National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for heating oils gasoline

  1. NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4.5 for heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret can purchase two types of crude oil: crude 1 (at £12 per

  2. NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret purchases crude oil at a price of £11 per barrel. Each day to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

  3. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  4. Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and...

  5. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified...

  6. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  7. Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices Ahmed distributed lags (NARDL) mod- el to examine the pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas-through of crude oil prices to the prices of refined petroleum products and other commodities. Most of them make

  8. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average *...

  9. Residential heating oil price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administration (EIA)heating oil

  10. Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines: · Oil samples can be collected during oil changes. Follow manufacturers recommendations on frequency (hours, mileage, etc) of oil changes. · Capture a sample from the draining oil while the oil is still hot

  11. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  12. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  13. A short and simple explanation of how oil is converted into gasoline and then brought to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A short and simple explanation of how oil is converted into gasoline and then brought to you Blending [Step 5] DiSTRibuTiON [Step 6] CONSumER uSE #12;3 SOuRCES 1 The most common method of obtaining the products produced from this petroleum, gasoline represents about half of the total product volume

  14. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3,4,heating oil

  15. Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    million barrels, and nearly 9 million of that is gasoline. With fuel prices rising, consumers are lookingConverting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels are created and produced. The company has a proprietary

  16. Residential heating oil price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administration (EIA) ‹heating

  17. Residential heating oil price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administration (EIA)heating

  18. Does Big Oil Collude and Price Gouge? Big Oil came back into the headlines in recent weeks with another spike in gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    with another spike in gasoline prices and their reported record profits. Some months ago, during the last gasoline price spike, Congress summoned the executives of the Big Oil companies to testify aboutDoes Big Oil Collude and Price Gouge? Big Oil came back into the headlines in recent weeks

  19. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases9,heating oil

  20. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3, 2014heating

  1. Production of gasoline and distillate fuels from light cycle oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Owens, P.J.; Sarli, M.S.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes a process for the co-production of high quality gasoline and distillate products from catalytically cracked feedstocks. It comprises catalytically cracking a hydrocarbon feedstock to produce a substantially dealkylated cracked product, hydrocracking the substantially dealkylated product with a hydrocracking catalyst at a hydrogen partial pressure not greater than 1200 psig and a conversion to gasoline boiling range products not more than 75 wt. percent; separating the products of hydrocracking into a gasoline boiling range fraction, a first distillate range fraction boiling immediately above the gasoline fraction with an end point in the range of 450{degrees} to 500{degrees} F and a second, higher boiling distillate fraction which is more paraffinic than the first distillate fraction; recycling at least a portion of the first, lower boiling distillate fraction to the catalytic cracking step, recovering the second, higher boiling distillate fraction.

  2. Production of gasoline and distillate fuels from light cycle oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Owens, P.J.; Sarli, M.S.

    1991-01-15

    This patent describes a process for the co-production of high quality gasoline and distillate products from catalytically cracked feedstocks. It comprises: hydrocracking a substantially dealkylated feedstock with a hydrocracking catalyst at a hydrogen partial pressure not greater than 1200 psig and a conversion to gasoline boiling range products not more than 75 wt. percent; separating the products of hydrocracking into a gasoline boiling range fraction, a first distillate range fraction boiling immediately above the gasoline fraction with an end point in the range of 450{degrees} to 500{degrees} F. and a second distillate fraction boiling above the first distillate fraction; recycling at least a portion of the first distillate fraction to the hydrocracking step to effect saturation and partial cracking of aromatics in the recycled fraction to increase the paraffin content of the second distillate fraction; recovering the second distillate fraction.

  3. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

  4. Residential heating oil prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases9, 20155,heating

  5. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases9,heating

  6. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases9,heating2, 2014

  7. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases9,heating2,

  8. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-11-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines (RFG) are estimated. Both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components are included. The effects on energy and crude oil use of using various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis illustrates that production of RFG requires more total energy than that of conventional gasoline but uses less crude oil. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than RFG with MTBE or ETBE. A specific proposal by the EPA designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over that for the base RFG with MTBE.

  9. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-10-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasoline (RFG) are estimated. The scope of the study includes both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components. The effects on energy and crude oil use of employing various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen-content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis shows that production of RFG requires more total energy, but uses less crude oil, than that of conventional gasoline. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than does RFG with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tertiary butyl ether. A specific proposal by the US Environmental Protection Agency, designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG, would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over the corresponding values for the base RFG with MTBE.

  10. Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, David

    Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per barrel of crude oil are given in following table: Gasoline Sale Price per barrel Gas 1

  11. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  12. 1 What is Oil ? General information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    of petroleum products manufactured from crude oil. Many are for specific purposes, for example motor gasoline gasoline to heavier ones such as fuel oil. Oil #12;Crude oil Natural gas liquids Other hydrocarbons Additives/blending components Refinery feedstocks Refinery gas Transport diesel Ethane Heating and other

  13. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-07-15

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  14. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases Theheating oil

  15. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil prices

  16. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil prices5, 2014

  17. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil prices5,

  18. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil

  19. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3, 2014

  20. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3,

  1. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3,4, 2013

  2. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3,4,

  3. Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems July 27, 2014 - 5:41pm Addthis Install a new energy-efficient furnace to save money over the long...

  4. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administrationheating oil price

  5. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administrationheating oil priceheating

  6. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administrationheating oil

  7. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administrationheating oilheating oil

  8. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administrationheatingheating oil price

  9. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administrationheatingheating oil

  10. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases The average

  11. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases The average6,

  12. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases The average6,5,

  13. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases The

  14. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases Theheating

  15. Residential heating oil price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases

  16. Residential heating oil price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases9, 2015

  17. Residential heating oil price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases9, 20155, 2015

  18. Residential heating oil price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases9, 20155,

  19. Residential heating oil prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases9,

  20. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price

  1. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3,4,heating

  2. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3,4,heating0,

  3. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3,4,heating0,5,

  4. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  5. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  6. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    Formulations Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, 2000-2006 FigureI: Weekly Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices for2001- 2006 Crude Oil CA Regular Reformulated Figure II:

  7. DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating...

  8. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Act, as amended, sets conditions for the release of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. The Secretary of Energy has the authority to sell, exchange, or otherwise...

  9. Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, David

    by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per barrel of crude oil are given in following table: Gasoline Sale Price per barrel Gas 1 $70 Gas 2 $60 Gas 3 $50 Oil Purchase Price per barrel Crude 1 $45 Gas 2 $25 Gas 3 $20 Sunco can

  10. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    Mortgage or Rent Gasoline and Motor Oil Income after taxesMortgage or Rent Gasoline and Motor Oil Income after taxes

  11. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  12. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve- Online Bidding System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed an on-line bidding system - an anonymous auction program - for the sale of product from the one million barrel Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve.

  13. Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    more about energy-efficient furnaces and boilers. Addthis Related Articles Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems Energy Saver Guide: Tips on Saving Money and Energy at Home...

  14. The stimulation of heavy oil reservoirs with electrical resistance heating 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baylor, Blake Allen

    1990-01-01

    field sample Fig. 26 ? Inflow performance relationship for the simulation with Hycal data 53 55 56 60 62 INTRODUCTION The application of heat to an oil reservoir is a process known as thermal recovery. The oldest known means of thermal...', and in 1986 for the White Wolf field in California. " More recent field tests were reported in Canada" and Brazil. Flock and Tharin ' examined possible thermal recovery techniques for heavy oils. In their discussion of resistance heating, they speculated...

  15. Multi-Factor Model of Correlated Commodity - Forward Curves for Crude Oil and Shipping Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellefsen, Per Einar

    2009-01-01

    An arbitrage free multi-factor model is developed of the correlated forward curves of the crude oil, gasoline, heating oil and tanker shipping markets. Futures contracts trading on public exchanges are used as the primary ...

  16. State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, Betsy

    2002-05-22

    This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

  17. Vegetable oils: liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingley, H A

    1980-02-01

    It has been proposed that vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, be investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. The major thrust of the project was to investigate several thermophysical properties of the four vegetable oils selected. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybean, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination. (MHR)

  18. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle Emissions. 1. Mass Emission Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    California reformulated gasoline on motor vehicle emissions.Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline OIl Motor Vehicleprogress, increased vehicle Gasoline Motor on Vehicle travel

  19. Clearing the Air: The Clean Air Act, GATT and the WTO's Reformulated Gasoline Decision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrory, Martin A.; Richards, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    method requires oil companies to produce gasoline that meetsgas requirements. Companies could certify their gasoline byoil company. PDVSA claimed that the reformulated gasoline

  20. Emerging Heat Exchanger Technologies for the Mitigation of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.; King, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    -heat train exchangers foul is controlled by fluid velocity and by wall temperature. Technologies which promote the heat transfer on the crude oil side of an exchanger are therefore favoured. (Note: promotion of the heat transfer on the hot side of the unit...

  1. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  2. Design of Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Panjeh Shahi, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-02-04-21.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 17668 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-02-04-21.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Design of Crude Oil...-ordinates of hot stream inlet/desalter inlet temperature. The slope of the line is given by the ratio of the crude oil heat capacity flowrate to the hot stream heat capacity flowrate. The result could be that shown in Figure 7. ~ ?.JIt...

  3. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, 2000-2006 Figure I:Weekly Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices for 2001- 2006 Crudeargue that increases in oil prices may lead to recessions

  4. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  5. Proceedings of the 1993 oil heat technology conference and workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the proceedings of the 1993 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, held on March 25--26 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and sponsored by the US Department of Energy - Office of Building Technologies (DOE-OBT), in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America. This Conference, which was the seventh held since 1984, is a key technology-transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology (Oil-Heat R&D) program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space- conditioning equipment. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating

  7. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating9, 2014 Residential

  8. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating9, 2014

  9. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batey, John E.; McDonald, Roger

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  10. Heating Oil Reserve | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting OversightEMS Policy HQDepartmentHeatofHeating

  11. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

  12. Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This Conference, which was the sixth held since 1984, is a key technology-transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: Identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend; new initiatives to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; Foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of national security via energy conservation. The 1991 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) two plenary sessions devoted to presentations and summations by public and private sector representatives from the United States, Europe, and Canada; and, (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Comparison of Heating Methods for In-Situ Oil Shale Extraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazra, Kaushik Gaurav

    2014-04-29

    production methodologies. The process of heating oil shale to the pyrolysis temperature can be achieved by direct or indirect heating. Direct heating geometries include the Shell in-situ conversion process (ICP) using down hole electric heaters in vertical...

