National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for heating fuel exemption

  1. Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York Department of Taxation and Finance publishes a variety of sales tax reports detailing local tax rates and exemptions, including those for residential energy services. The residential...

  2. Fuel Cell Financing for Tax-Exempt Entities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financing for Tax-Exempt Entitities Facilitating deployments by structuring energy service contracts to include the Energy Investment Tax Credit. Introduction The Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC) 1 can help reduce the cost of installing a fuel cell system. While Department of Treasury regulations prevent tax-exempt entities, e.g., not-for-proft organiza- tions, from directly taking advantage of tax benefts for property that they own, the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) and Treasury regulations

  3. Fuel Cell Financing for Tax-Exempt Entities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Tax-Exempt Entities Fuel Cell Financing for Tax-Exempt Entities This fact sheet describes how tax-exempt entities can indirectly benefit from the energy investment tax credit for the installation of fuel cell systems. Fuel Cell Financing for Tax-Exempt Entities (831.84 KB) More Documents & Publications ITC Role in U.S. Fuel Cell Projects Tax Issues in Financing Renewable Energy Projects Model Financing Solicitation for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

  4. Sales Tax Exemption for Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sales tax exemption may also be taken on building materials used to construct a new or renovated building or purchases of machinery for a research district. A research district is defined as...

  5. Waste Heat Utilization System Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Waste heat utilization systems arefacilities and equipment for the recovery of waste heat generated in the process of generating electricity and the use of such heat to generate additional elect...

  6. Winter Heating Fuels - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Winter Heating Fuels Click on the map to view state specific heating fuels data below | click to reset to U.S. values Click on map above to view state-specific heating fuel data ...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat,

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat, Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat, Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat, Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat

  8. Exemption 6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exemption 6 Exemption 6

  9. Wood Heating Fuel Exemption | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    6%. Source http:programs.dsireusa.orgsystemprogramdetail143 Careers & Internships Contact Us link to facebook link to twitter Email Signup Sign up for updates Go Energy.gov...

  10. Exemption 6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exemption 4 Exemption 4 Exemption 4 Exemption 4 Exemption 4

  11. Winter Heating Fuels - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Click on map above to view state-specific heating fuel data Propane Heating oil Natural gas Electricity For more data on: Heating oil and propane prices - Heating Oil and Propane ...

  12. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  13. Exemption 6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exemption 4 Exemption 4 Exemption 4 Exemption 4 Exemption 4 Exemption 4 Exemption 4

  14. Exemption 6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exemption 6

  15. Corporate Exemption | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies Active Alternative Fuel Tax Exemption (Idaho) Corporate Exemption Idaho Ethanol Biodiesel No Energy Conversion Facilities Corporate Tax Exemption (Ohio) Corporate...

  16. Personal Exemption | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Vehicles (Oklahoma) Personal Exemption Personal Exemption Oklahoma Residential Methanol No Residential Energy Conservation Subsidy Exclusion (Personal) (Federal)...

  17. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, ...

  18. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 The purpose of this 2004...

  19. Code System for Spent Fuel Heating Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-05-24

    Version 00 SFHA calculates steady-state fuel rod temperatures for hexagon and square-fuel bundles. The code is used to perform sensitivity studies and confirmatory analyses of results submitted by applicants for spent fuel storage licenses. All three modes of heat transfer are considered; radiation, convection, and conduction. Each is modeled separately. SFHA benchmark calculations were made with test data to validate the use of a simple one-dimensional heat transfer model for estimating fuel rod temperatures. Benchmarkmore » results show that SFHA is capable of calculating spent fuel rod temperatures for square and hexagonal fuel bundles under various environments for the consolidated or unconsolidated condition. The program is menu-driven and executes automatically after all required information is entered.« less

  20. Heated transportable fuel cell cartridges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lance, Joseph R. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A fuel cell stack protective system is made where a plurality of fuel cells, each containing liquid electrolyte subject to crystallization, is enclosed by a containing vessel, and where at least one electric heater is placed in the containing vessel and is capable of preventing electrolyte crystallization.

  1. TCM exemptions to promote alternative-fuel vehicles: The good, the bad, and the ugly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.

    1994-02-01

    This document consists of viewgraphs from a presentation on transportation control measures (TCM) to facilitate the use of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV). Types of TCMs that pertain to AFV exemptions are: parking fees and restrictions, high occupancy vehicle lanes, fuel taxes, and possibly congestion pricing and time-of-day and day-of-week restrictions. The degree to which these measures will impact AFV production by the year 2010 is predicted.

  2. ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Fueling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fredd, E.; Goulding, R.H.; Hosea, J.; Swain, D.W.

    2005-04-15

    The ITER burning plasma and advanced operating regimes require robust and reliable heating and current drive and fueling systems. The ITER design documents describe the requirements and reference designs for the ion cyclotron and pellet fueling systems. Development and testing programs are required to optimize, validate and qualify these systems for installation on ITER.The ITER ion cyclotron system offers significant technology challenges. The antenna must operate in a nuclear environment and withstand heat loads and disruption forces beyond present-day designs. It must operate for long pulse lengths and be highly reliable, delivering power to a plasma load with properties that will change throughout the discharge. The ITER ion cyclotron system consists of one eight-strap antenna, eight rf sources (20 MW, 35-65 MHz), associated high-voltage DC power supplies, transmission lines and matching and decoupling components.The ITER fueling system consists of a gas injection system and multiple pellet injectors for edge fueling and deep core fueling. Pellet injection will be the primary ITER fuel delivery system. The fueling requirements will require significant extensions in pellet injector pulse length ({approx}3000 s), throughput (400 torr-L/s,) and reliability. The proposed design is based on a centrifuge accelerator fed by a continuous screw extruder. Inner wall pellet injection with the use of curved guide tubes will be utilized for deep fueling.

  3. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Misage, Robert; Scheffler, Glenn W.; Setzer, Herbert J.; Margiott, Paul R.; Parenti, Jr., Edmund K.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  4. Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    utility, which runs its own diesel fuel bulk storage facility for the diesel generators. However, residential heating oil and fuel for all public buildings except the...

  5. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry

    2000-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  6. Microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Alex L.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Moorman, Matthew W.

    2010-05-04

    A microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device comprises a microfabricated gas chromatography column in combination with a catalytic microcalorimeter. The microcalorimeter can comprise a reference thermal conductivity sensor to provide diagnostics and surety. Using microfabrication techniques, the device can be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost. The microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device enables continuous calorimetric determination of the heating value of natural gas with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This device has applications in remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. For gas pipelines, the device can improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and provide accurate financial accounting. For industrial end users, the device can provide continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use.

  7. Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranasinghe, Jatila; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

  8. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces;...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical ...

  9. Fuel Cell Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CACP System CACP System Integrated Fuel Cell Integrated Fuel Cell Setup for Heat and Mass ... 300,000 FY16 DOE Funding: 300,000 Cost Share: 100,000 Project Term: February ...

  10. NREL Ignites New Renewable Fuels Heating Plant - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ignites New Renewable Fuels Heating Plant Innovative DOE Contract Helps Lab Reduce Fuel Use, Carbon Emissions November 20, 2008 Golden, Colo. - With the spark from a high intensity road flare, engineers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory lit its new, smoke-free Renewable Fuels Heating Plant today. The $3.3 million project is the Laboratory's latest step toward operating as a net-zero energy facility. The RFHP will heat NREL's South Table Mountain Campus

  11. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_crane.pdf (549.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS,

  12. Sandia Energy - From Compost to Sustainable Fuels: Heat-Loving...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From Compost to Sustainable Fuels: Heat-Loving Fungi Are Sequenced Home Renewable Energy Energy Transportation Energy News Modeling Modeling & Analysis From Compost to Sustainable...

  13. An Assessment of Heating Fuels And Electricity Markets During...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon An Assessment of Heating Fuels And Electricity Markets During the Winters of 2013... Before the House Subcommittee on Energy and Power - Committee on Energy and Commerce

  14. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, David; Lemar, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  15. Residential Solar Energy Property Tax Exemption | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Property Tax Exemption Residential Solar Energy Property Tax Exemption < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics...

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnier, J.E.; Begej, S.; Williford, R.E.; Christensen, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    A nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer between fuel material and cladding is described. The element consists of an outer cladding tube divided into an upper fuel section containing a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material, slightly smaller in diameter than the inner surface of the cladding tube and a small lower accumulator section, the cladding tube being which is filled with a low molecular weight gas to transfer heat from fuel material to cladding during irradiation. A plurality of essentially vertical grooves in the fuel section extend downward and communicate with the accumulator section. The radial depth of the grooves is sufficient to provide a thermal gradient between the hot fuel surface and the relatively cooler cladding surface to allow thermal segregation to take place between the low molecular weight heat transfer gas and high molecular weight fission product gases produced by the fuel material during irradiation.

  17. Control apparatus and method for efficiently heating a fuel processor in a fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2003-08-05

    A control apparatus and method for efficiently controlling the amount of heat generated by a fuel cell processor in a fuel cell system by determining a temperature error between actual and desired fuel processor temperatures. The temperature error is converted to a combustor fuel injector command signal or a heat dump valve position command signal depending upon the type of temperature error. Logic controls are responsive to the combustor fuel injector command signals and the heat dump valve position command signal to prevent the combustor fuel injector command signal from being generated if the heat dump valve is opened or, alternately, from preventing the heat dump valve position command signal from being generated if the combustor fuel injector is opened.

  18. Gas-fueled absorption heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florette, M.; Peuportier, B.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using an absorption heat pump for residential space heating, French investigators are studying both theoretically and experimentally, the performance of the absorption cycle in terms of its efficiency and suitability to space-heating conditions. A 10-kW pilot unit is supplying data on design criteria, heat-exchange fluid selection, and heat and mass balances.

  19. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces This tip sheet recommends installing waste heat recovery systems for fuel-fired furnaces to increase the energy efficiency of process heating systems. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #8 Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (September 2005) (280.81 KB) More Documents & Publications Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System Using

  20. York Electric Cooperative- Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    York Electric Cooperative, Inc. (YEC) offers a $200 rebate to members who install a dual fuel heat pump in homes or businesses. The rebates are for primary residences, commercial, and industrial...

  1. Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of New York began offering a corporate income tax credit for biodiesel purchases used for residential space heating and water heating beginning in 2006. The original credit was authorized...

  2. Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in a Motored Engine | Department of Energy Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative Fuels in a Motored Engine Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative Fuels in a Motored Engine Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_szybist.pdf (525.23 KB) More Documents & Publications Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tax Exemptions and Reductions Propane, natural gas, electricity, and hydrogen, also known as special fuel, used to operate motor vehicles are exempt from state fuel taxes, but...

  4. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  5. Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The value of the tax credit is $0.01/gallon for each percent of biodiesel blended with conventional home heating oil, up to a maximum of $0.20/ gallon. In other words, the purchaser of a mixture ...

  6. Solar Energy Sales Tax Exemption | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sales Tax Exemption Solar Energy Sales Tax Exemption < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat...

  7. Thermoacoustic sensor for nuclear fuel temperaturemonitoring and heat transfer enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Randall A. Alli; Steven L. Garrett

    2013-05-01

    A new acoustical sensing system for the nuclear power industry has been developed at The Pennsylvania State University in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratories. This sensor uses the high temperatures of nuclear fuel to convert a nuclear fuel rod into a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine. When a standing wave is generated, the sound wave within the fuel rod will be propagated, by acoustic radiation, through the cooling fluid within the reactor or spent fuel pool and can be monitored a remote location external to the reactor. The frequency of the sound can be correlated to an effective temperature of either the fuel or the surrounding coolant. We will present results for a thermoacoustic resonator built into a Nitonic-60 (stainless steel) fuel rod that requires only one passive component and no heat exchangers.

  8. Fuel quality issues in the oil heat industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzke, Wai-Lin

    1992-12-01

    The quality of fuel oil plays an essential role in combustion performance and efficient operation of residential heating equipment. With the present concerns by the oil-heat industry of declining fuel-oil quality, a study was initiated to identify the factors that have brought about changes in the quality of distillate fuel. A background of information will be provided to the industry, which is necessary to deal with the problems relating to the fuel. The high needs for servicing heating equipment are usually the result of the poor handling characteristics of the fuel during cold weather, the buildup of dirt and water in storage tanks, and microbial growth. A discussion of how to deal with these problems is presented in this paper. The effectiveness of fuel additives to control these problems of quality is also covered to help users better understand the functions and limitations of chemical treatment. Test data have been collected which measure and compare changes in the properties of fuel using selected additives.

  9. Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Commercial Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Market Transformation project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done in developing evaluating the performance of 5 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems that have been deployed in Oregon and California. It also describes the business case that was developed to identify markets and address cost.

  10. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-19

    HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

  11. Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For most eligible renewable energy systems, the assessed value of the system is exempt from property tax. One exception is solar energy heating or cooling systems which are exempt from property tax...

  12. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 TDA Research ...

  13. EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory South Table Mountain Site, Golden, CO EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant ...

  14. RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power Steve Lupton presentation at the May 9, 2012, Pyrolysis Oil ...

  15. An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

  16. GenSys Blue: Fuel Cell Heating Appliance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GenSys Blue: Fuel Cell Heating Appliance GenSys Blue: Fuel Cell Heating Appliance Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meetng, Nov. 16, 2009. htmwg_nov09_gynsblue.pdf (2.36 MB) More Documents & Publications Minutes of the Fall 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

  17. An Assessment of Heating Fuels And Electricity Markets During the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Assessment of Heating Fuels And Electricity Markets During the Winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 October 2015 This page intentionally blank For Further Information This report was prepared under the auspices of the Energy Infrastructure Modeling and Analysis (EIMA) division of the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE). OE's vision is a U.S. energy delivery system that is reliable in the face of all hazards and resilient to disruptions, supports U.S. economic

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Propane Equipment and Infrastructure Liability Exemption Propane equipment, infrastructure, and fuel providers are exempt from civil liability for personal injury or property ...

  19. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  20. Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K.

    1997-01-01

    Greenhouses are a major application of low-temperature geothermal resources. In virtually all operating systems, the geothermal fluid is used in a hot water heating system to meet 100% of both the peak and annual heating requirements of the structure. This strategy is a result of the relatively low costs associated with the development of most US geothermal direct-use resources and past tax credit programs which penalized systems using any conventional fuel sources. Increasingly, greenhouse operations will encounter limitations in available geothermal resource flow due either to production or disposal considerations. As a result, it will be necessary to operate additions at reduced water temperatures reflective of the effluent from the existing operations. Water temperature has a strong influence on heating system design. Greenhouse operators tend to have unequivocal preferences regarding heating system equipment. Many growers, particularly cut flower and bedding plant operators, prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. This system places small diameter plastic tubes under the benches or adjacent to the plants. Hot water is circulated through the tubes providing heat to the plants and the air in the greenhouse. Advantages include the ability to provide the heat directly to the plants, low cost, simple installation and the lack of a requirement for fans to circulate air. The major disadvantage of the system is poor performance at low (<140{degrees}F) water temperatures, particularly in cold climates. Under these conditions, the quantity of tubing required to meet the peak heating load is substantial. In fact, under some conditions, it is simply impractical to install sufficient tubing in the greenhouse to meet the peak heating load.

