Sample records for heating oil electricity

  1. Oil production response to in situ electrical resistance heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDougal, Fred William

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the electric power through electrical resistance heating with a very small electromagnetic power absorption component. The oil viscosity decreases as the temperature increases thus stimulating oil production. DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this thesis... PROFILE FOR CASE S-2 INTRODUCTION Oil production can be stimulated by applying electrical power to the formation. The electrical power causes a temperature increase that reduces oil viscosity, resulting in increased oil production rates. Electrical...

  2. The stimulation of heavy oil reservoirs with electrical resistance heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baylor, Blake Allen

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Equations for r? and P, were written using regression analysis. The calculation procedure is as follows: (1) calculate r?, (2) calculate the skin factor, s??, (3) calculate the heated oil production rate, q, ?, and (4) calculate the downhole power... of various heavy oils at 113 'F Fig. 23 ? Effect of CH, on the viscosity of various heavy oils at 171 'F Fig. 24 - Viscosity/pressure relationship for the recombined field sample Fig. 25 ? Smoothed viscosity/pressure relationship for the recombined...

  3. The stimulation of heavy oil reservoirs with electrical resistance heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baylor, Blake Allen

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    btu/lb- F Other Properties: r e r?= pe = pod T o Th 15. 0 640. 0 0. 25 75. 0 psi 14. 7 psi 90. 0 F 190. 0 F 17 TABLE 2- PARAMETER STUDY CASES AND RESULTS Case b ~feet re Af P ~fe t ~oP ~stC d Poser ~kH 1 2 S 4 5 6 7 8 9 10... for calculating the steady-state heated production rate, as developed by McDougal"', uses a weighted average viscosity approach, as follows: 0. 00708 k h (p. p r) B, P, ln (r, /r?) (6) where I)o = Voc Pan (7) and p = 0. 04 + 0. 0223 In(S, . ) + 0. 0621 In...

  4. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  5. Electrolyte injection with electrical resistance heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaimes Gomez, Olmedo

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reservoir to extract hydrocarbons. These processes include the Radio-Frequency Heating of oil shales and tar sands , the Microwave Heating of oil shales ", the Induction Heating , the Electrocarbonization , the Selective ERH and the Electric Preheat...

  6. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3,heating oil

  7. Residential heating oil prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases Theheating oil9,heating

  8. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3, 2014heating

  9. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3, 2014heating5,

  10. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3,heating

  11. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heating Oil Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release The Energy Policy and Conservation...

  12. Residential heating oil price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) - HouseholdshortEIA-782AAdministrationheating oil price

  13. Residential heating oil price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) - HouseholdshortEIA-782AAdministrationheating oil

  14. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  15. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases The averageheating oil

  16. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases Theheating oil price

  17. Residential heating oil price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases Theheating oil

  18. Residential heating oil price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases Theheating oil9, 2015

  19. Residential heating oil price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases Theheating oil9, 20155,

  20. Residential heating oil price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases Theheating oil9,

  1. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases Theheatingheating oil

  2. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil prices decrease

  3. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil prices

  4. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil pricesheating

  5. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil

  6. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3, 2014

  7. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3,

  8. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  9. Sodium heat engine electrical feedthrough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Neill (Dearborn, MI)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a hermetically sealed feedthrough structure.

  10. Heating Oil and Propane Update - Energy Information Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Petroleum Reports Heating Oil and Propane Update Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season, which extends from October through March....

  11. Tips For Residential Heating Oil Tank Owners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Tips For Residential Heating Oil Tank Owners Source: DEP Fact Sheet Residential heating oil tanks are used to store fuel for furnaces or boilers to heat

  12. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases The average retail price

  13. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases The average retail

  14. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases The average retailheating

  15. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases The average

  16. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases The averageheating

  17. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases The averageheating6, 2014

  18. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases The averageheating6,

  19. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases The averageheating6,4

  20. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases The

  1. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases Theheating

  2. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases Theheatingheating

  3. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases Theheatingheatingheating

  4. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases

  5. Electric Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles: Electric-Powered Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a new class of advanced nanomaterial called an electrical metal organic framework (EMOF) for EV heating and cooling systems. The EMOF would function similar to a conventional heat pump, which circulates heat or cold to the cabin as needed. However, by directly controlling the EMOF's properties with electricity, the PNNL design is expected to use much less energy than traditional heating and cooling systems. The EMOF-based heat pumps would be light, compact, efficient, and run using virtually no moving parts.

  6. Sodium heat engine electrical feedthrough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, N.

    1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy is disclosed. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a hermetically sealed feedthrough structure. 4 figs.

  7. History of Heating Oil Reserve Releases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), a one million barrel supply of ultra low sulfur distillate (diesel), was created to build a buffer to allow commercial companies to compensate for...

  8. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  9. Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

  10. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3,heating4

  11. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3,heating40,

  12. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3,heating40,5,

  13. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3,heating40,5,4

  14. Wholesale Heating Oil Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalTheE. Great Basin Oil andBOEWest4 Paul M.March)

  15. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 012139 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

  16. Volumetric In Situ Electrical Heating: An Unexploited Electrotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridges, J. E.

    of the product or combustion of the more volatile products of the process. '17 In the mid-1970s, we at lIT Research Institute (IITRI) became interested in heating warehouse-size blocks of oil shale with electrical energy principally in the shortwave radio...-frequency (RF) band. A thermally efficient method to do this was demonstrated in a series of small-scale field tests in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but most of the activity with respect to oil shale was shelved because of the drop in oil prices...

  17. Portland General Electric- Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Portland General Electric's (PGE) Heat Pump Rebate Program offers residential customers a $200 rebate for an energy-efficient heat pump installed to PGEs standards by a PGE-approved contractor....

  18. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheatingheating oil prices

  19. Valley Electric Association- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Valley Electric Association (VEA), a nonprofit member owned cooperative, developed the domestic solar water heating program to encourage energy efficiency at the request of the membership. VEA...

  20. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  1. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

    1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  2. Oil Extraction Factory Crude Oil Heating System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai Qiushi; Pan Yi; Yang Shuangchun

    Abstract:-The design of general process is divided into: according to the original material and the data were based on the calculated; calculate the joint station dewatering tank and the sewage tank capacity; then its thermodynamic calculation, hydraulic calculation, selection of pump in heating furnace and to determine the types and quantity of the last of the pipelines; the permitted maximum, minimum throughput and stop lose time to carry out a series of process calculation, also made the hot oil pipeline thermal stress compensation calculation. Keywords:-calculate; hydraulic; pipeline;minimum throughput I.

  3. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  4. Electrical assembly having heat sink protrusions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinehart, Lawrence E. (Lake Oswego, OR); Romero, Guillermo L. (Phoenix, AZ)

    2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical assembly, comprising a heat producing semiconductor device supported on a first major surface of a direct bond metal substrate that has a set of heat sink protrusions supported by its second major surface. In one preferred embodiment the heat sink protrusions are made of the same metal as is used in the direct bond copper.

  5. DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating...

  6. Electrically heated DPF start-up strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine has a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates in the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates. Heat generated by combustion of particulates in the heater induces combustion of particulates within the DPF. A control module selectively enables current flow to the electrical heater for an initial period of a DPF regeneration cycle, and limits exhaust flow while the electrical heater is heating to a predetermined soot combustion temperature.

  7. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating

  8. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade Project Will Take Advantage of...

  9. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade CHERYL TALLEY, PE Flathead Electric Cooperative Ground Source Heat Pumps Demonstration Projects May 19,...

  10. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utilizing Electric Trubocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) -...

  11. Edmond Electric- Residential Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Edmond Electric offers rebates to residential customers who install energy-efficient heat pumps. This program applies to installations in both new and existing residential homes and complexes. Air...

  12. Lakeland Electric- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, is the nation's first utility to offer solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility has contracted with a solar...

  13. ELECTRIC CO-HEATING: A METHOD FOR EVALUATING SEASONAL HEATING EFFICIENCIES AND HEAT LOSS RATES IN DWELLINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effi~ ciency of Fossil~Fired Heating Systems for LabelingInfo. Division, Ext. 6782 Electric Co-heating: A Methodfor Evaluating Seasonal Heating Efficiencies and Heat Loss

  14. Residential home heating oil and propane survey, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains pricing and consumption data on heating oils and propane for the Maine residential sector during the heating season 1991--1992. The information was gathered by survey. (VC)

  15. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  16. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREofNewsletterEnergy Heating Oil Reserve »

  17. Harvesting Electricity From Wasted Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwede, Jared

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists as SLAC National Laboratory explain the concept, Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE), and how this process can capture more energy from photovoltaic panels by harnessing heat energy from sunlight.

  18. Harvesting Electricity From Wasted Heat

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schwede, Jared

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists as SLAC National Laboratory explain the concept, Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE), and how this process can capture more energy from photovoltaic panels by harnessing heat energy from sunlight.

  19. Heat transfer and oil displacement models for tar sands reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, C.E.; Ward, G.D.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heat transfer model and one dimensional displacement model applicable to tar sands and heavy oils for use with a microcomputer are presented. The convective heat transfer model describes the temperature profiles in a thermal operation. The displacement model offers insight into the effect of process variables on the steam/oil or air/oil ratio of thermal operations. A method is presented for predicting the fuel burn in a fireflood.

  20. Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration Peter Meibom Juha of using electrical heat boilers and heat pumps as wind power integration measures relieving the link\\ZRUGV wind power, integration, heat pumps, electric heat boilers ,QWURGXFWLRQ 3UREOHP RYHUYLHZ The Danish

  1. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  2. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill, PA); Lackey, Robert S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fagan, Jr., Thomas J. (Penn HIlls, PA); Veyo, Stephen E. (Murrysville, PA); Humphrey, Joseph R. (Grand Rapids, MI)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module 10, an air mover module 12, and a resistance heat package module 14, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor 36 in a space adjacent the heat exchanger 28, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown in FIGS. 4-7 to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations.

  3. Volumetric In Situ Electrical Heating: An Unexploited Electrotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridges, J. E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can triple flow rates from heavy-oil wells for an incremental operational cost of only a few dollars per barrel. The electrically enhanced oil recovery (EEOR) single-well stimulation method produces 15 barrels of oil for every barrel of oil consumed...

  4. Heat to electricity thermoacoustic-magnetohydrodynamic conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejon-Pita, A A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a new concept for the conversion of heat into electricity is presented. The conversion is based on the combined effects of a thermoacoustic prime mover coupled with a magnetohydrodynamic generator, using different working fluids in each process. The results of preliminary experiments are also presented.

  5. Heat to electricity thermoacoustic-magnetohydrodynamic conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Castrejon-Pita; G. Huelsz

    2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a new concept for the conversion of heat into electricity is presented. The conversion is based on the combined effects of a thermoacoustic prime mover coupled with a magnetohydrodynamic generator, using different working fluids in each process. The results of preliminary experiments are also presented.

  6. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve- Online Bidding System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed an on-line bidding system - an anonymous auction program - for the sale of product from the one million barrel Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve.

  7. State heating oil and propane program, 1994--1995 heating season. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane prices and No. 2 fuel prices during the 1994-1995 heating season are tabulated for the state of Ohio. Nineteen companies were included in the telephone survey of propane prices, and twenty two companies for the fuel oil prices. A bar graph is also presented for average residential prices of No. 2 heating oil.

  8. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Caterpillar Inc. 2002deerhopmann.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat...

  9. Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Presentation given at the 16th...

  10. Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle 2005...

  11. State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, Betsy

    2002-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

  12. NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel.5 for heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret can purchase two types of crude oil: crude 1 (at 12 per Jet fuel Heating oil Minimum octane 8.5 7 4.5 Price () 18 16 14 Minimum production 2500 3000 3500

  13. Technologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden Wind Energy in perspective Morthorst December 2008 #12;Technologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden Wind Energy Erik Morthorst Title: Technologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden Wind Energy

  14. Emerging Heat Exchanger Technologies for the Mitigation of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.; King, D. C.

    -heat train exchangers foul is controlled by fluid velocity and by wall temperature. Technologies which promote the heat transfer on the crude oil side of an exchanger are therefore favoured. (Note: promotion of the heat transfer on the hot side of the unit...

  15. Bio-Heating Oil Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maryland allows individuals and corporations to take an income tax credit of $0.03/gallon for purchases of biodiesel used for space heating or water heating. The maximum credit is $500 per year. It...

  16. Design of Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Panjeh Shahi, M. H.

    Design of Crude Oil Pre-heat Trains G.T.Po]Jey B.L.Yeap D.I.Wilson M.H.Panjeh Shahi Pinchtechnology.com Dept of Chern. Engng. Dept. of Chern. Engng. University of Cambridge University of Tehran Pre-heat trains differ from most other heat... recovery networks in a number of important ways. Combination offactors gives rise to the need for a design procedure specific to pre heat trains. Outlining these factors, we first observe that one cold stream (the incoming crude) dominates the heat...

  17. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1998 OIL HEAT TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference will be held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting will be held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference, will be the twelfth since 1984, is an important technology transfer activity and is supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology (Oilheat R and D) program at BNL. The reason for the conference is to provide a forum for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. They will provide a channel by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector. The specific objectives of the Conference are to: (1) Identify and evaluate the current state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; and (2) Foster cooperative interactions among federal and industrial representatives for the common goal of sustained economic growth and energy security via energy conservation.

  18. Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  19. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  20. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP R. C. Meier, Program Manager, Gas for the market- place of the 1980's. 1 7//AA -'6 1 #12;DEVELOPMENT OF THE GENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS Heat Pump Program General Electric Company P. 0. Box 8555 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 FILE COPY DO

  2. High thermal power density heat transfer apparatus providing electrical isolation at high temperature using heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J. F.

    1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to transferring heat from an extremely high temperature source to an electrically isolated lower temperature receiver. The invention is particularly concerned with supplying thermal power to a thermionic converter from a nuclear reactor with electric isolation. Heat from a high temperature heat pipe is transferred through a vacuum or a gap filled with electrically nonconducting gas to a cooler heat pipe. The heat pipe is used to cool the nuclear reactor while the heat pipe is connected thermally and electrically to a thermionic converter. If the receiver requires greater thermal power density, geometries are used with larger heat pipe areas for transmitting and receiving energy than the area for conducting the heat to the thermionic converter. In this way the heat pipe capability for increasing thermal power densities compensates for the comparatively low thermal power densities through the electrically nonconducting gap between the two heat pipes.

  3. NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret purchases crude oil at a price of 11 per barrel. Each day to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

  4. Proceedings of the 1993 oil heat technology conference and workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the proceedings of the 1993 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, held on March 25--26 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and sponsored by the US Department of Energy - Office of Building Technologies (DOE-OBT), in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America. This Conference, which was the seventh held since 1984, is a key technology-transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology (Oil-Heat R&D) program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space- conditioning equipment. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Heating Oil Reserve History | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov.Energy02.pdf7 OPAM Flash2011-37 OPAMResourceEmploymentHealth, Safety,HeatHeating

  6. Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative- Residential Heat Pump Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative offers a heat pump loan program to eligible residential members. To qualify, members must have had power with Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative for at least...

  7. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS, PbTe and Bi2Te3 Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS, PbTe and Bi2Te3 Presentation given at DEER...

  8. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  9. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trubocompound Technology Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Trubocompound Technology 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Caterpillar Inc. 2003deeralgrain.pdf...

  10. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on a OTR truck schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of...

  11. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ace049schock2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of...

  12. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maryland. merit08schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Efficiency Improvement in an...

  13. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    truck system. schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste...

  14. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2006deerschock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Development of Thermoelectric...

  15. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by the Application of Advanced Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  16. Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, E.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

  17. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

  18. Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Co-produced and low-temperature...

  19. LBNL-1334E-2009 Effect of Heat and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-1334E-2009 Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer. #12;Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability Energy Commission. The authors are also grateful for useful input from Profs. Robert Lasseter and Giri

  20. Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Conference, which was the sixth held since 1984, is a key technology-transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: Identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend; new initiatives to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; Foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of national security via energy conservation. The 1991 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) two plenary sessions devoted to presentations and summations by public and private sector representatives from the United States, Europe, and Canada; and, (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Mohave Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mohave Electric Cooperative is a non-profit that serves the communities of Bullhead City, Fort Mohave, Mohave Valley, Wikieup, Hackberry and Peach Springs. Mohave Electric Cooperative offers...