  14. Application of Carbon Nanocatalysts in Upgrading Heavy Crude Oil Assisted with Microwave Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Application of Carbon Nanocatalysts in Upgrading Heavy Crude Oil Assisted with Microwave Heating, Stanford, California 94305, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Heavy crude oil can that by using carbon nano- catalysts, heavy crude oil can be efficiently upgraded to lighter oil at a relatively

  15. NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE TRIGGER MECHANISM | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department of EnergyNEW1for AcquisitionNORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL

  16. Final report of the Rhode Island State Energy Office on residential no. 2 heating oil and propane prices [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Janice

    2001-04-01

    Summary report on residential No.2 heating oil and propane prepared under grant. Summarizes the monitoring and analysis of heating oil and propane prices from October 2000 through March 2001.

  17. Method for producing gasoline-alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, C.

    1983-05-10

    A process for producing gasoline-ethanol blends comprises purifying dilute ethanol by extractive distillation and concentrating the ethanol by distillation followed by one or both of the following steps: (A) liquid extraction of ethanol into heated gasoline or (B) azeotropic distillation of ethanol with an entrainer followed by blending with gasoline.

  18. Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the major factors that drove the widening difference between wholesale gasoline and crude oil prices in 2007 and explores how those factors might impact gasoline prices in 2008.

  19. Number 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1991/92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1992-06-01

    During the 1991--92 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1991 through March, 1992. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1991--1992 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data and responses to the events which unfolded during the 1991--1992 heating season.

  20. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

  1. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  2. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  3. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  5. Heat and mass transport in non-isothermal partially saturated oil-wax Antonio Fasano1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    Heat and mass transport in non-isothermal partially saturated oil-wax solutions Antonio Fasano1 Mario Primicerio1 Abstract Deposition of wax at the wall of pipelines during the flow of mineral oils of the main mechanisms at the origin of wax deposition, i.e. diffusion in non-isothermal solutions. We

  6. Bouyancy-induced convective heat transfer in cylindrical transformers filled with mineral oil with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    Bouyancy-induced convective heat transfer in cylindrical transformers filled with mineral oil in transformer winding temperature can increase life span by 10% · 3.5 billion gallons of oil used as electrical at 5kVA, 15kVA · tests last for several days at each power level · achieved some "anomalous" readings 7

  7. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion Almost 2 dozen gasoline...

  8. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1990/91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  9. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1993-05-01

    During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  10. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1996--1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1997-08-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1996-97 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used in rural areas where Natural GAs is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity and its perception as a clean heating fuel has increased the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  11. The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    oil price, the expected retail gasoline price and consumption quantities are shown using a short-run demand elasticity assumption

  12. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains which result in...

  13. Models for the Prediction of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Polley, G. T.

    2002-01-01

    for the Prediction of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains B.L. Yeap D.I. Wilson G.T. PoUey Dept. of Chern. Engng. Dept. of Chern. Engng. ESDU International Ltd University of Cambridge University of Cambridge Fouling has two significant effects upon pre heat.... Extended fouling can affect the throughput of the train. The impetus behind exchanger cleaning is often the need to maintain throughput rather than save energy. If we are to be able to consider fouling in the design of crude oil pre-heat trains, we...

  14. The effect of biofuel on the international oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D.

    2010-01-01

    to reduction in crude oil production. The competitive modelbarrel of crude oil is allocated to gasoline production. The

  15. Oil production response to in situ electrical resistance heating 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDougal, Fred William

    1987-01-01

    gO 190 170 160 170 1eo 120 00 IMP ERMEABL E (HEATED) P ERMEABLE lMP ERMEABLE (HEATED) PERMEABLE 0. 25' LOG(r) 640' FIG. 19 ? STEADY ? STATE TEMPERATURE PROFILE FOR CASE S ? 1 P ERMEABLE ~ U1 o cL- NM a5 $o ZP 4 1 170 190 20...

  16. The Impact of Ethanol Production on U.S. and Regional Gasoline Prices and on the Profitability of the U.S. Oil Refinery Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Xiaodong; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2008-04-01

    This report details pooled regional time-series data and panel data estimation used to quantify the impact of monthly ethanol production on monthly retail regular gasoline prices.

  17. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  18. Author's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    more than 16% from 1973 to 1974 when the oil crisis occurred. International oil prices historically-grade unleaded gasoline price data from the Energy Information Administration of the U.S. Department of EnergyAuthor's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi Guangqing Chi a, , Arthur

  19. Gasoline reformulation: Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This first of a two-part article looks at the effects that gas reformulation and vehicle equipment have on emissions. Phase 1 of the AQIRP (Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program) investigated the effect of gasoline properties and composition on emissions from pre-1990 vehicles. In the first half of phase 2, studies focused on better understanding two of the larger effects observed in Phase 1; namely, the effects of fuel sulfur and distillation properties on exhaust emissions. This testing used a fleet of 1989 vehicles. Data generated from both phases played significant roles in development of the US EPA Complex Model, and the CARB Predictive Model. These models predict vehicle emissions as a function of gasoline fuel properties, and represent major portions of reformulated gasoline regulations instituted in the US and California. Fleet-Average exhaust and hot soak evaporative mass emissions and calculated ozone-forming reactivity using the most recent Carter reactivity factors are reported for the various vehicle fleet and fuel combinations. Emissions data are also reported for subsets of the fleets including only the 4-cylinder passenger cars operating on common Fuel, C2, to assess the impact of vehicle technology effects on emissions.

  20. Bio-Oil Deployment in the Home Heating Market

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy| DepartmentofEnergyiT1(BILIWG),Bio-Oil

  1. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part I: Experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    Two-phase flow pattern and heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant-oil mixture flow boiling inside small tubes with inside diameters of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm are investigated experimentally. The test condition of nominal oil concentration is from 0% to 5%, mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat flux from 3.2 to 14 kW m{sup -2}, evaporation temperature of 5 C, inlet quality from 0.1 to 0.8, and quality change from 0.1 to 0.2. Wavy, wavy-annular, annular and mist-annular flow pattern in 6.34 mm tube are observed, while only slug-annular and annular flow pattern are observed in 2.50 mm tube. Oil presence can make annular flow to form early and to retard to diminish in quality direction at nominal oil concentration {>=}3%. Augmentation effect of oil on heat transfer coefficient becomes weakened or even diminishes for small diameter tube while detrimental effect of oil on small tube performance becomes more significant than large tube. For both test tubes, variation of heat transfer coefficient and enhanced factor with oil concentration is irregular. Two-phase heat transfer multiplier with refrigerant-oil mixture properties increases consistently and monotonically with local oil concentration at different vapor quality. (author)

  2. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  3. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane bills

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIARegional energy challengesLower oil prices

  4. Heat Transfer and Thermophotovoltaic Power Generation in Oil-fired Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Hammonds, J.S.; Horne, E.; Kamath, B.; Carpenter, J.; Woods, D.R.

    2010-10-21

    The focus of this study is the production of electric power in an oil-fired, residential heatingsystem using thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion devices. This work uses experimental, computational, and analytical methods to investigate thermal mechanisms that drive electric power production in the TPV systems. An objective of this work is to produce results that will lead to the development of systems that generate enough electricity such that the boiler is self-powering. An important design constraint employed in this investigation is the use of conventional, yellow-flame oil burners, integrated with a typical boiler. The power production target for the systems developed here is 100 W - the power requirement for a boiler that uses low-power auxiliary components. The important heattransfer coupling mechanisms that drive power production in the systems studied are discussed. The results of this work may lead to the development of systems that export power to the home electric system.

  5. With Mathematica Gasoline Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    Preprint 1 With Mathematica and J: Gasoline Inventory Simulation Cliff Reiter Computational for the number of gallons of gasoline sold by a station for a thousand weeks. The pattern involves demands with the delivery and storage of the gasoline and we desire not to run out of gasoline or exceed the station

  6. Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  7. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

  8. The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    economic slowdown cuts oil demand. At the intersection ofoil price, the expected retail gasoline price and consumption quantities are shown using a short-run demand

  9. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    In the Autumn of 1996, consumers and Members of Congress from the Northeast expressed concern about high prices for heating oil and historically low levels of inventories. Some Members of Congress advocated building a Federal inventory of heating oil as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Regional reserves are authorized as part of the SPR for import dependent regions by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. In response, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed a series of studies related to heating fuels, including a study of the desirability, feasibility, and cost of creating a Federal reserve containing distillate fuel. This report documents that study.

  10. Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2007-01-01

    the underlying gasoline than does blending with MTBE. Hence,gasoline like CARB, it effectively differentiated the market. Blending

  11. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene A. Fritzler

    2005-09-01

    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  12. The toxicity of two crude oils and kerosine to cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowe, Loyd Douglas

    1972-01-01

    in this study: c (1) a west Texas raw sour crude oil relatively low in gasoline, naphtha, and kerosine and relatively high in gas oil, lubricating distillates, residue, and sulfur; (2) a west Texas raw sweet d crude oil relatively high in gasoline, naphtha... and Kerosine Administered to Cattle* Characteristic Sweet crude Sour crude Kerosine Light gasoline (/) 14. 2 9. 6 Total gasoline plus naphtha (%) 43. 0 31. 6 Kerosine (/) Gas oil Lubricating distillates (%) Residue (%) Distillation loss (%%d) Sulfur...

  13. Gasoline accounts for about half the U.S. consumption of petroleum products, and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2 Gasoline accounts for about half the U.S. consumption of petroleum products, and its price is the most visible among these products. As such, changes in gasoline prices are always under public scrutiny. Many claim to observe an asymmetric relationship between gasoline and oil prices -- specifically

  14. The Origins of US Transportation Policy: Was There Ever Support for Gasoline Taxes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    and rationing and vehicle taxes over higher gasoline taxes or letting gasoline prices clear the market. GivenThe Origins of US Transportation Policy: Was There Ever Support for Gasoline Taxes? Christopher R. Knittel January 7, 2013 Abstract From 1864 to 1972, the real price of oil fell by, on average, over one

  15. Gasoline Biodesulfurization Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This petroleum industry fact sheet describes how biodesulfurization can yield lower sulfur gasoline at lower production costs.

