dehumidifiers. In addition, we investigated multiple control scenarios for the VRF heat pump, i.e. on/off control, variable indoor air flow rate, and using different zone temperature setting schedules, etc. The energy savings for the multiple scenarios were assessed.

Shen, Bo [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Solar absorption refrigeration system using new working fluid pairs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absorption refrigeration systems powered by solar energy increasingly attract research interests in the last years. In this study, thermodynamic analyses for different working fluid pairs are performed. A computer simulation model has been developed ... Keywords: NH3-LiNO3, absorption, crystallization, generator, performance, refrigeration, solar energy

Jasim M. Abdulateef; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; M. A. Alghoul; Mohd Yusof Sulaiman; Azami Zaharim; Ibrahim Ahmad

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Performance monitoring strategies for effective running of commercial refrigeration systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refrigeration systems often represent the largest electricity consumers in the supermarkets. Therefore there is a clear need for running these systems effectively. Performance monitoring uses different techniques to determine the actual system state. ... Keywords: COP, FDD, energy monitoring, performance measure, refrigeration

Martin Hrn?r; Petr Stluka

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Energy efficiency strategies in refrigeration systems of large supermarkets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy efficiency and its relationship with sustainable development are one of the most important objectives in modern engineering systems. In Industrial Installations that use refrigeration systems that are associated with the food industry, this optimization ... Keywords: energy efficiency, optimizing parameters, refrigeration systems, supermarkets

J. M. Garcia; L. M. R. Coelho

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Description and validation of a computer based refrigeration system simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes and evaluates the validation of a novel software package which simulates the transient and steady-state operation of whole refrigeration systems of the type used for the storage and processing of food. This software allows practitioners ... Keywords: Computer simulation, Food processing, Modelling, Refrigeration

I. W. Eames; T. Brown; J. A. Evans; G. G. Maidment

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigeration control. The goal of this project is twofold: to design an efficient and economically feasibleEmbedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1 Leon Reznik and Shane Spiteri intelligent industrial controller on one hand and to test and further develop a smart device design approach

Reznik, Leon

432

REFRIGERATION OF FISH PART 5 DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFRIGERATION OF FISH· PART 5 DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING OF FROZEN FISHERY PRODUCTS UNITED STATES in a series of five on "Refrigeration of Fish." Titles of the other four leaflets are: Part 1 (Fishery Leaflet 427) -- Cold-Storage Design and Refrigera- tion Equipnent Part 2 (Fishery Leaflet 428) -- Handling

433

New concepts for refrigerant leak detection and mixture measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the discovery that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) destroy the ozone layer, the need to reduce the release of these refrigerants into the environment has become critical. A total ban of ozone-depleting CFCs is expected within a few years, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and fluorocarbons (FCs) and their mixtures are expected to be used during a transition period. Several HFC and FC refrigerants are currently being considered as CFC substitutes. The electronic refrigerant leak detectors currently being considered as CFC substitutes. The electronic refrigerant leak detectors currently on the market were developed to detect CFCs and are not as sensitive to HFCs. Although incremental improvement can be made to these devices to detect HFCs, they often lead to increased false signals. Also, there is no simple device available to measure the composition of a refrigerant mixture. The authors present two new concepts to aid in the development of two portable instruments that can be used for HFC leak detection and for quantitative measurement of refrigerant mixture compositions. The development of simple, easy-to-use portable leak detectors and refrigerant mixture meters is essential to the wide use of alternative refrigerants in industry.

Chen, F.C.; Allman, S.L.; Chen, C.H.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd.sub.0.54 Er.sub.0.46)AlNi alloys having a relatively constant .DELTA.Tmc over a wide temperature range.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Radial wave thermoacoustic engines: Theory and examples for refrigerators and high?gain narrow?bandwidth photoacoustic spectrometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical analysis of radial wave thermoacoustic engines in cylindrical resonators is developed. Impedance and pressure translation equations are presented for open sections of the resonator and for heat exchangers. Coupled first?order differential equations are given for pressure and impedance in the temperature gradient supporting engine section (stack). These quantities are used to calculate heat and work flows and to predict engine performance. Theory and design of a variable quality factor resonator for enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy are presented. The short stack approximation is developed for the radial geometry and is used along with plane?wave equations to compare refrigerator performance for these two geometries. Results of the comparison are that engines in the plane?wave geometry are better overall refrigerators when maximizing the coefficient of performance and cooling capacity together.