  1. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer Engineering, and Argonne National Laboratory, will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel

  2. In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel Reactivity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stratification | Department of Energy Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel Reactivity Stratification In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel Reactivity Stratification Explores in-cylinder mechanisms by which fuel reactivity stratification via a two fuel system affects premixed charge compression ignition heat release rate to achieve diesel-like efficiency deer11_kokjohn.pdf (3.98 MB) More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and

  3. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings This brief introduces heat-pump technology and its application in industrial processes as part of steam systems. The focus is on the most common applications, with guidelines for initial identification and evaluation of the opportunities being provided. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings (June 2003) (445.24 KB) More Documents & Publications This thermoelastic system provides a promising

  4. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a

  5. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Stationary (Combined Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Power) Applications | Department of Energy Stationary (Combined Heat and Power) Applications DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Stationary (Combined Heat and Power) Applications These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for stationary fuel cell applications. These targets have been developed with input from developers of stationary fuel cell power systems. More information about targets can be found in the Fuel Cells section of the Fuel Cell

  6. Numerical simulation of gas dynamics and heat exchange tasks in fuel assemblies of the nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuchenko, S. V.

    2014-11-12

    This report presents a PC-based program for solution gas dynamics and heat exchange mathematical tasks in fuel assemblies of the fast-neutron nuclear reactors. A fuel assembly consisting of bulk heat-generating elements, which are integrated together by the system of supply and pressure manifolds, is examined. Spherical heat-generating microelements, which contain nuclear fuel, are pulled into the heat-generating elements. Gaseous coolant proceed from supply manifolds to heat-generating elements, where it withdraws the nuclear reaction heat and assembles in pressure manifolds.

  7. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  8. Solar Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For both residential and non-residential systems, the exemption applies to solar-energy systems that utilize solar radiation to produce energy designed to provide heating, cooling, hot water and/or...

  9. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With their clean and quiet operation, fuel cells represent a promising means of implementing small-scale distributed power generation in the future. Waste heat from the fuel cell can be harnessed...

  10. Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today applauded the commissioning of a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell system at Portland Community College in Oregon. The CHP fuel cell system will help...

  11. RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heating Oil Substitution Fuel in New England May 9 - 10, 2012, Manchester, New Hampshire Envergent Technologies 2009 Envergent Technologies LLC - UOP Ensyn Joint ...

  12. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water treatment gas for ...

  13. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office This is a case study ...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption The biodiesel or ethanol portion of blended fuel containing taxable diesel is exempt from the diesel fuel tax. The biodiesel or ethanol fuel blend must be clearly identified on the retail pump, storage tank, and sales invoice in order to be eligible for the exemption. (Reference Texas Statutes, Tax Code 162.2

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Tax Exemption Biodiesel blends containing at least 20% biodiesel derived from used cooking oil are exempt from the $0.30 per gallon state fuel excise tax. The exemption does not apply to fuel used in vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 pounds or more, fuel not sold in retail operations, or fuel sold in operations involving fleet fueling or bulk sales. The exemption expires after December 31, 2019. (Reference Oregon Revised Statutes 319.530

  16. Local Option- Solar Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The exemption does not apply to solar pool heating or other recreational applications. The laws also permit local governments (municipalities and counties) to grant an exemption from local sales...

  17. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 1/22 High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H 2 from Biogas Jack Brouwer, Ph.D. June 19, 2012 DOE/ NREL Biogas Workshop - Golden, CO © National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 2/22 Outline * Introduction and Background * Tri-Generation/Poly-Generation Analyses * OCSD Project Introduction © National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 3/22 Introduction and Background * Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle performance is outstanding * Energy

  18. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer for Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nix, Andrew Carl

    2015-03-23

    The focus of this program was to experimentally investigate advanced gas turbine cooling schemes and the effects of and factors that contribute to surface deposition from particulate matter found in coal syngas exhaust flows on turbine airfoil heat transfer and film cooling, as well as to characterize surface roughness and determine the effects of surface deposition on turbine components. The program was a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary collaborative effort between aero-thermal and materials faculty researchers and the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The primary technical objectives of the program were to evaluate the effects of combustion of syngas fuels on heat transfer to turbine vanes and blades in land-based power generation gas turbine engines. The primary questions to be answered by this investigation were; What are the factors that contribute to particulate deposition on film cooled gas turbine components? An experimental program was performed in a high-temperature and pressure combustion rig at the DOE NETL; What is the effect of coal syngas combustion and surface deposition on turbine airfoil film cooling? Deposition of particulate matter from the combustion gases can block film cooling holes, decreasing the flow of the film coolant and the film cooling effectiveness; How does surface deposition from coal syngas combustion affect turbine surface roughness? Increased surface roughness can increase aerodynamic losses and result in decreased turbine hot section efficiency, increasing engine fuel consumption to maintain desired power output. Convective heat transfer is also greatly affected by the surface roughness of the airfoil surface; Is there any significant effect of surface deposition or erosion on integrity of turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings (TBC) and do surface deposits react with the TBC in any way to decrease its thermal insulating capability? Spallation and erosion of TBC is a persistent problem in

  20. Combined Heat and Power Technology Fact Sheets Series: Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cells Fuel cells use an electrochemical process to convert the chemical energy in a fuel to electricity. In contrast to recipro- cating engines and gas turbines, fuel cells generate electric- ity without combusting the fuel. The first practical applica- tion for fuel cells emerged in the 1950s when fuel cells were used to provide onboard power for spacecraft. Fuel cells continue to be used in space exploration, but over the past few decades the technology has migrated to other applica- tions,

  1. Developing Low-Cost, Highly Efficient Heat Recovery for Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration courtesy of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Project Description The goal of this ... It is now be- ing incorporated into FuelCell Energy's commercial Direct FuelCell ...

  2. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in Combined Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Power and Power-Only Applications | Department of Energy Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Power-Only Applications A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Power-Only Applications This report prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory describes a total cost of ownership model for emerging applications in stationary fuel cell systems. Solid oxide fuel cell systems (SOFC) for use in combined heat and power (CHP)

  3. Conceptual study of measures against heat generation for TRU fuel fabrication system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawaguchi, Koichi; Namekawa, Takashi

    2007-07-01

    To lower the reprocessing cost and the environmental burden, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed low decontamination TRU fuel fabrication system. TRU fuel contains MA of 1.2 to 5 wt% and its decay heat is estimated a few tens W/kg-HM. As the heat affects fuel quality through oxidation of fuel material and members, it is necessary to remove decay heat. In this work, authors designed concepts of the measures against heat generation at typical equipments using with the thermal hydraulics analysis technique. As a result, it is shown that it is possible to cool fuel materials with specific heat generation up to 20 W/kg-HM enough, though more detailed study is required for comprehensive equipments. (authors)

  4. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 The purpose of this 2004 report was to determine the best opportunity fuel(s) for distributed energy resources and combined heat and power (DER/CHP) applications, examine the DER/CHP technologies that can use them, and assess the potential market impacts of opportunity fueled DER/CHP applications. chp_opportunityfuels.pdf (2.56 MB) More

  5. Influence of district heating water temperatures on the fuel saving and reduction of ecological cost of the heat generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portacha, J.; Smyk, A.; Zielinski, A.; Misiewicz, L.

    1998-07-01

    Results of examinations carried out on the district heating water temperature influence in the cogeneration plant with respect to both the fuel economy and the ecological cost reduction of heat generation for the purposes of heating and hot service water preparation are presented in this paper. The decrease of water return temperature effectively contributes to the increase of fuel savings in all the examined cases. The quantitative savings depend on the outlet water temperature of the cogeneration plant and on the fuel type combusted at the alternative heat generating plant. A mathematical model and a numerical method for calculations of annual cogeneration plant performance, e.g. annual heat and electrical energy produced in cogeneration mode, and the annual fuel consumption, are also discussed. In the discussed mathematical model, the variable operating conditions of cogeneration plant vs. outside temperature and method of control can be determined. The thermal system of cogeneration plant was decomposed into subsystems so as to set up the mathematical model. The determination of subsystem tasks, including a method of convenient aggregation thereof is an essential element of numerical method for calculations of a specific cogeneration plant thermal system under changing conditions. Costs of heat losses in the environment, resulting from the pollutants emission, being formed in the fuel combustion process in the heat sources, were defined. In addition, the environment quantitative and qualitative pollution characteristics were determined both for the heat generation in a cogeneration plant and for an alternative heat-generating plant. Based on the calculations, a profitable decrease of ecological costs is achieved in the cogeneration economy even if compared with the gas-fired heat generating plant. Ecological costs of coal-fired heat generating plant are almost three time higher than those of the comparable cogeneration plant.

  6. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Central Office | Department of Energy Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office This is a case study about Verizons Communications, who installed a 14-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system at its Central Office in Garden City, New York, in 2005 and is now reaping environmental benefits and demonstrating the viaility of fuel cells in a commerical, critical telecommunications

  7. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  8. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The most common fuel used in microturbines is currently natural gas. However, a combination ... Integration of a syngas-fueled microturbine with a CHP system and a gasifer is only one ...

  9. Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ade, Brian J; Gauld, Ian C

    2011-10-01

    in MOX fuel is generally obtained from reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuel, whereas weapons-grade plutonium is obtained from decommissioned nuclear weapons material and thus has a different plutonium (and other actinides) concentration. Using MOX fuel instead of UOX fuel has potential impacts on the neutronic performance of the nuclear fuel and the design of the nuclear fuel must take these differences into account. Each of the plutonium sources (RG and WG) has different implications on the neutronic behavior of the fuel because each contains a different blend of plutonium nuclides. The amount of heat and the number of neutrons produced from fission of plutonium nuclides is different from fission of {sup 235}U. These differences in UOX and MOX do not end at discharge of the fuel from the reactor core - the short- and long-term storage of MOX fuel may have different requirements than UOX fuel because of the different discharged fuel decay heat characteristics. The research documented in this report compares MOX and UOX fuel during storage and disposal of the fuel by comparing decay heat rates for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with and without weapons-grade (WG) and reactor-grade (RG) MOX fuel.

  10. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pump Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump prototype showing generator for auxiliary system power Top: 24V DC to 120V AC transformer Bottom: New low cost generator ($500) Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump prototype showing generator for auxiliary system power Top: 24V DC to 120V AC transformer Bottom: New low cost generator ($500) Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: -- Southwest Gas - Las Vegas, NV -- IntelliChoice Energy -

  11. An Assessment of Heating Fuels And Electricity Markets During the Winters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 | Department of Energy Heating Fuels And Electricity Markets During the Winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 An Assessment of Heating Fuels And Electricity Markets During the Winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 Cold weather that blanketed much of the Eastern United States in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 exhibited unique characteristics that prompted different - but related - challenges across heating fuels and electricity markets. In an effort to understand the impacts of

  12. Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemptions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The original Wis. Stat. § 77.54(30) was also amended in 1987 to exempt the sale of qualifying biomass residues used as fuel for business activity from the state sales and use tax gross receipts....

  13. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  14. Geek-Up[5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Did you know 50 percent of the energy generated annually from all sources is lost as waste heat? What scientists are doing to take advantage of this opportunity to save money and new developments in harvesting fuel through photosynthesis.

  15. EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at...

  16. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  17. EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Laboratory South Table Mountain Site, Golden, CO | Department of Energy 3-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory South Table Mountain Site, Golden, CO EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory South Table Mountain Site, Golden, CO DOE's Golden Field Office has prepared a draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) for proposed improvements to the

  18. Mixed-oxide fuel decay heat analysis for BWR LOCA safety evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, R. T.

    2013-07-01

    The mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel decay heat behavior is analyzed for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) safety evaluation. The physical reasoning on why the decay heat power fractions of MOX fuel fission product (FP) are significantly lower than the corresponding decay heat power fractions of uranium-oxide (UOX) fuel FP is illustrated. This is primarily due to the following physical phenomena. -The recoverable energies per fission of plutonium (Pu)-239 and Pu-241 are significantly higher than those of uranium (U)-235 and U-238. Consequently, the fission rate required to produce the same amount of power in MOX fuel is significantly lower than that in UOX fuel, which leads to lower subsequent FP generation rate and associated decay heat power in MOX fuel than those in UOX fuel. - The effective FP decay energy per fission of Pu-239 is significantly lower than the corresponding effective FP decay energy per fission of U-235, e.g., Pu-239's 10.63 Mega-electron-Volt (MeV) vs. U-235's 12.81 MeV at the cooling time 0.2 second. This also leads to lower decay heat power in MOX fuel than that in UOX fuel. The FP decay heat is shown to account for more than 90% of the total decay heat immediately after shutdown. The FP decay heat results based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI)/American Nuclear Society (ANS)-5.1-1979 standard method are shown very close to the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method are shown very close to but mostly slightly lower than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method are shown significantly larger than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 standard method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. (authors)

  19. Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy Security

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During a site visit to the Native Village of Teller in April 2012, the Office of Indian Energy's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team helped the community successfully transfer 10,000 gallons of fuel to a bulk fuel facility to secure the community's heating supply for the winter.

  20. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for MOX Fuel Based on the IFA-597 Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E; Ott, Larry J; Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The IFA-597 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the thermal behavior of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and the effects of an annulus on fission gas release in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for MOX fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the first 20 time steps ( 6 GWd/MT(iHM)) for explicit comparison between the codes. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole, dish, and chamfer. The analysis demonstrated relative agreement for both solid (rod 1) and annular (rod 2) fuel in the experiment, demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for MOX fuel, while also revealing a small energy loss artifact in how gap conductance is currently handled in Exnihilo for chamfered fuel pellets. The within-pellet power shape was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for MOX fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  1. Fundamentals of Understanding & Collecting data for SHOPPs EIA-877 Winter Heating Fuels Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Collection Procedures for Winter Heating Fuels Telephone Survey State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) Office of Energy Statistics Office of Petroleum & Biofuels Statistics Petroleum Marketing Statistics Team October 8, 2014 | Washington, D.C. Presentation Roadmap Office of Petroleum and Biofuels Statistics 2 * Survey Overview * Getting Started * Pricing Characteristics * Collecting Additional Information * Weekly Data Submission * Weekly Data Collection Tips * Data

  2. Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Olander

    2005-08-24

    A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

  3. Multi-function fuel-fired heat pump CRADA

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    date: 01-Oct-2010 Planned end date: 30-Sept-2015 Key ... heating 4) 1 to 2 kW electricity generation capability ... performance * electric consumption * gas consumption * ...

  4. Fuel and cladding nano-technologies based solutions for long life heat-pipe based reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popa-Simil, L.