  16. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

  17. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  18. The end of the age of oil David Goodstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    #12;Energy Myths $4.00 a gallon is too much to pay for gasoline Oil companies produce oil. We must for new oil more affordable. Typically oil companies can only produce one barrel for every three they find

  19. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  20. Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2007-01-01

    and Heterogeneity in U.S. Gasoline Prices, working paper,and J. M . Perloff, 2002. Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes,Gardner, K.W. , 2004. U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil

  1. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  2. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  3. Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer. The deterioration effect is negligible at nominal oil concentration of 1%, and becomes obvious with the increase of nominal oil concentration. At 5% nominal oil concentration, the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture is found to have a maximum reduction of 25.1% and 23.8% for 5 mm and 4 mm tubes, respectively. The predictabilities of the existing condensation heat transfer correlations were verified with the experimental data, and Yu and Koyama correlation shows the best predictability. By replacing the pure refrigerant properties with the mixture's properties, Yu and Koyama correlation has a deviation of -15% to + 20% in predicting the local condensation heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture. (author)

  4. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

  5. Fractional distillation of natural gasoline by means of a modified Podbielniak apparatus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toombs, Alfred John Lawrence

    1939-01-01

    in4ebte4 to the Humble Oil an4 Hefiaing Company for supplying hia with the samples of stabiline4 natural gasolines whish were analgas4 Isbre410t iea ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 I. Deeeriytiaa ot Apyazebue . II. Proeedere . 1T... pxeotionation of a 84. 2 Roid Vapor Pxoeeuro Watuxal Gasoline, Coiuan Uheoaled ~ . ~ . ~ ~ . ~ . . ~ ~ . 50 VII. Data Obtained in tho prost%enation of a 84. 1 Eei4 Vapor Pressure Natural Gasoline, Caiman Cooled . . . . . . . . . 51 VXII Data Obtained...

  6. A Dozen Reasons for Raising Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wachs, Martin

    2003-01-01

    States have the right gasoline tax? University of Californiajuly). A primer on gasoline prices. http://www.eia.gov/pub/Reasons for Raising Gasoline Taxes Martin Wachs RESEARCH

  7. Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    State Specific * Share of Gasoline State Specific * (Share of Gasoline) 2 StateSpecific * (Share of Gasoline) 3 State Specific * (Share of

  8. Market Power in California's Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, James; Lewis, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Price Study Kayser, Hilke A. , 2000. Gasoline Demand andCar Choice: Estimating Gasoline Demand Using HouseholdIN GASOLINE MARKETS.

  9. Diesel vs Gasoline Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vs Gasoline Production Diesel vs Gasoline Production A look at refinery decisions that decide "swing" between diesel and gasoline production deer08leister.pdf More Documents &...

  10. Stock Analysis with Correlation for Gasoline Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yi Xin

    2015-01-01

    with Correlation for Gasoline Companies A thesis submittedwith Correlation for Gasoline Companies by Yi Xin Sun Masterstudied to major gasoline companies based in United States.

  11. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection...

  12. Oil Spills and Farms: Protecting your Business Easy as 1-2-3!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Oil Spills and Farms: Protecting your Business Easy as 1-2-3! Oil spills can damage the water accidentally happens. You need an SPCC Plan if: An oil spill from your farm could reach water and you store oil (such as diesel, gasoline, hydraulic oil, lube oil, crop oil or vegetable oil, etc.) in: Aboveground

  13. Is the gasoline tax regressive?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poterba, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Claims of the regressivity of gasoline taxes typically rely on annual surveys of consumer income and expenditures which show that gasoline expenditures are a larger fraction of income for very low income households than ...

  14. State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, Edmund Philip

    1925-03-15

    of one cent per gallon on gasoline and naptha would yield at the present estimated production, $10,000,000.,>1 At that time the United States Government was having heavy expenses to meet. The European war had begun and there was a great deal... Report 767, 65th Congress, 2nd Session. 4. Laws of Oregon, 1919, Chapter 159. 5. Engineering News-Record, 91:967. (December 13, 1923.) 287] Learned: State Gasoline Taxes 9 registered 7,580,105 automobiles and motor trucks. At pres ent, there are over...

  15. Essays on Automotive Lending, Gasoline Prices, & Automotive Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulz-Mahlendorf, Wilko Ziggy

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline PriceResponse to Chang- ing Gasoline Prices,” unpublishedShort-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand. ,” The Energy

  16. Air Emissions and Oil Displacement Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    and the U.S. costs of oil consumption, including supply disruption risks, increases in world oil prices dueAir Emissions and Oil Displacement Benefits from Plug-in Vehicles The electrification of passenger; and (3) reduce gasoline consumption, helping to diminish dependency on imported oil. Current policy

  17. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    renewable heating oil substitution Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution Two-day agenda from the workshop: Technical...

  18. This Week In Petroleum Gasoline Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil PricesRegular gasoline retail prices

  19. Crude Oil and Gasoline Price Monitoring

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992Thousand 2010 2011

  20. Immersion Condensation on Oil-Infused Heterogeneous Surfaces for Enhanced Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Rong

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties ...

  1. EIS-0039: Motor Gasoline Deregulation and the Gasoline Tilt

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts, including social and economic impacts, that may result from either of two proposed regulatory changes: (1) the exemption of motor gasoline from the Department of Energy's Mandatory Petroleum Price and Allocation Regulations, and (2) the adoption of the gasoline tilt, a proposed regulation that would allow refiners to recover an additional amount of their total increased costs on gasoline.

  2. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    at the world price of oil and prices of gasoline and otherincremental pro?ts when oil prices rise come from both U.S.the recent increases in oil prices and attempts to clarify

  3. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    increases in the price of crude oil during the last half ofdollar-denominated price of crude oil increased about 50%.month contract) price per gallon of crude oil and gasoline

  4. Heat transfer in an oil-steam direct-contact condensation system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waln, Christopher Alexander

    1973-01-01

    Qr~ saddles and pu e oil, Tntalo:( ~B saddles and oil modified?lith 0e 5 por cc nt 1'rct(1decallol. l "xi(1. Invaxox Qq sad(3 los and oi, l medif ied with le G pex cent octadecanole This schesle of ops xeat ion Some va provide(i a vide data...&A:"? f yl "'pl F~'! Qp os s n DFT E!'X X, 5', AT X G' t! 28 Ts, n )OO PEB CENT OF PACKING REPT' FXGUBE 6. TEYu~EBATUHE APPBOPCH PROFILE FOR STAGE out 10O PRB CENT OF PACKTNG DEPTH FXCOPE 9. TEVFEa&TnaE . u'I Hoi;CH . "FOFXLE (HER"-XO~"7 ?" 9 1...

  5. Motor Gasoline Assessment, Spring 1997

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the factors causing the run up of motor gasoline prices during spring 1996 and the different market conditions during spring 1997 that caused prices to decline.

  6. Fluid Mechanics -1 An oil is used in a heat exchanger. The internal geometry consists of many small diameter tubes of fixed length

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Fluid Mechanics - 1 An oil is used in a heat exchanger. The internal geometry consists of many tubes to that of the original tubes. b. (35 pts.) Determine the ratio of the pressure drop across of the flow through a single tube in the bundle. Is the flow laminar? D2. (10 pts.) Determine the pressure

  7. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson

  8. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent Changes in State Gasoline Taxation: An Analysis ofMarch The excise tax on gasoline in New York is 8.0 centsis also a sales tax on gasoline which recently stood at 7.8

  9. Exploring the use of a higher octane gasoline for the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the possible benefits that can be achieved if U.S. oil companies produced and offered a grade of higher-octane gasoline to the consumer market. The octane number of a fuel represents how resistant the ...

  10. Market Power in California's Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, James; Lewis, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Shares of Companies Producing Reformulated Gasoline inpossibility for a company that is in the gasoline storagegasoline producing refineries is divided among 8 companies.

  11. Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to gasoline disruptions as a result of hurricanes and other natural events. Hurricane Sandy in 2012 caused widespread issues related to the availability of gasoline. In...

  12. Gasoline Stock Charts

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWells (MillionProved ReservesYearperDataGasoline Price

  13. Topsoe integrated gasoline synthesis (TIGAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, H.K.; Joensen, F.

    1987-01-01

    Integration of Haldor Topsoe's oxygenate (MeOH, DME) synthesis and the MTG process into one single synthesis loop provides a new low investment route to gasoline from natural gas. The integrated process has been demonstrated in an industrial pilot with a capacity of 1 MTPD gasoline since 1984. The pilot has operated successfully for more than 10,000 hours.

  14. Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong4,Guide to CompleteWeeklyHeating

  15. Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    - 1 - Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina, California Abstract We examine how gasoline price volatility impacts consumers' price elasticity of demand for gasoline. Results show that volatility in prices decreases consumer demand for gasoline in the intermediate

  16. Construction-employment opportunities of four oil-replacing space-heating alternatives for core areas of thirteen major northeastern and midwestern cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Wernette, D.R.

    1980-07-01

    Construction employment opportunities are compared for four oil-replacing technologies providing equivalent space-heating services to the core areas of 13 major northeastern and midwestern cities. The four technologies are: cogeneration district heating, coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electrification (coal-fired power plant). It is observed that the district-heating option places a higher percentage of its capital stock within the center city. It also requires lower occupational skills for its construction than the other three alternatives. In view of the lower average educational level of minorities and their concentration in urban areas, substantially more minority employment should occur if district heating is implemented. This alternative also will provide employment opportunities for unemployed nonminority construction laborers and contribute indirectly to the improvement of inner-city neighborhoods where many unemployed construction laborers live.

  17. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  18. Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  19. Gasoline price spikes and regional gasoline context regulations : a structural approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muehlegger, Erich J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1999, gasoline prices in California, Illinois and Wisconsin have spiked occasionally well above gasoline prices in nearby states. In May and June 2000, for example, gasoline prices in Chicago rose twenty eight cents ...

  20. Effects of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Ken; Turrentine, Tom

    2005-01-01

    of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidof Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidhigh demand for gasoline-hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)?

  1. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cellto petroleum pathways with gasoline and diesel vehicles.simplicity, we use the term ‘‘gasoline pathway” to refer to

  2. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sterner. 1991. Analysing gasoline demand elasticities: A2011. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and incomeMutairi. 1995. Demand for gasoline in Kuwait: An empirical

  3. Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine deer10johansson.pdf More Documents & Publications Partially...

  4. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakober, Chris A.

    2008-01-01

    fraction of light-duty gasoline vehicle particulate matterQuinone emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.32 organic compounds from gasoline- powered motor vehicles.

  5. Edgeworth Price Cycles: Evidence from the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Robbery, An Analysis of the Gasoline Crisis”, Bloomington:Dynamic Pricing in Retail gasoline Markets”, RAND Journal ofR. Gilbert. “Do Gasoline Markets Respond Asymmetrically to

  6. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    University. Espey, M. , 1998. "Gasoline Demand Revisited: AnRun Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand,” working paper.Elasticities of Demand for Gasoline in Canada and the United

  7. Retail Policies and Competition in the Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, Jim

    2005-01-01

    California Gasoline Stations Major Company Operated NumberCalifornia Gasoline Stations Major Company Operated Numberpercentage of gasoline sold from company-operated stations

  8. Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2007-01-01

    Sup) # Sup Squared Crude Oil Price Constant Years of Datafactors using the price of crude oil (Cushings, O K ) . AsN and N-squared. The price of crude oil is a significant and

  9. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Almost 2 dozen gasoline fuels, blending components, and surrogates were evaluated in a single-cylinder HCCI gasoline engine for combustion, emissions, and efficiency performance.