W. Patrick Arnott; Richard Raspet; Hans Moosmller

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Refrigerant Guide[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for refrigeration is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

437

Cowlitz County PUD - Residential Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cowlitz County PUD - Residential Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate Cowlitz County PUD - Residential Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate Program Cowlitz County PUD - Residential Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerator/Freezer: $25 Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling: $30 Clothes Washer: $30 - $70 Water Heater: $25 - $70 Provider Cowlitz County Public Utility District Cowlitz County PUD offers the EnergySHARE Plus appliance rebate program to its residential customers. Rebates are offered for Energy Star clothes washers, refrigerators and freezers (including the proper recycling of old units), and energy efficient water heaters. Rebates range from $25 - $70.

438

After-hours power status of office equipment and energy use of miscellaneous plug-load equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industrial refrigerator, S freezer incandescent tracklight, 50 lamps each phone/PBX centrex system coffee maker, residential model microwave oven

Roberson, Judy A.; Webber, Carrie A.; McWhinney, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.; Pinckard, Margaret; Busch, John F.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

An Integrated Refrigeration, Humidity Control and HVAC Solution for Supermarkets: Field Demonstration at a Wal-Mart SuperCenter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a systematic approach to developing an energy efficient and cost effective solution for refrigeration, humidity control, indoor air quality, and space heating and cooling for large retail super centers. The report also presents the results of a field demonstration using a newly developed integrated system that achieved significant energy savings and other benefits compared to the state-of-the-art system.

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

440

Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental and analytical study concerned with the off-design refrigerant charging of air conditioners is presented. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of refrigerant charge and type of expansion device on the system performance (capacity, EER, SEER, etc.) of an air conditioner. All experiments were performed according to the ASHRAE Standard [1983]. The effects of off-design refrigerant charge in the system, type of expansion device (capillary tube, TXV, and short-tube orifice), and outdoor dry-bulb temperature (82 to l00F) on the wet and dry steady state and cyclic tests are addressed in this study. The fully charged condition was established as a base case for all the expansion device systems. A full charge was obtained by charging the unit to the superheat or subcooled condition specified by the manufacturer charging chan. Once the full charge was determined, refrigerant was then added in 5% increments from -20% of full charge to +20% of full charge to cover the full range of charging conditions for a particular expansion device being tested. The investigation of off-design charging indicated that the system performance variables (total capacity, EER, and SEER) of the unit with capillary tube were more sensitive to off-design charging than the systems with TXV and short-tube orifice. From -20% to +20% charging, the capacity and EER showed a strong dependence on the outdoor temperature, but varied little with charge for the TXV and short-tube orifice expansion systems. A -20% charging resulted in a 21% reduction in SEER while a +20% charging produced an 11% reduction in SEER for the unit with capillary tube. For the TXV, SEER dropped 2% and 8% for -20% and +20% refrigerant charging, respectively. The SEER was constant at 9.4 for all the charging condition except for -5% charging where it peaked to 9.9 for the short-tube orifice expansion system. This trend would suggest that the range of sensitivity of a short-tube orifice system is confined within a small refrigerant charge. A new heat exchanger model based on tube-by-tube simulation was developed and integrated into the ORNL heat pump model. The model was capable of simulating the steady state response of a vapor compression air-to-air heat pump and air conditioner commonly used in residential applications. The simulated results were compared with laboratory tests at two outdoor temperatures. It was found that the ORNL model estimates were within an average of 3% of the experimental results from - 10% to +10% charging conditions. The model predicted the system performance up to 8% higher than measured results at +/-20% and +/-15% charging conditions. Among the eight void fraction models studied, the Hughmark model showed the best agreement between superheat and subcooled temperatures, refrigerant flow rate and capacity and the measured results.