  2. Electric heating units in pollination bags avoid damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Electric heating units in pollination bags avoid damage to flowers by spring frost J. CH. FERRAND n'Orlgans Ardon, F 45160 Olivet Summary An effective, cheap and simple heating device was designed by INRA heating, Larix. Controlled crosses are essential for forest tree breeding, but spring frost can destroy

  3. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R. [Mobil Oil Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  4. Heat Transfer and Thermophotovoltaic Power Generation in Oil-fired Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Hammonds, J.S.; Horne, E.; Kamath, B.; Carpenter, J.; Woods, D.R.

    2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this study is the production of electric power in an oil-fired, residential heatingsystem using thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion devices. This work uses experimental, computational, and analytical methods to investigate thermal mechanisms that drive electric power production in the TPV systems. An objective of this work is to produce results that will lead to the development of systems that generate enough electricity such that the boiler is self-powering. An important design constraint employed in this investigation is the use of conventional, yellow-flame oil burners, integrated with a typical boiler. The power production target for the systems developed here is 100 W - the power requirement for a boiler that uses low-power auxiliary components. The important heattransfer coupling mechanisms that drive power production in the systems studied are discussed. The results of this work may lead to the development of systems that export power to the home electric system.

  5. AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo, Manager, Heat Exchange Systems Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo S. E. Veyo, Manager, Heat 15235 KEYWORDS: heat pump, air conditioner, electric, residential, energy, compressor, fan, blower, heat exchanger, comfort. #12;AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo* ABSTRACT A two

  6. Application of Carbon Nanocatalysts in Upgrading Heavy Crude Oil Assisted with Microwave Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Application of Carbon Nanocatalysts in Upgrading Heavy Crude Oil Assisted with Microwave Heating, Stanford, California 94305, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Heavy crude oil can that by using carbon nano- catalysts, heavy crude oil can be efficiently upgraded to lighter oil at a relatively

  7. Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

    In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

  8. Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative (BREC) offers low interest loans to help members finance the purchase of energy efficient heat pumps. Loans under $1,500 can be financed for up to 42 months, and...

  9. Bandera Electric Cooperative- Residential Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bandera Electric Cooperative offers a $200 rebate for the installation of a 15 SEER or higher heat pumps in existing homes. This program is designed to promote energy efficiency in existing...

  10. York Electric Cooperative- Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    York Electric Cooperative, Inc. (YEC) offers a $400 rebate to members who install a dual fuel heat pump in homes or businesses. The rebates are for primary residence and/or commercial and...

  11. Innovative Control of Electric Heat in Multifamily Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lempereur, D.; Bobker, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the application of web-based wireless technology for control of electric heating in a large multifamily housing complex. The control system architecture and components are described. A web-based application enables remote...

  12. Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

  13. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    be 500 oC deer09schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of...

  14. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are conventional air conditioning and heat pump, given thein heat pump alternative Dummy for oil forced air choiceair choice Dummy for electric baseboard choice Dummy for heat pump

  15. State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service`s survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy`s State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

  16. State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service's survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

  17. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

  18. Bio-Oil Deployment in the Home Heating Market

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyand SustainedBio-Oil Deployment in the Home Heating

  19. Electrical installations in oil shale mines. Open file report 21 Sep 81-13 Aug 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillenwater, B.B.; Kline, R.J.; Paas, N.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents recommended guidelines and regulatory changes applicable to electrical installations in underground oil shale mines. These recommendations are based on information gathered from oil shale operators, government agencies, and other knowledgeable sources familiar with existing plans for mining systems and electrical installations, and on present understanding of the problems and hazards associated with oil shale mining. Additional discussions of specific electrical problems related to oil shale mining include ground fault current levels, permissible electric wheel motors, permissible batteries and electric starting systems, intrinsically safe instrumentation, and applicability of existing test standards.

  20. Effectiveness of heating patterns for electrical resistance heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maggard, James Bryan

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power, P, to make it dimensionless and scaled from zero to 1. 0. Power dissipation profiles for the radial power model and r-z power model are compared in Fig 6. For the r-z power model, the value of P(r)/P does not reach a value of 1. 0 because some... due to conduction, convection and ERH heating are accounted for. Heat flow in the overburden and underburden assumes no convection (Qs = 0. ) A a?d T - ? 6 [ p r Cz] + 0 + Q? At t z e (6) Mass Balances: The final equations solved by the r-z ERH...

  1. Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced Fluids from Oil and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells Project Type ...

  2. Using Exergy Analysis Methodology to Assess the Heating Efficiency of an Electric Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ao, Y.; Duanmu, L.; Shen, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors, using exergy analysis methodology, propose that it should consider not only the COP (coefficient of Performance) value of the electric power heat pump set (EPHPS/or HP set), but also the exergy loss at the heating exchanger of the HP...

  3. Using Exergy Analysis Methodology to Assess the Heating Efficiency of an Electric Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ao, Y.; Duanmu, L.; Shen, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors, using exergy analysis methodology, propose that it should consider not only the COP (coefficient of Performance) value of the electric power heat pump set (EPHPS/or HP set), but also the exergy loss at the heating exchanger of the HP...

  4. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  5. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  6. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  7. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  8. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Fleischhauer, G.S.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Lilly, A.C. Jr.

    1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, {<=}1% Cr and either {>=}0.05% Zr or ZrO{sub 2} stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or {>=}0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, {<=}2% Ti, {<=}2% Mo, {<=}1% Zr, {<=}1% C, {<=}0.1% B, {<=}30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, {<=}1% rare earth metal, {<=}1% oxygen, {<=}3% Cu, balance Fe. 64 figs.

  9. Final report of the Rhode Island State Energy Office on residential no. 2 heating oil and propane prices [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Janice

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary report on residential No.2 heating oil and propane prepared under grant. Summarizes the monitoring and analysis of heating oil and propane prices from October 2000 through March 2001.

  10. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

  11. Electric Resistance Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6:Energy Eighth AnnualELECTRICElectricElectric

  12. Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJunetrack graphics4DimitriJune 30,NEW! EnergyIndustryElectric

  13. Single-photon heat conduction in electrical circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, P J; Tan, K Y; Mttnen, M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study photonic heat conduction between two resistors coupled weakly to a single superconducting microwave cavity. At low enough temperature, the dominating part of the heat exchanged between the resistors is transmitted by single-photon excitations of the fundamental mode of the cavity. This manifestation of single-photon heat conduction should be experimentally observable with the current state of the art. Our scheme can possibly be utilized in remote interference-free temperature control of electric components and environment engineering for superconducting qubits coupled to cavities.

  14. Single-photon heat conduction in electrical circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. J. Jones; J. A. M. Huhtamki; K. Y. Tan; M. Mttnen

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study photonic heat conduction between two resistors coupled weakly to a single superconducting microwave cavity. At low enough temperature, the dominating part of the heat exchanged between the resistors is transmitted by single-photon excitations of the fundamental mode of the cavity. This manifestation of single-photon heat conduction should be experimentally observable with the current state of the art. Our scheme can possibly be utilized in remote interference-free temperature control of electric components and environment engineering for superconducting qubits coupled to cavities.

  15. Silicone oil contamination and electrical contact resistance degradation of low-force gold contacts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dickrell, Daniel John, III

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot-switched low-force gold electrical contact testing was performed using a nanomechanical test apparatus to ascertain the sensitivity of simulated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) contact to silicone oil contamination. The observed cyclic contact resistance degradation was dependent on both closure rate and noncontact applied voltage. The decomposition of silicone oil from electrical arcing was hypothesized as the degradation mechanism.

  16. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  17. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  18. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  19. Integrated exhaust and electrically heated particulate filter regeneration systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes multiple zones. An electrical heater includes heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A post-fuel injection system injects fuel into at least one of a cylinder of an engine and an exhaust system. A control module is configured to operate in a first mode that includes activating the electrical heater to heat exhaust of the engine. The control module is also configured to operate in a second mode that includes activating the post-injection system to heat the exhaust. The control module selectively operates in at least one of the first mode and the second mode.

  20. Technologies for Production of Heat and Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass is a desirable source of energy because it is renewable, sustainable, widely available throughout the world, and amenable to conversion. Biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components. Cellulose is generally the dominant fraction, representing about 40 to 50% of the material by weight, with hemicellulose representing 20 to 50% of the material, and lignin making up the remaining portion [4,5,6]. Although the outward appearance of the various forms of cellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, municipal solid waste (MSW), or agricultural residues, is different, all of these materials have a similar cellulosic composition. Elementally, however, biomass varies considerably, thereby presenting technical challenges at virtually every phase of its conversion to useful energy forms and products. Despite the variances among cellulosic sources, there are a variety of technologies for converting biomass into energy. These technologies are generally divided into two groups: biochemical (biological-based) and thermochemical (heat-based) conversion processes. This chapter reviews the specific technologies that can be used to convert biomass to energy. Each technology review includes the description of the process, and the positive and negative aspects.

  1. Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteiro, O. R., E-mail: othon.monteiro@bakerhughes.com [Baker Hughes, 14990 Yorktown Plaza Dr., Houston, Texas 77040 (United States)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1?wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (?(?)) and permittivity (?(?)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ? with and followed a power-law ?(?)???{sup s} dependence at very high frequencies with s?0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

  2. Comparison of Heating Methods for In-Situ Oil Shale Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazra, Kaushik Gaurav

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shales are lamellar, non-porous, impermeable hydrocarbon bearing rocks that contain organic matter called kerogen which, when heated at pyrolysis temperature of approximately 600-800 ?, thermo-chemically decomposes to liberate hydrocarbons...

  3. Comparison of Heating Methods for In-Situ Oil Shale Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazra, Kaushik Gaurav

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shales are lamellar, non-porous, impermeable hydrocarbon bearing rocks that contain organic matter called kerogen which, when heated at pyrolysis temperature of approximately 600-800 ?, thermo-chemically decomposes to liberate hydrocarbons...

  4. Recent Experiments and Post-Discharge Modeling of the ElectricOIL Laser System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    Recent Experiments and Post-Discharge Modeling of the ElectricOIL Laser System D. L. Carroll, J. T composed of two 99.993% reflective mirrors. Blaze II laser model was used to model typical Electric have demonstrated O2(a) yields greater than 15% using electric discharges,6,7,9 and modeling results4

  5. State heating oil and propane program: Final report. Survey of No.2 heating oil and propane prices at the retail level, October 1997 through March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Efficiency Division of the Vermont Department of Public Service (DPS) monitored the price and inventory of residential heating oil and propane during the 1997--98 heating season under a grant from the US Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration (EIA). DPS staff collected data biweekly between October 5, 1997 and March 16, 1998 on the retail price of {number_sign}2 home heating oil and propane by telephone survey. Propane price quoted was based on the rate for a residential home heating customer using 1,000+ per year. The survey included a sample of fuel dealers selected by the EIA, plus additional dealers and fuels selected by the DPS. The EIA weighted, analyzed, and reported the data collected from their sample.

  6. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  7. Electrode wells for powerline-frequency electrical heating of soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buettner, H.M.; Daily, W.D.; Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.; Ramirez, A.L.; Siegel, W.H.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode well is described for use in powerline-frequency heating of soils for decontamination of the soil. Heating of soils enables the removal of volatile organic compounds from soil when utilized in combination with vacuum extraction. A preferred embodiment of the electrode well utilizes a mild steel pipe as the current-carrying conductor to at least one stainless steel electrode surrounded by a conductive backfill material, preferably graphite or steel shot. A covering is also provided for electrically insulating the current-carrying pipe. One of the electrode wells is utilized with an extraction well which is under subatmospheric pressure to withdraw the volatile material, such as gasoline and trichloroethylene (TCE) as it is heated. 4 figs.

  8. Electrode wells for powerline-frequency electrical heating of soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buettner, Harley M. (Livermore, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Siegel, William H. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode well for use in powerline-frequency heating of soils for decontamination of the soil. Heating of soils enables the removal of volatile organic compounds from soil when utilized in combination with vacuum extraction. A preferred embodiment of the electrode well utilizes a mild steel pipe as the current-carrying conductor to at least one stainless steel electrode surrounded by a conductive backfill material, preferably graphite or steel shot. A covering is also provided for electrically insulating the current-carrying pipe. One of the electrode wells is utilized with an extraction well which is under subatmospheric pressure to withdraw the volatile material, such as gasoline and trichioroethylene (TCE) as it is heated.

  9. State heating oil & propane program. Final report for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 1994--1995 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Energy Office (PEO) to summarize its activities under the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1994-95 heating season. The PEO is under a cooperative agreement, Agreement DE-7C01-91E122784, Amendment No. 3, with the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) to conduct these activities. The objective of the SHOPP program was to collect Pennsylvania-specific price information for residential No. 2 heating oil and propane and transmit this information to DOE/EIA for compilation into its various reports and publications. Under the PEO`s cooperative agreement with DOE/EIA, prices were collected on the first and third Mondays of each month, starting on October 3, 1994, and extending through March 20, 1995. Prices were obtained via telephone calls made by PEO staff. For each heating oil distributor in the survey sample, the PEO collected charge prices for a standard delivery quantity of No. 2 heating oil. For propane, dealers were requested to provide the price for a customer using between one thousand and fifteen hundred gallons of fuel during the heating season. The PEO agreed to forward the survey results to the DOE/EIA within three days of the date of each survey. DOE/EIA`s responsibility was to compile the data from all states and distribute a bi-weekly report. In addition, DOE/EIA took responsibility for the collection of primary stock information for No. 2 heating oil.

  10. Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers in electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric field dependence of charge carrier transport and the effect of carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers were investigated. A parameter-free multiscale methodology consisting of classical molecular dynamics simulation for the generation of the atomic structure, large system electronic structure and electron-phonon coupling constants calculations and the procedure for extracting the bulk polymer mobility, was used. The results suggested that the mobility of a fully disordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer increases with electric field which is consistent with the experimental results on samples of regiorandom P3HT and different from the results on more ordered regioregular P3HT polymers, where the opposite trend is often observed at low electric fields. We calculated the electric field dependence of the effective carrier temperature and showed however that the effective temperature cannot be used to replace the joint effect of temperature and electric field, in contrast to previous theoretical results from phenomenological models. Such a difference was traced to originate from the use of simplified Miller-Abrahams hopping rates in phenomenological models in contrast to our considerations that explicitly take into account the electronic state wave functions and the interaction with all phonon modes.

  11. No. 2 heating oil/propane program 1994--1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 1994--95 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1994 through March 1995. This program augmented the existing Massachusetts data collection system and served several important functions. The information helped the federal and state governments respond to consumer, congressional and media inquiries regarding No. 2 oil and propane. The information also provided policy decision-makers with timely, accurate and consistent data to monitor current heating oil and propane markets and develop appropriate state responses when necessary. In addition, the communication network between states and the DOE was strengthened through this program. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events that had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1994--95 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  12. Dynamic Response Testing in an Electrically Heated Reactor Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Nuclear and Advanced Propulsion Branch, ER-11, MSFC, AL 35812 (United States); Morton, T. J. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Standard testing allows one to fully assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. The integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assess potential design improvements at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial system dynamic response testing was demonstrated on the integrated SAFE-100a heat pipe (HP) cooled, electrically heated reactor and heat exchanger hardware, utilizing a one-group solution to the point kinetics equations to simulate the expected neutronic response of the system. Reactivity feedback calculations were then based on a bulk reactivity feedback coefficient and measured average core temperature. This paper presents preliminary results from similar dynamic testing of a direct drive gas cooled reactor system (DDG), demonstrating the applicability of the testing methodology to any reactor type and demonstrating the variation in system response characteristics in different reactor concepts. Although the HP and DDG designs both utilize a fast spectrum reactor, the method of cooling the reactor differs significantly, leading to a variable system response that can be demonstrated and assessed in a non-nuclear test facility. Planned system upgrades to allow implementation of higher fidelity dynamic testing are also discussed. Proposed DDG testing will utilize a higher fidelity point kinetics model to control core power transients, and reactivity feedback will be based on localized feedback coefficients and several independent temperature measurements taken within the core block. This paper presents preliminary test results and discusses the methodology that will be implemented in follow-on DDG testing and the additional instrumentation required to implement high fidelity dynamic testing.