  10. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakala, J. Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Stanchina, William [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Soong, Yee [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200° C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (?') and imaginary permittivity (?'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ?' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ?'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200º C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ?'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ?' and ?'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  11. Reformulated gasoline quality issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.G.; Felch, D.E.; Edgar, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    One year ago, a panel of industry experts were interviewed in the November/December 1994 issue of Fuel Reformulation (Vol. 4, No. 6). With the focus then and now on refinery investments, the panelists were asked to forecast which refining processes would grow in importance. It is apparent from their response, and from other articles and discussions throughout the year, that hydroprocessing and catalytic conversion processes are synergistic in the overall refinery design, with flexibility and process objectives varying on a unit-by-unit case. To an extent, future refinery investments in downstream petrochemicals, such as for paraxylene production, are based on available catalytic reforming feedstock. Just a importantly, hydroprocessing units (hydrotreating, hydrocracking) needed for clean fuel production (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel), are heavily dependent on hydrogen production from the catalytic reformer. Catalytic reforming`s significant influence in the refinery hydrogen balance, as well as its status as a significant naphtha conversion route to higher-quality fuels, make this unit a high-priority issue for engineers and planners striving for flexibility.

  12. Stocks of Conventional Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988 1.996Deutsche Bank AG Oil10:Price27,843 26,836

  13. Gasoline Days of Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption6Fuel Oil andF2:3)GLADY

  14. Household gasoline demand in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Continuing rapid growth in U.S. gasoline consumption threatens to exacerbate environmental and congestion problems. We use flexible semiparametric and nonparametric methods to guide analysis of household gasoline consumption, ...

  15. Price Changes in the Gasoline Market - Are Midwestern Gasoline Prices Downward Sticky?

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The report concentrates on regional gasoline prices in the Midwest from October 1992 through June 1998.

  16. Residential heating oil price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administration (EIA)

  17. Residential heating oil price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administration (EIA)heatingheating

  18. Clean gasoline via VRDS/RFCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, B.E. (Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (US)); Brown, E.C.; Silverman, M.A. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (US))

    1992-04-01

    The need to convert the bottom of the barrel into clean transportation fuels continues to gain importance as crudes become heavier and demand shifts away from heavy, high-sulfur fuel oil products. Increasingly, the emphasis is on processes that can completely convert the residue to lighter products. This paper reports that thermal processes, such as coking-based technologies, suffer from the disadvantages of producing a large amount of low value byproduct (coke or low Btu gas) and require extensive further processing of product liquids. The combination of residuum hydrotreating or hydrodesulfurization (RDS) and residuum fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) has gained wide acceptance due to the direct production of gasoline with only small amounts of low value byproducts. Moreover, the increasingly severe government regulations on diesel fuel quality together with a growth in demands suggests a combination of vacuum gas oil hydrocracking (VGO HDC), vacuum residuum hydrotreating (VRDS) and RFCC. A joint study by Chevron Research and Technology Co. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. (S and W) has shown that vacuum residuum (VR) can be economically upgraded using Chevron's VRDS process into feedstock for the S and W FCC process, even if all of the VGO is processed separately by hydrocracking.

  19. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014:...

  20. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  1. The producer surplus associated with gasoline fuel use in the United States1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    : Q41, Q43 Keywords: oil, marginal costs, producer surplus, gasoline, wealth transfer, drilling costs the average long-run cost ­ is an important part of social cost-benefit analyses of changes in petroleum use, and then applies the estimates of producer surplus to two kinds of social cost-benefit analyses related

  2. A study of the spray injection Reynolds number effects on gasoline yields of an FCC riser reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, B. J.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.

    2000-04-03

    A computational analysis of the combined effects of feed oil injection parameters in a commercial-scale fluidized catalytic cracking riser reactor was performed using a three-phase, multiple species kinetic cracking computer code. The analysis showed that the injection operating parameters (droplet diameter and injection velocity) had strong impacts on the gasoline yields of the FCC unit. A spray injection Reynolds number combining the two parameters was defined. A correlation between the spray injection Reynolds number and the gasoline product yields for various feed injection conditions was developed. A range of spray injection Reynolds number for the maximum gasoline yield was identified.

  3. Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulationand Wholesale Gasoline Prices,” Journal of Environmentaland Heterogeneity in U.S. Gasoline Prices,” Journal of

  4. Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles David R. Worton to "fresh" lubricating oil. The gas chromatography retention time data indicates that the cycloalkane ring with lubricating oil being the dominant source from both gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, with an additional

  5. Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    addressing a number of questions related to biofuels, food, and gasoline and diesel prices. This is a fact sheet on how biofuels are reducing America's dependence on oil. Fact...

  6. Identification of R&D Needs Relating to the Mitigation of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    of industries. In terms of projected implemented fuel savings achievable by the year 2015, minimisation of fouling in crude oil systems was found to be the second most significant of the technologies considered. It yielded a potential fuel saving of 123 TBtu...

  7. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  8. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  9. Essays on gasoline price spikes, environmental regulation of gasoline content, and incentives for refinery operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muehlegger, Erich J

    2005-01-01

    Since 1999, regional retail and wholesale gasoline markets in the United States have experienced significant price volatility, both intertemporally and across geographic markets. In particular, gasoline prices in California, ...

  10. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

  11. Gasoline Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study Gasoline Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: University of Minnesota 2003deerkittelson.pdf More...

  12. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    Nine appendices to the main report are included in this volume. They are: Northeastern US distillate supply systems; New England fuel oil storage capacities and inventories; Characteristics of the northeast natural gas market; Documentation of statistical models and calculation of benefits; Regional product reserve study; Other countries` experience with refined product storage; Global refining supply demand appraisal; Summary of federal authorities relevant to the establishment of petroleum product reserves; Product stability and turnover requirements.

  13. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    H. , and James M. Gri¢ n. 1983. Gasoline demand in the OECDof dynamic demand for gasoline. Journal of Econometrics 77(An empirical analysis of gasoline demand in Denmark using

  14. Retail Policies and Competition in the Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Total Volume Table 4 - Gasoline Price Components Year RetailEvidence from Retail Gasoline Markets." Journal of Law,and Competition in the Gasoline Industry I. II. III. IV. V.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    investment for reducing US gasoline consumption Scott B. Peterson a , Jeremy J. Michalek a,b,n a Dept per gal than oil premium estimates. c Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium

  16. Gasoline allies. [increasing control of regional markets by major petroleum companies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenna, D.

    1993-05-01

    This article concerns recent maneuvers of the major oil companies to control certain gasoline markets. In recent years they have abandoned, or severely reduced their operation in, certain markets to concentrate in others. This has left some regions with only two or three major suppliers of gasoline. Independent operators no longer have the flexibility to shop around for the cheapest gasoline, and are being slowly driven out of business by company-owned stores which sell at artificially low prices. The are several lawsuits in the courts challenging these practices as in violation of the anti-trust laws. The author claims that regional marketing activites of the major companies need closer monitoring by the Federal government.

  17. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and...

  18. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Supercritical dieseline could be...

  19. In Vitro Genotoxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Materials In Vitro Genotoxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust Particulate...

  20. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods...

  1. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of...

  2. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

  3. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis,...

  4. Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from...

  5. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Vehicle Technologies...

  6. High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  7. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation Title Oxidation characteristics of gasoline...

  8. Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster presented at the 16th Directions in...

  9. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    90: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output - Dataset Fact 890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output...

  10. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

  11. Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use Fact 869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures...

  12. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy...

  13. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  14. Gasoline prices decrease (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort version)

  15. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort

  16. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort5, 2014

  17. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort5,

  18. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort5,long

  19. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version)Gasoline prices

  20. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version)Gasoline pricesshort

  1. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  2. Hydrocracking in a low-fuel-oil refinery: a case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, N.D.; Traylor, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    At the TOSCO Bakersfield refinery in California, hydrocracking is an important process the conversion of heavy oil to gasoline. The process facilitates maximizing the yield of gasoline, the refinery's primary product. Over the last 15 years, increased production goals have been achieved through increases in the capacity of the hydrocracking unit, and improvements in gasoline yield have been obtained by modifying the unit to use new improved catalysts.

  3. Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    corrosion resistant alloys construction Oil and gas platform processes, separators, LNG processing, chillers, heat pumps, fuels reforming, waste heat power systems and...

  4. Assessment of Summer 1997 Motor Gasoline Price Increase

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Assesses the 1997 late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  5. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and operational issues, then prioritized next steps for expanding use of pyrolysis oil as a replacement for home heating oil in the Northeast pyrolysisworkshopreport...

  6. Edgeworth price cycles in retail gasoline markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael David, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    In this dissertation, I present three essays that are motivated by the interesting and dynamic price-setting behavior of firms in Canadian retail gasoline markets. In the first essay, I examine behavior at the market level ...

  7. Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

  8. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  9. Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard; Hastings, Justine

    2001-01-01

    Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Testoligopoly, market power, gasoline Abstract: This paperand distribution of gasoline and the wholesale price of

  10. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-based Pricing and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Robbery, An Analysis of the Gasoline Crisis”, Bloomington:Dynamic Pricing in Retail gasoline Markets”, RAND Journal ofR. Gilbert. “Do Gasoline Markets Respond Asymmetrically to

  11. Demand for gasoline is more price-inelastic than commonly thought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana; Janda, Karel

    2011-01-01

    of Transportation and Gasoline Demand. ” Bell Journal ofA Semiparametric Analysis of Gasoline Demand in the Uniteda dynamic demand function for gasoline with di?erent schemes

  12. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market,” July 2005.OH. , “Temporary Wholesale Gasoline Price Spikes have Long-from the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market,” Journal of

  13. Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard; Hastings, Justine

    2001-01-01

    Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Testfor the reÞning and distribution of gasoline and the whole-sale price of unbranded gasoline sold to independent

  14. Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes, Pollution Regulations, Mergers, Market Power, and Market Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    1 2. A Reduced-Form Gasoline PriceThe Case of Retail Gasoline Markets,” The Journal of Law andof Organizational Form in Gasoline Retailing and the Costs

  15. Premium Gasoline Overbuying in the U.S.: Consumer-Based Choice Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setiawan, Winardi; Sperling, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    1990), Economics gasoline pool octane of growth, U.S.sensitive to modest is gasoline price shifts. Theprimary1991b), Effect of gasoline octane quality on vehicle

  16. Premium Gasoline Overbuying in the U.S.: Consumer-Based Choice Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setiawan, Winardi; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    1990), Economics gasoline pool octane of growth, U.S.sensitive to modest is gasoline price shifts. Theprimary1991b), Effect of gasoline octane quality on vehicle

  17. Do Gasoline Prices Resond Asymmetrically to Cost Shocks? The Confounding Effect of Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Atkinson, B . (2006) "Retail Gasoline Price Cycles: EvidenceEvidence on Asymmetric Gasoline Price Re­ and Statistics "of Adjustment of U K Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes"

  18. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. 2. Volatile Organic Compound Speciation and Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas; Singer, Brett; Harley, Robert

    1999-01-01

    California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle EmissionsCalifornia Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle EmmissionsBerkeley Environ. ScLTechnoL gasoline Impact California of

  19. The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    May 2004. Espey, M. “Gasoline Demand Revisited: AnRun Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand,” Energy Journal,114. Poterba, J. “Is the Gasoline Tax Regressive? ,” in D.