Farzad, Mohsen

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and condensation heat transfer in tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of condensing refrigerant R-12 was studied experimentally. Flow patterns in glass return bends of 1/2 to 1 in. radius and 0.315 ...

Traviss, Donald P.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Nanoscale devices for solid state refrigeration and power generation, Twentieth Annual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A brief review of various techniques to engineer nanoscale thermal and electrical properties of materials is given. The main emphasis is on various energy conversion mechanisms, particularly, thermo electric refrigeration and power generation. Recent experimental and theoretical results on superlattice and quantum dot thermoelectrics and solidstate and vacuum thermionic thin film devices are reviewed. We also present an overview of the research activities at the multi university Thermionic Energy Conversion Center on the design of solid-state and vacuum devices that could convert heat into electricity with hot side temperatures ranging from 300 to 650C and with high conversion efficiency.

Ali Shakouri

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products or systems that heat, cool and heat domestic water, which are also referred to as integrated systems, have been available for several years. The concept is simple and appeals to consumers. This paper presents methods for evaluating the potential savings by using an integrated system that heats water by desuperheating discharge gas in the refrigeration cycle. The methods may be applied for any specific location, and their accuracy will depend on the accuracy of building loads and water usage estimates. Power demand can also be affected by electric water heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks.

Cawley, R.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Heat transfer characteristics of a surface type direct contact boiler  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two direct contact heat exchangers were constructed and test results were obtained using water and refrigerant 113 as the working fluids. The heat exchangers were operated in a three-phase mode; the water remained liquid throughout the vessel and the liquid refrigerant 113 underwent vaporization following direct injection into the water. The effect of important operational parameters--operating heights, refrigerant 113 injection techniques, mass flow ratios, and temperatures--was studied to determine generalized trends important in the design and operation of a prototype three-phase direct contact heat exchanger. The primary system used in this study performed well overall. The initial favorable results of this study warrant further investigation of direct contact heat exchange as a means of utilizing geothermal energy.

Deeds, R.S.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Thermosyphon coil arrangement for heat pump outdoor unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

For a heat pump, the outdoor unit is provided with a coil and a refrigerant flow arrangement there for which is such that in the heating mode of operation of the heat pump they operate in a thermosyphon fashion. The coil has a feed portion and an exit portion leading to a separator drum from which liquid refrigerant is returned through downcomer line for recirculation to the feed portion. The coil is tilted upwardly from entry to exit by the angle alpha to enhance the clearance of the two phases of refrigerant from each other in the heating mode of operation. There is no thermosyphon function in the cooling mode of operation. 9 figs.

Draper, R.

1984-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

446

HVAC Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project HVAC Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) optimized heat exchangers. The information generated in this study will demonstrate performance improvements that can be achieved through optimization of refrigerant circuitry for non-uniform inlet air distribution. The tubing circuitry on fin-tube heat exchangers used in residential space-conditioning systems is typically designed assuming uniform airflow through the finned passageways. However, the air flow in installed systems is highly non-uniform, resulting in mismatched refrigerant-air heat transfer that reduces the capacity of the heat exchanger and efficiency of

447

Evolution of the Standard Helium Liquefier and Refrigerator Range designed by Air Liquide DTA, France  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evolution of the Standard Helium Liquefier and Refrigerator Range designed by Air Liquide DTA, France

Crispel, S; Caillaud, A; Delcayre, F; Grabie, V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

www.heatpumpcentre.org IEA HEAT PUMP PROGRAMME  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of residential HP and AC annual/ seasonal performance (Operating Agent: SE) Establish common calculation and test ­ Refrigeration Covers applications in ­ Residential and commercial buildings ­ Industry HEAT PUMPING TECHNOLOGY boilers and gas boilers Annex 38 - Systems using solar thermal energy in combination with heat pumps