  13. Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    from non-conventional low temperature (150 to 300 F) geothermal resources in oil and gas settings. lowgosnoldcoproducedfluids.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  14. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Evolving Electricity Generation and Deliveryfor meeting building electricity and heat requirementswas funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy

  15. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  16. Outdoor unit construction for an electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA); Lackey, Robert S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The outdoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided with an upper portion 10 containing propeller fan means 14 for drawing air through the lower portion 12 containing refrigerant coil means 16 in the form of four discrete coils connected together in a subassembly forming a W shape, the unit being provided with four adjustable legs 64 which are retracted in shipment, and are adjusted on site to elevate the unit to a particular height suitable for the particular location in which the unit is installed.

  17. Outdoor unit construction for an electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.

    1984-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The outdoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided with an upper portion containing propeller fan means for drawing air through the lower portion containing refrigerant coil means in the form of four discrete coils connected together in a subassembly forming a W shape, the unit being provided with four adjustable legs which are retracted in shipment, and are adjusted on site to elevate the unit to a particular height suitable for the particular location in which the unit is installed. 4 figs.

  18. THE IMPACT OF SUBSIDY MECHANISMS ON BIOMASS AND OIL SHALE BASED ELECTRICITY COST PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Latov; A. Volkova; A. Siirde

    This paper provides electricity cost price estimates for biomass-based CHP plants and oil shale power plants to be constructed before 2013 and 2015 that can serve as references for more detailed case-specific studies. Calcula-tion results give electricity costs prices under different CO2 quota

  19. ElectricOIL discharge and post-discharge kinetics experiments and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels of complexity to the singlet oxygen generator (SOG has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O2(a1 ) produced using a lowpressure oxygen/helium/nitric-oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic

  20. SELF-HEATING IN A COUPLED THERMO-ELECTRIC CIRCUIT-DEVICE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jngel, Ansgar

    SELF-HEATING IN A COUPLED THERMO-ELECTRIC CIRCUIT-DEVICE MODEL MARKUS BRUNK AND ANSGAR JUNGEL Abstract. The self-heating of a coupled thermo-electric circuit-semiconductor system is mod- eled. Introduction. Due to growing package densities, self-heating becomes more and more important in modern

  1. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Home Heating Anderson [21 Oil Price Electric Share Gas ShareBaughman and Joskow [3] Oil Price Gas Price Lin, Hirst,and Cohn [10] Gas Price Oil Price Hartman and Hollyer [8] (

  2. Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers in electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vukmirovic, Nenad

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers inand the e?ect of carrier heating in disordered conjugatedinto the e?ect of carrier heating in conjugated polymers

  3. Combined Operation of Solar Energy Source Heat Pump, Low-vale Electricity and Floor Radiant System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Guo, Z.; Hu, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar energy, low-vale electricity as heat sources in a floor radiant system are analyzed. This paper presents a new heat pump system and discusses its operational modes in winter....

  4. Combined Operation of Solar Energy Source Heat Pump, Low-vale Electricity and Floor Radiant System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Guo, Z.; Hu, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar energy, low-vale electricity as heat sources in a floor radiant system are analyzed. This paper presents a new heat pump system and discusses its operational modes in winter....

  5. An analytical model for the design of in-slab electric heating panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, T.L.; Kilkis, B.I. [Heatway, Springfield, MO (United States)

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a steady-state heat transfer model is described for design and sizing of electric radiant panel heating systems embedded in a slab. This model is applicable both for ceiling and floor panels. An approximate panel surface heat output algorithm is also given as a function of size and orientation of the heated space and outdoor exposure.

  6. Innovative Energy Conservation Through Scrao Pre-heating in an Electric Arc Furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dicion, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will present an innovative energy conservation technology for scrap pre-heating in an Electric Arc Furnace that is being implemented in an industrial facility in Ontario. The objective of the paper is to examine the electrical...

  7. A Comparison of Domestic Water Heating Options in the Austin Electric Service Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Hood, D. B.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the energy, demand, and economic effects of three alternative electric water heating systems from the perspective of both the City of Austin Electric Utility and its ratepayers. An hourly computer simulation was used to model...

  8. Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

  9. Transient fission gas release during direct electrical heating experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas release behavior of irradiated EBR-II fuel was observed to be dependent on several factors: the presence of cladding, the retained gas content, and the energy absorbed. Fuel that retained in excess of 16 to 17 ..mu..moles/g of fission gas underwent spallation as the cladding melted and released 22 to 45% of its retained gas, while fuel with retained gas levels below approx. 15 to 16 ..mu..moles/g released less than approx. 9% of its gas as the cladding melted. During subsequent direct electrical heating ramps, fuel that did not spall released an additional quantity of gas (up to 4 ..mu..moles/g), depending on the energy absorbed.

  10. QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeid Ghamaty; Sal Marchetti

    2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices.

  11. Heat and mass transport in non-isothermal partially saturated oil-wax Antonio Fasano1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    Heat and mass transport in non-isothermal partially saturated oil-wax solutions Antonio Fasano1 of deposition on a cold wall. Here we want to investigate the specific problem of diffusion-driven migration of desaturation. Our approach will be mainly focussed on the mass transport process, in the sense that the (rather

  12. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

  13. QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeid Ghamaty

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

  14. Wholesale Propane Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October - March)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalTheE. Great Basin Oil andBOEWest4 Paul

  15. Evaluation of Heat Stress and Strain in Electric Utility Workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Eric Nicholas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Health Administration. (1994) Heat Stress. OSHA TechnicalAshley, C. Short-Term Heat Stress Exposure Limits Based onThermal Comfort and the Heat Stress Indices. 44 (2006):

  16. Heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture flow boiling inside a 7 mm straight smooth tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Haitao; Ding, Guoliang; Wei, Wenjian; Wang, Zhence [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Kaijian [Fujitsu General Institute of Air-Conditioning Technology Limited, Kawasaki 213-8502 (Japan)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-phase flow patterns and heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture flow boiling inside a straight smooth tube with the outside diameter of 7.0 mm were investigated experimentally. The experimental conditions include the evaporation temperature of 5 C, the mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the heat flux from 7.56 to 15.12 kW m{sup -2}, the inlet vapor quality from 0.2 to 0.7, nominal oil concentration from 0% to 5%. The test results show that the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture increases with mass flux of refrigerant-oil mixture; the presence of oil enhances the heat transfer at the range of low and intermediate vapor qualities; there is a peak of local heat transfer coefficient at about 2-4% nominal oil concentration at higher vapor qualities, and the peak shifts to lower nominal oil concentration with the increasing of vapor qualities; higher nominal oil concentration gives more detrimental effect at high vapor qualities. The flow pattern map of R410A-oil mixture was developed based on refrigerant-oil mixture properties, and the observed flow patterns match well with the flow pattern map. New correlation to predict the local heat transfer of R410A-oil mixture flow boiling inside the straight smooth tube was developed based on flow patterns and local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture, and it agrees with 90% of the experiment data within the deviation of {+-}25%. (author)

  17. Multiwalled carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composite films as high performance flexible electric heating elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Jing; Jeong, Young Gyu, E-mail: ygjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Organic Materials and Textile System Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance elastomeric electric heating elements were prepared by incorporating various contents of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix by using an efficient solution-casting and curing technique. The pristine MWCNTs were identified to be uniformly dispersed in the PDMS matrix and the electrical percolation of MWCNTs was evaluated to be at ?0.27?wt.?%, where the electrical resistivity of the MWCNT/PDMS composite films dropped remarkably. Accordingly, the composite films with higher MWCNT contents above 0.3?wt.?% exhibit excellent electric heating performance in terms of temperature response rapidity and electric energy efficiency at constant applied voltages. In addition, the composite films, which were thermally stable up to 250?C, showed excellent heating-cooling cyclic performance, which was associated with operational stability in actual electric heating applications.

  18. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, N.L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1992. Global warming and electricity demand: A study ofValuing the Time-Varying Electricity Production of SolarCEC). 2002. 2002-2012 Electricity Outlook Report, P700- 01-

  19. Dixie Electric Cooperative- Residential Heat Pump Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dixie Electric Cooperative, a Touchstone Electric Cooperative, offers the Energy Resources Conservation (ERC) loan to residential customers pursue energy efficiency measures. The program allows a...

  20. Models for the Prediction of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Polley, G. T.

    Models for the Prediction of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains B.L. Yeap D.I. Wilson G.T. PoUey Dept. of Chern. Engng. Dept. of Chern. Engng. ESDU International Ltd University of Cambridge University of Cambridge Fouling has two significant... across a unit. Extended fouling can affect the throughput of the train. The impetus behind exchanger cleaning is often the need to maintain throughput rather than save energy. If we are to be able to consider fouling in the design of crude oil pre...

  1. Electricity-producing heating apparatus utilizing a turbine generator in a semi-closed brayton cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon D.; Christian, Jeffrey E.

    2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides apparatus and methods for producing both heat and electrical energy by burning fuels in a stove or boiler using a novel arrangement of a surface heat exchanger and microturbine-powered generator and novel surface heat exchanger. The equipment is particularly suited for use in rural and relatively undeveloped areas, especially in cold regions and highlands.

  2. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  3. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane bills

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:DeploymentSite Name:24,High naturalProsperityNaturalLower oil

  4. District heating from electric-generating plants and municipal incinerators: local planner's assessment guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pferdehirt, W.; Kron, N. Jr.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide is designed to aid local government planners in the preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of district heating using heat recovered from electric generating plants and municipal incinerators. System feasibility is indicated by: (1) the existence of an adequate supply of nearby waste heat, (2) the presence of a sufficiently dense and large thermal load, and (3) a favorable cost comparison with conventional heating methods. 34 references.

  5. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography and gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi [Department of Offshore Process and Energy Systems Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil and gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil and gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 and 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 and 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  6. Influences of electrical field on boiling-condensation heat transfer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Ding Lijian; Chi Xiaochun; Liu Ji [Harbin Inst. of Electrical Technology (China). Dept. of Electrical Materials Engineering; Yang He [Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China). Dept. of Thermal Energy Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the influences of electrical field on boiling-condensation heat transfer system have been investigated using a cylinder heat transfer model. Freon-11 is selected as working fluid. The condensation heat transfer coefficient, the boiling heat flux and the saturation pressure are measured in this investigation. According to the experimental results, it is found that the electrical field can influence heat transfer system. The boiling heat transfer is enhanced by the applied voltage, and the saturate vapor of working fluid is condensed on the high voltage electrode directly when the applied voltage is higher than 6 kv. The experimental results have been discussed, and it is considered that the high electrical field strength change the thermal properties of working fluid.

  7. From Heat to Electricity: How "nano" Saved Thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    , reliable #12;Thermoelectric applications Waste heat recovery Automobiles Over the road trucks% of energy becomes waste heat, even a 10% capture and conversion to useful forms can have huge impact

  8. Bangor Hydro Electric Company- Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump Program (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bangor Hydro Electric Company offers a two-tiered incentive program for residential and small commercial customers. Mini-Split Heat Pumps are eligible for a rebate of $600, as well as a loan to...

  9. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project to develop direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating, a process which is meant to eliminate traditional, intermediate steelmaking steps.

  10. Metabolic heat production in electrically stimulated and non-stimulated muscle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzwater, Roy James

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METABOLIC HEAT PRODUCTION IN ELECTRICALLY STIMULATED AND NON-STIMULATED MUSCLE A Thesis by ROY JAMES FITZWATER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fufillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER CF... SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology METABOLIC HEAT PRODUCTION IN ELECTRICALLY STIMULATED . AND NON-STIMULATED MUSCLE A Thesis . by ROY JAMES FITZWATER Approved as to style and content by: (Co-chai n of Committee) (Co...

  11. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI); Bhatia, Garima (Bangalore, IN)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  12. Evaluation of Heat Stress and Strain in Electric Utility Workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Eric Nicholas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was to evaluate industrial hygiene heat exposures inan important goal of industrial hygiene monitoring is tothis one. Conclusion Industrial hygiene is the anticipation,

  13. Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

  14. Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use-acceptable refrigerants. Whether involving design of specific new products or refriger- ants to which the entire industry

  15. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

  16. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Autumn of 1996, consumers and Members of Congress from the Northeast expressed concern about high prices for heating oil and historically low levels of inventories. Some Members of Congress advocated building a Federal inventory of heating oil as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Regional reserves are authorized as part of the SPR for import dependent regions by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. In response, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed a series of studies related to heating fuels, including a study of the desirability, feasibility, and cost of creating a Federal reserve containing distillate fuel. This report documents that study.

  17. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab] [Oak Ridge National Lab

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High initial cost and lack of public awareness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, which is a heating only central GSHP system using shallow aquifer as heat source and installed at a warehouse and truck bay at Kalispell, MT. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, utility bills, and calculations of energy consumptions of conventional central heating systems for providing the same heat outputs as the central GSHP system did. The evaluated performance metrics include energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of GSHP system compared with conventional heating systems. This case study also identified areas for reducing uncertainties in performance evaluation, improving operational efficiency, and reducing installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future. Publication of ASHRAE at the annual conference in Seattle.

  18. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ES 2. CA nursing home electricity pattern: July weekday lowJanuary and July weekday electricity and total heat (space +CA school weekday total electricity (inclusive of cooling)

  19. Electric-field-induced turbulent energy cascade in an oil-in-oil emulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atul Varshney; Mayur Sathe; Shankar Ghosh; Anand Yethiraj; S. Bhattacharya; J. B. Joshi

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We observe electro-hydrodynamically driven turbulent flows at low Reynolds numbers in a two-fluid emulsion consisting of micron-scale droplets. In the presence of electric fields, the droplets produce interacting hydrodynamic flows which result in a dynamical organization at a spatial scale much larger than the size of the individual droplets. We characterize the dynamics associated with these structures by both video imaging and a simultaneous, in situ, measurement of the time variation of the bulk Reynolds stress with a rheometer. The results display scale invariance in the energy spectra in both space and time.

  20. Does Electricity (and Heat) Network Regulation have anything to learn from Fixed Line Telecoms?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    toelectricity,between2003and2008thepercentageofhouseholdsinChristchurch, NewZealand,heatingviaheatpumpshasincreasedfrom8%to35%,withthefigureprojectedto70%by 2015?18(Orion,2008,p.6). 4 TheUKhistoryoftelecomsreform... www.electricitypolicy.org.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R N O N -T E C H N IC A L S U M M A R Y Does Electricity (and Heat) Network Regulation have anything to learn from Fixed Line Telecoms Regulation? EPRG Working Paper 0914...

  1. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy.

  2. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  3. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene A. Fritzler

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  4. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.; Buetnner, H.M.; Aines, R.D.

    1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process. 4 figs.

  5. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA); Udell, Kent (Berkeley, CA); Buetnner, Harley M. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

  6. Innovative Control of Electric Heat in Multifamily Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lempereur, D.; Bobker, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    monitoring of temperature, electric usage and control of peak demand through a temperature-based duty-cycling algorithm developed specifically for the application. Installed costs and energy savings are discussed. A 16% energy-use reduction was confirmed...

  7. ELECTRIC CO-HEATING: A METHOD FOR EVALUATING SEASONAL HEATING EFFICIENCIES AND HEAT LOSS RATES IN DWELLINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and heating efficiency, inexpensive and practical diagnosti.c techniques are needed, such as pressuriza- tion, infrared

  8. The Economics of Steam Vs. Electric Pipe Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, R. E.

    : ? Steam tracer ? Valves I ? Strainer ? Traps ? O1eck valves I I The heat generated by steam tracing d Ipends on the design capacity of the tracer. The racer is usually 3/8 or 112 inch copper or sta nless pipe or tUbing. Because it is not practic 1... its capacity requir ments before its heat output can be calculated. Valves, which are rated for steam s rvice used, need to be installed so that trap and strainers can be isolated for maintenance. Strainers should be provided with bl wdown...

  9. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

  10. Industrial Potential for Substitution of Electricity for Oil and Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Over the past decade high power lasers have found a place in many manufac turing processes, including the welding of automobile parts, electronic devices and medical instruments; the heat-treating of automobile and airplane parts to improve... in terms of converting electricity into working power. However, they more than make up for that in many ways. First, because the heat energy is maintained and applied only in the region where the work has to be done, less energy is often used to weld a...