    2012-07-01

    A novel nuclear reactor concept, unifying the fuel pipe with fuel tube functionality has been developed. The structure is a quasi-spherical modular reactor, designed for a very long life. The reactor module unifies the fuel tube with the heat pipe and a graphite beryllium reflector. It also uses a micro-hetero-structure that allows the fission products to be removed in the heat pipe flow and deposited in a getter area in the cold zone of the heat pipe, but outside the neutron flux. The reactor operates as a breed and burn reactor - it contains the fuel pipe with a variable enrichment, starting from the hot-end of the pipe, meant to assure the initial criticality, and reactor start-up followed by area with depleted uranium or thorium that get enriched during the consumption of the first part of the enriched uranium. (authors)

  5. Northeast Heating Fuel Market The, Assessment and Options

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    In response to the President's request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of the energy markets in the Northeast

  6. Use of Integrated Decay Heat Limits to Facilitate Spent Nuclear Fuel Loading to Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David; Piet, Steven

    2007-07-01

    As an alternative to the use of the linear loading or areal power density (APD) concept, using integrated decay heat limits based on the use of mountain-scale heat transfer analysis is considered to represent the thermal impact from the deposited spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Yucca Mountain repository. Two different integrated decay heat limits were derived to represent both the short-term (up to 50 years from the time of repository closure) and the long-term decay heat effect (up to 1500 years from the time of repository closure). The derived limits were found to appropriately represent the drift wall temperature limit (200 deg. C) and the midway between adjacent drifts temperature limit (96 deg. C) as long as used fuel is uniformly loaded into the mountain. These limits can be a useful practical guide to facilitate the loading of used fuel into Yucca Mountain. (authors)

  7. Role of fuel upgrading for industry and residential heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merriam, N.W.; Gentile, R.H.

    1995-12-01

    The Koppleman Series C Process is presently being used in pilot plant tests with Wyoming coal to upgrade the Powder River Basin coal containing 30 wt% moisture and having a heating value of 8100 Btu/lb to a product containing less than 1 wt% moisture and having a heating value of 12,200 Btu/lb. This process is described.

  8. Renewable Energy Systems Exemption | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics Wind (All) Hydroelectric Geothermal Heat Pumps Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels Landfill Gas Solar Pool Heating Wind (Small) Geothermal Direct-Use Fuel Cells...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tax Exemption The retail sale, use, storage, and consumption of alternative fuels is exempt from the state retail sales and use tax. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 105-164.13

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tax Exemption An individual who produces biodiesel for use in that individual's private passenger vehicle is exempt from the state motor fuel excise tax. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 105-449.88

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Emissions Inspection Exemption Qualified PEVs and FCEVs are exempt from state emissions inspection requirements. Other restrictions may apply. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 20-4.01 and 20-183.2

  12. Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Clean Energy States Alliance and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Fuel Cells for Supermarkets, April 4, 2011.

  13. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 1. Cask handling experience and decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Doman, J.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Guenther, R.J.; Creer, J.M.; King, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report documents a heat transfer and shielding performance test conducted on a Ridihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2023 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The testing effort consisted of three parts: pretest preparations, performance testing, and post-test activities. Pretest preparations included conducting cask handling dry runs and characterizing BWR spent fuel assemblies from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three backfill environments. Post-test activities included calorimetry and axial radiation scans of selected fuel assemblies, in-basin sipping of each assembly, crud collection, video and photographic scans, and decontamination of the cask interior and exterior.

  14. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Pump - 2013 Peer Review Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review emrgtech07_vineyard_040213.pdf (1 MB) More Documents & Publications Develop Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Buildings Performance Database - 2013 BTO Peer Review

  15. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for UO2 Fuel Based on the IFA-432 Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E; Ott, Larry J; Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    The IFA-432 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the effects of gap size, fuel density, and fuel densification on fuel centerline temperature in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for uranium dioxide (UO$_2$) fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the densification stage (2.2 \\unitfrac{GWd}{MT(UO$_{2}$)}). In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole. The analysis demonstrated excellent agreement for rods 1, 2, 3, and 5 (varying gap thicknesses and density with traditional fuel), demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for traditional fuel. For rod 6, which contained unstable fuel that densified an order of magnitude more than traditional, stable fuel, the magnitude of densification was over-predicted and the temperatures were outside of the experimental uncertainty. The radial power shape within the fuel was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures, whereas modeling the fuel at the thermocouple location as either annular or solid was relatively negligible. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for UO$_2$ fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  16. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

  17. Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  18. Biomass Sales and Use Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To qualify for the exemption, the biomass material must be utilized in the production of energy, including the production of electricity, steam, or both electricity and steam. Pellets and fuels...

  19. Renewable Energy Sales and Use Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The sales of equipment used to generate electricity using fuel cells, wind, sun, biomass energy, tidal or wave energy, geothermal, anaerobic digestion or landfill gas is eligible for a 75% exempt...

  20. Special considerations on operating a fuel cell power plant using natural gas with marginal heating value

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, L. Ng; Chien-Liang Lin; Ya-Tang Cheng

    1996-12-31

    In realizing new power generation technologies in Taiwan, a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant (model PC2513, ONSI Corporation) has been installed in the premises of the Power Research Institute of the Taiwan Power Company in Taipei County of Taiwan. The pipeline gas supplying to the site of this power plant has a high percentage of carbon dioxide and thus a slightly lower heating value than that specified by the manufacturer. Because of the lowering of heating value of input gas, the highest Output power from the power plant is understandably less than the rated power of 200 kW designed. Further, the transient response of the power plant as interrupted from the Grid is also affected. Since this gas is also the pipeline gas supplying to the heavily populated Taipei Municipal area, it is conceivable that the success of the operations of fuel cells using this fuel is of vital importance to the promotion of the use of this power generation technology in Taiwan. Hence, experiments were set up to assess the feasibility of this fuel cell power plant using the existing pipeline gas in this part of Taiwan where fuel cells would most likely find useful.

  1. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Com- bined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office With more than 67 million customers nationwide, Verizon Communications is one of the largest telecommunica- tions providers in the U.S. Power inter- ruptions can severely impact network operations and could result in losses in excess of $1 million/minute. 1 In 2005, Verizon Communications installed a 1.4 MW phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system, consisting of seven 200 kW units, at its Central

  2. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  3. Decay Heat of Major Radionuclides for PWR Spent Fuels to 10,000 Years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.S. Tang

    2001-12-20

    The objective of this calculation is to determine decay heat of a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assembly with four different initial-enrichment and burnup characteristics. The major contributing radionuclides to the decay heat are also identified and graphically presented. The scope of this calculation is limited to the time period of the first 10,000 years after discharge from reactors. The results of this calculation will be used to evaluate the effects of the projected commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) inventory on the repository design based on revised nuclear energy forecasts. This calculation was performed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (BSC (Bechtel SAIC Company) 2001). AP-3.12Q, Calculations, is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. This calculation is associated with the repository design activity.

  4. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  5. Heat-Loving Microbe Engineered to Produce Bioalcohols for Fuel | U.S. DOE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Science (SC) Heat-Loving Microbe Engineered to Produce Bioalcohols for Fuel Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW

  6. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine

  7. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Fuel-Oil Heated Houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental). Total average costs were $1819 per house ($1192 for

  8. Electrochemical Potential (ECP) of Clean Heated Fuel Cladding Material and Structural SS under BWR Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pop, Mike G.; Bell, Merl; Kilian, Renate; Dorsch, Thomas; Christian, Mueller

    2007-07-01

    To preliminarily monitor the relative effect of advanced water chemistry measures on SS structural material and fuel cladding in BWR environments a number of experiments were performed using laboratory equipment (recirculation loop, autoclave with heated electrodes, reference electrodes, etc.). The simulation of the plant condition was done without impurities or crud deposit contribution (clean surfaces). Subsequent testing, performed during 2007 and not yet cleared for release, is considering the effect of combined complex BWR chemistries and crud deposition. The heated Zircaloy fuel cladding tubing was prepared to simulate heat transfer by internal heating at levels existing in BWR (70 W/cm{sup 2}). For comparison purposes additional type SS347 electrode and unheated zirconium was used. A platinum electrode was used to measure the redox potential of the electrolyte. A high temperature Ag/AgCl electrode was used as a reference electrode. The assembly was installed in a recirculation 1 liter autoclave. Present report presents corrosion potential measurements performed under the following BWR water chemistry conditions (at 288 deg. C fluid exit temperature, 86 bar with surface temperature of Zirconium hot finger at 296 deg. C) - normal (inert) water conditions, - hydrogen injection in three steps from 0.68 ppm to 1.6 ppm, - oxygen injection in three steps from 2.4 ppm to 10 ppm - -methanol 2 ppm and oxygen 2 ppm in a close loop (without methanol refreshing) (authors)

  9. Assessment of Heating Fuels and Electricity Markets During the Winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cold weather that blanketed much of the Eastern United States in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 exhibited unique characteristics that prompted different — but related — challenges across heating fuels and...

  10. Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption, the following facilities are exempt from the replacement tax:

  11. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  12. Carbonaceous material for production of hydrogen from low heating value fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Elias P.

    1989-01-01

    A process for the catalytic production of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low heating value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the production of methane in the steaming reactor.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Weight Limit Exemption Gross vehicle weight rating limits for AFVs are 1,000 pounds greater than those for comparable conventional vehicles, as long as the AFVs operate using an alternative fuel or both alternative and conventional fuel, when operating on a highway that is not part of the interstate system. For the purpose of this exemption, alternative fuel is defined as compressed natural gas, propane, ethanol, or any mixture containing 85% or more ethanol (E85) with gasoline or other fuels,

  14. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tax Exemption Alternative fuels used in a manner that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) deems as nontaxable are exempt from federal fuel taxes. Common nontaxable uses in a motor vehicle are: on a farm for farming purposes; in certain intercity and local buses; in a school bus; exclusive use by a non-profit educational organization; and exclusive use by a state, political subdivision of a state, or the District of Columbia. This exemption is not available to tax exempt entities that are not

  16. MODELING HEAT TRANSFER IN SPENT FUEL TRANSFER CASK NEUTRON SHIELDS A CHALLENGING PROBLEM IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fort, James A.; Cuta, Judith M.; Bajwa, C.; Baglietto, E.

    2010-07-18

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 10-15 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper proposes that there may be reliable CFD approaches to the transfer cask problem, specifically coupled steady-state solvers or unsteady simulations; however, both of these solutions take significant computational effort. Segregated (uncoupled) steady state solvers that were tested did not

  17. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  18. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djokic, Denia [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

  19. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; George, T. G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M. W.; Placr, A.

    1998-01-15

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results.

  20. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M.W.; Placr, A.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Co-flow anode/cathode supply heat exchanger for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2005-11-22

    In a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly, a co-flow heat exchanger is provided in the flow paths of the reformate gas and the cathode air ahead of the fuel cell stack, the reformate gas being on one side of the exchanger and the cathode air being on the other. The reformate gas is at a substantially higher temperature than is desired in the stack, and the cathode gas is substantially cooler than desired. In the co-flow heat exchanger, the temperatures of the reformate and cathode streams converge to nearly the same temperature at the outlet of the exchanger. Preferably, the heat exchanger is formed within an integrated component manifold (ICM) for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption States are allowed to exempt certified alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) from HOV lane requirements within the state. Eligible AFVs are defined as vehicles operating solely on methanol, denatured ethanol, or other alcohols; a mixture containing at least 85% methanol, denatured ethanol, or other alcohols; natural gas, propane, hydrogen, or coal derived liquid fuels; or fuels derived from biological materials. PEVs are

  3. A High-Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System A High-Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat Introduction In order for metal products to have desired properties, most metal is thermally processed at a high temperature one or more times under a controlled atmosphere. Many different thermal operations are used including oxide reduction, annealing, brazing, sintering, and carburizing. A mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen gas often provides a reducing

  4. Examination of frit vent from Sixty-Watt Heat Source simulant fueled clad vent set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, G.B.

    1995-11-01

    The flow rate and the metallurgical condition of a frit vent from a simulant-fueled clad vent set (CVS) that had been hot isostatically pressed (HIP) for the Sixty-Watt Heat Source program were evaluated. The flow rate form the defueled vent cup subassembly was reduced approximately 25% from the original flow rate. No obstructions were found to account for the reduced flow rate. Measurements indicate that the frit vent powder thickness was reduced about 30%. Most likely, the powder was compressed during the HIP operation, which increased the density of the powder layer and thus reduced the flow rate of the assembly. All other observed manufacturing attributes appeared to be normal, but the vent hole activation technique needs further refinement before it is used in applications requiring maximum CVS integrity.

  5. Outline for a multi-cell nuclear thermionic fuel element that may be pretested with electric heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, V.C.

    1997-01-01

    A nuclear thermionic converter electrical generating system is proposed in which the nuclear fuel is clad in tungsten (W) and transmits heat to a tungsten emitter by radiation. The tungsten clad is a single unit, containing a continuous fuel stack with an unfueled section extending through one end of the reactor. The emitters are electrically insulated from the heat source; therefore, several converters may be connected by short leads to produce more voltage per fuel element and to reduce the power losses in the leads. A fast reactor design was chosen; consequently, tungsten may be used for the fuel cladding and the emitters without a significant reactivity penalty due to neutron capture by tungsten epithermal resonances. The ability to use all-tungsten emitters may permit high emitter temperatures. Calculations indicate that at an emitter temperature of 2150 K and current density of 10A/cm{sup 2}, a 36 cm long thermionic fuel element (TFE) with 9 converters in series should produce 4500W{sub e} at 9.2 V and 15.7{percent} efficiency. One major advantage of this approach, relative to typical multicell designs is that the system can be tested by electrical heaters in the fuel cavity before loading fuel. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Outline for a multi-cell nuclear thermionic fuel element that may be pretested with electric heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Volney C.

    1997-01-10

    A nuclear thermionic converter electrical generating system is proposed in which the nuclear fuel is clad in tungsten (W) and transmits heat to a tungsten emitter by radiation. The tungsten clad is a single unit, containing a continuous fuel stack with an unfueled section extending through one end of the reactor. The emitters are electrically insulated from the heat source; therefore, several converters may be connected by short leads to produce more voltage per fuel element and to reduce the power losses in the leads. A fast reactor design was chosen; consequently, tungsten may be used for the fuel cladding and the emitters without a significant reactivity penalty due to neutron capture by tungsten epithermal resonances. The ability to use all-tungsten emitters may permit high emitter temperatures. Calculations indicate that at an emitter temperature of 2150 K and current density of 10 A/cm{sup 2}, a 36 cm long thermionic fuel element (TFE) with 9 converters in series should produce 4500 W{sub e} at 9.2 V and 15.7% efficiency. One major advantage of this approach, relative to typical multicell designs is that the system can be tested by electrical heaters in the fuel cavity before loading fuel.