  20. Development of a Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline Process for the Steam Hydrogasification Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yang

    2013-01-01

    M. ,   et   al. ,   Gasoline  conversion:  reactivity  al. ,   Methanol   to   gasoline   over   zeolite   H-­?of a Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline Process for the Steam

  1. Evidence of a Shift in the Short-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Jonathan; Knittel, Christopher R; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An Empirical-Analysis of Gasoline Demand in Denmark UsingT. (1991). "Analyzing Gasoline Demand Elasticities: AConsumer Adjustment to a Gasoline Tax." The Review of

  2. Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cellon Environmental Quality (TCEQ). Gasoline Vapor Recovery (Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel

  3. Clearing the Air: The Clean Air Act, GATT and the WTO's Reformulated Gasoline Decision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrory, Martin A.; Richards, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, 5 MwIN. J. GLOBALReformulated and Conventional Gasoline, 35 I.L.M. 274, 277 (regulations governing gasoline formulation to ensure that

  4. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2004-01-01

    and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asymmet-George. (2004) “Retail Gasoline Price Dynamics and LocalAsymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

  5. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empirical EvidenceAn Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market Matt Lewis*An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market Matthew Lewis ?

  6. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market,” July 2005.the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market,” Journal of IndustrialPower? Evidence from the Retail Gasoline Market,” Journal of

  7. Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes, Pollution Regulations, Mergers, Market Power, and Market Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Gasoline Vertical Relations Lease Operated Company OperatedGasoline Vertical Relations Lease Operated Company OperatedGasoline Law (0 – 1) Vertical Relations Lease Operated (%) Company

  8. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

  9. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable to gas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-01-01

    Energy Futures: Recent Evidence for Crude Oil, Natural Gas,Gasoline and Heating Oil. UCSC Economics Working Paper No.Papapetrou, E. (2001). "Oil Price Shocks, Stock Market,

  10. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

  11. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

  12. CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persoff, P.

    2011-01-01

    the carbon, oil, and gas from the shale are combusted; andceases •t II Burner gas and shale heat shale ll>" ~Air AirFigure 2. Oil recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas

  13. Diffusion and Reactivity of Gas Oil in FCC Catalysts SULAIMAN Al-KHATTAF, HUGO I. de LASA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    developed in a novel CREC Simulator, is employed to estimate the unconverted gas oil, the gasoline and secondary cracking reactions and the yields of gasoline, coke and light gas yields. Key words: FCC, cracking in FCC units has become more prevalent due to the declining availability and as a result higher prices

  14. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Retail Gasoline Price Dynamics and Local Market Power,”of Local Market Power? Evidence from the Retail Gasoline

  15. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  16. Gasoline Price Pass-through

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption6Fuel Oil

  17. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption6Fuel OilSampling

  18. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption6Fuel OilSamplingPrice

  19. Stocks of Total Motor Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent

  20. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesEFuel Oil andSampling

  1. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesEFuel Oil

  2. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesEFuel OilDiesel Fuel Pump

  3. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesEFuel OilDiesel Fuel

  4. Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey of worldwide gasoline prices for February and March, 2009, shows that European countries had the highest prices for gasoline with the Netherlands topping the list at $6.25 per gallon. The...

  5. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline...

  6. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities.shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.Habits and Uncertain Relative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con-

  7. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.A meta-analysis of the price elasticity of gasoline demand.2007. Consumer demand un- der price uncertainty: Empirical

  8. Portuguese refiner starts up new gasoline complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-13

    Petroleos de Portugal S.A. (Petrogal) has started up a new $85 million gasoline complex at its Sines, Portugal, refinery. The complex includes HF alkylation and Hydrisom units. The refinery also has completed an overall $650 million upgrade that includes a new visbreaker and vacuum column. Petrogal says the project has increased gasoline production to about 30,000 b/d. Major units constructed for the overall refinery expansion included: a 35,000 b/sd FCCU; a 26,000 b/sd visbreaker; a 45,000 b/sd vacuum distillation unit; two extractive mercaptan columns; an amylene treater; a sulfur-recovery system; and an 8,000 b/sd alkylation complex. The paper describes the gasoline complex, laboratory, safety, control room operation, and start-up.

  9. Wholesale Heating Oil Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear Full report What Drives4 Paul

  10. Residential Heating Oil Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming

  11. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyAprilEnergy EERE Infrastructure-EEREHiringSystemof Energy

  12. Modeling of liner finish effects on oil control ring lubrication in internal combustion engines based on deterministic method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Haijie

    2008-01-01

    Twin-land oil control ring is widely used in the automotive diesel engines, and is gaining more and more applications in the modern designs of gasoline engines. Its interaction with the cylinder liner surface accounts for ...

  13. Oil shale retorting method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    York, E.D.

    1983-03-22

    Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

  14. Why Do Motor Gasoline Prices Vary Regionally? California Case Study

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the difference between the retail gasoline prices in California and the average U.S. retail prices.

  15. National Survey of E85 and Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, P.

    2008-10-01

    Study compares the prices of E85 and regular gasoline nationally and regionally over time for one year.

  16. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasolineGasoline

  17. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasolineGasoline4,

  18. 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004... 2005 2006 gasoline diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierlaire, Michel

    1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004... 2005 2006 gasoline diesel price +10% gasolinegasoline gasoline diesel... ... 2007 20081998 2009 ...2010 home work home work diesel diesel ... gasoline diesel price -7 of a dynamic discrete-continuous choice model (DDCCM) of car ownership, usage and fuel type. The approach

  19. What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Soren T. Anderson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Prices? Soren T. Anderson Michigan State University of consumers about their expectations of future gasoline prices. Overall, we find that consumer beliefs follow a random walk, which we deem a reasonable forecast of gasoline prices, but we find a deviation from

  20. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation Christopher R. Knittel and Aaron proponents of ethanol have argued that ethanol production greatly lowers gasoline prices, with one industry group claiming it reduced gasoline prices by 89 cents in 2010 and $1.09 in 2011. The estimates have been

  1. ISSN 1745-9648 Gasoline Prices Jump Up on Mondays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Gasoline Prices Jump Up on Mondays: an Outcome of Aggressive Competition? by Øystein Research Council is gratefully acknowledged. #12;Gasoline prices jump up on Mondays: An outcome, 2008 Abstract This paper examines Norwegian gasoline pump prices using daily station

  2. Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy Ashley Langer University 2008 Abstract The relationship between gasoline prices and the demand for vehicle fuel efficiency evidence that automobile manufacturers set vehicle prices as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We

  3. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-075 Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empirical Evidence from in Retail Gasoline Markets Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California Justine S, if any, of the differences in retail gasoline prices between markets is attributable to differences

  4. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Genealogy ofFederalHas

  5. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Genealogy ofFederalHasState

  6. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Genealogy ofFederalHasStateSHOPP

  7. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Genealogy

  8. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full GenealogyHoliday Release Schedule

  9. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administration

  10. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administrationheating oilheating

  11. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administrationheating

  12. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administrationheatingheating

  13. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administrationheatingheatingheating

  14. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober

  15. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong4,Guide to Complete

  16. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

  17. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  18. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  19. The Extraction of Gasoline from Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, J. P.

    1914-05-15

    . A large number of teste were mcde on samples of gas containing gasoline vapor prepared as described on a previous page. The solvents for these tests were first saturated with the oity natural gas by bubbling it thru the solvent for a considerable...

  20. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  1. TRITIUM PERMEATION AND TRANSPORT IN THE GASOLINE PRODUCTION SYSTEM COUPLED WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS (HTGRS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Mike Patterson

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes scoping analyses on tritium behaviors in the HTGR-integrated gasoline production system, which is based on a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) plant. In this system, the HTGR transfers heat and electricity to the MTG system. This system was analyzed using the TPAC code, which was recently developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The global sensitivity analyses were performed to understand and characterize tritium behaviors in the coupled HTGR/MTG system. This Monte Carlo based random sampling method was used to evaluate maximum 17,408 numbers of samples with different input values. According to the analyses, the average tritium concentration in the product gasoline is about 3.05×10-3 Bq/cm3, and 62 % cases are within the tritium effluent limit (= 3.7x10-3 Bq/cm3[STP]). About 0.19% of released tritium is finally transported from the core to the gasoline product through permeations. This study also identified that the following four parameters are important concerning tritium behaviors in the HTGR/MTG system: (1) tritium source, (2) wall thickness of process heat exchanger, (3) operating temperature, and (4) tritium permeation coefficient of process heat exchanger. These four parameters contribute about 95 % of the total output uncertainties. This study strongly recommends focusing our future research on these four parameters to improve modeling accuracy and to mitigate tritium permeation into the gasol ine product. If the permeation barrier is included in the future study, the tritium concentration will be significantly reduced.