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

449

Eau Claire Energy Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eau Claire Energy Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Eau Claire Energy Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Eau Claire Energy Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Manufacturing Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Clothes washer: $25 Dishwashers: $25 Refrigerators: $25 Room Air Conditioner: $25 Dehumidifier: $25 Refrigerator/Freezer/Room AC Recycling: $25 Central Air Conditioner/Mini Split: $40 - $80/Ton Air Source Heat Pump/Mini-Split Heat Pumps: $150/Ton Package Terminal Heat Pump: $150/Ton Geothermal Heat Pump: $300/Ton

450

Effect of parasitic refrigeration on the efficiency of magnetic liquefiers  

SciTech Connect

Our studies have shown that magnetic refrigerators have the potential to liquefy cryogens very efficiently. High efficiency is especially important for liquid hydrogen and natural gas applications where the liquefaction costs are a significant fraction of the total liquid cost. One of the characteristics of magnetic refrigerators is the requirement for a high-field superconducting magnet. Providing a 4.2-K bath for this magnet will require a small amount of parasitic refrigeration at 4.2 K even though the rest of the liquefier may be at 110 K (liquid natural gas) or higher. For several different refrigeration power levels at 4.2 K, we have calculated the efficiency of the magnetic liquefier as a function of power, temperature and the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency. The results show that if the ratio of the thermal load at 4.2 K to the main refrigerator power is 0.001 or less, the effect on the efficiency of the liquefier is negligible at all temperatures below room temperature provided the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency is high.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

FirstEnergy (Potomac Edison) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Potomac Edison) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Potomac Edison) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program FirstEnergy (Potomac Edison) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Construction Design & Remodeling Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Room AC/Room AC Recycling: Limit 3 All Other Appliances: Limit 1 per household Home Performance Programs: 15% of cost for insulation Program Info Expiration Date 12/31/2014 State Maryland Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerator-Freezers: Up to $150 Freezers: $75 Room AC: $25 Clothes Washer: Up to $100

453

Enhanced shell-and-tube heat eschangers for the power and process industries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Single-tube pool boiling tests were performed with saturated pure refrigerants and binary mixtures of refrigerants. Generally, with pure refrigerants, the High Flux surface performed better at the higher heat fluxes compared to the Turbo-B tube, and both enhanced surfaces performed significantly better than smooth surface. In tests of R-11/R-113 mixtures, the enhanced surfaces had much less degradation in heat transfer coefficient due to mixture effects compared to smooth tubes; the largest degradation occurred at a mixture of 25% R-11/75% R-113. Under boiling in saturated aqueous solution of calcium sulfate, with a single tube, effects of fouling were more pronounced at the higher heat fluxes for all surfaces. Two staggered tube bundles were tested with tube pitch-diameter ratios of 1.17 and 1.50. For the pure refrigerant, tests on the smooth-tube bundle indicated that the effects on the heat transfer coefficient of varying mass flux, quality, and tube-bundle geometry were small, except at low heat fluxes. Neither enhanced surface showed any effect with changing mass flux or quality. The binary mixture bundle-boiling tests had results that were very similar to those obtained with the pure refrigerants. When boiling a refrigerant-oil mixture, all three surfaces (smooth, High Flux, and Turbo-B) experienced a degradation in its heat transfer coefficient; no surface studied was found to be immune or vulnerable to the presence of oil than another surface.

Bergles, A.E.; Jensen, M.K.; Somerscales, E.F.; Curcio, L.A. Jr.; Trewin, R.R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Microcomputer Software for Refrigerant Property and Cycle Analysis Calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A microcomputer program entitled REFRIG has been developed to determine the thermodynamic properties of common refrigerants and to analyze vapor-compression refrigeration cycles. This paper describes the theoretical basis for property determination and for the cycle analysis. Validation of property calculations is discussed. A number of features are described which have been incorporated into the program to enhance its usefulness to the engineer in analyzing system performance. Two example cases are presented to illustrate the application of the program to problems in design and operation of refrigeration systems.