  7. Mississippi State University Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mago, Pedro; Newell, LeLe

    2014-01-31

    Between 2008 and 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy funded the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center located at Mississippi State University. The overall objective of this project was to enable micro-CHP (micro-combined heat and power) utilization, to facilitate and promote the use of CHP systems and to educate architects, engineers, and agricultural producers and scientists on the benefits of CHP systems. Therefore, the work of the Center focused on the three areas: CHP system modeling and optimization, outreach, and research. In general, the results obtained from this project demonstrated that CHP systems are attractive because they can provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits. Some of these benefits include the potential to reduce operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions, primary energy consumption, and power reliability during electric grid disruptions. The knowledge disseminated in numerous journal and conference papers from the outcomes of this project is beneficial to engineers, architects, agricultural producers, scientists and the public in general who are interested in CHP technology and applications. In addition, more than 48 graduate students and 23 undergraduate students, benefited from the training and research performed in the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center.

  8. Applications of high-temperature solar heat to the production of selected fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beall, S.E. Jr.; Bamberger, C.E.; Goeller, H.A.

    1981-07-01

    An attempt is made to judge whether solar heat in the 500 K to 2500 K temperature range might be economical for some important fuel- and chemical-production processes. Previous work in related areas is reviewed and the chemicals aluminum oxide (and bauxite), calcium sulfate (and gypsum), and calcium oxide (lime) chosen for detailed study. In addition to reviewing the energy needs of the more common bulk chemicals, several innovative processes requiring heat in the 1500 to 2500 K range were investigated. Hydrogen production by several thermochemical means, carbon monoxide production by thermochemical and direct thermal dissociation, and nitrogen fixation by direct thermal reaction of nitrogen and oxygen in air were considered. The engineering feasibility of the processes is discussed. The problem of matching the conventional and innovative processes to a high-temperature solar supply is studied. Some solar-thermal power plants of current designs are examined and several advanced concepts of highly concentrating systems are considered for very high-temperature applications. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  9. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system

  10. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative

  11. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  12. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric

  13. Performance of AGR-1 High-Temperature Reactor Fuel During Post-Irradiation Heating Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A; Hunn, John D; Demkowicz, Paul; Reber, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The fission product retention of irradiated low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 experiment has been evaluated at temperatures of 1600 1800 C during post-irradiation safety tests. Fourteen compacts (a total of ~58,000 particles) with a burnup ranging from 13.4 to 19.1% FIMA have been tested using dedicated furnace systems at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The release of fission products 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, 155Eu, 90Sr, and 85Kr was monitored while heating the fuel specimens in flowing helium. The behavior of silver, europium, and strontium appears to be dominated by inventory that was originally released through intact SiC coating layers during irradiation, but was retained in the compact at the end of irradiation and subsequently released during the safety tests. However, at a test temperature of 1800 C, the data suggest that release of these elements through intact coatings may become significant after ~100 h. Cesium was very well retained by intact SiC layers, with a fractional release <5 10-6 after 300 h at 1600 C or 100 h at 1800 C. However, it was rapidly released from individual particles if the SiC layer failed, and therefore the overall cesium release fraction was dominated by the SiC defect and failure fractions in the fuel compacts. No complete TRISO coating layer failures were observed after 300 h at 1600 or 1700 C, and 85Kr release was very low during the tests (particles with breached SiC, but intact outer pyrocarbon, retained most of their krypton). Krypton release from TRISO failures was only observed after ~210 h at 1800 C in one compact. Post-safety-test examination of fuel compacts and particles has focused on identifying specific particles from each compact with notable fission product release and detailed analysis of the coating layers to understand particle behavior.

  14. Modeling Cladding-Coolant Heat Transfer of High-Burnup Fuel During...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transfer of high burnup fuel during a Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) which is ... LIQUIDS; NUCLEAR FUELS; OXIDATION; REACTIVITY; SUBCOOLING; SURFACES; THERMAL ...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption Qualified plug-in electric vehicles, dedicated natural gas vehicles, and fuel cell electric vehicles may use North Carolina HOV lanes, regardless of the number of occupants. This exemption expires September 30, 2019. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 20-4.01 and 20-146.2

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Electricity Tax Exemption for Transit Use CNG and electricity that local agencies or public transit operators use as motor vehicle fuel to operate public transit services is exempt from applicable user taxes a county imposes. (Reference California Revenue and Taxation Code 7284.3

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Decal The state motor fuel tax does not apply to passenger vehicles, certain buses, or commercial vehicles that are powered by an alternative fuel, if they obtain an AFV decal. Owners or operators of such vehicles that also own or operate their own personal fueling stations are required to pay an annual alternative fuel decal fee, as listed below. Hybrid electric vehicles and motor vehicles licensed as historic vehicles are exempt from the alternative fuel decal

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels Tax Exemption and Refund for Government Fleet Vehicles State excise tax does not apply to special fuels, including gaseous special fuels, when used in state or federal government owned vehicles. Special fuels include compressed and liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), hydrogen, and fuel suitable for use in diesel engines. In addition, state excise tax paid on special fuels used in state or federal government vehicles is subject to a refund, as long as the tax was

  19. High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

    1999-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel economy of 22 miles per gallon (as listed at www.fueleconomy.gov) and may not be a sport utility vehicle. Exemptions apply to security, emergency rescue, snow removal, and...

  1. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  2. Excise Tax Exemption for Solar or Wind Powered Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Massachusetts law exempts any "solar or wind powered climatic control unit and any solar or wind powered water heating unit or any other type unit or system powered thereby," that qualifies for the...

  3. Solar and Wind Energy Business Franchise Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the purposes of this exemption, a solar energy device means "a system or series of mechanisms designed primarily to provide heating or cooling or to produce electrical or mechanical power by...

  4. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  5. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    TDA Research Inc., in collaboration with FuelCell Energy, will develop a new, high-capacity sorbent to remove sulfur from anaerobic digester gas. This technology will enable the production of a nearly sulfur-free biogas to replace natural gas in fuel cell power plants while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels.

  6. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications Michael Ulsh National Renewable Energy Laboratory Douglas Wheeler DJW Technology Peter Protopappas Sentech Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-52125 August 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole

  7. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  8. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  9. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    State Agency Low Carbon Fuel Use Requirement Beginning January 1, 2017, at least 3% of the aggregate amount of bulk transportation fuel purchased by the state government must be from very low carbon transportation fuel sources. Beginning January 1, 2018, the required amount of very low carbon transportation fuel purchased will increase by 1% annually until January 1, 2024. Some exemptions may apply, as determined by the California Department of General Services (DGS). Very low carbon fuel is

  11. Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses how the thermal efficiency of a process heating system can be improved significantly by using heat contained in furnace flue gases to preheat the furnace load.

  12. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

  13. Wind Energy Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to claim the exemption, buyers must complete an exemption certificate (MN Dept. of Revenue Form ST3 - Certificate of Exemption) and supply it to the equipment seller.

  14. In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty ... (RCCI) Combustion in a Light-Duty Engine High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity ...

  15. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. ... a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude glycerol from biodiesel production. ...

  16. Experimental study of downflow critical heat flux in multiannular SRS fuel assembly channels at low air-water flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero, H.N.

    1991-12-31

    The problem addressed in this experimental study is the measurement of critical or dryout heat flux in multi-annular fuel assembly flow passages with low downward flows of air-water mixtures. These thermal hydraulic conditions pertain to specific conditions predicted for Savannah River Site reactors during hypothetical large loss-of-coolant accidents. Experimental data obtained on a full scale prototypic simulation of the multi-annular fuel assembly is important in establishing the safety margin of the reactor operating power. The SRS reactors, like some research reactors, utilize downwards flow of coolant through narrow parallel flow channels during normal operation. These channels are formed by concentric heated tubes of high thermal conductivity uranium-aluminum metal that are cooled on both sides. Ribs on the tubes subdivide the flow channels into curved subchannels which may be considered somewhat similar to the flat rectangular channels of research reactors. However, gaps between the ribs and the adjoining tube allow cross flows between subchannels. For this accident, preliminary analysis predict that downward flow of emergency coolant would entrain large amounts of air through the fuel assembly. Due to the above special conditions, no data has been found to be fully applicable to the SRS reactor. An experimental study was thus required to obtain prototypical data and investigate physical mechanisms to aid the development of analytical models in the code FLOWTRAN-TF. Comparison of the data with analysis will be reported in the future after code benchmarking. 5 refs.

  17. Experimental study of downflow critical heat flux in multiannular SRS fuel assembly channels at low air-water flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    The problem addressed in this experimental study is the measurement of critical or dryout heat flux in multi-annular fuel assembly flow passages with low downward flows of air-water mixtures. These thermal hydraulic conditions pertain to specific conditions predicted for Savannah River Site reactors during hypothetical large loss-of-coolant accidents. Experimental data obtained on a full scale prototypic simulation of the multi-annular fuel assembly is important in establishing the safety margin of the reactor operating power. The SRS reactors, like some research reactors, utilize downwards flow of coolant through narrow parallel flow channels during normal operation. These channels are formed by concentric heated tubes of high thermal conductivity uranium-aluminum metal that are cooled on both sides. Ribs on the tubes subdivide the flow channels into curved subchannels which may be considered somewhat similar to the flat rectangular channels of research reactors. However, gaps between the ribs and the adjoining tube allow cross flows between subchannels. For this accident, preliminary analysis predict that downward flow of emergency coolant would entrain large amounts of air through the fuel assembly. Due to the above special conditions, no data has been found to be fully applicable to the SRS reactor. An experimental study was thus required to obtain prototypical data and investigate physical mechanisms to aid the development of analytical models in the code FLOWTRAN-TF. Comparison of the data with analysis will be reported in the future after code benchmarking. 5 refs.

  18. Effects of Zircaloy oxidation and steam dissociation on PWR core heat-up under conditions simulating uncovered fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viskanta, R.; Mohanty, A.K.

    1986-04-01

    The studies described in this report identify the regimes of slow transients in a partially uncovered core of a PWR. The threshold height and onset time for oxidation of the cladding of a fuel rod have been evaluated. The effects of oxidation in increasing the decay heat load, component temperature, reduction of cladding thickness and generation of hydrogen have been estimated. The condition for steam starvation has been determined. At high uncovered core heights, typically say 2.8 m for a geometry simulating the TMI-2 type of reactor, the solid and coolant temperatures can reach the limits of steam dissociation. The effects of radiation heat exchange between cladding and coolant, Zircaloy oxidation, steam dissociation, gap conductance between fuel and cladding and system pressure on the heatup of fuel rods have been investigated. The time for uncovering a certain core height is taken as the independent parameter. It is seen that if the uncovering process is allowed to continue beyond 9 minutes corresponding to an uncovered height of 1.9 m, onset of cladding oxidation can be a reality. These values provide a guideline for the response time of the emergency core cooling systems. 10 refs., 22 figs.

  19. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  20. Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Working to expand the usage of thermoelectric technology beyond seat heating and cooling and in doing so reduce CO2 emissions and conserve energy.

  1. Using Heat and Chemistry to Make Products, Fuels, and Power: Thermochemical Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    Information about the Biomass Program's collaborative projects exploring thermochemical conversion processes that use heat and chemistry to convert biomass into a liquid or gaseous intermediate.

  2. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Buildings Performance ...

  3. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... use of a renewable fuel. The conclusion of this analysis also shows that the ideal customer for energy replacement via crude glycerol is biodiesel producers who are located in ...

  4. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Success story about using waste water treatment gas for hydrogen production at UC Irvine. Presented by Jack Brouwer, UC Irvine, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  5. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    is to develop a low-cost, high-capacity expendable ... its use possible in a fuel cell CHP unit The high ... sulfur is present as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), biogas ...

  6. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the

  7. Emergency cooling simulation tests on an electrically heated channel typical of SRP (Savannah River Laboratory) reactor fuel channels - RIG B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    Emergency cooling simulation tests were conducted on a single electrically heated test channel representative of Savannah River Plant fuel assembly flow channels. The primary objective was to investigate downflow, air-water hydraulic flow conditions that lead to the onset of a runaway thermal excursion in the range of superficial liquid and gas velocities, 1.4 m/sec and 1 m/sec, respectively. The thermal excursion power normalized by the power to reach fluid outlet saturation conditions, or R-factor, was found to decrease from values close to 2, at annular flow conditions to approximately 0.8 at low to zero void fractions. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Set up of an experimental apparatus for the study of fragmentation of solid fuels upon severe heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senneca, O.; Allouis, C.; Chirone, R.; Russo, S.

    2010-04-15

    An experimental apparatus has been developed in order to perform tests of primary fragmentation of solid fuels under severe heating conditions. The device is a modified heated strip reactor, capable to reach 2000 C in less than 0.2 s. Particles are laid on the strip and pyrolysed under inert or moderately oxidizing conditions. The char particles and their fragments, generated upon pyrolysis, can be recovered and analysed to assess the fragmentation propensity of the fuel. Some preliminary experiments have been carried out on two biomass samples in order to assess the time-temperature history of particles in the experimental apparatus. In particular biomass particles of approximately 2-3 mm have been used. The temperature of the heated strip reactor in such preliminary tests was varied between 1000 and 1600 C, while the strip nominal heating rate was kept at 10{sup 4} C/s and the holding time was set at the value of 10 s. A near infrared fast camera (38,000 frames/s) has been used to measure the temperature of the heated strip and of the particles during the tests. A heat up model was developed and validated against experimental results. The model was then used to estimate the temperature gradients across particles of biomass and of coal as well. Results show that the strip of the reactor reaches the set temperature in less than 0.2 s. When particles are laid on the strip, their bottom surface, which is in physical contact with the strip, immediately reaches the set temperature value. For 1 mm coal particles the upper surface can be considered at the same temperature as well. Under the most severe conditions tested (strip temperature of 1600 C, biomass particles of 2 mm thickness) the temperature difference between the bottom and the upper face is 200 C after 3 s and drops to 100 C after 10 s. On the whole the experimental apparatus simulates uniform heating of the particles with reasonable approximation. In the next future the apparatus will be further upgraded to

  9. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-10-03

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  10. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  11. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  12. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) molten carbonate fuel cell. Volumes 1--6, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  13. ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ...117,52,8,117,43,"Q","Q" "District Chilled Water ......",50,50,50,21,3,43,50,"Q","Q" ...

  14. ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ...,1839,5891,2354,"Q","Q" "District Chilled Water ......",2750,2750,2750,1316,749,2354,2750...

  15. Ecological solid fuels, effective heating devices for communal management and their testing methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubica, K.