  11. Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Waste oils offer a tremendous recycling potential. An important, dwindling natural resource of great economic and industrial value, oil products are a cornerstone of our modern industrial society. Petroleum is processed into a wide variety of products: gasoline, fuel oil, diesel oil, synthetic rubber, solvents, pesticides, synthetic fibres, lubricating oil, drugs and many more ' (see Figure 1 1. The boilers of Amercian industries presently consume about 40 % of the used lubricating oils collected. In Ontario, the percentage varies from 20 to 30%. Road oiling is the other major use of collected waste oils. Five to seven million gallons (50-70 % of the waste oil col1ected)is spread on dusty Ontario roads each summer. The practice is both a wasteful use of a dwindling resource and an environmental hazard. The waste oil, with its load of heavy metals, particularly lead, additives including dangerous polynuclear aromatics and PCBs, is carried into the natural environment by runoff and dust to contaminate soils and water courses.2 The largest portion of used oils is never collected, but disappears into sewers, landfill sites and backyards. In Ontario alone, approximately 22 million gallons of potentially recyclable lube oil simply vanish each year. While oil recycling has ad-114 Oil

  12. Assessment of the possibilities of electricity and heat co-generation from biomass in Romania's case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matei, M.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the use of biomass for electricity (and heat) production. The objectives of the works developed by RENEL--GSCI were to determine the Romanian potential biomass resources available in economic conditions for electricity production from biomass, to review the routes and the available equipment for power generation from biomass, to carry out a techno-economic assessment of different systems for electricity production from biomass, to identify the most suitable system for electricity and heat cogeneration from biomass, to carry out a detailed techno-economic assessment of the selected system, to perform an environmental impact assessment of the selected system and to propose a demonstration project. RENEL--GSCI (former ICEMENERG) has carried out an assessment concerning Romania's biomass potential taking into account the forestry and wood processing wastes (in the near term) and agricultural wastes (in mid term) as well as managing plantations (in the long term). Comparative techno-economical evaluation of biomass based systems for decentralized power generation was made. The cost analysis of electricity produced from biomass has indicated that the system based on boiler and steam turbine of 2,000 kW running on wood-wastes is the most economical. A location for a demonstration project with low cost financing possibilities and maximum benefits was searched. To mitigate the electricity cost it was necessary to find a location in which the fuel price is quite low, so that the low yield of small installation can be balanced. In order to demonstrate the performances of a system which uses biomass for electricity and heat generation, a pulp and paper mill which needed electricity and heat, and, had large amount of wood wastes from industrial process was found as the most suitable location. A technical and economical analysis for 8 systems for electricity production from bark and wood waste was performed.

  13. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

  14. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration by electrical heating of resistive coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Weldon S. (Malibu, CA); Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is integrally formed in an upstream end of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  15. Heat Transfer -2 A long copper wire is used to carry an electric current and has an electrical resistance of 0.4 ohm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Heat Transfer - 2 A long copper wire is used to carry an electric current and has an electrical and the insulation reaching 90 0 C. You may neglect heat transfer to the air during this process, but justify conductivity k = 300 W/m-0 C Density = 8900 kg/m3 Specific heat capacity Cp = 380 J/kg-0 C a) (10 pts) Draw

  16. Fluid Mechanics -1 An oil is used in a heat exchanger. The internal geometry consists of many small diameter tubes of fixed length

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Fluid Mechanics - 1 An oil is used in a heat exchanger. The internal geometry consists of many small diameter tubes of fixed length (mounted in a bundle as indicated in the sketch). The oil is pumped). Assume the steady flow of the oil through each small tube is in the laminar regime. It is proposed

  17. Clean heat, steam, and electricity from rice hull gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, R.W.; Bailey, R. Jr. [PRM Energy Systems, Inc., Hot Springs, AR (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    PRM Energy Systems, Inc., (PRME) has completed the installation of a 330 ton/day biomass gasification system for Cargill Rice Milling of Greenville, Mississippi. The system was activated on November 1, 1995. Using the information and experience gained from the operation of previous installations, PRME scaled up its already proven technology by a factor of four and designed the model KC-218 to meet the needs of this particular facility. The PRME model KC-218 system converts unground rice hulls/straw and other biomass fuels to combustible gas which is burned in the boiler furnace delivering 115 million Btus/hr to an existing boiler/power island 5.0 MW of electricity and 15,000 pounds per hour of process steam for this rice parboiling facility.

  18. Solar energy for heat and electricity: the potential for mitigating climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar energy for heat and electricity: the potential for mitigating climate change Dr N.J. EkiNs-DaukEs Executive summary Why are we interested in using solar energy? Sunlight provides the energy source. In developing countries, solar technologies are already in use to enhance the standard of living

  19. Influence of monolayer contamination on electric-field-noise heating in ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Safavi-Naini; E. Kim; P. F. Weck; P. Rabl; H. R. Sadeghpour

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric field noise is a hinderance to the assembly of large scale quantum computers based on entangled trapped ions. Apart from ubiquitous technical noise sources, experimental studies of trapped ion heating have revealed additional limiting contributions to this noise, originating from atomic processes on the electrode surfaces. In a recent work [A. Safavi-Naini et al., Phys. Rev. A 84, 023412 (2011)] we described a microscopic model for this excess electric field noise, which points a way towards a more systematic understanding of surface adsorbates as progenitors of electric field jitter noise. Here, we address the impact of surface monolayer contamination on adsorbate induced noise processes. By using exact numerical calculations for H and N atomic monolayers on an Au(111) surface representing opposite extremes of physisorption and chemisorption, we show that an additional monolayer can significantly affect the noise power spectrum and either enhance or suppress the resulting heating rates.

  20. Highly-Efficient Thermoelectronic Conversion of Solar Energy and Heat into Electric Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meir, S; Geballe, T H; Mannhart, J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric power may, in principle, be generated in a highly efficient manner from heat created by focused solar irradiation, chemical combustion, or nuclear decay by means of thermionic energy conversion. As the conversion efficiency of the thermionic process tends to be degraded by electron space charges, the efficiencies of thermionic generators have amounted to only a fraction of those fundamentally possible. We show that this space-charge problem can be resolved by shaping the electric potential distribution of the converter such that the static electron space-charge clouds are transformed into an output current. Although the technical development of practical generators will require further substantial efforts, we conclude that a highly efficient transformation of heat to electric power may well be achieved.

  1. A Steam Quality Comparison between Nanoshell-Mediated Solar Heating and Conventional Electrical Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GP-B-13 A Steam Quality Comparison between Nanoshell-Mediated Solar Heating in the Halas Group has led to the development of a novel, solar- based steam generation method using broadband. This a dramatic and highly non-equilibrium process. As such, investigating the properties of this steam

  2. Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Gebby, Brian P. (Hazel Park, MI)

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

  3. Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of a closed-cycle process for the conversion of heat into electrical energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carati, Andrea

    Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of a closed-cycle process for the conversion of heat.g. by means of a solar concentrator), or can be the waste heat from an industrial pro- cess, or part of a co) Abstract We analyse a device aimed at the conversion of heat into electrical energy, based on a closed

  4. Abstract--The deployment of small (< 1-2 MW) clusters of generators, heat and electrical storage, efficiency investments,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    in electricity demand in the developed countries centers on the residential and commercial sectors in which CHP, efficiency investments, and combined heat and power (CHP) applications (particularly involving heat activated, and environmental benefits (including possible emissions credits) of combined heat and power (CHP), plus 2

  5. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

  6. Design of a core-length thermionic fuel element for electrical heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskolczy, G. (ThermoTrex Coporation, 85 First Avenue, P.O. Box 8995, Waltham, MA 02254-8995 (United States)); Horner, H. (General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States)); Lamp, T. (Wright Laboratories, WL/POOC-2, Wright Patternson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-6563 (United States))

    1993-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design of an electrically heated version of a core-length Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) with advanced features, as is suggested by the designation Advanced Thermionic Inititative (ATI). The advanced features include a high-strength emitter structure to be fabricated by Space Power, Incorporated. This structure consists of a cylindrical emitter, 15 mm diameter and 254 mm long of Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) tungsten, reinforced with tungsten-hafnium carbide wire wound over a CVD tungsten core with additional CVD tungsten incorporating and bonding the wire into the emitter. The emitter surface is CVD tungsten, deposited from tungsten chloride resulting in the desirable crystal orientation of [l angle]110[r angle]. It is possible to design a reactor with core-length TFEs so that it can be electrically tested prior to fueling. The program is focussed on the design and fabrication of a single core-length TFE with current collection at both ends which will be tested in a reactor. In parallel with this effort is the design, fabrication, and testing of an unfueled, electrically heated prototype. The intent is to make the electrically heated converter as similar as possible to the fueled one, while providing for accurate emitter and collector temperature measurement.

  7. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  8. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  9. Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer. The deterioration effect is negligible at nominal oil concentration of 1%, and becomes obvious with the increase of nominal oil concentration. At 5% nominal oil concentration, the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture is found to have a maximum reduction of 25.1% and 23.8% for 5 mm and 4 mm tubes, respectively. The predictabilities of the existing condensation heat transfer correlations were verified with the experimental data, and Yu and Koyama correlation shows the best predictability. By replacing the pure refrigerant properties with the mixture's properties, Yu and Koyama correlation has a deviation of -15% to + 20% in predicting the local condensation heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture. (author)

  10. Water Heaters (Storage Oil) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil) Water Heaters (Storage Oil) Water Heater, Storage Oil - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Storage Electric)...

  11. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CA nursing homes is the constant total NYC heating load. Theand heating demand were performed for the CA nursing home.home meets all of its electricity demand via utility purchases and heating

  12. Lactate dehydrogenase activity in bovine and porcine muscle as influenced by electrical stimulation, aging, freezing, thawing and heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Sharen Sue

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINF. AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THA&v'ING AiVD HEATING A Thesis by SHAREN SUE COLLINS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Animal Science LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN BOVINE AND PORCINE MUSCLE AS INFLUENCED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, AGING, FREEZING, THAWING AND HEATING A Thesis...

  13. A model for the initiation and propagation of electrical streamers in transformer oil and transformer oil based nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, Francis M. (Francis Martin), 1980-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread use of dielectric liquids for high voltage insulation and power apparatus cooling is due to their greater electrical breakdown strength and thermal conductivity than gaseous insulators, while their ability ...

  14. Electrical Energy and Demand Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump ESPC at Fort Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. Fifteen-minute interval data were also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. The analysis presented in this paper shows that for a typical meteorological year, the retrofits result in an electrical energy savings of approximately 25.6 million kWh, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical use in family housing. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by about 6.8 MW, which is 40% of pre-retrofit peak demand. In addition, the retrofits save about 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the 'apparent' energy savings observed in the monitored data and are not to be mistaken for the 'contracted' energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the 'contracted' energy savings, the 'apparent' energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteri, addition of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  15. Electromagnetic Wellbore Heating Ibrahim Agyemang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohun, C. Sean

    Chapter 5 Electromagnetic Wellbore Heating Ibrahim Agyemang1 , Matthew Bolton2 , Lloyd Bridge2 with the recovery of petroleum fluids from an oil reservoir using electrical energy. By its very nature this problem must deal with both the equations that describe the fluid flow as well as the heat flow equations

  16. Solving ODEs: Cardiac drug risk assessment The heat equation and finite elements: electrical propagation in the heart Object-oriented scientific computing: Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Solving ODEs: Cardiac drug risk assessment The heat equation and finite elements: electrical;Solving ODEs: Cardiac drug risk assessment The heat equation and finite elements: electrical propagation in the heart Solving ODEs: Cardiac drug risk assessment #12;Solving ODEs: Cardiac drug risk assessment The heat

  17. DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (NEHHOR). The purchased oil is expected to be delivered to the Hess First Reserve terminal at Perth Amboy, NJ in New York Harbor later this week. The award resulted from a...

  18. Radiation heat transfer in multitube, alkaline-metal thermal-to-electric converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tournier, J.M.P.; El-Genk, M.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor anode, multitube Alkali-Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converters (AMTECs) are being considered for a number of space missions, such as the NASA Pluto/Express (PX) and Europa missions, scheduled for the years 2004 and 2005, respectively. These static converters can achieve a high fraction of Carnot efficiency at relatively low operating temperatures. An optimized cell can potentially provide a conversion efficiency between 20 and 30 percent, when operated at a hot-side temperature of 1000--1200 K and a cold-side temperature of 550--650 K. A comprehensive modeling and testing program of vapor anode, multitube AMTEC cells has been underway for more than three years at the Air Force Research Laboratory`s Power and Thermal Group (AFRL/VSDVP), jointly with the University of New Mexico`s Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the readiness of AMTECs for flight on future US Air Force space missions. A fast, integrated AMTEC Performance and Evaluation Analysis Model (APEAM) has been developed to support ongoing vacuum tests at AFRL and perform analyses and investigate potential design changes to improve the PX-cell performance. This model consists of three major components (Tournier and El-Genk 1998a, b): (a) a sodium vapor pressure loss model, which describes continuum, transition and free-molecule flow regimes in the low-pressure cavity of the cell; (b) an electrochemical and electrical circuit model; and (c) a radiation/conduction heat transfer model, for calculating parasitic heat losses. This Technical Note describes the methodology used to calculate the radiation view factors within the enclosure of the PX-cells, and the numerical procedure developed in this work to determine the radiation heat transport and temperatures within the cell cavity.

  19. Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of a gas Turbine for Combined Generation of Electricity and Heat in the Heating Plant on the Meyrin Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of a gas Turbine for Combined Generation of Electricity and Heat in the Heating Plant on the Meyrin Site

  20. Short and long term energy source technologies for electrically-heated catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, E.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Johnston, R. [Delphi Energy and Engine Management Systems, Anderson, IN (United States); Hunt, B. [Emitec, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Rodriguez, G. [Honda R and D North America, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Gottberg, I. [Volvo Research, Goteborg (Sweden); Ishizuka, A. [Nissan Research and Development, Inc., Farmington Hills, MI (United States); Hall, W. [BMW of North America, Inc., Montvale, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A consortium of six companies formed by Southwest Research Institute conducted an investigation into alternative electric power supplies for electrically heated catalysts (EHCs). Previous studies showed that, due to their high power and energy requirements upon engine start, battery-powered EHCs would cause premature failure of common lead-acid batteries. This project identified and characterized several alternative electric energy sources. Production starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) batteries were evaluated along with lead-acid electric vehicle batteries, nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries, prototype ultracapacitors, and a modified alternator. Battery Council International and US Advanced Battery Consortium test methods were employed where applicable. Evaluations included ambient and low-temperature ({minus}18 C) constant-current discharge characterization, low-temperature peak-power determination, self-discharge, and passenger car Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy. As demonstrated by discharge-energy and peak-power tests, some EV batteries may have potential for the EHC/SLI application. Other appeared to be poorly suited due to low-temperature problems. The best low-temperature performance was observed with ultracapacitors. These units were also the least to be affected by the power versus energy trade-off. The problems with these prototype storage units were high cost and self-discharge rate. Alternator power for EHCs as an alternative to energy storage devices was successfully demonstrated on a vehicle. Power produced was a linear function of engine speed and EHC load. High-voltage switching devices will be necessary for successful use of alternator power on EHCs. A fuel economy penalty was expected, but not observed during the FTP vehicle demonstration.

  1. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline, NBER Working Paper.2006. Chinas Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand, Energy Journal 23(1),

  2. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    optimal could be acquired. Battery storage costs are roughlylead/acid battery) and thermal storage, capabilities, withcell electric storage heat storage flow battery abs. chiller

  3. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The objectives associated with this goal were to (a) generate a solid base of technical, marketing, economic, and policy data, (b) develop energy, environmental, and economic targets, (c) more definitively assess opportunities and barriers, (d) accumulate knowledge and experience for defining direction for the next phase of development, and (e) promote learning and training of students.

  4. Energy Conservation and Efficiency Improvement for the Electric Motors Operating in U.S. Oil Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ula, S.; Cain, W.; Nichols, T.

    Because of its versatility, electricity consumption continues to grow all over the world more rapidly than any other energy form. The portion of the United States' primary energy supply used as electricity has expanded from near zero at the turn...

  5. Oil Field Electrical Energy Savings Through Energy-Efficient Motor Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ula, S.; Bershinsky, V.; Cain, W.

    The Wyoming Electric Motor Training and Testing Center (WEMTTC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy-Denver Support Office and the Naval Petroleum Reserve #3 (NPR-3), has conducted an extensive study of electric motor efficiency...

  6. Oil Field Electrical Energy Savings Through Energy-Efficient Motor Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ula, S.; Bershinsky, V.; Cain, W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wyoming Electric Motor Training and Testing Center (WEMTTC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy-Denver Support Office and the Naval Petroleum Reserve #3 (NPR-3), has conducted an extensive study of electric motor efficiency...