Bierschenk, J. L.; Strohl, S. T.; Schmidt, P. S.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SCIENTIFIC REPORT SCIENTIFIC REPORT Title Page Project Title: New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-04GO14327 Document Title: Final Scientific Report Period Covered by Report: September 30, 2004 to September 30, 2005 Name and Address of Recipient Organization: Magnetic Development, Inc., 68 Winterhill Road, Madison, CT 06443, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Contact Information: Mark J. Bergander, Ph.D., P.E., Principal Investigator, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Project Objective (as stated in the proposal): The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient

456

Safety audit of refrigerated liquefied gas facilities  

SciTech Connect

An Exxon Research and Engineering Co. comprehensive review of engineering practices and application of safety requirements at Exxon's world-wide refrigerated liquefied hydrocarbon gas storage and handling installations, which included a field audit of about 90 tanks at 30 locations, showed that catastrophic tank failure was not a credible event with properly operated and maintained tanks designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with API Standard 620, Design and Construction of Large Welded Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, although supplemental requirements were suggested to further enhance safety. The review also showed that any meaningful safety audit should be comprehensive and must include all facilities with careful attention to detail. The review embraces products of -1 to -167C and included LNG, ethylene, LPG, and LPG olefins. Recent and proposed LNG safety legislation; some field audit results; and recommendations as to design, construction, and operation of LNG and LPG storage facilities, marine terminals, and tankers, are also discussed.

Feely, F.J.; Sommer, E.C.; Marshall, B.T.; Palmer, A.J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Designing Environmentally Safe Refrigerants Using Mathematical Programming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computer aided molecular design is a strategy in which a set of structural groups are systematically combined to form molecules with desired properties. In this paper, a mathematical programming based approach to computer aided molecular design is presented. Using a set of structural groups, the problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear program in which discrete variables represent the number of each type of structural groups present in the candidate compound. The augmentedpenalty /outer-approximation algorithm is used to solve the MINLP to obtain compound(s) with an optimum value of an appropriate performance index such that molecular structural constraints, physical property constraints and process design limitations are met. With the current renewed interest in the environment, the suggested approach is applied to refrigerant design with an environmental constraint. The results indicate the viability of this approach. INTRODUCTION The chemical industry is constantly explo...

Amit P. Duvedi; Luke E. K. Achenie; Copyright Amit Duvedi; Luke Achenie

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Refrigeration Pages using the property "Building/SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 4.24846345193 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 24.6944086225 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 1.29913989581 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 7.46645043826 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 +

459

DOE Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy Matter DOE Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy Matter November 14, 2008 - 4:47pm Addthis ENERGY STAR® Program Continues to Help American Consumers Make Energy Efficient Choices WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced an agreement with LG Electronics, USA, Inc. (LG), resolving concerns related to energy usage measurements reported on LG French Door refrigerators with through-the-door ice and water service. The ENERGY STAR® program helps American consumers make energy efficient choices, saving billions of dollars while protecting the environment by using identified energy efficient products and practices. "DOE believes that the actions LG plans to take will benefit consumers and

460

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of Freon refrigerants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of Freon refrigerants. The following refrigerants can be analyzed F-11, F-12, F-13, F-14, F-21, F-22, F-23, F-113, and F-114. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for these refrigerants given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and entropy, pressure and enthalpy, temperature and quality, temperature and specific volume, and temperature and pressure. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a refrigerant as the working fluid. The Downing form of the Martin equation of state was used. This report contains a brief description, flow chart and listing of all subroutines required.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating refrigeration freezers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of freon refrigerants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of Freon refrigerants. The following refrigerants can be analyzed F-11, F-12, F-13, F-14, F-21, F-22, F-23, F-113, and F-114. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for these refrigerants given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and entropy, pressure and enthalpy, temperature and quality, temperature and specific volume and temperature and pressure. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a refrigerant as the working fluid. The Downing form of the Martin equation of state was used. A brief description, flow chart, and listing of all subroutines required are presented.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462