    1995-12-31

    The national balance of primary energy consumption is almost 90% based upon coal. Coal is used not only in electricity production, but also in the communal sector - in heating facilities comprising chiefly local boiler houses and private households.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Bond Exemption for Small Biofuels Suppliers Fuel blenders or suppliers of ethanol or biodiesel are not required to file a bond with the North Carolina Department of Revenue when the expected motor fuel tax liability is less than $2,000. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 105-449.72

  17. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 | Department of Energy Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 University of California, Irvine, in collaboration with Siemens Corporate Research, developed and demonstrated novel algorithms and dynamic control technology for optimal economic use of CHP systems under 5 MW. The control

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Emissions Inspection Exemption Vehicles powered exclusively by electricity, propane, or natural gas are exempt from state motor vehicle emissions inspections after receiving a one-time verification inspection. Emissions testing is required in certain counties in the Cleveland and Akron area. For more information, see the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency's E-Check website. (Reference Ohio Administrative Code 3745.26

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption New passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles that are dedicated AFVs are exempt from state motor vehicle sales and use taxes. Qualified vehicles include vehicles capable of operating exclusively on natural gas, propane, hydrogen, or electricity, and plug-in electric vehicles that are capable of being charged by an external power source and can travel at least 30 miles using only electricity. Qualified vehicles must meet the California

  20. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  1. List of Heat recovery Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Heat recovery Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels No Agricultural Energy Efficiency...

  2. A 2-D Test Problem for CFD Modeling Heat Transfer in Spent Fuel Transfer Cask Neutron Shields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zigh, Ghani; Solis, Jorge; Fort, James A.

    2011-01-14

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 5-10 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper presents results for a simple 2-D problem that is an effective numerical analog for the neutron shield application. Because it is 2-D, solutions can be obtained relatively quickly allowing a comparison and assessment of sensitivity to model parameter changes. Turbulence models are considered as

  3. Effect of rod bow to partial closure on critical heat flux in PWR fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macbuff, R.B.; Fighetti, C.F.

    1983-07-01

    The effects of partial closure due to bowed rods on critical heat flux (CHF) in a pressurized water reactor rod bundle were evaluated by conducting tests in an electrically heated test section. The test section consisted of a 5x5 square rod array with 24 heated rods of 9.14 mm (0.360 in) diameter, each with a heated length of 3.66 m (12 ft) with Exxon Nuclear Company spacer grids on a 0.521 m (20.5 in) pitch. The central rod was a 12.2 mm (0.480 in) diameter unheated guide tube. The gap between two centrally located high powered rods was reduced 71% from nominal. The bow was approximately mid-span between two grids in the region in which CHF was observed in unbowed test sections. The results of these tests indicate a reduction in CHF of approximately 5% at 2400 psia and no reduction at 2000 psia when test repeatability is taken into consideration. The reduction in CHF at 2400 psia is substantially smaller than that inferred by linear interpolation of previously reported test results at 50 and 100% reduction of spacing. The local nature of CHF reduction due to rod bow was confirmed.

  4. Densified biomass as an alternative Army heating and power plant fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hathaway, S.A.; Magrino, T.; Lin, J.S.; Duster, K.; Mahon, D.

    1980-03-01

    This investigation evaluated the technical and economic potential of using densified biomass (principally wood pellets) as a coal substitute in Army heating and power plants. The report reviews Department of Defense (DOD) experience with and tests of wood pellets; production of wood pellets (excluding silvicultural aspects); handling, storing, and feeding; combustion; major environental considerations; and economics of use.

  5. Design of an Online Fission Gas Monitoring System for Post-irradiation Examination Heating Tests of Coated Fuel Particles for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn Scates

    2010-10-01

    A new Fission Gas Monitoring System (FGMS) has been designed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for use of monitoring online fission gas-released during fuel heating tests. The FGMS will be used with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) at the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) within the INL campus. Preselected Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) TRISO (Tri-isotropic) fuel compacts will undergo testing to assess the fission product retention characteristics under high temperature accident conditions. The FACS furnace will heat the fuel to temperatures up to 2,000ºC in a helium atmosphere. Released fission products such as Kr and Xe isotopes will be transported downstream to the FGMS where they will accumulate in cryogenically cooledcollection traps and monitored with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors during the heating process. Special INL developed software will be used to monitor the accumulated fission products and will report data in near real-time. These data will then be reported in a form that can be readily available to the INL reporting database. This paper describes the details of the FGMS design, the control and acqusition software, system calibration, and the expected performance of the FGMS. Preliminary online data may be available for presentation at the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) conference.

  6. Heat

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Release date: April 2015 Revised date: May 2016 Heat pumps Furnaces Indiv- idual space heaters District heat Boilers Pack- aged heating units Other All buildings 87,093 80,078 11,846 8,654 20,766 5,925 22,443 49,188 1,574 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,699 868 1,091 1,747 Q 400 3,809 Q 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 7,590 1,038 1,416 2,025 Q 734 4,622 Q 10,001 to 25,000 14,105 12,744 1,477 2,233 3,115 Q 2,008 8,246 Q 25,001 to 50,000 11,917 10,911 1,642 1,439 3,021 213 2,707

  7. Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

  8. Solar Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Missouri, solar energy systems not held for resale are exempt from state, local, and county property taxes. As enacted in July 2013, the law does not define solar energy systems.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Road Tax Alternative fuels including, but not limited to, natural gas or propane sold by a licensed alternative fuel dealer and used in on-road vehicles is subject to a $0.222 per gallon equivalent road tax. The New Hampshire Department of Safety will define rules for the applicable conversion rates for natural gas and propane based on nationally recognized standards for weights and measures. Certain exemptions apply, including sales to government entities, between duly licensed

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Weight Exemption A vehicle powered in whole or part by compressed or liquefied natural gas may exceed the state's gross and axle weight limits by up to 2,000 pounds, equal to the difference between the weight of the vehicle with the natural gas tank and fueling system and the weight of a comparable diesel tank and fueling system. The exemption is allowed on all state roads and interstate highways, as defined in Title 23 of the Code of Federal Regulations section 127(s). (Reference Senate Bill

  11. EA-1887: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (DOE/EA-1573-S1)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to make improvements to the Renewable Fuel Heat Plant including construction and operation of a wood chip storage silo and the associated material handling conveyances and utilization of regional wood sources.

  12. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiling, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  13. Commercial Solar Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: House Bill 1305 enacted in March 2016 modifies the property tax exemption or solar facilities by creating a sunset provision for tax exemption for certain facilities, and increasing the...

  14. Federal Fuel Cell Tax Incentives: An Investment in Clean and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon 200810itc.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell Financing for Tax-Exempt Entities Fuel Cell Tax Incentives: How Monetization Lowers the Government Outlay ITC Role ...

  15. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  16. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches. The detailed assumptions and methods behind these models are described in Part I of this article pair.

  17. Optimizal design and control strategies for novel Combined Heat and Power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-04-01

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches.

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Heat recovery, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption...

  19. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

  20. Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, John R.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

    2011-08-16

    The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFC's performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cell's microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

  1. Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFCs performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cells microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

  2. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injection strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still significant

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biomass-based diesel is defined as a renewable transportation fuel, transportation fuel additive, heating oil, or jet fuel, such as biodiesel or non-ester renewable diesel, and ...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Idle Reduction Weight Exemption A vehicle equipped with a fully functional idle reduction system designed to reduce fuel use and emissions from engine idling may exceed the maximum weight limitations by up to 400 pounds to accommodate the added weight of the idle reduction technology. (Reference Oregon Revised Statutes 818.03

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Weight Exemption NGVs may exceed the federal maximum gross vehicle weight limit by an amount equal to the difference of the weight of the natural gas tank and fueling system and the weight of a comparable diesel tank and fueling system. The NGV must not exceed a maximum gross vehicle weight of 82,000 pounds. (Reference Public Law 114-94, 2015, and 23 U.S. Code 127(s)

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 Enacted October 3, 2008 The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 is Division B of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act (Public Law 110-343). Title II of Division B of the law includes several provisions related to tax credits and exemptions for alternative fuels and fuel-efficient technologies. The table below provides a summary of the relevant provisions. Reference Description Section 202 Amends the existing biodiesel mixture and agri-biodiesel

  7. Ultra Efficient CHHP Using a High Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahnke, Fred C.

    2015-06-30

    FuelCell Energy and ACuPowder investigated and demonstrated the use of waste anode exhaust gas from a high temperature fuel cell for replacing the reducing gas in a metal processing furnace. Currently companies purchase high pressure or liquefied gases for the reducing gas which requires substantial energy in production, compression/liquefaction, and transportation, all of which is eliminated by on-site use of anode exhaust gas as reducing gas. We performed research on the impact of the gas composition on product quality and then demonstrated at FuelCell Energy’s manufacturing facility in Torrington, Connecticut. This demonstration project continues to operate even though the research program is completed as it provides substantial benefits to the manufacturing facility by supplying power, heat, and hydrogen.

  8. Refuse-derived fuels in US Air Force heating and power systems. Final report, June 1982-February 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joensen, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to document and review all data associated with densified refuse-derived fuel (dRDF)--its preparation and properties, storage and handling, boiler cofiring efficiency and environmental emissions, potential boiler metal wastage, and any other experiences associated with the use of this fuel. The results of this investigation provide the basis for the development of an optimum dRDF fuel specification. These results identify performance characteristics and operating problems of the existing dRDF fuel pellet and contain an economic feasibility assessment of using this fuel.

  9. Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The renewable energy property tax exemption cannot be claimed if another state tax abatement or exemption is claimed by the same building.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    State Agency Petroleum Reduction and Reporting Requirements Colorado state agencies and departments must reduce petroleum-based fuel consumption on a per vehicle basis and across the fleet. For non-exempt vehicles, the minimum annual reduction is 4% per vehicle, and at least 20% by Fiscal Year (FY) 2020 compared to a FY 2015 baseline. The exempt vehicle requirement is a minimum annual reduction of 2% per vehicle, and at least 10% by FY 2020. State agencies and departments must also achieve a

  11. Fuel Cell Animation- Fuel Cell Stack (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  12. Fuel Cell Animation- Fuel Cell Components (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  13. List of Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Solar Water Heat Natural Gas Hydroelectric energy Small Hydroelectric Yes Alternative Energy Conservation...

  14. Solar Energy System Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "any device that uses the heat of the sun as its primary energy source and is used to heat or cool the interior of a structure or swimming pool, or to heat...

  15. Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake; Pienkos, Philip P.; O'Leary, Stephen J.; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific

  16. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injectionmore » strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still

  17. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average * ...

  18. Liquid Fuel from Heat-Loving Microorganisms: H2-Dependent Conversion of CO2 to Liquid Electrofuels by Extremely Thermophilic Archaea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: NC State is working with the University of Georgia to create Electrofuels from primitive organisms called extremophiles that evolved before photosynthetic organisms and live in extreme, hot water environments with temperatures ranging from 167-212 degrees Fahrenheit The team is genetically engineering these microorganisms so they can use hydrogen to turn carbon dioxide directly into alcohol-based fuels. High temperatures are required to distill the biofuels from the water where the organisms live, but the heat-tolerant organisms will continue to thrive even as the biofuels are being distilledmaking the fuel-production process more efficient. The microorganisms dont require light, so they can be grown anywhereinside a dark reactor or even in an underground facility.

  19. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  20. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  1. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  2. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map

  3. Industrial Process Heating - Technology Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... fuels 29 such as natural gas, coal, biomass and fuel oils. ... heat energy through combustion of solid, liquid, or 46 ... low cost 77 fuel or by products for use in steam generation. ...

  4. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  5. FUEL ROD CLUSTERS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, A.B.

    1959-08-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods and a tubular casing therefor through which a coolant flows in heat-exchange contact with the fuel rods is described. The fuel rcds are held in the casing by virtue of the compressive force exerted between longitudinal ribs of the fuel rcds and internal ribs of the casing or the internal surfaces thereof.

  6. Local Option- Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Solar photovoltaic systems under 50 kW that are net-metered or are not connected to the grid and only provide power to the properties on which they are located are already currently exempt ...

  7. Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    North Dakota also offers a property tax reduction for centrally-assessed* wind turbines larger than 100 kilowatts (kW). These systems are not eligible for the exemption described above.

  8. Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: In May 2015, S.B. 91 was enacted, which limits the property tax exemption for applications received after December 31, 2016, to a period of 10 years.

  9. Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This incentive applies only to the value added to a property by an eligible system. It does not constitute an exemption for the full amount of the property tax bill.

  10. Wood and Pellet Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Looking for an efficient, renewable way to heat your home? Wood or pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood and pellet stoves are efficient heaters.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption Dedicated AFVs are permitted to use HOV lanes, regardless of the number of passengers. Qualified vehicles must display an AFV special plate or the Clean Air - Blue Skies Energy Efficient license plate, which are available from the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT). Recognized alternative fuels are propane, natural gas, electricity, and hydrogen. Only certain plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are eligible for the Energy Efficient license

  12. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  13. Property Tax Exemption for Wind Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In May 2015, Oklahoma enacted a bill (SB 498) ending the property tax exemption for wind power generators. The exemption will end on January 1, 2017; projects currently in production or put into...

  14. Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning in October 2014, commercial and industrial systems (meeting the same technology requirements as above) are also eligible for the property tax exemption. The exemption is available for p...

  15. Solar and CHP Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This exemption was originally set to expire July 1, 2002, but it was extended for three more three years. In May 2005, the exemption was made permanent upon the enactment of H.B. 805.

  16. Home Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Heating Systems Home Heating Systems Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, nearly half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2011, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, nearly half of us use natural gas. | Source:

  17. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report summarizes the results of an information exchange sponsored by the DOE/EERE Bioenergy Technologies Office in Manchester, New Hampshire, on May 9-10, 2012. The participand identifies top challenges regarding feedstocks and production, logistics and compatibility, and operational issues, then prioritized next steps for expanding use of pyrolysis oil as a replacement for home heating oil in the Northeast

  18. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  19. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  20. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene A. Fritzler

    2005-09-01

    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  1. Table 8.6a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 16,509,639 1,410,151 16,356,550 353,000 247,409 19,356,746

  2. Table 8.6b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 638,798 119,640 1,471,031 762 – 1,591,433 81,669,945 2,804 24,182 5,687

  3. Table 8.6c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu Commercial Sector 11<//td> 1989 711,212 202,091 600,653 – –

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biofuels Tax Exemption Sales and use taxes apply to 80% of the proceeds from the sale of fuel blends containing between 1% and 10% biodiesel and the sale of fuels containing 10% ethanol (E10) made between July 1, 2003, and December 31, 2018. If at any time these taxes are imposed at a rate of 1.25%, the tax on biodiesel blends and E10 will then apply to 100% of the proceeds of sales. These taxes do not apply to the proceeds from the sale of biodiesel blends containing more than 10% biodiesel or

  5. Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William L 09 BIOMASS FUELS biofuels, glycerin, glycerol,...

  6. The Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH,

  7. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, George; Meyers, Steven J.; Lee, Arthur

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions The definition of alternative fuel includes liquefied petroleum gas (propane). Special fuel is defined as all combustible gases and liquids that are suitable for powering an internal combustion engine or motor or are used exclusively for heating, industrial, or farm purposes. Special fuels include biodiesel, blended biodiesel, and natural gas products, including liquefied and compressed natural gas. (Reference Indiana Code 6-6-2.5-1 and 6-6-2.5-22

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill Gas, Heat recovery, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Renewable Energy Systems Exemption...