  7. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, Charles R. (Scotia, NY); Gibson, Michael A. (Houston, TX); Knudsen, Christian W. (Houston, TX)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  8. Immersion Condensation on Oil-Infused Heterogeneous Surfaces for Enhanced Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Rong

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties ...

  9. Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time-sensi%ve Electricity Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time-sensi%ve Electricity Prices Summary In this case study, a CHP plant increases its profit%ons with the power grid 4 Power Grid CHP plant Typically mul%ple boilers and turbines

  10. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICprocess Boeing solar receiver [5J Internal detail of Boeing solar receiver [5J . 2.4 Heat

  11. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D1ST2630 3Z FORMATI/3X. *HEAT INPUT TO KEBOILER IS NOTlargest source of heat input into the storage system (theresults in a ratio of solar heat input to the two systems of

  12. Electrical Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Co-produced from Oil & Gas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To validate and realize the potential for the production of low temperature resource geothermal production on oil & gas sites. Test and document the reliability of this new technology.; Gain a better understanding of operational costs associated with this equipment.

  13. Materials Characterization Paper In Support of the Proposed Rulemaking: Identification of Nonhazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste Used Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPA defines used oil as any oil that has been refined from crude oil, or any synthetic oil, that has been used and as a result of such use is contaminated by physical or chemical impurities. 1 EPAs criteria for used oil: Origin: Used oil must have been refined from crude oil or made from synthetic materials (i.e., derived from coal, shale, or polymers). Examples of crude-oil derived oils and synthetic oils are motor oil, mineral oil, laminating surface agents, and metal working oils. Thus, animal and vegetable oils are not included. Bottom clean-out from virgin fuel oil storage tanks or virgin oil recovered from a spill, as well as products solely used as cleaning agents or for their solvent properties, and certain petroleum-derived products such as antifreeze and kerosene are also not included. Use: The oil must have been used as a lubricant, coolant, heat (non-contact) transfer fluid, hydraulic fluid, heat transfer fluid or for a similar use. Lubricants include, but are not limited to, used motor oil, metal working lubricants, and emulsions. An example of a hydraulic fluid is transmission fluid. Heat transfer fluids can be materials such as coolants, heating media, refrigeration oils, and electrical insulation oils. Authorized states or regions determine what is considered a similar use on a site-specific basis according to whether the material is used and managed in a manner consistent with Part 279 (e.g., used as a buoyant). Contaminants: The used oil must be contaminated by physical (e.g., high water content, metal shavings, or dirt) or chemical (e.g., lead, halogens, solvents or other hazardous constituents) impurities as a result of use. 2. Annual Quantities of Used Oil Generated and Used

  14. The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

  15. The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

  16. ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING OF SOILS AT C-REACTOR AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blundy, R; Michael Morgenstern, M; Joseph Amari, J; Annamarie MacMurray, A; Mark Farrar, M; Terry Killeen, T

    2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chlorinated solvent contamination of soils and groundwater is an endemic problem at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and originated as by-products from the nuclear materials manufacturing process. Five nuclear reactors at the SRS produced special nuclear materials for the nation's defense program throughout the cold war era. An important step in the process was thorough degreasing of the fuel and target assemblies prior to irradiation. Discharges from this degreasing process resulted in significant groundwater contamination that would continue well into the future unless a soil remediation action was performed. The largest reactor contamination plume originated from C-Reactor and an interim action was selected in 2004 to remove the residual trichloroethylene (TCE) source material by electrical resistance heating (ERH) technology. This would be followed by monitoring to determine the rate of decrease in concentration in the contaminant plume. Because of the existence of numerous chlorinated solvent sources around SRS, it was elected to generate in-house expertise in the design and operation of ERH, together with the construction of a portable ERH/SVE system that could be deployed at multiple locations around the site. This paper describes the waste unit characteristics, the ERH system design and operation, together with extensive data accumulated from the first deployment adjacent to the C-Reactor building. The installation heated the vadose zone down to 62 feet bgs over a 60 day period during the summer of 2006 and raised soil temperatures to over 200 F. A total of 730 lbs of trichloroethylene (TCE) were removed over this period, and subsequent sampling indicated a removal efficiency of 99.4%.

  17. Energy Conservation and Efficiency Improvement for the Electric Motors Operating in U.S. Oil Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ula, S.; Cain, W.; Nichols, T.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the inventory of completed wells are shown in Tables 1,2 and 3, respectively. Tables 4 and 5 show the 1991 electrical energy use and the potential energy savings, respectively. A 10% electric energy savings translates into $120,000 per year for NPR-3... wells. Table 1 NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVE PRODUCT ION HISTORY (in million barrels) NPR-I NPR-3 Year of First Product ion Cumu lat ive Product ion Production Since 1976 Remaining Reserves (Us ing pr imar~ and secondar~ product ion) Added Reserves...

  18. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1994--1995 Season summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1994--95 heating season approached with more attention to petroleum products than experienced in some time. This year, however, the focus was on transportation fuels with the introduction of reformulated gasolines scheduled for the first of 1995. Last year transportation fuels had been in the spotlight in the Northeast as well, for the ills experienced with a new winter mix for diesel fuel. Would RFG have the same dubious entrance as diesel`s winter mix? Would RFG implementation work and what effect would the change in stocks have on the refineries? With worries related to transportation fuels being recognized, would there be reason for concern with heating fuels? As the new year approached, the refineries seemed to have no problem with supplies and RFG stocks were eased in about the second week of December. In Maine, the southern half of the state was effected by the gasoline substitution but seven of Maine`s sixteen counties were directed to follow the recommended criteria. Since the major population concentration lies in the southern three counties, concern was real. Attention paid to emission testing had come to a head in the fall, and RFG complaints were likely. There have been years when snow and cold arrived by Thanksgiving Day. In northern Maine, snow easily covers the ground before the SHOPP survey begins. The fall slipped by with no great shocks in the weather. December was more of the same, as the weather continued to favor the public. Normally the third week in January is considered the coldest time in the year, but not this year. By the end of January, two days were recorded as being more typical of winter. By March and the end of the survey season, one could only recognize that there were perhaps a few cold days this winter. Fuel prices fluctuated little through the entire heating season. There were no major problems to report and demand never placed pressure on dealers.

  19. Heating of semiconductor devices in electric Markus Brunk and Ansgar Jungel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jngel, Ansgar

    self-heating are strongly influencing the switching behavior of the transistors and the performance and the temperature of the circuit elements and present new numerical simulations illustrating the self-heating

  20. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Trimmer Dist. Condenser Turbine Steam Leaks LP TurbineWaste Heat Trimmer Turbine Steam Leaks LP Turbine CondenserHR) CARRIED BY LP TURBINE STEAM. *STC OFL RH ll~ PRESSURE

  1. An improved procedure for developing a calibrated hourly simulation model of an electrically heated and cooled commercial building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Saada, Tarek Edmond

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sections . . . . 85 4. 7 Daycare Center . . . . . . . 86 4, 8 Sun Angle Calculator and Altitude Measurement Device . . . 4. 9 Photovoltaic and Domestic Hot Water Solar Panels. . . . . . . . . . 92 4. 10 Heating, Ventilating, and Air... and Daily Minutes of Sunshine . . . . . . . I 1 5 4. 18 Sky Clearness and Daily Percent Possible Sunshine . . . . . . . . 116 4. 19 Hourly Photovoltaic Electricity and Hourly Solar Radiation. . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 4. 20 Solar Data Example . . . . . 121...

  2. Industrial Potential for Substitution of Electricity for Oil and Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been higher electric power costs. Unanticipated regulatory requirements and construction delays, caused in part by magnified concern over safety, along with runaway inflation, were also instrumental in increasing coal and nuclear plant construction... is then cast and formed into the desired shape and size. This process leading up to molten steel uses about 23.5 million Btu per net ton of product, or about two-thirds of the total 35 million Btu of energy required per ton of final product. By comparison...

  3. Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6:Energy Eighth AnnualELECTRIC MOTORS

  4. Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleate Boiling Efficient CoolingInc.Electric Power

  5. Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleate Boiling Efficient CoolingInc.Electric PowerDepartment

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electric PCM Assisted Thermal Heating System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Delphi Automotive at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electric PCM assisted...

  7. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  8. Outline for a multi-cell nuclear thermionic fuel element that may be pretested with electric heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Volney C. [General Electric R and DC, retired 2446 A Del Norte Dr. SW Albuquerque, New Mexico 87105 (United States)

    1997-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear thermionic converter electrical generating system is proposed in which the nuclear fuel is clad in tungsten (W) and transmits heat to a tungsten emitter by radiation. The tungsten clad is a single unit, containing a continuous fuel stack with an unfueled section extending through one end of the reactor. The emitters are electrically insulated from the heat source; therefore, several converters may be connected by short leads to produce more voltage per fuel element and to reduce the power losses in the leads. A fast reactor design was chosen; consequently, tungsten may be used for the fuel cladding and the emitters without a significant reactivity penalty due to neutron capture by tungsten epithermal resonances. The ability to use all-tungsten emitters may permit high emitter temperatures. Calculations indicate that at an emitter temperature of 2150 K and current density of 10 A/cm{sup 2}, a 36 cm long thermionic fuel element (TFE) with 9 converters in series should produce 4500 W{sub e} at 9.2 V and 15.7% efficiency. One major advantage of this approach, relative to typical multicell designs is that the system can be tested by electrical heaters in the fuel cavity before loading fuel.

  9. Outline for a multi-cell nuclear thermionic fuel element that may be pretested with electric heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, V.C. [General Electric RDC, retired 2446 A Del Norte Dr. SW Albuquerque, New Mexico871059 (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear thermionic converter electrical generating system is proposed in which the nuclear fuel is clad in tungsten (W) and transmits heat to a tungsten emitter by radiation. The tungsten clad is a single unit, containing a continuous fuel stack with an unfueled section extending through one end of the reactor. The emitters are electrically insulated from the heat source; therefore, several converters may be connected by short leads to produce more voltage per fuel element and to reduce the power losses in the leads. A fast reactor design was chosen; consequently, tungsten may be used for the fuel cladding and the emitters without a significant reactivity penalty due to neutron capture by tungsten epithermal resonances. The ability to use all-tungsten emitters may permit high emitter temperatures. Calculations indicate that at an emitter temperature of 2150 K and current density of 10A/cm{sup 2}, a 36 cm long thermionic fuel element (TFE) with 9 converters in series should produce 4500W{sub e} at 9.2 V and 15.7{percent} efficiency. One major advantage of this approach, relative to typical multicell designs is that the system can be tested by electrical heaters in the fuel cavity before loading fuel. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakala, J. Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Stanchina, William [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Soong, Yee [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200 C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (?') and imaginary permittivity (?'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ?' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ?'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200 C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ?'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ?' and ?'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  11. IEEE Transactions01 Dielectrics and ElectricalInsulation Vol.5 No. 3,June 1998 StaticElectrificationof Pressboard/Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Electrificationof Pressboard/Oil Interface and TransientPhenomena ABSTRACT The static electrificationphenomenonof and immersed in a metallic tank containing -4 1of oil; and second vice enables us to measure the electrostaticcharge tendency of oils. The electrostaticcharge ndency (ECT) of insulatingoilsand

  12. A Comparison of Domestic Water Heating Options in the Austin Electric Service Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Hood, D. B.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , M., and F. C. Fontana, "Heat-Pump Desuperheaters for Supplying Domestic Not Water - Estimation of Energy Savings and Economic Viability For Residential Applications," ORNLICON-114. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, May 1983. 11...

  13. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flows and stream conditions in steam power cycle. Table 4.1in the low-temperature reactor system. Steam power cycle 8.1Heat Storage System for a Solar Steam Power Plant." 12th

  14. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat available at night) Gas Turbine Work Table 3.2. StreamTurbine (small turbine) Gas Turbine Parasitic Power BFW PumpHours) Generator Terminals Gas Turbine Parasitic Power BFW

  15. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    central receiver of a solar plant, that absorbs heat duringper kW-hr produced by the solar plant and the sulfur-oxideis essential if solar power plants are ever to supply a

  16. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System for a Solar Steam Power Plant." 12th Intersoc. Energywith a solar-heated steam power plant during daylight hoursa conventional steam-cycle power plant. for both the power

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: ePATHS- electrical PCM Assisted Thermal Heating System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Delphi Automotive at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ePATHS - electrical PCM...

  18. Domestic olivine vs magnesite as a thermal-energy-storage material: performance comparisons for electrically heated room-size units in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 94. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W.R.; Schoenhals, R.J.; Gay, B.M.; Palmour, H. III

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically heated thermal-energy-storage (TES) heaters employing high-heat-capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these heaters, low cost off-peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800/sup 0/C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored heat from the core by forced air circulation. Recently significant interest in the use of off-peak TES units in the US has occured, leading to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but under-utilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper, the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat-storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials. Using the method of ASHRAE Standard 94.2, the thermal performance of two small room-sized commercially available TES units was determined experimentally with two different storage materials, North Carolina olivine and German magnesite. Comparisons between the two materials are made and conclusions are drawn.

  19. Effect of heat treatment time on microstructure and electrical conductivity in LATP glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonigra, Dhiren, E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Soman, Swati, E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Kulkarni, Ajit R., E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass-ceramic is prepared by heat treatment of melt quenched 14Li{sub 2}O?9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}?38TiO{sub 2}?39P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass in the vicinity of crystallization temperature. Growth of ceramic phase is controlled by tuning heat treatment time at fixed temperature. Ceramic phase was identified to be LiTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} from X Ray Diffraction analysis. Microstructural evolution of this phase with hold time was observed under high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope. DC conductivity is observed to increase by 4-5 orders of magnitude in this glass-ceramic compared to parent glass. However, formation of pores and cracks with very large heat treatment time seem to hinder further increase of conductivity.

  20. Measuring Joule heating and strain induced by electrical current with Moire interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Bicheng; Basaran, Cemal [Electronic Packaging Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, 102 Ketter Hall, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study proposes a new method to locate and measure the temperature of the hot spots caused by Joule Heating by measuring the free thermal expansion in-plane strain. It is demonstrated that the hotspot caused by the Joule heating in a thin metal film/plate structure can be measured by Phase shifting Moire interferometry with continuous wavelet transform (PSMI/CWT) at the microscopic scale. A demonstration on a copper film is conducted to verify the theory under different current densities. A correlation between the current density and strain in two orthogonal directions (one in the direction of the current flow) is proposed. The method can also be used for the measurement of the Joule heating in the microscopic solid structures in the electronic packaging devices. It is shown that a linear relationship exists between current density squared and normal strains.

  1. Variable power distribution for zoned regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN; Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with multiple zones, an electric heater and a control module. The electrical heater includes heater segments, which each correspond with a respective one of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and is proximate with the PM filter. The control module selectively applies a first energy level to a first one of the zones via a first one of the heater segments to initiate regeneration in the first zone. The control module also selectively applies a second energy level that is less than the first energy level to a second one of the zones via a second one of the heater segments to initiate regeneration in the second zone.

  2. Residential heating oil price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) - HouseholdshortEIA-782AAdministrationheating

  3. Residential heating oil price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) - HouseholdshortEIA-782AAdministrationheatingheating

  4. Residential heating oil price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -

  5. Power Plays: Geothermal Energy In Oil and Gas Fields

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SMU Geothermal Lab is hosting their 7th international energy conference and workshop Power Plays: Geothermal Energy in Oil and Gas Fields May 18-20, 2015 on the SMU Campus in Dallas, Texas. The two-day conference brings together leaders from the geothermal, oil and gas communities along with experts in finance, law, technology, and government agencies to discuss generating electricity from oil and gas well fluids, using the flare gas for waste heat applications, and desalinization of the water for project development in Europe, China, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and the US. Other relevant topics include seismicity, thermal maturation, and improved drilling operations.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF DEREGULATED MARKETS FOR ELECTRIC POWER: MARKET POWER AND SELF COMMITMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as the market for heating oil. In some circumstances, one generator may, in effect, be a perfect monopolistEXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF DEREGULATED MARKETS FOR ELECTRIC POWER: MARKET POWER AND SELF COMMITMENT 1 markets for electricity are very different from one another. For example, eastern markets have favored

  7. Combined Heat and Power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is the concurrent production of electricity or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    About CHP Combined Heat and Power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is the concurrent production of energy. CHP is a type of distributed generation, which, unlike central station generation, is located fuel in a furnace or boiler to produce thermal energy, consumers use CHP to provide these energy

  8. Microwave Enhanced Separation of Water-In-Oil Emulsions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, C. S.; Lai, P.