  2. Heading off the permanent oil crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKenzie, J.J.

    1996-11-01

    The 1996 spike in gasoline prices was not a signal of any fundamental worldwide shortage of crude oil. But based on a review of many studies of recoverable crude oil that have been published since the 1950s, it looks as though such a shortfall is now within sight. With world demand for oil growing at 2 percent per year, global production is likely to peak between the years 2007 and 2014. As this time approaches, we can expect prices to rise markedly and, most likely, permanently. Policy changes are needed now to ease the transition to high-priced oil. Oil production will continue, though at a declining rate, for many decades after its peak, and there are enormous amounts of coal, oil sands, heavy oil, and oil shales worldwide that could be used to produce liquid or gaseous substitutes for crude oil, albeit at higher prices. But the facilities for making such synthetic fuels are costly to build and environmentally damaging to operate, and their use would substantially increase carbon dioxide emissions (compared to emissions from products made from conventional crude oil). This paper examines ways of heading of the impending oil crisis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  3. New Vehicle Choice, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elliott William

    2009-01-01

    Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand', The Energy Journal2007) The Link Between Gasoline Prices and Vehicle Sales:Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax Elliot William Martin

  4. New Vehicle Choices, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and Gasoline Tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elliot William

    2009-01-01

    Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand', The Energy Journal2007) The Link Between Gasoline Prices and Vehicle Sales:Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax Elliot William Martin

  5. Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

    2004-01-01

    the composition of the gasoline inventory, and can beand exposure assessment for gasoline; Trent University:of Chemicals: A Case Study for Gasoline Hydrocarbons Matthew

  6. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melaina, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    NJ. Koenig, R. , 1984. Gasoline alley: service stations area parametric analysis of US gasoline station networks. Inof innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and

  7. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melaina, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    from the Atlantic Gasoline Company. Smithsonian Institute (names in gasoline dispensing history, Bowser and Company,companies had started the shift from kerosene to gasoline as

  8. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  9. What are Tar Balls and How Do They Form? Tar balls, the little, dark-colored pieces of oil that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that stick to our feet when we go to the beach, are actually remnants of oil spills. When crude oil (or of oil, such as crude oil or home heating oil, much of the oil remains behind. At the same time, some crude oils mix with water to form an emulsion that often looks like chocolate pudding. This emulsion

  10. CREATING THE NORTHEAST GASOLINE SUPPLY RESERVE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2012, Superstorm Sandy made landfall in the northeastern United States and caused heavy damage to two refineries and left more than 40 terminals in New York Harbor closed due to water damage and loss of power. This left some New York gas stations without fuel for as long as 30 days. As part of the Obama Administration’s ongoing response to the storm, the Department of Energy created the first federal regional refined product reserve, the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve.

  11. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

  12. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  13. Our winters of discontent: Addressing the problem of rising home-heating costs1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    : · The cost of motive fuels (gasoline and diesel), electricity, and energy for home space heating will all of discontent 2 · Commercial and industrial companies, as well as public institutions such as schools

  14. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in refinery output resulted in tight supplies on the West Coast. In addition, few refineries outside of California are equipped to produce the gasoline formulation that can be...

  15. DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerfujita.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE's GasolineDiesel PM Split Study DOE's...

  16. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakober, Chris A.

    2008-01-01

    emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles. Environ.of four dilutions of diesel engine exhaust for a subchronicautomobiles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Environ. Sci.

  17. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  18. Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  19. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  20. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  1. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  2. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace063smith2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel...

  3. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions 3-cylindery gasoline direct injection engines offer similar value in CO2 reduction capability (Euros% CO2 reduction) at a significantly...

  4. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Program Update Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Discusses hardware and system development activities to achieve in-vehicle fuel economy and emissions...

  5. Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reserve right here in New York Harbor." "Like sandbags and stockpiles of food and medicine, this gasoline reserve is what the Northeast needs to be ready for supercharged...

  6. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  7. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  8. Enabling and Expanding HCCI in PFI Gasoline Engines with High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Dilution Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct-Injection (SGDI) Combustion Control Development Enabling the Next Generation of...

  9. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to End Users Sales for Resale...

  10. Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Formation of droplets was minimized through optimization of fuel vaporization and distribution avoiding airfuel zones richer than...

  11. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per...

  12. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    growth. For data on world oil consumption and long- term oilOil Production Domestic Oil Consumption a variety of

  13. Measured Effects of Retrofits - A Refrigerant Oil Additive and a Condenser Spray Device - On the Cooling Performance of a Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levins, W. P.; Sand, J. R.; Baxter, V. D.; Linkous, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    A 15-year old, 3-ton single package air-to-air heat pump was tested in laboratory environmental chambers simulating indoor and outdoor conditions. After documenting initial performance, the unit was retrofitted with a prototype condenser water...

  14. An Experimental Investigaton of the Effect of Oil on Convective Heat Trasfer and Pressure Drop of a HFC-32/HRC-125 Mixture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McJimsey, Bert Ashford

    1994-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of HCFC-22 and a 50% mass mixture of HFC-32/HFC-125 were experimentally measured under flow boiling conditions in a smooth tube. The refrigerants were flowed through an 8 ...

  15. Impacts of Oxygenated Gasoline Use on California Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Addition of oxTgenates gasoline will not reduce ozone to (3)I. Y. remote sensing 1994 gasoline samples ranged from 0.7weight reported for liquid gasoline with an RVP Assoc. 1990,

  16. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Adjustment of U.K. Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes. ”C. and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asym-Asymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

  17. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    AT A SITE OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L.A T A SITE OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L.a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high V O C

  18. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Lifecycle Cost and Energy-Use Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Burke, Andy; Lipman, Timothy; Miller, Marshall

    2000-01-01

    147 Lifecycle cost (break-even gasoline price): base-casegrease. 37B part: Fuel Gasoline, for the conventional ICEVs.BTU-from-battery to mi/BTU-gasoline. C OST SUMMARY (F ORD T

  19. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Adjustment of U.K. Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes. ”C. and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asym-Asymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

  20. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2004-01-01

    stations sell gasoline under a parent company’s brand name.to buy gasoline from their parent company. The parentRe?ning companies heavily advertise that the gasoline sold

  1. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    stations sell gasoline under a parent company’s brand name.to buy gasoline from their parent company. The parentReÞning companies heavily advertise that the gasoline sold

  2. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    true cost of gasoline because re?ning companies manipulatebranded gasoline sold by large re?ning companies to theirbranded” gasoline of a major re?ning company such as BP,

  3. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    stations sell gasoline under a parent company’s brand name.to buy gasoline from their parent company. The parentReÞning companies heavily advertise that the gasoline sold

  4. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  5. From the hills to the mountain. [Oil recovery in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, J.

    1980-05-01

    The oil reserves at Elk Hills field, California, are listed as amounting to 835 million bbl. There is 12 times that amount lying in shallow sands in the San Joaquin Valley, although the oil is much heavier and requires more refining before use. Improved recovery techniques have enabled higher rates of recovery for heavy oil than in the past. Some of these techniques are described, including bottom-hole heating, steam injection, and oil mining. Bottom-hole heating alone raised recovery rates for heavy oil to 25%, and steam injection raised rates to 50%. It is predicted that oil mining may be able to accomplish 100% recovery of the heavy oil.

  6. Improved oil refinery operations and cheaper crude oil to help reduce gasoline prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong4,Guide toHighHow much

  7. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  8. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    State Motor Gasoline Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil a a Distillate stocks located in the "Northeast Heating Oil Reserve" are not included. For details see Appendix C. Notes: Stocks...

  9. Energy Efficient Design of a Waste Heat Rejection System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.

    2000-01-01

    , and oil preheaters. The heating requirements for these heat sinks are generally met by burning fossil fuels or even by using electric heaters while available waste heat is rejected to the surrounding environment using devices such as cooling towers...

  10. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  11. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    1.1 and 1.1A Figure 6: Uses of Crude Oil in the UnitedStates Other Residual Fuel Oil (bunker fuel) PetrochemicalDiesel Fuel and Heating Oil Jet Fuel Figure 7: Sources of

  12. Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    components—particularly butane—in the gasoline they sell (times more reactive than butane, the compound that refinersprimarily by removing the VOC butane from their gasoline, as

  13. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of...

  14. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, AbraOF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, Abrareporting indoor air contamination (6,7). Estimation of

  15. A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control Technologies A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control...

  16. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-based Pricing and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic Pricing in Retail gasoline Markets”, RAND Journal ofin the Canadian Retail Gasoline Market”, Energy Economics [Associates. “Canadian Retail Petroleum Markets Study”, Re-

  17. EIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices

  18. Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesEFueluplonglongGasoline

  19. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasoline prices

  20. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasoline

  1. Gasoline prices continue to rise (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) Gasoline prices

  2. Gasoline prices continue to rise (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) Gasoline

  3. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  4. Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

  5. Gasoline volatility: Environmental interactions with blending and processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unzelman, G.H. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    Gasoline volatility has long been an economic consideration for petroleum refiners. Although front-end volatility and Rvp (Reid vapor pressure) are primary factors, volatility can impact any part of the distillation range. Specifications, whether in-house, exchange or pipeline, require flexibility to optimize the bottom line with respect to marketed composition. Utilizing lower-value butanes, within Rvp and ASTM distillation limits, to maximize gasoline volume has been traditional. Also, optimizing the T{sub 90} (ASTM distillation temperature at 90% distilled), raises the end point and has been used to extend the gasoline barrel. In most refining situations, controlling back-end gasoline volatility is a function of gasoline vs. distillate volume, the latter generally the lower-value product. Recently, the concept of gasoline reformulation collide with the less complex approach of simply reducing vapor pressure to improve air quality. Reducing Rvp of gasoline shifts front-end composition, while reformulation, especially under future Complex Model rules, shifts volatility and composition over the entire boiling range. While low Rvp vs. RFG is a recent issue, gasoline volatility has always been an economic factor in petroleum refining and a performance factor for the auto maker.

  6. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Specific designs and material properties have to be developed for gasoline particulate filters based on the different engine and exhaust gas characteristic of gasoline engines compared to diesel engines, e.g., generally lower levels of engine-out particulate emissions or higher GDI exhaust gas temperatures

  7. Empirical Regularities of Asymmetric Pricing in the Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    characteristics correlate with the speed of cost to retail price pass-through. The driving and commuting behaviorEmpirical Regularities of Asymmetric Pricing in the Gasoline Industry Marc Remer August 2, 2010 pricing in the retail gasoline industry, and also documents empirical regularities in the market. I find

  8. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  9. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  10. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  11. Effects of gasoline composition on exhaust emissions and driveability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoshi, H.; Nakada, M.; Kato, M.; Okada, M.; Kayanuma, N.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effects of changes in gasoline composition is one area to explore in our effort to reduce tailpipe emissions from vehicles. However, affects on vehicle performances should also be considered from the perspective of practical useage. In this paper, the influence of gasoline composition (aromatics), volatility, and MTBE blending on engine outlet and tailpipe emissions are discussed in particular, focusing on distillation properties which have a close relationship to driveability. Under stable driving conditions and without a catalitic converter, the effects of gasoline volatility is small, while aromatics in gasoline affect exhaust HC and NO{sub x} emissions. MTBE has a leaning effect on the engine intake air/fuel mixture. During a transient driving cycle, a high gasoline 50% distillation temperature causes poor driveability, as a result, HC emissions increase.

  12. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanonl and petroleum gasoline.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.; Arora, S.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-30

    The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass, and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction, and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones. This report examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, 'consumptive water use' is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.

  13. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  14. Standard version Advanced version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    Standard version Advanced version Xpress case study: Margaret Oil 26 June 2014 NATCOR Case study #12;Standard version Advanced version Margaret Oil - basic (1) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be: Gasoline Jet fuel Heating oil

  15. Promotion of efficient heat pumps for heating (ProHeatPump)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and lessons. 2 Norway's energy sector 2.1.1 Norway is rich in hydropower, oil, gas, and forests for biofuel.1-intensive industries that depend on cheap electricity. Oil use has decreased since 1976. Biofuel use is small. But the proportion of those renting has increased since 1999, particularly in urban areas. 2.3.2 Heating represents

  16. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Laramie, WY)

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  17. Long Term Processing Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis plus Hydroconversion (IH2) for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; McLeod, Celeste; Del Paggio, Alan; Gephart, John; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John

    2013-06-09

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible fuels.