  10. Energy System and Thermoeconomic Analysis of Combined Heat and Power High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for Light Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.; Pilli, Siva Prasad

    2015-06-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE)’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is spearheading a program with industry to deploy and independently monitor five kilowatt-electric (kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) in light commercial buildings. This publication discusses results from PNNL’s research efforts to independently evaluate manufacturer-stated engineering, economic, and environmental performance of these CHP FCSs at installation sites. The analysis was done by developing parameters for economic comparison of CHP installations. Key thermodynamic terms are first defined, followed by an economic analysis using both a standard accounting approach and a management accounting approach. Key economic and environmental performance parameters are evaluated, including (1) the average per unit cost of the CHP FCSs per unit of power, (2) the average per unit cost of the CHP FCSs per unit of energy, (3) the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollution emissions with a switch from conventional power plants and furnaces to CHP FCSs; (4) the change in GHG mitigation costs from the switch; and (5) the change in human health costs related to air pollution. From the power perspective, the average per unit cost per unit of electrical power is estimated to span a range from $15–19,000/ kilowatt-electric (kWe) (depending on site-specific changes in installation, fuel, and other costs), while the average per unit cost of electrical and heat recovery power varies between $7,000 and $9,000/kW. From the energy perspective, the average per unit cost per unit of electrical energy ranges from $0.38 to $0.46/kilowatt-hour-electric (kWhe), while the average per unit cost per unit of electrical and heat recovery energy varies from $0.18 to $0.23/kWh. These values are calculated from engineering and economic performance data provided by the manufacturer (not independently measured data). The GHG emissions were estimated to decrease by

  11. Fuel Cell Animation- Chemical Process (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  12. Forever Fuels Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forever Fuels Ltd Place: Maidenhead, United Kingdom Zip: SL6 8RT Product: Forever Fuels specialises in the distribution and supply of wood pellets for sustainable heating systems....

  13. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E.; Van Konynenburg, Richard; VanSant, James H.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  14. List of Geothermal Heat Pumps Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydroelectric energy Hydrogen Landfill Gas Methanol Passive Solar Space Heat Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat...

  15. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Develop thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery with a 10% fuel economy improvement without increasing emissions.

  16. Electric Resistance Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    about 30% of the fuel's energy into electricity. Because of electricity generation and transmission losses, electric heat is often more expensive than heat produced in homes or...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Industrial, Residential, Agricultural Savings Category: Wind (All), Wind (Small) Wood Heating Fuel Exemption This statute exempts from the state sales tax all wood or...

  18. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  19. Winter Fuels Outlook Presentation 2014- 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    October 8, 2014 State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) Importance Importance to heating fuel stakeholders * Timely, credible price information * Information is used ...

  20. Privacy Act Exemptions | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Exemptions Exemptions offered by the Act to prevent disclosure are rarely used. There is one Special exemption, Section 552a(d)(5), which prohibits an individual access to any information compiled in reasonable anticipation of a civil action or proceeding. General Exemptions There are two general exemptions: Section 552a(j)(1) which covers records maintained by the Central Intelligence Agency, Section 552a(j)(2) which covers records relating to law enforcement activities. Specific Exemptions

  1. HEAT TRANSFER MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

    1961-07-11

    A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

  2. Exemptions | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... responsible for the regulation or supervision of financial institutions." Exemption 9: Oil Well Data This exemption protects "geological and geophysical information and data, ...

  3. Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Agricultural Multifamily...

  4. Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan- Chapter 16, Equivalencies and Exemptions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2016 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 16, Equivalencies and Exemptions Describes DOE Headquarters procedures for requesting Equivalencies and Exemptions to DOE security directives.

  5. Fuel Processors for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi T. Thompson

    2008-08-08

    Fuel cells are being developed to power cleaner, more fuel efficient automobiles. The fuel cell technology favored by many automobile manufacturers is PEM fuel cells operating with H2 from liquid fuels like gasoline and diesel. A key challenge to the commercialization of PEM fuel cell based powertrains is the lack of sufficiently small and inexpensive fuel processors. Improving the performance and cost of the fuel processor will require the development of better performing catalysts, new reactor designs and better integration of the various fuel processing components. These components and systems could also find use in natural gas fuel processing for stationary, distributed generation applications. Prototype fuel processors were produced, and evaluated against the Department of Energy technical targets. Significant advances were made by integrating low-cost microreactor systems, high activity catalysts, π-complexation adsorbents, and high efficiency microcombustor/microvaporizers developed at the University of Michigan. The microreactor system allowed (1) more efficient thermal coupling of the fuel processor operations thereby minimizing heat exchanger requirements, (2) improved catalyst performance due to optimal reactor temperature profiles and increased heat and mass transport rates, and (3) better cold-start and transient responses.

  6. Major Fuels","Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)","Total of Major Fuels","Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings ...",4657,67338,81552,66424,10...

  7. Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Sum of Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" ,,,,"Primary","Site" "All Buildings...

  8. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  9. Generation Facility Corporate Tax Exemptions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Alternative renewable energy source" includes energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, conversion of biomass, fuel cells that do not require hydrocarbon fuel, small...

  10. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A.; Zuppero, Anthony C.

    1997-06-24

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  11. FUEL ROD ASSEMBLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutter, E.

    1959-09-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods aod a tubular casing through which a coolant flows in heat-change contact with the ruel rods are described. The casting is of trefoil section and carries the fuel rods, each of which has two fin engaging the serrated fins of the other two fuel rods, whereby the fuel rods are held in the casing and are interlocked against relative longitudinal movement.

  12. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Privacy Act Exemptions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Privacy Act > Exemptions NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Privacy Act Exemptions subject to the provisions of section 552(b)(1) of the Freedom of Information Act (information properly classified in the interest of national security or foreign policy); investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes other than those spelled out in the general exemption; maintained in connection with providing protective services to the President of the United States or

  13. Small Business Exemptions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small Business Exemptions Small Business Exemptions Manufacturers of consumer products covered by the Department of Energy (DOE) standards with annual gross revenues not exceeding $8 million from all its operations, including the manufacture and sale of covered products, for the 12-month period preceding the date of application, may apply for a temporary exemption from all or part of an energy or water conservation standard. (42 U.S.C. 6295 (t)) DOE will notify an applicant whether the

  14. Vermont Conditionally Exempt Generator Handbook: A Hazardous...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conditionally Exempt Generator Handbook: A Hazardous Waste Management Guide for Smaller Vermont Business Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  15. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption and Discount New Jersey Turnpike Authority (Authority) allows qualified hybrid electric vehicles to travel in the HOV lanes located between Interchange 11 and Interchange 14 on the New Jersey Turnpike. The Authority offers a 10% discount on off-peak New Jersey Turnpike and Garden State Parkway toll rates through NJ EZ-Pass for drivers of vehicles that have a fuel economy of 45 miles per gallon or higher and meet the California Super Ultra Low Emission

  17. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to $2.97 per gallon. That's down $1.05 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.94 per gallon, down 6.7 cents from last week, and down $1.07

  18. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to $2.91 per gallon. That's down $1.10 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.88 per gallon, down 6.8 cents from last week, and down $1.13

  19. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to $2.84 per gallon. That's down $1.22 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.80 per gallon, down 7.4 cents from last week, and down $1.23

  20. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.1 cents from a week ago to $2.89 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.84 per gallon, down 5.4 cents from last week

  1. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to $3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.01 per gallon, down 3.6 cents from last week, and down $1.01

  2. Fuel Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Hydrogen & Fuel Cells » Fuel Cell Basics Fuel Cell Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:09pm Addthis Text Version Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices. HOW FUEL CELLS WORK Fuel cells work like batteries, but they do not run down or need recharging. They produce electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied. A fuel cell consists of two electrodes-a negative electrode

  3. Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Energy-Efficient Products

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    For additional information about this exemption, please visit the Connecticut Department of Revenue Services website.

  4. Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells Fuel Cells A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen or another fuel to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity. If hydrogen is the fuel, electricity, water, and heat are the only products. Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications; they can provide power for systems as large as a utility power station and as small as a laptop computer. Why Study Fuel Cells Fuel cells can be used in a wide range of applications, including transportation,

  5. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices available The average retail price for home heating oil is $2.41 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region currently average $2.35 per gallon. This is Marcela Rourk with EIA, in Washington.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Sales Tax Exemption Vehicles, vehicle power sources, or parts used for converting a vehicle power source to reduce emissions are exempt from state sales...

  7. Covered Product Category: Residential Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including geothermal heat pumps, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  8. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance for geothermal heat pumps, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  9. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  10. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 GE Global Research developed and tested new fuel-flexible gas turbine nozzle technology concepts that will enable end users to efficiently generate power and heat from industrial off-gases and gasified industrial,

  11. Fuel Cell Animation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Animation Fuel Cell Animation This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as conventional vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. Learn more about water emissions from fuel cell vehicles. View text version of animation.

  12. Hydrogen & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be produced from clean, diverse and abundant domestic energy resources. Fuel cells use the energy from hydrogen in a highly efficient way -- with only water and heat as byproducts.

  13. Careers in Fuel Cell Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Careers In Fuel Cell Technologies Existing and emerging fuel cell applications hold large job growth potential. Fuel cells are among the promising technologies that are expected to transform our energy sector. They represent highly efficient and fuel- flexible technologies that offer diverse benefits. For example, fuel cells can be used in a wide range of applications- from portable electronics, to combined heat and power (CHP) units used for distributed electricity generation, to passenger

  14. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report prepared by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory describes a total cost of ownership model for emerging applications in stationary fuel cell systems.

  15. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V.; Young, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  16. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-07-13

    A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  17. Check Heat Transfer Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Transfer Surfaces Check Heat Transfer Surfaces This tip sheet discusses the importance of checking heat transfer surfaces in process heating systems. PROCESS HEAT TIP SHEET #4 Check Heat Transfer Surfaces (September 2005) (330.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) Introduction

  18. List of Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Solar Water Heat Natural Gas Hydroelectric energy Small Hydroelectric Yes Alternative Energy Personal...

  19. List of Renewable Transportation Fuels Incentives | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Biomass Renewable Transportation Fuels Fuel Cells Ground Source Heat Pumps Ethanol Methanol Biodiesel No Community Energy Project Grants (Michigan) State Grant Program...

  20. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    1998-01-01

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition.

  1. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

    1998-06-23

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

  2. Procedure for matching synfuel users with potential suppliers. Appendix B. Proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-08-07

    To assist the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion (OFC), in implementing the synthetic fuel exemption under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (FUA) of 1978, Resource Consulting Group, Inc. (RCG), has developed a procedure for matching prospective users and producers of synthetic fuel. The matching procedure, which involves a hierarchical screening process, is designed to assist OFC in: locating a supplier for a firm that wishes to obtain a synthetic fuel exemption; determining whether the fuel supplier proposed by a petitioner is technically and economically capable of meeting the petitioner's needs; and assisting the Synthetic Fuels Corporation or a synthetic fuel supplier in evaluating potential markets for synthetic fuel production. A data base is provided in this appendix on proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects to be used in applying the screening procedure. The data base encompasses a total of 212 projects in the seven production technologies.

  3. State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, Betsy

    2002-05-22

    This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

  4. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, Bill; Gangi, Jennifer; Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  5. Cold start characteristics of ethanol as an automobile fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1982-01-01

    An alcohol fuel burner and decomposer in which one stream of fuel is preheated by passing it through an electrically heated conduit to vaporize the fuel, the fuel vapor is mixed with air, the air-fuel mixture is ignited and combusted, and the combustion gases are passed in heat exchange relationship with a conduit carrying a stream of fuel to decompose the fuel forming a fuel stream containing hydrogen gas for starting internal combustion engines, the mass flow of the combustion gas being increased as it flows in heat exchange relationship with the fuel carrying conduit, is disclosed.

  6. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This sourcebook introduces industry to process heating basics, performance opportunities for fuel and electric based systems, waste heat management and where they can find help on ...

  7. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2015 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2015 FuelCell Energy, Inc., in ...

  8. The Influence of Building Location on Combined Heat and Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combined Heat & Power Hydrogen Production Cost Model Allows ... Fuel Cell with CHP Electricity Natural Gas Power Heat Natural Gas or Biogas Hydrogen National Renewable Energy ...

  9. Using Waste Heat for External Processes; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Waste Heat for External Processes The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery ...

  10. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  11. Renewable Energy Equipment Exemption | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    100% of sales tax Summary Iowa allow a sales tax exemption for solar, wind, and hydroelectricity equipment. As of August 2014, the Iowa sales tax rate is 6%. Wind For wind energy...

  12. Puerto Rico- Excise Tax Exemption for Farmers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Puerto Rico, "bona fide farmers" are exempted from paying all types of excises for equipment, articles and objects whose operation depend solely on solar, wind, hydro or any other type of power,...

  13. Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to claim the exemption, property owners must apply for a certificate from their local assessor which will reduce the assessed value of their property to what it would be without the...

  14. Solar and Wind Equipment Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    S.B. 1229 of 2012 extended this exemption to net metering transactions involving photovoltaics, and the sale of renewable energy credits (RECs). RECs are typically sold by a renewable energy...

  15. Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Iowa Department of Revenue (DOR) has issued an opinion determining that the solar and wind exemption can be applied to systems whose "primary purpose" is to store or provide electricity for u...

  16. Chapter_16_Equivalencies_and_Exemptions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the level of additional risk and the measures implemented to reduce risk to a ... Chapter 16-1 At HQ, the Head of Element must submit requests for exemptions from security ...

  17. Methane Gas Conversion Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under Iowa's methane gas conversion property tax exemption, real and personal property used to decompose waste and convert the waste to gas, collect the methane or other gases, convert the gas to...

  18. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2000-01-11

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  19. Examination of the effect of system pressure ratio and heat recuperation on the efficiency of a coal based gas turbine fuel cell hybrid power generation system with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanOsdol, J.G.; Gemmen, R.S.; Liese, E.A

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines two coal-based hybrid configurations that employ separated anode and cathode streams for the capture and compression of CO2. One configuration uses a standard Brayton cycle, and the other adds heat recuperation ahead of the fuel cell. Results show that peak efficiencies near 55% are possible, regardless of cycle configuration, including the cost in terms of energy production of CO2 capture and compression. The power that is required to capture and compress the CO2 is shown to be approximately 15% of the total plant power.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a fixed contact oxidation catalyzed section of a multi-section cathode air heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saito, Kazuo; Lin, Yao

    2015-02-17

    The multi-section cathode air heat exchanger (102) includes at least a first heat exchanger section (104), and a fixed contact oxidation catalyzed section (126) secured adjacent each other in a stack association. Cool cathode inlet air flows through cool air channels (110) of the at least first (104) and oxidation catalyzed sections (126). Hot anode exhaust flows through hot air channels (124) of the oxidation catalyzed section (126) and is combusted therein. The combusted anode exhaust then flows through hot air channels (112) of the first section (104) of the cathode air heat exchanger (102). The cool and hot air channels (110, 112) are secured in direct heat exchange relationship with each other so that temperatures of the heat exchanger (102) do not exceed 800.degree. C. to minimize requirements for using expensive, high-temperature alloys.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shackleford, M.H.