    MICRaVAVE ENHANCED SEPARATION OF WATER-IN-oIL EMULSIONS C.S. FANG DEPAR'lMENT OF rnEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHWESTERN LOUISIANA LAFAYE'ITE, IDUISIANA ABSTRACT The experimental data showed that viscous and stable water-in-oil.....rrental data also indicated that water-in-oil emulsion can be heated uniformly by microwaves, if the pathlength is not too long. Temperature profiles and microwave heating can be predicted reasonably well fran di electric properties and the theory...

  9. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    you nay give us will be greatly uppreckted. VPry truly your23, 9. IX. Sin0j3, Mtinager lclectronics and Nuclear Physics Dept. omh , WESTINGHOUSE-THE NAT KING IN ELECTRICITY...

  10. United States Department of Energy New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy. 1991--1992 Heating Oil and Propane Price Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (DEPE), Office of Energy participated in a program to monitor retail prices of no. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, we conducted price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. The period of the surveys was October 7, 1991 to March 16 1992. We submitted data collected as of specified reference dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates.

  11. Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of a closed-cycle process for the conversion of heat into electrical energy by means of a distiller and an electrochemical cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carati, Andrea; Brogioli, Doriano

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyse a device aimed at the conversion of heat into electrical energy, based on a closed cycle in which a distiller generates two solutions at different concentrations, and an electrochemical cell consumes the concentration difference, converting it into electrical current. We first study an ideal model of such a process. We show that, if the device works at a single fixed pressure (i.e. with a "single effect"), then the efficiency of the conversion of heat into electrical power has an upper bound, given by the efficiency of a reversible Carnot engine operating between the boiling temperatures of the concentrated solution and of the pure solvent. When two heat reservoirs with a higher temperature difference are available, the overall efficiency can be incremented by employing an arrangement of multiple cells working at different pressures ("multiple effects"). We find that a given efficiency can be achieved with a reduced number of effects by using solutions with a high boiling point elevation.

  12. Effect of Severe Plastic Deformation and Subsequent Heat Treatment on Hardness and Electrical Conductivity of Oxygen-Free High Conductivity (OFHC) Copper, Commercial Pure Copper, and Copper Chromium Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kao, Yi-Tang

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of large amounts of plastic strain on the hardness and electrical conductivity for electrical conductor applications. Different levels of plastic strain and strain orientation combinations were applied by ECAE at room temperature. Heat treatments...

  13. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  14. Table A31. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of Electricity SoldTotal

  15. Table A34. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of ElectricityPrimaryTotal

  16. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England This...

  17. Identification of R&D Needs Relating to the Mitigation of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.

    of industries. In terms of projected implemented fuel savings achievable by the year 2015, minimisation of fouling in crude oil systems was found to be the second most significant of the technologies considered. It yielded a potential fuel saving of 123 TBtu...

  18. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  19. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  20. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoelectric generator shorting system provides the capability to monitor and short-out individual thermoelectric couples in the event of failure. This makes the series configured thermoelectric generator robust to individual thermoelectric couple failure. Open circuit detection of the thermoelectric couples and the associated short control is a key technique to ensure normal functionality of the TE generator under failure of individual TE couples. This report describes a five-year effort whose goal was the understanding the issues related to the development of a thermoelectric energy recovery device for a Class-8 truck. Likely materials and important issues related to the utility of this generator were identified. Several prototype generators were constructed and demonstrated. The generators developed demonstrated several new concepts including advanced insulation, couple bypass technology and the first implementation of skutterudite thermoelectric material in a generator design. Additional work will be required to bring this system to fruition. However, such generators offer the possibility of converting energy that is otherwise wasted to useful electric power. Uur studies indicate that this can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner for this application.

  1. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with heat recovery, solar thermal collection, and thermallynatural gas combustion solar thermal CHP heat storageelectric load thermal storage solar thermal storage charging

  2. Nickel and Sulfur Speciation of Residual Oil Fly Ashes from Two Electric Utility Steam-Generating Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath,K.; Schulz, R.; Toman, D.; Nyberg, C.; Huggins, F.; Huffman, G.; Zillioux, E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Representative duplicate fly ash samples were obtained from the stacks of 400- and 385-MW utility boilers (Unit A and Unit B, respectively) using a modified U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 17 sampling train assembly as they burned 0.9 and 0.3 wt % S residual (No. 6 fuel) oils, respectively, during routine power plant operations. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) samples were analyzed for Ni concentrations and speciation using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction.

  3. Demonstration program for coal-oil mixture combustion in an electric utility boiler - Category III A. 1978 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1978 annual report covers New England Power Service Company's participation in the Department of Energy coal-oil mixture (COM) program. Continued world-wide unrest resulting in an unstable fuel oil supply coupled with rapidly inflating costs have caused continued interest in a demonstrable viable solution. NEPSCO's program, while not attaining all the milestones forecast, has made considerable progress. As of January 31, 1979, ninety-five (95% percent of engineering and design has been completed. Construction of facilities and installation of required equipment was approximately 75% complete and the six-week Feasibility Testing program was expected to commence during April 1979.

  4. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery Utility electricity consumption Electricity providedis expressed in electricity consumption of the electricis expressed in electricity consumption of the electric

  5. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nine appendices to the main report are included in this volume. They are: Northeastern US distillate supply systems; New England fuel oil storage capacities and inventories; Characteristics of the northeast natural gas market; Documentation of statistical models and calculation of benefits; Regional product reserve study; Other countries` experience with refined product storage; Global refining supply demand appraisal; Summary of federal authorities relevant to the establishment of petroleum product reserves; Product stability and turnover requirements.

  6. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

  7. The Economic and Environmental Aspects of Heat Exchanger Cleaning -- How FP&L Has Used the Newly Patented MCC Process to Clean Turbine Lube Oil Coolers to Maximize Efficiency and Minimize Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, H. A. T.

    of efficient and timely cleaning of heat exchangers. There are great differences in the cleaning processes that are used to clean exchanger bundles in industry today. The cleaning of turbine lube oil coolers is a specialized case in point. A newly patented...

  8. Silica gel as a model surface for adsorption calorimetry of enhanced-oil-recovery systems. [Heat of immersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noll, L.A.; Burchfield, T.E.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a method for studying interaction of fluids with surfaces by measuring the heat of immersion and then measuring simultaneously the surface excess and enthalpy of replacement for a series of binary solutions. The method of calculating surface excess is described. These techniques are applied to silica gel which has had different activation temperatures. Heating overnight to 400/sup 0/C results in a reproducible surface. The adsorption of n-butyl alcohol from toluene and from water upon these surfaces is compared.

  9. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrically powered compressor cooling, direct fire oror direct engine powered compressor cooling. DER-CAM solves

  10. Economic Options for Upgrading Waste Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat...

  11. Economic Options for Upgrading Waste Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat...

  12. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability:A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In past work, Berkeley Lab has developed the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). Given end-use energy details for a facility, a description of its economic environment and a menu of available equipment, DER-CAM finds the optimal investment portfolio and its operating schedule which together minimize the cost of meeting site service, e.g., cooling, heating, requirements. Past studies have considered combined heat and power (CHP) technologies. Methods and software have been developed to solve this problem, finding optimal solutions which take simultaneity into account. This project aims to extend on those prior capabilities in two key dimensions. In this research storage technologies have been added as well as power quality and reliability (PQR) features that provide the ability to value the additional indirect reliability benefit derived from Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid capability. This project is intended to determine how attractive on-site generation becomes to a medium-sized commercial site if economical storage (both electrical and thermal), CHP opportunities, and PQR benefits are provided in addition to avoiding electricity purchases. On-site electrical storage, generators, and the ability to seamlessly connect and disconnect from utility service would provide the facility with ride-through capability for minor grid disturbances. Three building types in both California and New York are assumed to have a share of their sensitive electrical load separable. Providing enhanced service to this load fraction has an unknown value to the facility, which is estimated analytically. In summary, this project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York; (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage; and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of PQR into the capabilities of DER-CAM.

  13. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  14. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  15. An Improved Procedure for Developing a Calibrated Hourly Simulation Model of an Electrically Heated and Cooled Commercial Buildling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Saada, Tarek Edmond

    lighting, energy efficient heat pumps, a photovoltaic system, envelope measures, and a solar domestic water heating system. To accomplish this, a DOE-2 baseline model was calibrated to the measured hourly data and compared to a building model constructed...

  16. Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

  17. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    operate in frequency droop mode without fast electrical2006/2007, Applicability of Droops in Low Voltage Grids,

  18. Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A K

    2003-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

  19. European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilns 6.2. Sawmill Dry Kilns 6.3. District Heating 6.4. Power Plants- Co-firing and Alternative Fuels 6-distance transportation advantages over raw biomass and wood pellets is BioOil from fast pyrolysis, or Pyrolysis Oil and district heating applications, and in the long-term as a clean burning fuel to replace diesel in industrial

  20. Carbon or graphite foam as a heating element and system thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Ronald D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Choudhury, Ashok (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2004-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature regulator includes at least one electrically conductive carbon foam element. The foam element includes at least two locations adapted for receiving electrical connectors thereto for heating a fluid, such as engine oil. A combustion engine includes an engine block and at least one carbon foam element, the foam element extending into the engine block or disposed in thermal contact with at least one engine fluid.

  1. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  2. An Improved Procedure for Developing a Calibrated Hourly Simulation Model of an Electrically Heated and Cooled Commercial Buildling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Saada, Tarek Edmond

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lighting, energy efficient heat pumps, a photovoltaic system, envelope measures, and a solar domestic water heating system. To accomplish this, a DOE-2 baseline model was calibrated to the measured hourly data and compared to a building model constructed... to unpredictable daily habits; for example opening or closing window blinds which have a direct impact on solar gains, or the inconsistent use of lights and office equipment. Tenant influence was also observed in Kaplan et al. (1990a) as reported in Section 2...

  3. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    charging kW Utility electricity consumption Electricityis expressed in electricity consumption of the electricis expressed in electricity consumption of the electric

  4. Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on an experimental residential retrofit incorporating thermal storage, and extensive subsequent modeling, a commercial design was developed and implemented to use hot thermal storage to significantly reduce electric demand and utility energy...

  5. Oil shale retorting method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    York, E.D.

    1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

  6. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  7. Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, excluding taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 42715 2.40 2.30 2.43 2.41 2.41 2.11 2.56 42015 2.26 2.21 2.35 2.32 2.31...

  8. Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    excluding taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 42715 2.15 2.32 2.11 2.61 1.49 2.11 NA 42015 2.07 2.26 2.09 2.50 1.46 2.05 NA 41315 1.96 2.15 1.97 2.36...

  9. Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 42715 2.69 3.17 2.81 5.21 4.24 2.88 NA 42015 2.59 3.08 2.79 5.05 4.18 2.81 NA 41315 2.46 2.95 2.64 4.85...

  10. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732onMakeEducation Programs Business Enclave PIAof Energy

  11. Residential Heating Oil Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April 25, 20137a.06 2.01394-2015

  12. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  13. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  14. In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

  15. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet When yourecoveryG -HazmatLoadof EnergyFAQs

  16. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14 Dec-14Has Driving Come to aData

  17. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14 Dec-14Has Driving Come to

  18. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14 Dec-14Has Driving Come toSHOPP

  19. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14 Dec-14Has Driving Come toSHOPPMaps

  20. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14 Dec-14Has Driving Come

  1. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Presents successful incorporation of one of the most...

  2. Combined Heat & Power Technology Overview and Federal Sector...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    electricity) from a single fuelenergy source Defining Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Steam Electricity Fuel Prime Mover & Generator Heat Recovery Steam Boiler Conventional CHP...

  3. Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electricity supply and heat supply for a January and Julyelectricity supply and heat supply for a January and July

  4. Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production from cooking oil generation of biodiesel using waste cooking oil and algae oil. We consider 5 different technologies is to simultaneously optimize and heat integrate the production of biodiesel from each of the different oil sources

  5. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab has for several years been developing methods for selection of optimal microgrid systems, especially for commercial building applications, and applying these methods in the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York, (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage, and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of power quality and reliability (PQR) to the capabilities of DER-CAM. All of these objectives have been pursued via analysis of the attractiveness of a Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid consisting of multiple nameplate 100 kW Tecogen Premium Power Modules (CM-100). This unit consists of an asynchronous inverter-based variable speed internal combustion engine genset with combined heat and power (CHP) and power surge capability. The essence of CERTS Microgrid technology is that smarts added to the on-board power electronics of any microgrid device enables stable and safe islanded operation without the need for complex fast supervisory controls. This approach allows plug and play development of a microgrid that can potentially provide high PQR with a minimum of specialized site-specific engineering. A notable feature of the CM-100 is its time-limited surge rating of 125 kW, and DER-CAM capability to model this feature was also a necessary model enhancement.

  6. Demonstration and Performance Monitoring of Foundation Heat Exchangers...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for New and Existing Homes: Foundation Heat Exchanger, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options...

  7. Experimental measurements in a radio frequency discharge heated supersonic flow: Evaluation of a potential electric propulsion thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wantuck, P.J.; Hull, D.E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An operational radio frequency discharge-driven supersonic flow system, which utilizes an inductively and capacitively coupled plasma (ICCP) tube to produce high enthalpy source gas, is described. The ICCP coupled to a properly designed nozzle represents a potential electric propulsion device. The high gas temperatures achieved in the plasma discharge (> 5000 K) and the electrodeless nature of the tube's operation offers potentially high thruster performance coupled and long operational lifetime. A preliminary characterization of the current system was established using emission and probe-based measurements. A nominal peak specific impulse of 155 s was estimated for operation with argon. The calculated thrust based upon the peak velocity and mass flow through the device is 1.1 N. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  8. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    growth. For data on world oil consumption and long- term oilOil Production Domestic Oil Consumption a variety of

  9. Recent Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser Experiments and Modeling David L. Carrolla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    and modeling have led to a continuing evolution of the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system. A new experiments and modeling of our ElectricOIL system. 2. EXPERIMENTS The ElectricOIL system consists primarilyRecent Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser Experiments and Modeling David L. Carrolla , Gabriel F

  10. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place...

  11. Chena Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Coproduced from Oil andor Gas Wells Chena Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal...

  12. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  13. From the hills to the mountain. [Oil recovery in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, J.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oil reserves at Elk Hills field, California, are listed as amounting to 835 million bbl. There is 12 times that amount lying in shallow sands in the San Joaquin Valley, although the oil is much heavier and requires more refining before use. Improved recovery techniques have enabled higher rates of recovery for heavy oil than in the past. Some of these techniques are described, including bottom-hole heating, steam injection, and oil mining. Bottom-hole heating alone raised recovery rates for heavy oil to 25%, and steam injection raised rates to 50%. It is predicted that oil mining may be able to accomplish 100% recovery of the heavy oil.

  14. Influence of Damp Heat on the Electrical, Optical, and Morphological Properties of Encapsulated CuInGaSe2 Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaramoorthy, R.; Pern, F. J.; Teeter, G.; Li, Jian V.; Young, M.; Kuciauskas, D.; Call, N.; Yan, F.; To, B.; Johnston, S.; Noufi, R.; Gessert, T. A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) devices, encapsulated with different backsheets having different water vapor transmission rates (WVTR), were exposed to damp heat (DH) at 85 C and 85% relative humidity (RH) and characterized periodically to understand junction degradation induced by moisture ingress. Performance degradation of the devices was primarily driven by an increase in series resistance within first 50 h of exposure, resulting in a decrease in fill factor and, accompanied loss in carrier concentration and widening of depletion width. Surface analysis of the devices after 700-h DH exposure showed the formation of Zn(OH){sub 2} from hydrolysis of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer by the moisture, which was detrimental to the collection of minority carriers. Minority carrier lifetimes observed for the CIGS devices using time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) remained relatively long after DH exposure. By etching the DH-exposed devices and re-fabricating with new component layers, the performance of reworked devices improved significantly, further indicating that DH-induced degradation of the AZO layer and/or the CdS buffer was the primary performance-degrading factor.