  18. Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production from cooking oil is to simultaneously optimize and heat integrate the production of biodiesel from each of the different oil sources in the design. When using algae oil, the optimal process employs alkali as catalyst with a production cost of 0

  19. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    capita terms. When crude oil prices are used, these are theprices are driven by oil prices, moreover, and oil isby ‡uctuations in the crude oil price. The overall mean real

  20. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  1. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  2. Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships-busse@kellogg.northwestern.edu, knittel@mit.edu, f-zettelmeyer@kellogg.northwestern.edu #12;Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline of gasoline prices, and consumer responses to gasoline prices have been well studied. In this paper

  3. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  4. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-06-30

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about 150.degree. C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  5. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heating oil in the Northeast region. Discussions addressed feedstocks and production, logistics and compatibility, and operational issues. Prepared by Energetics Incorporated...

  6. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  7. Gasoline: An adaptable implementation of TreeSPH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadsley, J; Quinn, T; Wadsley, James; Stadel, Joachim; Quinn, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The key algorithms and features of the Gasoline code for parallel hydrodynamics with self-gravity are described. Gasoline is an extension of the efficient Pkdgrav parallel N-body code using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Accuracy measurements, performance analysis and tests of the code are presented. Recent successful Gasoline applications are summarized. These cover a diverse set of areas in astrophysics including galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and gas-giant planets. Future directions for gasdynamical simulations in astrophysics and code development strategies for tackling cutting edge problems are discussed.

  8. Gasoline: An adaptable implementation of TreeSPH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Wadsley; Joachim Stadel; Thomas Quinn

    2003-03-24

    The key algorithms and features of the Gasoline code for parallel hydrodynamics with self-gravity are described. Gasoline is an extension of the efficient Pkdgrav parallel N-body code using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Accuracy measurements, performance analysis and tests of the code are presented. Recent successful Gasoline applications are summarized. These cover a diverse set of areas in astrophysics including galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and gas-giant planets. Future directions for gasdynamical simulations in astrophysics and code development strategies for tackling cutting edge problems are discussed.

  9. How to implement a gasoline pool lead phase-down

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Mutaz, I.S. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-02-01

    Some operational changes can be made for immediate reduction of lead concentration of gasoline that require no capital investment. For a further lead reduction, installing new refinery units and/or modifications to existing ones are required. The production of unleaded gasoline in the Riyadh refinery required improvement of the clear research octane number (RON) of light naphtha, light isomerate and reformate. However, only a once-through isomerization unit is needed if MTBE blending is planned. The paper describes how the Riyadh refinery in Saudi Arabia phased lead from their gasoline production.

  10. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  11. The relation of octane number, compression ratio, and exhaust temperature in the gasoline engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jentsch, Donald George

    1951-01-01

    THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMHER& COMPRESSION RATIO& AND EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE A Tbeaie Donald George Jentsch THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMBER, COMHKSSION RATIO, EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE By Donald George... throttle settings) a. Table VI - Aviation Gasolines 22 26 b. Table VI (a) ? Automotive Gasolines . . . 33 2. Spark set for maximum power at full throttle (Speed 2000 RPH at various throttle settings) a. Table VII ? Aviation Gasolines . . . . . 34 b...

  12. High compression ratio turbo gasoline engine operation using alcohol enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline - ethanol blends were explored as a strategy to mitigate engine knock, a phenomena in spark ignition engine combustion when a portion of the end gas is compressed to the point of spontaneous auto-ignition. This ...

  13. Fact #639: September 6, 2010 Gasoline Tax Rates by State

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Excise Tax on motor gasoline is 18.4 cents per gallon for all states. Each state applies additional taxes which vary from state to state. As of July 2010, Alaska had the lowest overall...

  14. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  15. Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    said Senator Edward J. Markey. "This gasoline reserve will ensure that just because a dangerous storm soaks our region, it doesn't mean that consumers have to get soaked at the...

  16. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    pathways Light duty ?eet Urban air pollution 1. Introductionof light duty gasoline ?eets to urban air pollution usingThe PM 10 pollution is the least accurate in the light duty

  17. Gasoline Prices, Fuel Economy, and the Energy Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wozny, Nathan

    It is often asserted that consumers purchasing automobiles or other goods and services underweight the costs of gasoline or other "add-ons." We test this hypothesis in the US automobile market by examining the effects of ...

  18. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Aaron

    Ethanol made from corn comprises 10% of U.S. gasoline, up from 3% in 2003. This dramatic increase was spurred by recent policy initiatives such as the Renewable Fuel Standard and state-level blend mandates and supported ...

  19. An experimental study of the combustion characteristics in SCCI and CAI based on direct-injection gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.

    2007-08-15

    Emissions remain a critical issue affecting engine design and operation, while energy conservation is becoming increasingly important. One approach to favorably address these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified charge combustion at lower peak temperatures with a variable compression ratio, a variable intake temperature and a trapped rate of the EGR using NVO (negative valve overlap). This experiment was attempted to investigate the origins of these lower temperature auto-ignition phenomena with SCCI and CAI using gasoline fuel. In case of SCCI, the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-fueled stratified-charge compression ignition (SCCI) engine according to intake temperature and compression ratio was examined. We investigated the effects of air-fuel ratio, residual EGR rate and injection timing on the CAI combustion area. In addition, the effect of injection timing on combustion factors such as the start of combustion, its duration and its heat release rate was also investigated. (author)

  20. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  1. Monitoring Seismic Attenuation Changes Using a 4D Relative Spectrum Method in Athabsca Heavy Oil Reservoir, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabelansky, Andrey Hanan

    2012-01-01

    Heating heavy oil reservoirs is a common method for reducing the high viscosity of heavy oil and thus increasing the recovery factor. Monitoring these changes in the reservoir is essential for delineating the heated region ...

  2. Restructuring: The Changing Face of Motor Gasoline Marketing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report reviews the U.S. motor gasoline marketing industry during the period 1990 to 1999, focusing on changes that occurred during the period. The report incorporates financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS), motor gasoline outlet counts collected by the National Petroleum News from the states, and U.S. Census Bureau salary and employment data published in County Business Patterns.

  3. Enhanced heat transfer using nanofluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Stephen U. S. (Lisle, IL); Eastman, Jeffrey A. (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    This invention is directed to a method of and apparatus for enhancing heat transfer in fluids such as deionized water. ethylene glycol, or oil by dispersing nanocrystalline particles of substances such as copper, copper oxide, aluminum oxide, or the like in the fluids. Nanocrystalline particles are produced and dispersed in the fluid by heating the substance to be dispersed in a vacuum while passing a thin film of the fluid near the heated substance. The fluid is cooled to control its vapor pressure.

  4. The motor gasoline industry: Past, present, and future. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Motor gasoline constitutes the largest single component of US demand for petroleum products and is the Nation's most widely used transportation fuel. Because of its importance as a transportation fuel, motor gasoline has been the focus of several regulatory and tax policy initiatives in recent years. Much of the US refining capacity is specifically geared toward maximizing motor gasoline production, and future investments by the petroleum industry in refining infrastructure are likely to be made largely to produce larger volumes of clean motor gasoline. This report addresses major events and developments that have had an impact on motor gasoline supply, distribution, prices, and demand. The report provides historical perspective as well as analyses of important events from the 1970's and 1980's. Long-term forecasts are provided for the period from 1990 to 2010 in an effort to present and analyze possible future motor gasoline trends. Other forecasts examine the near-term impact of the invasion of Kuwait. 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Dynamic Underground Stripping: In situ steam sweeping and electrical heating to remediate a deep hydrocarbon spill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.S.; Ziagos, J.P.

    1994-07-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping is a combination of in situ steam injection, electrical resistance heating, and fluid extraction for rapid removal and recovery of subsurface contaminants such as solvents or fuels. Underground imaging and other measurement techniques monitor the system in situ for process control. Field tests at a deep gasoline spill at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recovered over 7000 gallons of gasoline during several months of field operations. Preliminary analysis of system cost and performance indicate that Dynamic Underground Stripping compares favorably with conventional pump-and-treat and vacuum extraction schemes for removing non-aqueous phase liquids such as gasoline from deep subsurface plumes.

  6. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  7. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  8. Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

    2012-04-19

    A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

  9. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    capita terms. When crude oil prices are used, these are thedriven by the world crude oil price rather than by exchange-how consumers think about oil prices and price expectations,

  10. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    shock), it is the world crude oil price that must change insuggesting that the crude oil price might be somewhatper capita terms. When crude oil prices are used, these are

  11. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    shock), it is the world crude oil price that must change inin the instruments based on crude oil prices. Unfortunately,per capita terms. When crude oil prices are used, these are

  12. Consider Upgrading Pyrolysis Oils Into Renewale Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmgren, J.; Marinangeli, R.; Nair, P.; Elliott, D.; Bain, R.

    2008-09-01

    To enable a sustained supply of biomass-based transportation fuels, the capability to process feedstocks outside the food chain must be developed. Significant industry efforts are underway to develop these new technologies, such as converting cellulosic wastes to ethanol. An alternate route being pursued involves using a fast pyrolysis operation to generate pyrolysis oil (pyoil for short). Current efforts are focused on developing a thermochemical platform to convert pyoils to renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The fuels produced will be indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts and, therefore, will be compatible with existing transport and distribution infrastructure.

  13. Waste heat recovery in automobile engines : potential solutions and benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruiz, Joaquin G., 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Less than 30% of the energy in a gallon of gasoline reaches the wheels of a typical car; most of the remaining energy is lost as heat. Since most of the energy consumed by an internal combustion engine is wasted, capturing ...

  14. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  15. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  16. Essays on Automotive Lending, Gasoline Prices, & Automotive Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulz-Mahlendorf, Wilko Ziggy

    2013-01-01

    and the massive run-up in crude oil prices in late 2008. Inoutcomes? ” In late 2008, crude oil prices rose sharply,

  17. Essays on Automotive Lending, Gasoline Prices, & Automotive Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulz-Mahlendorf, Wilko Ziggy

    2013-01-01

    massive run-up in crude oil prices in late 2008. In 2008, asIn late 2008, crude oil prices rose sharply, leading many to

  18. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: An Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Justine

    2000-01-01

    Margaret E. “Vancouver's Gasoline-Price Wars: An EmpiricalEvidence from Retail Gasoline Markets” Journal of Law,The Case of Retail Gasoline Markets” Journal of Law and

  19. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2009-01-01

    matter from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles.D.H. , Chase, R.E. , 1999b. Gasoline vehicle particle sizeFactors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

  20. Simultaneous Efficiency, NOx, and Smoke Improvements through Diesel/Gasoline Dual-Fuel Operation in a Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jiafeng

    2014-08-05

    Diesel/gasoline dual-fuel combustion uses both gasoline and diesel fuel in diesel engines to exploit their different reactivities. This operation combines the advantages of diesel fuel and gasoline while avoiding their disadvantages, attains...

  1. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: An Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Justine

    2000-01-01

    the market of company-op gasoline stations. The legislationThrifty gasoline stations by Atlantic Richfield Company (price of gasoline is directly set (at company-op stations)

  2. Energy Recovery By Direct Contact Gas-Liquid Heat Exchange 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Bravo, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    , would be those relatively few cases where heat has been recovered from pyrolysis furnace gases (in ethylene 78712 manufacture) via a quench liquid that provides intennedia level heat for process purposes. In the present paper we shall concentrate... pyrolysis furnace are cooled in oil- and water-quench towers, and higher-boiling oils are condensed from the gases. While not always used for heat recovery, the exit process water stream is hot enough for process heat exchange. For the examples shown...

  3. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

  4. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  5. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  6. Lower crude oil prices to help push down gasoline pricesLower crude oil prices to help push down gasoline prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIARegional energy challenges

  7. Production of hydrogen from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schora, F. C.; Feldkirchner, H. L.; Janka, J. C.

    1985-12-24

    A process for production of hydrogen from oil shale fines by direct introduction of the oil shale fines into a fluidized bed at temperatures about 1200/sup 0/ to about 2000/sup 0/ F. to obtain rapid heating of the oil shale. The bed is fluidized by upward passage of steam and oxygen, the steam introduced in the weight ratio of about 0.1 to about 10 on the basis of the organic carbon content of the oil shale and the oxygen introduced in less than the stoichiometric quantity for complete combustion of the organic carbonaceous kerogen content of the oil shale. Embodiments are disclosed for heat recovery from the spent shale and heat recovery from the spent shale and product gas wherein the complete process and heat recovery is carried out in a single reaction vessel. The process of this invention provides high conversion of organic carbon component of oil shale and high production of hydrogen from shale fines which when used in combination with a conventional oil shale hydroconversion process results in increased overall process efficiency of greater than 15 percent.

  8. Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RU Ntight oil

  9. Gasoline price shows small increase (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesEFuel OilDieselshows

  10. Gasoline price shows small increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesEFuel OilDieselshowslong

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compressio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High...

  12. Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump December 18, 2014 - 2:08pm Addthis...

  13. Fact #675: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by Region, May 2, 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The West Coast region paid the highest prices for gasoline averaging $4.14 for a gallon of regular gasoline while the Rocky Mountain region paid the least at $3.70 per gallon. The southern states,...

  14. Do Gasoline Prices Resond Asymmetrically to Cost Shocks? The Confounding Effect of Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    2006) "Retail Gasoline Price Cycles: Evidence from Guelph,Station-Specific Retail Price D a t a " , mimeo. Bachmeier,on Asymmetric Gasoline Price Re­ and Statistics "Rockets and

  15. Motor Gasoline Consumption 2008 - Historical Perspective and Short-Term Projections

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews how gasoline markets relate to population, income, prices, and the growing role of ethanol. It also analyzes the structural shift in motor gasoline markets that took place in the late 1990s.

  16. Savings at the pump help push U.S. gasoline demand to 8-year...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Savings at the pump help push U.S. gasoline demand to 8-year high U.S. gasoline consumption this year is expected to top 9 million barrels per day for the first time since 2007. In...

  17. The Spanish gasoline market: From ceiling regulation to open market pricing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contin, I.; Correlje, A.; Huerta, E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the Spanish gasoline market from the abolition of the state oil monopoly (January 1993) to complete liberalization (October 1998). With the restructuring of the Spanish oil sector during the 1980s and early 1990s, a highly concentrated oligopoly emerged in the automotive fuels market. A system of price ceilings replaced the state administered prices in July 1990. Since then, new domestic and foreign operators have entered the market, particularly along the coast, near import terminals. Prices went up and then declined. These developments can be explained by an interplay of factors such as: the gradual decline in co-operation among the Spanish firms; the loss of market share of the largest of these, Repsol; the entry of independent operators and supermarkets; and the impact of the ceiling price system. By mid-1998 this system was abolished as the government considered it an impediment to further market liberalization. However, some crucial barriers to the entry of new suppliers remain.

  18. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  19. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster will describe preliminary emission results of gasoline/diesel RCCI in a medium-duty diesel engine.

  20. Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

  1. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends.

  2. Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The value of the tax credit is $0.01/gallon for each percent of biodiesel blended with conventional home heating oil, up to a maximum of $0.20/ gallon. In other words, the purchaser of a mixture ...

  3. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline1, 2014gasoline

  4. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline1,gasoline

  5. Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed 19, 2012 (received for review July 22, 2012) Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles and diesel vehicles, and find diesel exhaust is seven times more efficient at forming aerosol than gasoline

  6. he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

  7. Extension of a Negative Binomial GARCH Model: Analyzing the Effects of Gasoline Price and VMT on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourahmadi, Mohsen

    Extension of a Negative Binomial GARCH Model: Analyzing the Effects of Gasoline Price and VMT. In addition, the relationship between monthly vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and gasoline prices in Texas was also examined. Ultimately, it is concluded that gasoline prices had no significant effect on DUI fatal

  8. ATOC/CHEM 5151 Problem 9 Combustion of Gasoline and Conservation of Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC/CHEM 5151 ­ Problem 9 Combustion of Gasoline and Conservation of Mass Answers will be posted Thursday, September 18, 2014 Gasoline is composed of a variety of hydrocarbons with 4 to 12 carbon atoms (e for the complete combustion of gasoline: _C8H18 + _O2 _CO2 + _H2O 1. Balance the equation (i.e., find

  9. Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to increase in the near future investigators have developed mathematical models for predicting the effect of ethanol (added to gasoline at 10 these models provide valuable insight into the potential ground water impacts of ethanol in gasoline

  10. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 14171423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Fangqun

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 1417­1423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7 Â 108 cmÀ3

  11. Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 19982007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 1998 February 2012 Received in revised form 3 May 2013 Accepted 24 May 2013 Keywords: Gasoline prices Traffic examines the role of gasoline prices in the occurrence of traffic crashes. However, no studies have

  12. Automakers' Short-Run Responses to Changing Gasoline Prices and the Implications for Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    Automakers' Short-Run Responses to Changing Gasoline Prices and the Implications for Energy Policy as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We estimate a selection-corrected regression equation and exploit operating costs between vehicles. Keywords: automobile prices, gasoline prices, environmental policy JEL

  13. Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612." #12;1 Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Relating Ethanol Production to Gasoline Prices" written by myself and Xiadong Du, and published in 2009

  14. CLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    gasoline markets and raise prices paid by consumers. We provide the first comprehensive empirical estimatesCLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY Maximilian Auffhammer and Ryan Kellogg* January 2009 Abstract This paper examines the effects of U.S. gasoline content

  15. Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    gasoline prices. The 1997 acquisition of Unocal's West Coast refining and marketing assets by Tosco, and potentially confounding city-specific covariates. We find that Tosco increased the wholesale price of gasoline During the week of January 4-8, 1999, the average wholesale price of unbranded regular gasoline was 46

  16. Stranded Vehicles: How Gasoline Taxes Change the Value of Households' Vehicle Assets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    of increases in gasoline prices varies across income, geography, and political affiliation. One standard that changes in gasoline prices can have sizable effects on the market value of vehicles. In this paper in gasoline prices affect the value of the vehicles that people own and how this varies across demographic

  17. The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety: a time geography explanation Guangqing Chi a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety: a time geography explanation Guangqing Chi, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Time geography Gasoline prices Traffic safety Traffic crashes Fatal crashes Space­time path a b s t r a c t The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic

  18. forthcoming in Economic Letters Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    on gasoline, and President Bill Clinton, when calling for an energy tax, proposed providing income a gasoline tax to generate revenue arose again in 2000 when some policy makers considered suspending the 4, unleaded gasoline in the first quarter of 2000 was $2.43 in Italy, $2.56 in Germany, $2.57 in France, $2

  19. The Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the United States today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% of the total U.S. gasoline consumption).

  20. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide capture CS Seminars CalendarOil & Gas

  1. BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2001-12-01

    Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

  2. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  4. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  5. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    From EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Otherfrom EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Otherfrom EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other

  6. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  7. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  8. Dynamic Allocation of a Domestic Heating Task to Gas-Based and Heatpump-Based Heating Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    is usually already a much more expensive an investment than a gas- or oil-based heating system. Therefore the heating systems used are based on not renewable resources such as gas and oil, which over the years energy from the soil often a serious financial investment is needed, whereas a heatpump by itself

  9. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  10. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; McBride, Allen; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  11. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2.925 3.615 3.869 Aug 03, 2015 2.747 2.785 2.615 2.584 2.485 2.897 3.549 3.781 Source: Energy Information Administration, Weekly Retail Gasoline and Diesel Prices, accessed...

  12. Heating Oil Reserve History | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11,Security Officer Program |quickHeather Zichal -Creation

  13. State Heating Oil and Propane Program

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand7,Year Jan Feb MarDecade Year-0State

  14. Microsoft Word - Heating Oil Season.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE SafetyofDepartment

  15. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  16. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melaina, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    Gasoline accounted for less than 10 percent of the volume of products recovered from the distillation

  17. Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 – Dataset

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Excel file with dataset for Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008

  18. Oil shale retorting with steam and produced gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, L.S. Jr.; Wheaton, L.D.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a process for retorting oil shale in a vertical retort. It comprises introducing particles of oil shale into the retort, the particles of oil shale having a minimum size such that the particles are retained on a screen having openings 1/4 inch in size; contacting the particles of oil shale with hot gas to heat the particles of oil shale to a state of pyrolysis, thereby producing retort off-gas; removing the off-gas from the retort; cooling the off-gas; removing oil from the cooled off-gas; separating recycle gas from the off-gas, the recycle gas comprising steam and produced gas, the steam being present in amount, by volume, of at least 50% of the recycle gas so as to increase the yield of sand oil; and heating the recycle gas to form the hot gas.

  19. Jointly with RUTCOR-RUTGERS CENTER FOR OPERATIONS RESEARCH Professor Stathis Tompaidis1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    and calibrate our model for the case of crude oil and a mix of refined products that includes gasoline and heating oil, in the context of oil refineries and estimate the structural parameters of the model. Joint

  20. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.