    1958-12-16

    A fuel element possessing good stability and heat conducting properties is described. The fuel element comprises an outer tube formed of material selected from the group consisting of stainhess steel, V, Ti. Mo. or Zr, a fuel tube concentrically fitting within the outer tube and containing an oxide of an isotope selected from the group consisting of U/sup 235/, U/sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/, and a hollow, porous core concentrically fitting within the fuel tube and formed of an oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Be, and Zr.

  2. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Heat Pumps Purchasing Energy-Efficient Geothermal Heat Pumps The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for geothermal heat pumps, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. FEMP's acquisition guidance and

  3. Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Generation Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: In May 2015, L.B. 424 was enacted, which adds solar, biomass, and landfill gas tangible personal property to this exemption effective January 1, 2016. This exemption is only applicable for...

  4. Local Option- Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cities and towns may adopt an exemption provision separately for each energy source. As of November 2015, 110 cities and towns in New Hampshire have adopted a property tax exemption for one or mo...

  5. 2016-05-06 Energy Conservation Program: Exempt External Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exempt External Power Supplies Under the EPS Service Parts Act of 2014; Final Rule 2016-05-06 Energy Conservation Program: Exempt External Power Supplies Under the EPS Service ...

  6. Equivalencies/Exemptions - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Equivalencies/Exemptions by Website Administrator Microsoft Word Document icon Action_Memo_for_Exemptions or Equivalencies.doc - Microsoft Word Document, 31 KB (32256 bytes) Document Actions Print this

  7. Federal Fuel Cell Tax Incentives: An Investment in Clean and Efficient

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies | Department of Energy Fuel Cell Tax Incentives: An Investment in Clean and Efficient Technologies Federal Fuel Cell Tax Incentives: An Investment in Clean and Efficient Technologies A brief created by the US Fuel Cell Council that covers federal fuel cell tax incentives 200810_itc.pdf (126.3 KB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell Financing for Tax-Exempt Entities Fuel Cell Tax Incentives: How Monetization Lowers the Government Outlay ITC Role in U.S. Fuel Cell Projects

  8. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2003 NATIONAL OILHEAT RESEARCH ALLIANCE TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, HELD AT THE 2003 NEW ENGLAND FUEL INSTITUTE CONVENTION AND 30TH NORTH AMERICAN HEATING AND ENERGY EXPOSITION, HYNES CONVENTION CENTER, PRUDENTIAL CENTER, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, JUNE 9 - 10, 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    2003-06-09

    This meeting is the sixteenth oilheat industry technology meeting held since 1984 and the third since the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) was formed. This year's symposium is a very important part of the effort in technology transfer, which is supported by the Oilheat Research Fuel Flexibility Program under the United States Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability Program (DEER). The foremost reason for the conference is to provide a platform for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, service technicians, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The conference provides a conduit by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector. The specific objectives of the conference are to: (1) Identify and evaluate the current state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost effectively, reliably, and safely; (2) Foster cooperative interactions among federal and industrial representatives for the common goal of sustained economic growth and energy security via energy conservation.

  9. Start-up fuel and power flattening of sodium-cooled candle core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Sagawa, Yu; Umino, Akitake; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    The hard neutron spectrum and unique power shape of CANDLE enable its distinctive performances such as achieving high burnup more than 30% and exempting necessity of both enrichment and reprocessing. On the other hand, they also cause several challenging problems. One is how the initial fuel can be prepared to start up the first CANDLE reactor because the equilibrium fuel composition that enables stable CANDLE burning is complex both in axial and radial directions. Another prominent problem is high radial power peaking factor that worsens averaged burnup, namely resource utilization factor in once-through mode and shorten the life time of structure materials. The purposes of this study are to solve these two problems. Several ideas for core configurations and startup fuel using single enrichment uranium and iron as a substitute of fission products are studied. As a result, it is found that low enriched uranium is applicable to ignite the core but all concepts examined here exceeded heat limits. Adjustment in enrichment and height of active and burnt zone is opened for future work. Sodium duct assemblies and thorium fuel assemblies loaded in the center region are studied as measures to reduce radial power peaking factor. Replacing 37 fuels by thorium fuel assemblies in the zeroth to third row provides well-balanced performance with flattened radial power distribution. The CANDLE core loaded with natural uranium in the outer and thorium in the center region achieved 35.6% of averaged burnup and 7.0 years of cladding life time owing to mitigated local fast neutron irradiation at the center. Using thorium with natural or depleted uranium in CANDLE reactor is also beneficial to diversifying fission resource and extending available term of fission energy without expansion of needs for enrichment and reprocessing.

  10. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  11. Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Burner Air to Fuel Ratios Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios This tip sheet discusses when to check and reset burner air to fuel ratios as well as why it's a simply way to maximize the efficiency of process heating equipment. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #2 Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios (November 2007) (260.29 KB) More Documents & Publications Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical

  12. Winter Fuels Season is Right Around the Corner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Weather changes have an impact on the way our nation uses our energy resources, particularly heating fuels.

  13. Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Caterpillar Diesel Racing: Yesterday & Today Thermoelectric Conversion of ...

  14. Active Solar Heating and Cooling Systems Exemption | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Name State Administrator North Carolina Solar Center State North Carolina Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount No more than conventional equipment Summary Active...

  15. Ethanol: farm and fuel issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The current U.S. and world grain situations are described as well as adjustments which would be likely for fuel production of 1, 2 and 4 billion gallons of ethanol annually in the 1985-86 period. Predicted acreage shifts in corn, soybeans, wheat and the total of seven major crops are shown. The most likely effects on the feed grains markets both here and abroad are discussed. The value of corn for fuel both with and without the gasoline tax exemption is compared to the actual farm price expected if in the base case (1 billion gallons) real corn prices do not rise. In the higher 2 and 4 billion gallon cases, increases in the real cost of corn and its impact on food prices and the CPI are estimated. A theoretical maximum level of ethanol production recognizing market factors is discussed in terms of acreage, yield, corn production and the fuel ethanol available. Agricultural and other policy frameworks are discussed.

  16. Fuel Cell Animation (Text Version) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. Fuel cell shown with its ...

  17. BioFuels and BioEnergy - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BioFuels and BioEnergy Bioenergy is renewable energy derived from biological sources, to be used for heat, electricity, or vehicle fuel. Biofuels are a wide range of fuels which ...

  18. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  19. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.

  20. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

  1. Alternative Energy Sales Tax Exemption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Eligible  resources include wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hydroelectricity, and energy that is derived from coal-to-liquids, nuclear fuel, oil-impregnated diatomaceous earth, oil sands, oil s...

  2. Fuel Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Fuel Options HomeCapabilitiesFuel ...

  3. Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). ... and cooling Natural gas and oil heating Programmable ... Rebates & Tax Credits Federal tax credits are available for ...

  4. STEO October 2012 - home heating use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Last year's warm U.S. winter temperatures to give way to normal, increasing household heating fuel use U.S. households will likely burn more heating fuels to stay warm this winter compared with last year Average household demand for natural gas, the most common primary heating fuel, is expected to be up 14 percent this winter, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. Demand for electricity will be up 8 percent. And demand for heating oil, used mainly

  5. Fuel axial relocation in ballooning fuel rods. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Fuel movement, in the longitudinal direction in ballooning fuel rods, shifts the position of heat generation and may cause an increase in cladding temperature in the ballooning region. This paper summarizes the axial fuel relocation data obtained in fuel rod tests conducted in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany, describes a model for calculating fuel axial relocation, and gives a quantitative analysis of the impact of fuel relocation on cladding temperature. The amount of fuel relocation in 18 ballooned fuel rods was determined from neutron radiographs, niobium gamma decay counts, and photomicrographs. The fuel rods had burnups in the range of 0 to 35,000 MWd/t and cladding hoop strains varying from 0 to 72%.

  6. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Availability of Feedstock and Technology | Department of Energy 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the potential to provide a significant amount of energy to meet US liquid fuel requirements. MSW is defined as household waste, commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt, small quantity hazardous

  7. Active Solar Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Heating your home with an active solar energy system can significantly reduce your fuel bills in the winter. A solar heating system will also reduce the amount of air pollution and ...

  8. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.18 per gallon. That's down 79 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.13 per gallon, unchanged from last week, and down 88

  9. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to $2.16 per gallon. That's down 75 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.11 per gallon, down 2.8 cents from last week, and down 77

  10. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5.1 cents from a week ago to $2.11 per gallon. That's down 72 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.05 per gallon, down 5.3 cents from last week, and down 75

  11. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5 cents from a week ago to $2.06 per gallon. That's down 75 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.01 per gallon, down 4.1 cents from last week, and down 78

  12. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to $2.82 per gallon. That's down $1.36 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.79 per gallon, down 1.5 cents from last week, and down $1.34

  13. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.8 cents from a week ago to $2.08 per gallon. That's down 72 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.02 per gallon, up 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 76

  14. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to $2.80 per gallon. That's down $1.44 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.78 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from last week, and down $1.40

  15. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1 cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down 82 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.02 per gallon, up 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 85

  16. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.1 cents from a week ago to $2.10 per gallon. That's down 94 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, up 2.3 cents from last week, and down 95

  17. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 9-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down $1.09 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down $1.11

  18. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down $1.20 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.03 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.22

  19. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.10 per gallon. That's down $1.11 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.14

  20. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.6 cents from a week ago to $2.12 per gallon. That's down 91 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.06 per gallon, up 2.1 cents from last week, and down 94

  1. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1 cent from a week ago to $2.13 per gallon. That's down 80 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.07 per gallon, up 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 83

  2. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 10.5 cents from a week ago to $2.93 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.90 per gallon, down 10.4 cents from last week. This is Marcela Rourk

  3. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.3 cents from a week ago to $2.38 per gallon. That's down 99 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.32 per gallon, down 3.1 cents from last week, and down $1.00

  4. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.5 cents from a week ago to $2.36 per gallon. That's down 97 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.31 per gallon, down 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 96

  5. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3 cents from a week ago to $2.33 per gallon. That's down 89 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.28 per gallon, down 3.5 cents from last week, and down 9

  6. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to $2.26 per gallon. That's down 89 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.19 per gallon, down 8.9 cents from last week, and down 92

  7. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.5 cents from a week ago to $2.21 per gallon. That's down 87 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.15 per gallon, down 3.6 cents from last week, and down 89

  8. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.5 cents from a week ago to $2.18 per gallon. That's down 87 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.13 per gallon, down 2.2 cents from last week, and down 88

  9. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to $3.43 per gallon. That's down 39 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.38 per gallon, down 2.6 cents from last week, and down 38.7

  10. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.8 cents from a week ago to $3.14 per gallon. That's down 81.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.12 per gallon, down 6.5 cents from last week, and down 79.9

  11. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices available The average retail price for home heating oil is $3.52 per gallon. That's down 32.7 cents from a year ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel price survey. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $3.48 per gallon, down 29.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington

  12. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2 cents from a week ago to $3.36 per gallon. That's down 52.5 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.31 per gallon, down 1.3 cents from last week, and down 52.6

  13. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to $3.08 per gallon. That's down 90.3 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.05 per gallon, down 6.8 cents from last week, and down 91.6

  14. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2, 2014 Residential heating oil prices decline The average retail price for home heating oil is $3.48 per gallon. That's down 4.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $3.43 per gallon, down 5.7 cents from last week. This is Amerine Woodyard

  15. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.7 cents from a week ago to $4.02 per gallon. That's up 1.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to 4.01 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and up 5.8

  16. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.9 cents from a week ago to $3.45 per gallon. That's down 36.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.41 per gallon, down 3 cents from last week, and down 35

  17. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 5.4 cents from a week ago to $4.04 per gallon. That's up 4.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.02 per gallon, up 5.6 cents from last week, and up 8

  18. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 4.4 cents from a week ago to $4.06 per gallon. That's up 4.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.03 per gallon, up 2.5 cents from last week, and up 6

  19. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 12 cents from a week ago to $4.18 per gallon. That's up 13 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.13 per gallon, up 9.8 cents from last week, and up 12.9 cents from a

  20. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 3.9 cents last week to $3.96 per gallon. That's down 2.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England region averaged 3.92 per gallon, up 5.2 cents from last week, and 1.7

  1. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from a week ago to $3.98 per gallon. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 3.96 per gallon, up 4.1 cents from last week, and up 4.8

  2. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.

    1997-01-01

    As part of ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. The performance of this premium heating oil is discussed.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat, Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains New Hampshire Railway Makes Tracks With Biodiesel More Biodiesel Case Studies | All Case ...

  4. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Local Option- Property Tax Exemption Note: Solar...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewable Energy Systems Sales Tax Exemption...

  7. Secondary fuel delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  8. Welcome to Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Aside from his donations, he spent most of his money on ... apart methane or other fuel into hydrogen and carbon ... solar heat, wind power, or heat from a nuclear power plant. ...

  9. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  10. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-02-01

    These fuel elements are comprised of a homogeneous metallic uranium body completely enclosed and sealed in an aluminum cover. The uranium body and aluminum cover are bonded together by a layer of zinc located between them. The bonding layer serves to improve transfer of heat, provides an additional protection against corrosion of the uranium by the coolant, and also localizes any possible corrosion by preventing travel of corrosive material along the surface of the fuel element.

  11. Fuel cell system combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

  12. Nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  13. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increase slightly The average retail price for propane is 2.41 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the ...

  14. Energy Equipment Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A "solar energy device" for the purpose of this incentive is defined as "a system or series of mechanisms designed primarily to provide heating, to provide cooling, to produce electrical power, t...

  15. Solar Energy Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "a set of devices whose primary purpose is to collect solar energy and convert and store it for useful purposes including heating and cooling buildings or other energy-using processes, or to...

  16. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Electricity Exemption Electricity used to charge PEVs at a state-owned parking facility is exempt from California law prohibiting gifting public money or things of value. (Reference California Government Code 14678

  18. LMFBR fuel assembly design for HCDA fuel dispersal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacko, Robert E.; Tilbrook, Roger W.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel assembly for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor having an upper axial blanket region disposed in a plurality of zones within the fuel assembly. The characterization of a zone is dependent on the height of the axial blanket region with respect to the active fuel region. The net effect of having a plurality of zones is to establish a dispersal flow path for the molten materials resulting during a core meltdown accident. Upward flowing molten material can escape from the core region and/or fuel assembly without solidifying on the surface of fuel rods due to the heat sink represented by blanket region pellets.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Idle Reduction Equipment Excise Tax Exemption Qualified on-board idle reduction devices and advanced insulation are exempt from the federal excise tax imposed on the retail sale of heavy-duty highway trucks and trailers. The exemption also applies to the installation of qualified equipment on vehicles after the vehicles have been placed into service. For a list of eligible products and additional information about product exemption eligibility criteria, see the U.S. Environmental Protection

  20. Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

  1. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  2. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, G.; Meyers, S.J.; Lee, A.