  15. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    selection of on-site power generation with combined heat andTotal Electricity Generation Figure 13. Small MercantileWeekday Total Electricity Generation (No Storage Adoption

  16. THE DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE USE OF GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION AND NONELECTRIC HEATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GENERATION AND NONELECTRIC HEATING I J. A. Apps I NTRODUCT IGENERATION AND NONELECTRIC HEATING li I J. A. Apps NovemberGENERATION AND NONELECTRIC HEATING J. A. Apps Earth Sciences

  17. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  18. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  19. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 and 1.1A Figure 6: Uses of Crude Oil in the UnitedStates Other Residual Fuel Oil (bunker fuel) PetrochemicalDiesel Fuel and Heating Oil Jet Fuel Figure 7: Sources of

  20. Measured Effects of Retrofits - A Refrigerant Oil Additive and a Condenser Spray Device - On the Cooling Performance of a Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levins, W. P.; Sand, J. R.; Baxter, V. D.; Linkous, R. S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for their sponsorship of the tests of the condenser spray unit. We also express our thanks to Keith Rice of Oak Ridge National Laboratories for the modeling work he performed to estimate the latent capacities used in the condenser sprayer testing. Based..., "The Oak Ridge Heat Pump Models: I. A Steawtate Computer Design Model For Air-To-Air Heat Pumps'', OWCON-8OlR1, August 1 983. 5. Kays, W.M., and A.L. London, "Compact Heat Exchangers ", 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 14-16. 6. Levins, W...

  1. EXTENDING NUCLEAR ENERGY TO NON-ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Boardman; M. McKellar; D. Ingersoll; Z. Houghton; , R. Bromm; C. Desportes

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these non-traditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers.

  2. Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

  3. Water Heating Requirements Overview Page 5-1 5. Water Heating Requirements 5.1 Overview 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    . Electric heat pump water heaters, however, are closer to the efficiency of typical gas systems, because

  4. Measured Effects of Retrofits - A Refrigerant Oil Additive and a Condenser Spray Device - On the Cooling Performance of a Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levins, W. P.; Sand, J. R.; Baxter, V. D.; Linkous, R. S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 15-year old, 3-ton single package air-to-air heat pump was tested in laboratory environmental chambers simulating indoor and outdoor conditions. After documenting initial performance, the unit was retrofitted with a prototype condenser water...

  5. Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, Stacey A.

    such as coal, oil and natural gas are burned for trans- portation, heating, or the production of electricity, in order to avoid exceeding this 2C threshold. The majority of CO2 pollution is released when fossil fuels. Coal is particularly damaging, as it produces 70% more CO2 emissions than natural gas for the same

  6. East Central Electric Cooperative- Residential Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    East Central Electric Cooperative offers rebates to residential customers to install energy-efficient ground source heat pumps, electric water heaters, and appliances. To qualify for the rebate...

  7. Low Temperature Heat Recovery for Boiler Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shook, J. R.; Luttenberger, D. B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low temperature corrosion proof heat exchangers designed to reduce boiler flue gas temperatures to 150F or lower are now being commercially operated on gas, oil and coal fired boilers. These heat exchangers, when applied to boiler flue gas...

  8. alaskan oil development: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ruminal and duodenal cannulae and their diet was either supplemented or not with 300 mL fish oil Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 364 HEATING OF OIL WELL BY HOT WATER CIRCULATION...

  9. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast June 2012 News Blast: Algae on the Mind...

  10. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  11. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  12. Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report and technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007 for the project 'Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy Oil Recovery Techniques', DE-FC26-04NT15526. Critical year 3 activities of this project were not undertaken because of reduced funding to the DOE Oil Program despite timely submission of a continuation package and progress on year 1 and 2 subtasks. A small amount of carried-over funds were used during June-August 2007 to complete some work in the area of foamed-gas mobility control. Completion of Year 3 activities and tasks would have led to a more thorough completion of the project and attainment of project goals. This progress report serves as a summary of activities and accomplishments for years 1 and 2. Experiments, theory development, and numerical modeling were employed to elucidate heavy-oil production mechanisms that provide the technical foundations for producing efficiently the abundant, discovered heavy-oil resources of the U.S. that are not accessible with current technology and recovery techniques. Work fell into two task areas: cold production of heavy oils and thermal recovery. Despite the emerging critical importance of the waterflooding of viscous oil in cold environments, work in this area was never sanctioned under this project. It is envisioned that heavy oil production is impacted by development of an understanding of the reservoir and reservoir fluid conditions leading to so-called foamy oil behavior, i.e, heavy-oil solution gas drive. This understanding should allow primary, cold production of heavy and viscous oils to be optimized. Accordingly, we evaluated the oil-phase chemistry of crude oil samples from Venezuela that give effective production by the heavy-oil solution gas drive mechanism. Laboratory-scale experiments show that recovery correlates with asphaltene contents as well as the so-called acid number (AN) and base number (BN) of the crude oil. A significant number of laboratory-scale tests were made to evaluate the solution gas drive potential of West Sak (AK) viscous oil. The West Sak sample has a low acid number, low asphaltene content, and does not appear foamy under laboratory conditions. Tests show primary recovery of about 22% of the original oil in place under a variety of conditions. The acid number of other Alaskan North Slope samples tests is greater, indicating a greater potential for recovery by heavy-oil solution gas drive. Effective cold production leads to reservoir pressure depletion that eases the implementation of thermal recovery processes. When viewed from a reservoir perspective, thermal recovery is the enhanced recovery method of choice for viscous and heavy oils because of the significant viscosity reduction that accompanies the heating of oil. One significant issue accompanying thermal recovery in cold environments is wellbore heat losses. Initial work on thermal recovery found that a technology base for delivering steam, other hot fluids, and electrical heat through cold subsurface environments, such as permafrost, was in place. No commercially available technologies are available, however. Nevertheless, the enabling technology of superinsulated wells appears to be realized. Thermal subtasks focused on a suite of enhanced recovery options tailored to various reservoir conditions. Generally, electrothermal, conventional steam-based, and thermal gravity drainage enhanced oil recovery techniques appear to be applicable to 'prime' Ugnu reservoir conditions to the extent that reservoir architecture and fluid conditions are modeled faithfully here. The extent of reservoir layering, vertical communication, and subsurface steam distribution are important factors affecting recovery. Distribution of steam throughout reservoir volume is a significant issue facing thermal recovery. Various activities addressed aspects of steam emplacement. Notably, hydraulic fracturing of horizontal steam injection wells and implementation of steam trap control that limits steam entry into hor

  13. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 1: Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electricity can provide, such as heat for homes, lights for commercial buildings, or motors for industrial

  14. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Laramie, WY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  15. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Only Load Electricity Generation By Fuel in the U.S.electricity generation from most sources, except oil, is growing to meet the growing demand and that fossil fuels

  16. Crude oil and shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrotra, A.K. [Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

    1995-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This year`s review on crude oil and shale oil has been prepared by classifying the references into the following main headings: Hydrocarbon Identification and Characterization, Trace Element Determination, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties, Viscosity, and Miscellaneous Topics. In the two-year review period, the references on shale oils were considerably less in number than those dealing with crude oils. Several new analytical methodologies and applications were reported for hydrocarbon characterization and trace element determination of crude oils and shale oils. Also included in this review are nine U.S., Canadian British and European patents. 12 refs.

  17. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  18. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  19. Heat-Traced Fluid Transfer Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, R. E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT-TRACED FLUID TRANSFER LINES Robert E. Schilling, P.E. Eaton Corporation Aurora, Ohio This paper discusses basic considerations in designing a heat tracing system using either steam or electrical tracing. Four basic reasons to heat...

  20. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    replaced with heat pump water heaters (efficiency of 250%).electric storage water heaters and heat pumps as shown infor Electric Water Heaters and Heat Pumps End Use Elec WH HP

  1. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  2. An Experimental Investigaton of the Effect of Oil on Convective Heat Trasfer and Pressure Drop of a HFC-32/HRC-125 Mixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McJimsey, Bert Ashford

    The heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of HCFC-22 and a 50% mass mixture of HFC-32/HFC-125 were experimentally measured under flow boiling conditions in a smooth tube. The refrigerants were flowed through an 8 mm diameter smooth tube...

  3. Dynamic Electric Power Supply Chains and Transportation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Dynamic Electric Power Supply Chains and Transportation Networks: an Evolutionary Variational energy Electric power supply chains, provide the foundations for theElectric power supply chains, provide and societies. Communication, transportation, heating, lighting, cooling,Communication, transportation, heating

  4. Nuclear Energy for Simultaneous Low-Carbon Heavy-Oil Recovery and Gigawatt-Year Heat Storage for Peak Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    In a carbon-constrained world or a world of high natural gas prices, the use of fossil-fueled power

  5. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  6. Heat Transfer Applications for the Stimulated Reservoir Volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thoram, Srikanth

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    from oil shale. Thermal decomposition of kerogen to oil and gas requires heating the oil shale to 700 degrees F. High quality saturated steam generated using a small scale nuclear plant was used for heating the formation to the necessary temperature...

  7. Heat Transfer Applications for the Stimulated Reservoir Volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thoram, Srikanth

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    from oil shale. Thermal decomposition of kerogen to oil and gas requires heating the oil shale to 700 degrees F. High quality saturated steam generated using a small scale nuclear plant was used for heating the formation to the necessary temperature...

  8. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    utility electricity and natural gas purchases, amortized capital and annual maintenance costs for distributed generation (utility electricity and natural gas purchases plus amortized capital and annual maintenance costs for distributed generation (

  9. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  10. THE DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE USE OF GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION AND NONELECTRIC HEATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the geothermal field at Cerro Prieto is producing electricYellowstone Mex i co ;:Cerro Prieto I numerous wells yes

  11. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables - Common test methods - Part 5-1: Methods specific to filling compounds - Drop-point - Separation of oil - Lower temperature brittleness - Total acid number - Absence of corrosive components - Permittivity at 23 C - DC resistivity at 23 C and 100 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specifies the test methods for filling compounds of electric cables used with telecommunication equipment. Gives the methods for drop-point, separation of oil, lower temperature brittleness, total acid number, absence of corrosive components, permittivity at 23 C, d.c. resistivity at 23C and 100C.

  12. Chapter 3. Markets for electrical energy Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ernst, Damien

    Chapter 3. Markets for electrical energy 1 #12;Introduction Assumption: All the generators #12;Megawatt-hours not barrels of oil Electrical energy linked to a physical system where supply

  13. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    models: aggregated by SMSA market share central cooling all gas space heat all oilmodels: aggregated by regions market share central cooling all gas space heat all oil

  14. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  15. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  16. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

    1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  17. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  18. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  19. Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

    dampened because there is a current abundance of the basic sources of industrial energy (namely oil and natural gas). Meanwhile, Mycom used the window of the current opportunities to develop, design and test compressors built to meet the needs... requirements of the compressors which constitute the heart and soul of the system. It will also provide a quick survey of the available types of compressors for heat pumping and some of the industrial processes where simultaneous heating and cooling...

  20. Monitoring Seismic Attenuation Changes Using a 4D Relative Spectrum Method in Athabsca Heavy Oil Reservoir, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabelansky, Andrey Hanan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating heavy oil reservoirs is a common method for reducing the high viscosity of heavy oil and thus increasing the recovery factor. Monitoring these changes in the reservoir is essential for delineating the heated region ...

  1. Notice of Reestablishment of the Electricity Advisory Committee: Federal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREofNewsletterEnergy HeatingElectricMay 16,

  2. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Abbreviations AC CA CCHP CEC CERTS CEUS CHP ConEd COPcombined cooling heat and power (CCHP) system was installed

  3. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating value internal combustion engine Internationalbased variable speed internal combustion engine genset withdescription of internal combustion engines (ICE) as well as

  4. General Electric Company Oahu Wind Integration Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to disruptions in supply. Further, the volatility in oil prices translates into volatility in electricity prices. As oil prices increase, Hawaii consumers face increases in energy prices as well as the price of most was approximately 13% of the State Gross Product. Most of the imported oil is used for transportation fuel

  5. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    models require accurate estimates of how the market shares of different fuel choices (electricity, gas, or oil)

  6. Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

  7. Phenylnaphthalene as a Heat Transfer Fluid for Concentrating Solar Power: High-Temperature Static Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) may be an alternative to generating electricity from fossil fuels; however, greater thermodynamic efficiency is needed to improve the economics of CSP operation. One way of achieving improved efficiency is to operate the CSP loop at higher temperatures than the current maximum of about 400 C. ORNL has been investigating a synthetic polyaromatic oil for use in a trough type CSP collector, to temperatures up to 500 C. The oil was chosen because of its thermal stability and calculated low vapor and critical pressures. The oil has been synthesized using a Suzuki coupling mechanism and has been tested in static heating experiments. Analysis has been conducted on the oil after heating and suggests that there may be some isomerization taking place at 450 C, but the fluid appears to remain stable above that temperature. Tests were conducted over one week and further tests are planned to investigate stabilities after heating for months and in flow configurations. Thermochemical data and thermophysical predictions indicate that substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for applications that run at higher temperatures than possible with commercial fluids such as Therminol-VP1.

  8. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in peak shaving by the battery and PV. Therefore, to satisfylow storage & 60% PV incentive Battery discharging BatteryElectricity input to battery Considering lower PV prices and

  9. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ci ty Heat NG Fuel Oil Heavy oil Electri city Heat Coal CokeElectr icity H eat Coal Heavy oil NG Electr icity H eat NGRef Region: All Regions Heavy Oil Electricity Heat Variable:

  10. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  11. Design of Heat Exchanger for Heat Recovery in CHP Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozman, T. A.; Kaur, B.; Lee, J.

    with a heat exchanger to work as a Combined Heat and Power system for the University which will supplement the chilled water supply and electricity. The design constraints of the heat recovery unit are the specifications of the turbine and the chiller...

  12. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capture solar radiation and convert it into thermal energy.solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) electric storage (kWh) flow battery - energy (solar thermal collector ( kW) PV (kW) electric storage (kWh) flow battery - energy (

  13. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capture solar radiation and convert it into thermal energy.solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) electric storage (kWh) flow battery - energy (solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) electric storage (kWh) flow battery - energy (

  14. Jones-Onslow EMC- Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jones-Onslow Electric Membership Corporation offers rebates to residential members who install energy efficient heating and cooling equipment. Members can replace an existing central AC or heat...

  15. activation decay heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relations re Rumin, Michel 6 PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: General Electric...

  16. additional direct heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Suman Kumar Banik 2007-11-02 31 PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: General Electric...

  17. Industrial Heat Pump Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Brush, F. C.

    with operating the evaporator. The open-cycle heat pump design uses an electrically driven centrifugal compressor to recover the latent heat of the water vapor generated by the evaporator. (Steam was the original heat source but is now only needed for start...

  18. Enhanced heat transfer using nanofluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Stephen U. S. (Lisle, IL); Eastman, Jeffrey A. (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to a method of and apparatus for enhancing heat transfer in fluids such as deionized water. ethylene glycol, or oil by dispersing nanocrystalline particles of substances such as copper, copper oxide, aluminum oxide, or the like in the fluids. Nanocrystalline particles are produced and dispersed in the fluid by heating the substance to be dispersed in a vacuum while passing a thin film of the fluid near the heated substance. The fluid is cooled to control its vapor pressure.

  19. Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

  20. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  1. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

  2. The Bayou Choctaw Oil Shipment Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, S.J.; Ballard, S.; Barker, G.T.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early October of 1993, an oil shipment of about 1 million barrels was made from the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility to St. James Terminal. During the shipment, oil temperatures and soil temperatures along the pipeline were recorded. The field data were used to make estimations of soil thermal properties, thermal conductivity and specific heat. These data were also used to validate and calibrate a heat transfer code, OILPIP, which has been used to calculate pipeline cooling of oil during a drawdown.

  3. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ab), photovoltaic (pv), and solar thermal (st)} t u Daym,t,h Net heat from solar thermal during hour h, type of daysame alignment of the solar thermal panel it can be used for

  4. Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High-Power High-efficiency Waste Heat Recovery for Electricity Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-dimension, high-ZT BiTe and Pb-based nanocomposites produced with a low-cost scalable process were used for development and testing of TE module prototypes, and demonstration of a waste heat recovery system

  5. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  6. Production of hydrogen from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schora, F. C.; Feldkirchner, H. L.; Janka, J. C.

    1985-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for production of hydrogen from oil shale fines by direct introduction of the oil shale fines into a fluidized bed at temperatures about 1200/sup 0/ to about 2000/sup 0/ F. to obtain rapid heating of the oil shale. The bed is fluidized by upward passage of steam and oxygen, the steam introduced in the weight ratio of about 0.1 to about 10 on the basis of the organic carbon content of the oil shale and the oxygen introduced in less than the stoichiometric quantity for complete combustion of the organic carbonaceous kerogen content of the oil shale. Embodiments are disclosed for heat recovery from the spent shale and heat recovery from the spent shale and product gas wherein the complete process and heat recovery is carried out in a single reaction vessel. The process of this invention provides high conversion of organic carbon component of oil shale and high production of hydrogen from shale fines which when used in combination with a conventional oil shale hydroconversion process results in increased overall process efficiency of greater than 15 percent.

  7. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Edison (SCE) have time-of-use tariffs with stiff demandthe absence of a time of use tariff for electrical energy.the power of the time-of-use tariff. The xix The Effects of

  8. Yellowstone Valley Electric Cooperative- Residential/Commercial Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Yellowstone Valley Electric Cooperative offers rebates to residential and commercial members for purchasing energy efficient add-on heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, water heaters, dishwashers...

  9. Magic Valley Electric Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Magic Valley Electric Cooperative's Value Incentive Program (VIP) offers consumers incentives for the installation of new central heat pump systems, dual fuel heating systems, central air...

  10. Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, Erle C. (Bartlesville, OK); Sutterfield, F. Dexter (Bartlesville, OK)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.

  11. Thermal recovery of oil and bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, R.M. (Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book is organized into the following chapters: Introduction to Thermal Recovery; Conduction of Heat Within Solids; Convective Heating within Reservoirs; Steamfloodings; The Displacement of Heavy Oil; Cyclic Steam Simulation; Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage; Steam Recovery Equipment and Facilities; and In Situ Combustion.

  12. Author's personal copy Pyroelectric waste heat energy harvesting using heat conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Author's personal copy Pyroelectric waste heat energy harvesting using heat conduction Felix Y. Lee heat harvesting Olsen cycle a b s t r a c t Waste heat can be directly converted into electrical energy Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Large amounts of waste heat are released as a by

  13. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel Oil Natural Gas Electricity Total Transportation FuelHeavy Oil Natural Gas Electricity Heat Total Transportation

  14. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Installation Market to be Driven...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and others. These technologies are called prime movers and mainly consume fuels such as oil, biomass, coal, and natural gas for generating electricity. Based on fuel type, this...

  15. Central Alabama Electric Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Central Alabama Electric Cooperative, a Touchstone Electric Cooperative, offers the Touchstone Energy Home Program. Touchstone Energy Homes with a dual-fuel or geothermal heat pump qualify for...

  16. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Domestic Electric Storage Water Heater (DESWH) Test Methodsfans, washing machines, water heaters and space heaters.and Space Heating Water heater intensities and electric

  17. Ozark Border Electric Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ozark Border Electric Cooperative has made rebates available to residential members for the installation of energy efficient geothermal and air source heat pumps, electric water heaters, and room...

  18. Thermionic electric converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, E.D.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic electric converter is disclosed wherein an externally located heat source causes electrons to be boiled off an electron emissive surface interiorly positioned on one end wall of an evacuated cylindrical chamber. The electrons are electrically focused and accelerated through the interior of an air core induction coil located within a transverse magnetic field, and subsequently are collected on the other end wall of the chamber functioning as a collecting plate. The emf generated in the induction coil by action of the transiting electron stream interacting with the transverse magnetic field is applied to an external circuit to perform work, thereby implementing a direct heat energy to electrical energy conversion.

  19. Energy security and crude oil in Atlantic Canada Larry Hughes, PhD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ) where upwards of 70% of the crude oil is imported to meet refining demand (Hughes, 2010). The problemEnergy security and crude oil in Atlantic Canada Larry Hughes, PhD Energy Research Group Department, Atlantic Canada relies heavily on light fuel oil for space heating Over 80% of the crude oil used

  20. Verifying energy savings with minimal metered data: The Hunter heat pump analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, S.A.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In November 1992, Hunter Army Air Field (AAF) completed the installation of 489 air-source heat pumps -- a new heat pump and air-handling unit for each residence. The air-source heat pumps replaced older, less efficient, air-conditioning systems, fuel oil-fired furnaces, and fan coil units. Hunter AAF originally contacted to upgrade the old family housing heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with high efficiency air-conditioning systems and natural gas furnaces, but an alternative proposal and following energy studies indicated that heat pumps were a more life-cycle cost-effective alternative. Six months after the heat pumps were installed, Hunter`s energy bills appeared to be increasing, not decreasing as expected. In early 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory` (PNL) began an analysis to determine if there were any energy savings resulting from the heat pump installation as predicted by previous energy studies. The problem is that the HVAC systems are not specifically submetered to support verifying the resulting energy savings and, as is the case with most federal facilities, even the homes are not individually metered. Savings verification needed to be accomplished with die existing and available metered data. This data consisted primarily of monthly electric submeter readings from the two housing subdivision meters, historical fuel oil delivery records for family housing, and monthly base-wide electric bills. The objective of the study is to verify the change in energy consumption in family housing and, to the extent possible, identify how much of the change in consumption is attributable to the new HVAC system and how much is probably attributable to other factors, such as the weather.

  1. Wetting of mercury electrode by crude oil in surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuvshinov, V.A.; Altumina, L.K.; Genkina, L.F.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been made of electrosurface phenomena in the system consisting of crude oil, mercury, and a surfactant solution. The type of relationship between the wetting of mercury by oil in surfactant solutions and the electric potential of the mercury has been determined. Feasibility has been demonstrated for the use of the mercury/oil/surfactant solution system as a model in studying the oil-displacing capabilities of various surfactants.

  2. MTSC735, Spring 2008 Electrical measurements 1 Electrical measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaisted, David A.

    " resistors Self-heating in any resistors Thermal EMF or other contact potential Contact resistance to Rx MTSC1 MTSC735, Spring 2008 Electrical measurements 1 Electrical measurements Critical to all measurements Worry about: Disturbing the system you study Adding extra electrical signals Eliminating

  3. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tringe, Joseph W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  4. `Heat pumps in Smart Grids' IEA Annex 42

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    and cooling account for 46% of global energy use. Their huge potential for cutting CO2 emissions is often will be more then 2/3 of EU electricity in 2050 EU electricity generation in the 2DS Source: IEA-ETP 2012 #12 neglected. Integration with electricity Surplus heatCo-generation Renewable heat District heating

  5. Multi-Factor Model of Correlated Commodity - Forward Curves for Crude Oil and Shipping Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellefsen, Per Einar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An arbitrage free multi-factor model is developed of the correlated forward curves of the crude oil, gasoline, heating oil and tanker shipping markets. Futures contracts trading on public exchanges are used as the primary ...

  6. Thermo-electrically pumped semiconductor light emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Parthiban

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermo-electric heat exchange in semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs) allows these devices to emit optical power in excess of the electrical power used to drive them, with the remaining power drawn from ambient heat. ...

  7. association of companies and the Edison Electric Institute (1953). Their final report cites investigations from 1945 through 1953 and includes correlated information on coil data, heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . The house has passive solar features consisting of south-facing glass with manually operable insulated shutters and overhang shading. The design heating load of the house is 30,000 Btu/h (8.8 kw) while that "even with this considerable amount of information, there is still no apparently workable design

  8. An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric-resistance water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    -resistance water heater and a desuperheater water heater was tested under field conditions at a site near Knoxville. One way : . '-~~ .~ Is to use a desuperheater. or heat recovery water heater, with air conditioners are offering . .. .. · ~'*desuperheaier water heaters (DSWI | as options for their central air conditioners

  9. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load Profile for a Typical Day in Each Month Electricity-only (week) Electricity-only (weekend) Heating (week) Heating (weekend) Power (Load Profile for a Typical Day in Each Month Electricity-only (week) Electricity-only (weekend) Cooling (week) Cooling (weekend) Power (Load Profile for a Typical Day in Each Month Electricity-only (week) Electricity-only (weekend) Heating (week) Heating (weekend) Power (

  10. Mobile power plants : waste body heat recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbons, Jonathan S. (Jonathan Scott), 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel methods to convert waste metabolic heat into useful and useable amounts of electricity were studied. Thermoelectric, magneto hydrodynamic, and piezo-electric energy conversions at the desired scope were evaluated to ...

  11. The Homopolar Pulse Billet Heating Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keith, R. E.; Weldon, W. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - or gas-fired furnace machine. (7) Also during 1981, under the heating. Although most billet heating sponsorship of the Electric Power Research today is done using fuel-fired furnaces, Institute (EPRI), CEM-UT carried out a electric heating... obtained frDm Electromechanics at The University of Texas the EPRI study. at Austin (CEM-UT) has been engaged in research on large pulsed power supplies for use in experiments leading to controlled TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS IN BILLET HEATING...

  12. A Comparative Economic Evaluation of Industrial Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, J. I.; Bliem, C. J.; Chappell, R. N.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the findings of a study on the cost of delivering process heat with state-of-the-art heat pump systems. Sixteen heat pump systems were configured for relative cost comparisons. These systems consisted of electrically driven...

  13. amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Water in oil microemulsions : transient electric birefringence...

  14. An Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darby, D. F.

    our dependence on petroleum-based fuels, paper, glass, and agricultural and automotive and hence improve our merchandise .trade balance. equipment industries have all had proven success with heat recovery projects. Solar, wind, geothermal, oil shale...

  15. Energy Management by Recycling of Vehicle Waste Oil in Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    Abstract: Pakistan has been suffering from an energy crisis for about half a decade now. The power crisis is proving to be unbearable, so importing huge amount of hydrocarbons from abroad to meet its energy needs. This study therefore focuses on the analysis of energy and environmental benefits for vehicle waste lubricant oil pertaining to its reuse by means of: (i) regain the heating value of used oils in a combustion process and (ii) recycling of waste oil to make fresh oil products. The waste oil samples were tested by ICP method and the test results were compared with standard requirements. It was found that the matter could effectively be solved by means of waste oil management practices together with collection centers, transports and processors by encouraging and financial help for the recycling industry. The importance and worth of this work concludes minor levels of hazardous elements when regained the heating value from the waste lubricating oil.

  16. Oil shale retorting with steam and produced gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, L.S. Jr.; Wheaton, L.D.

    1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for retorting oil shale in a vertical retort. It comprises introducing particles of oil shale into the retort, the particles of oil shale having a minimum size such that the particles are retained on a screen having openings 1/4 inch in size; contacting the particles of oil shale with hot gas to heat the particles of oil shale to a state of pyrolysis, thereby producing retort off-gas; removing the off-gas from the retort; cooling the off-gas; removing oil from the cooled off-gas; separating recycle gas from the off-gas, the recycle gas comprising steam and produced gas, the steam being present in amount, by volume, of at least 50% of the recycle gas so as to increase the yield of sand oil; and heating the recycle gas to form the hot gas.

  17. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  18. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  19. Active heat transfer enhancement in integrated fan heat sinks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staats, Wayne Lawrence

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern computer processors require significant cooling to achieve their full performance. The "efficiency" of heat sinks is also becoming more important: cooling of electronics consumes 1% of worldwide electricity use by ...

  20. Residential energy-tax-credit eligibility: a case study for the heat-pump water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohn, S M; Cardell, N S

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Described are the methodology and results of an analysis to determine the eligibility of an energy-efficient item for the residential energy-tax credit. Although energy credits are granted only on a national basis, an attempt to determine the tax-credit eligibility for an item such as the heat-pump water heater (HPWH) analyzing national data is inappropriate. The tax-credit eligibility of the HPWH is evaluated for the ten federal regions to take into consideration the regional differences of: (1) HPWH annual efficiency, (2) existing water heater stocks by fuel type, (3) electricity, fuel oil, and natural-gas price variations, and (4) electric-utility oil and gas use for electricity generation. A computer model of consumer choice of HPWH selection as well as a computer code evaluating the economics of tax-credit eligibility on a regional basis were developed as analytical tools for this study. The analysis in this report demonstrates that the HPWH meets an important criteria for eligibility by the Treasury Department for an energy tax credit (nationally, the estimated dollar value of savings of oil and gas over the lifetime of those HPWH's sold during 1981 to 1985 due to the tax credit exceeds the revenue loss to the treasury). A natural-gas price-deregulation scenario is one of two fuel scenarios that are evaluated using the equipment choice and tax-credit models. These two cases show the amounts of oil and gas saved by additional HPWH units sold (due to the tax credit during 1981 to 1985 (range from 13.9 to 23.1 million barrels of oil equivalent over the lifetime of the equipment.

  1. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion required...

  2. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion required...

  3. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  4. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  5. afforested oil-shale mining: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Underground Mine Rivers Boisvert, Jeff 26 INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: saving in heat energy...

  6. Kirkwood Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kirkwood Electric offers rebates to its residential customers who install energy-efficient heat pumps and electric hot water heaters in their new and existing homes. Customers will be given a...

  7. Salem Electric- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salem Electric residential customers with electric water heating are eligible for a $600 rebate through Salem's Bright Way program. A program brochure with details is available on the program...

  8. LLNL oil shale project review: METC third annual oil shale contractors meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R.J.; Coburn, T.T.; Taylor, R.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory combines laboratory and pilot-scale experimental measurements with mathematical modeling of fundamental chemistry and physics to provide a technical base for evaluating oil shale retorting alternatives. Presented herein are results of four research areas of interest in oil shale process development: Recent Progress in Solid-Recycle Retorting and Related Laboratory and Modeling Studies; Water Generation During Pyrolysis of Oil Shale; Improved Analytical Methods and Measurements of Rapid Pyrolysis Kinetics for Western and Eastern Oil Shale; and Rate of Cracking or Degradation of Oil Vapor In Contact with Oxidized Shale. We describe operating results of a 1 tonne-per-day, continuous-loop, solid-recycle, retort processing both Western And Eastern oil shale. Sulfur chemistry, solid mixing limits, shale cooling tests and catalyst addition are all discussed. Using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, we measure individual species evolution with greater sensitivity and selectivity. Herein we discuss our measurements of water evolution during ramped heating of Western and Eastern oil shale. Using improved analytical techniques, we determine isothermal pyrolysis kinetics for Western and Eastern oil shale, during rapid heating, which are faster than previously thought. Finally, we discuss the rate of cracking of oil vapor in contact with oxidized shale, qualitatively using a sand fluidized bed and quantitatively using a vapor cracking apparatus. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Heating Oil Reserve | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearning andDesign inImage of a

  10. State Heating Oil and Propane Program

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard ErrorsSeptember 24,Feet)Year(DollarsState

  11. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is always evolving, so are our best practices foreGallon:1` [ R R

  12. Douglas Electric Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficiency Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Douglas Electric Cooperative offers rebates to its members for the purchase of energy efficient products and measures. Rebates include clothes washers, heat pumps, manufactured homes, and...

  13. Analysis of Energy-Rescued Potential of a Hot Water Heating Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, J.; Wang, D.; Tian, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and electricity factory in Jinan, we analyze the energy waste caused by hydraulic power maladjustment and improper control of heating temperature in heating season. We conclude that proper adjustment of the heating network and controlling the heating supply...

  14. Faculty of Engineering Electrical and Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faculty of Engineering Electrical and Computer Engineering Electrical and Computer Engineering offers you a diverse range of exciting opportunities in high-tech industries. As an electrical engineer in the engineering disciplines Thermodynamics, fluids and heat transfer #12;Electrical and Computer Engineering

  15. Oil shale technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

  16. COOKSON, EDWARD JAMES. Development of the Metal Foam Electrical Resistance Heater. (Under the Direction of Dr. Albert Shih.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Albert J.

    to convert the electrical energy into thermal energy. An analytic heat transfer model is first developed

  17. Planning an itinerary for an electric vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chale-Gongora, Hugo G.

    The steady increase in oil prices and awareness regarding environmental risks due to carbon dioxide emissions are promoting the current interest in electric vehicles. However, the current relatively low driving range ...

  18. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  19. Electrical Vehicles in the Smart Grid: A Mean Field Game Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Electrical Vehicles in the Smart Grid: A Mean Field Game Analysis Romain Couillet, Samir M interaction between electrical vehicles or hybrid oil- electricity vehicles in a Cournot market consisting electricity peak demand. I. INTRODUCTION Electrical vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEV

  20. Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; McKeever, John W [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (EVs and HEVs) become more prevalent, there is a need to change the power source from gasoline on the vehicle to electricity from the grid in order to mitigate requirements for onboard energy storage (battery weight) as well as to reduce dependency on oil by increasing dependency on the grid (our coal, gas, and renewable energy instead of their oil). Traditional systems for trains and buses rely on physical contact to transfer electrical energy to vehicles in motion. Until recently, conventional magnetically coupled systems required a gap of less than a centimeter. This is not practical for vehicles of the future.