    1996-09-10

    A fuel cell system is described which employs a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  3. Fuel Cells for Critical Communications Backup Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Critical Communications Backup Power Greg Moreland SENTECH, Inc. Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy August 6, 2008 APCO Annual Conference and Expo 2 2 Fuel cells use hydrogen to create electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts Fuel Cell Overview * An individual fuel cell produces about 1 volt * Hundreds of individual cells can comprise a fuel cell stack * Fuel cells can be used to power a variety of applications -Bibliographic Database * Laptop computers (50-100 W) *

  4. Carbon Nanotube Heat-Exchange Systems - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Nanotube Heat-Exchange Systems National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Most power-generation systems produce heat as a by-product. For example, internal combustion engines used to power most vehicles today combust a high-energy fuel (e.g., gasoline) to generate mechanical motion and heat. Fuel cells that

  5. Hydrogen Production and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status Hydrogen Production and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status Presented at the Clean Energy States Alliance and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Hydrogen Production and Storage for Fuel Cells, February 2, 2011. infocallfeb11_lipman.pdf (0 B) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems Financing Fuel Cells The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

  6. Covered Product Category: Light Commercial Heating and Cooling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal purchases of light commercial heating and cooling equipment must be ENERGY STAR®–qualified. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. This product overview explains how to meet energy-efficiency requirements for Federal purchases of light commercial heating and cooling equipment and how to maximize energy savings throughout products' useful lives.

  7. Home Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Your choice of heating technologies impacts your energy bill. Learn about the different options for heating your home.

  8. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel Cells Technologies Office (FCTO) under ...

  9. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Heat Pump Systems » Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps An air-source heat pump can provide efficient heating and cooling for your home. When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. This is possible because a heat pump moves heat rather than converting it from a fuel like combustion heating systems do. Air-source heat pumps have been used for many years in

  10. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    1998-01-01

    A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator's ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA).

  11. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, E.J.

    1998-11-17

    A micro thrust and heat generator have a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA). 30 figs.

  12. Waste heat: Utilization and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, S.; Lee, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a presentation on waste heat management and utilization. Topics covered include cogeneration, recovery technology, low grade heat recovery, heat dispersion models, and ecological effects. The book focuses on the significant fraction of fuel energy that is rejected and expelled into the environment either as industrial waste or as a byproduct of installation/equipment operation. The feasibility of retrieving this heat and energy is covered, including technical aspects and potential applications. Illustrations demonstrate that recovery methods have become economical due to recent refinements. The book includes theory and practice concerning waste heat management and utilization.

  13. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Respondents Q1: What is the purpose of this survey? The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA-877, "Winter Heating Fuels Telephone Survey," is designed to collect data on State-level stocks and residential prices of No. 2 heating oil and propane during the heating season. The data are used to monitor the prices of propane and No. 2 heating oil during the heating season, and to report to the Congress and others when requested. Q2: How does the survey work? The EIA-877

  14. Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesley, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

  15. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  16. Local Option- Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning in October 2013, a municipality may also adopt an ordinance to exempt commercial or industrial Class I renewable resources*, certain hydropower facilities**, or solar thermal or geother...

  17. Title 18 CFR 4 Licenses, Permits, Exemptions, and Determination...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for licenses, permits, exemptions, and determination of project costs associated with conservation of power and water resources. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1979...

  18. Puerto Rico- Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Green Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Puerto Rican law exempts from the sales and use tax solar electric equipment, associated accessories, and components used to produce electrical energy. Distributors or manufacturers must submit a...

  19. 27 CCR 20090: SWRCB - Exemptions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract These regulations list exemptions to the SWRCB's provisions regarding waste water disposal. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2014 Legal Citation 27 CCR...

  20. Property Tax Exemption for Wind, Solar, and Geothermal Energy Producers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under these policies, commercial wind, solar, and geothermal energy producers, excluding those regulated by the Idaho Public Utilities Commission, are exempt from paying taxes on real estate,...

  1. FERC Handbook for Hydroelectric Project Licensing and 5 MW Exemptions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Handbook for Hydroelectric Project Licensing and 5 MW Exemptions from Licensing Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance -...

  2. Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heckman, Richard C.; Moss, Marvin

    1979-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked.

  3. Heat-source specification 500 watt(e) RTG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    This specification establishes the requirements for a /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source and its fuel capsule for application in a 500 W(e) thermoelectric generator. The specification covers: fuel composition and quantity; the Hastelloy S fuel capsule material and fabrication; and the quality assurance requirements for the assembled heat source. (LCL)

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel

  5. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  6. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  7. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-03

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  8. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

    1986-01-28

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  9. Research on Fuels & Lubricants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research on Fuels & Lubricants Research on Fuels & Lubricants 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Penn State University, Tribology Group, Chemical Engineering Dept. 2003_deer_perez.pdf (704.07 KB) More Documents & Publications Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants? Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy

  10. Chapter_16_Equivalencies_and_Exemptions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Equivalencies and Exemptions DOE security orders and manuals often require certain measures to be taken to protect DOE security interests. In some cases, a DOE organization may be unable to comply with the requirements as specified in the directive, but can achieve the security goal in another equally effective manner. In other cases, the security requirement cannot be met as prescribed. DOE Order 251.1C, Departmental Directives Program, Paragraph 6a(3)(c), establishes a process for requesting

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emerging Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Electricity Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on

  18. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  19. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  20. SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Improving ...

  1. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  2. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Reformer Development Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Subir Roychoudhury Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), North Haven, CT Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop March 29, 2011 ...

  3. Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool April 10, 2014 - 3:34pm Addthis Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool The Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) introduces methods to improve thermal efficiency of heating equipment. This tool helps industrial users survey process heating equipment that consumes fuel, steam, or electricity, and identifies the most energy-intensive equipment. The tool can be used to perform a heat balance that

  4. The Big Picture on Process Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Big Picture on Process Heating The Big Picture on Process Heating This brief provides an overview of process heating system components, energy consumption, and potential for savings. The Big Picture on Process Heating (January 2001) (71.34 KB) More Documents & Publications Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems

  5. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Reaches Major Patent Milestone | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Reaches Major Patent Milestone Fuel Cell Technologies Office Reaches Major Patent Milestone January 9, 2015 - 10:01am Addthis Fuel Cell Technologies Office Reaches Major Patent Milestone Sunita Satyapal Director, Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity to buildings and power for vehicles while emitting nothing but water. To bring more high-impact fuel cell innovations to the marketplace,

  6. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels DOE would invest $52 million to fund a major fleet transformation at Idaho National Laboratory, along with the installation of nine fuel management systems, purchase of additional flex fuel cars and one E85 ethanol fueling station. Transportation projects, such as the acquisition of highly efficient and alternative-fuel vehicles, are not authorized by ESPC legislation. DOE has twice proportion of medium vehicles and three times as many heavy vehicles as compared to the Federal agency

  7. Heat Management Strategy Trade Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

    2009-09-01

    This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

  8. Map of the State Recognition of the Auxiliary Power Weight Exemption |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Map of the State Recognition of the Auxiliary Power Weight Exemption Map of the State Recognition of the Auxiliary Power Weight Exemption † Allows the 400-lb exemption by enforcement policy rather than by law and has legislation in process to allow the 400-lb exemption by law § Allows the 400-lb exemption by law and a 550-lb exemption takes effect on October 1, 2014 State Recognition of the Auxiliary Power Weight Exemption to GVW Limit: 23 CFR 658.17(n) Does not

  9. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  10. Trends of petroleum fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.; Woodward, P.W.

    1985-02-01

    Trends in properties of motor gasolines for the years 1942 through 1984; diesel fuels for the years 1950 through 1983; aviation fuels for the years 1947 through 1983; and heating oils for the years 1955 through 1984, have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys prepared and published by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) formerly the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). The surveys for motor gasolines were conducted under a cooperative agreement with the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the Bureau of Mines from 1935 through 1948 and in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948 for all surveys. The motor gasoline surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines throughout the country. Other surveys prepared in cooperation with API and the Bureau of Mines, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Department of Energy, and currently NIPER were aviation gasolines beginning in 1947, diesel fuels in 1950, aviation turbine fuels in 1951, and heating oils, formerly burner fuel oils, in 1955. Various companies throughout the country obtain samples of motor gasolines from retail outlets and refinery samples for the other surveys, and analyze the samples using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures. The analytical data are sent to the Bartlesville Center for survey preparation and distribution. A summary report has been assembled from data in 83 semiannual surveys for motor gasolines that shows trends throughout the entire era from winter 19

  11. DECONTAMINATION OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATED REACTOR FUEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buyers, A.G.; Rosen, F.D.; Motta, E.E.

    1959-12-22

    A pyrometallurgical method of decontaminating neutronirradiated reactor fuel is presented. In accordance with the invention, neutron-irradiated reactor fuel may be decontaminated by countercurrently contacting the fuel with a bed of alkali and alkaine fluorides under an inert gas atmosphere and inductively melting the fuel and tracking the resulting descending molten fuel with induction heating as it passes through the bed. By this method, a large, continually fresh surface of salt is exposed to the descending molten fuel which enhances the efficiency of the scrubbing operation.

  12. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  13. International symposium on fuel rod simulators: development and application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCulloch, R.W.

    1981-05-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning fuel rod simulator operation and performance; simulator design and evaluation; clad heated fuel rod simulators and fuel rod simulators for cladding investigations; fuel rod simulator components and inspection; and simulator analytical modeling. Ten papers have previously been input to the Energy Data Base.

  14. Policy Bulletin 4, Change 1, Exemption 2 Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Policy Bulletin 4, Change 1, Exemption 2 Guidance Policy Bulletin 4, Change 1, Exemption 2 Guidance The purpose of this bulletin is to provide guidance on which Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) exemption should be used as the basis for marking security-related information currently protected as Official Use Only (OUO) under "Exemption 2, Circumvention of Statute," in DOE Classification Guides. Policy Bulletin, POL-4, Change 1, Exemption 2 Guidance (403.7 KB) More Documents &

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Digg

  16. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 8 cents from a week ago to $3.21 per gallon. That's down 98.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.18 per gallon, down 8.1 cents from last week, and down 96.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  17. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 17.7 cents from a week ago to $3.03 per gallon. That's down $1.09 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.99 per gallon, down 18.2 cents from last week, and down $1.08 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  18. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.8 cents from a week ago to $3.33 per gallon. That's down 59.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.28 per gallon, down 3.7 cents from last week, and down 58.8 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  19. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.6 cents from a week ago to $4.24 per gallon. That's up 8.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.16 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and up 3.9 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact

  20. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.6 cents from a week ago to $3.42 per gallon. That's down 39.5 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.37 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from last week, and down 39.7 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact Marcela

  1. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 10.5 cents from a week ago to $3.22 per gallon. That's down 73.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.19 per gallon, down 9 cents from last week, and down 73.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  2. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.2 cents from a week ago to $2.91 per gallon. That's down $1.33 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $2.87 per gallon, up 9.8 cents from last week, and down $1.29 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk with EIA, in Washington.

  3. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.7 cents from a week ago to $3.03 per gallon. That's down $1.20 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $2.99 per gallon, up 12 cents from last week, and down $1.16 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  4. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 14.7 cents from a week ago to $3.19 per gallon. That's down $1.06 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $3.15 per gallon, up 15.9 cents from last week, and down $1.00 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  5. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to $3.29 per gallon. That's down 93.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $3.26 per gallon, up 10.4 cents from last week, and down 89.3 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  6. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.3 cents from a week ago to $3.38 per gallon. That's down 43.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.33 per . gallon, down 3.5 cents from last week, and down 44.6 cents from a year ago

  7. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to $4.00 per gallon. That's down 2-tenths of a cent from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to 4.01 per gallon, down 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and up 4.4

  8. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6.5 cents from a week ago to $4.24 per gallon. That's up 14.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.17 per gallon, up 4.1 cents from last week, and up 13.4 cents from a year ago. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact Marcela

  9. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4, 2013 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from last week to $3.92 per gallon. That's down 11 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England region averaged 3.87 per gallon, up 2.5 cents from last week, but down 7.1 cents from a year earlier. This is Marlana Anderson

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office: Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency & Emissions » Vehicle Technologies Office: Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Technologies Office: Waste Heat Recovery Along with high efficiency engine technologies and emission control, the Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) is supporting research and development to increase vehicle fuel economy by recovering energy from engine waste heat. In current gasoline vehicles, only about 25 percent of the fuel's energy is used to drive the wheels; in contrast, more than 70 percent is lost

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of the Gap Heat Transfer Model in BISON.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Schmidt, Rodney C.; Williamson, Richard; Perez, Danielle

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes the result of a NEAMS project focused on sensitivity analysis of the heat transfer model in the gap between the fuel rod and the cladding used in the BISON fuel performance code of Idaho National Laboratory. Using the gap heat transfer models in BISON, the sensitivity of the modeling parameters and the associated responses is investigated. The study results in a quantitative assessment of the role of various parameters in the analysis of gap heat transfer in nuclear fuel.

  12. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  13. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickson, J.J.

    1963-09-24

    A method is described whereby fuel tubes or pins are cut, loaded with fuel pellets and a heat transfer medium, sealed at each end with slotted fittings, and assembled into a rectangular tube bundle to form a fuel element. The tubes comprising the fuel element are laterally connected between their ends by clips and tabs to form a linear group of spaced parallel tubes, which receive their vertical support by resting on a grid. The advantages of this method are that it permits elimination of structural material (e.g., fuel-element cans) within the reactor core, and removal of at least one fuel pin from an element and replacement thereof so that a burnable poison may be utilized during the core lifetime. (AEC)

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane and Parking Fee Exemptions Qualified PEVs affixed with special state-issued PEV license plates may use HOV lanes regardless of the number of passengers and are exempt from parking fees charged by any state or county authority. PEVs displaying state PEV license plates are also exempt from parking fees, except when parked at a meter for more than 2.5 hours or the maximum time allowed to park, whichever is longer. Parking fee exemptions do not apply to parking fees

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption and Discount Through the Clean Pass Program, ... in the vehicle. Vehicles must display the Clean Pass vehicle sticker, which is available ...

  16. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-28

    Description of CHHP system which utilizes a high-temperature fuel cell to provide on-site process reducing gas, clean power, and heat.

  17. 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or deductions for solar energy systems. Solar heating systems reduce the amount of air pollution and greenhouse gases that generally come from the use of fossil fuels for...

  18. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... CONVERSION; ENGINES; EXPLORATION; FUEL CELLS; GAS TURBINES; GREENHOUSE GASES; HOT WATER; INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES; NATURAL GAS; THERMAL RECOVERY; TURBINES; WASTE HEAT; WASTES

  19. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery with a 10% fuel economy ... Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications Electrical and ...

  20. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of a Scalable 10% Efficient Thermoelectric Generator Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicular ...