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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products or systems that heat, cool and heat domestic water, which are also referred to as integrated systems, have been available for several years. The concept is simple and appeals to consumers. This paper presents methods for evaluating the potential savings by using an integrated system that heats water by desuperheating discharge gas in the refrigeration cycle. The methods may be applied for any specific location, and their accuracy will depend on the accuracy of building loads and water usage estimates. Power demand can also be affected by electric water heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks.

Cawley, R.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Solar heating/cooling and domestic hot-water systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing awareness of global warming forces policy makers and industries to face two challenges: reducing greenhouse gas emissions and securing stable energy supply against ever-increasing world energy consumption, which is projected to increase by ... Keywords: buildings heating, domestic hot-water, energetical analysis, renewable energy sources, solar cooling technologies, solar energy collection, solar thermal systems

Ioan Sârbu; Marius Adam

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Heating and cooling of municipal buildings with waste heat from ground water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of using waste heat from municipal water wells to replace natural gas for heating of the City Hall, Fire Station, and Community Hall in Wilmer, Texas was studied. At present, the 120/sup 0/F well water is cooled by dissipating the excess heat through evaporative cooling towers before entering the distribution system. The objective of the study was to determine the pumping cycle of the well and determine the amount of available heat from the water for a specified period. This data were correlated with the heating and cooling demand of the City's buildings, and a conceptual heat recovery system will be prepared. The system will use part or all of the excess heat from the water to heat the buildings, thereby eliminating the use of natural gas. The proposed geothermal retrofit of the existing natural gas heating system is not economical because the savings in natural gas does not offset the capital cost of the new equipment and the annual operating and maintenance costs. The fuel savings and power costs are a virtual trade-off over the 25-year period. The installation and operation of the system was estimated to cost $105,000 for 25 years which is an unamortized expense. In conclusion, retrofitting the City of Wilmer's municipal buildings is not feasible based on the economic analysis and fiscal projections as presented.

Morgan, D.S.; Hochgraf, J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

1981-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

5

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Ingredients for energy conservation: water cooled luminaires and the heat pump  

SciTech Connect

The energy crisis has focused attention on all aspects of building energy usage--particularly heating and cooling energy. The possibility of utilizing water-cooled luminaires in an area of high relative humidity is explored. Heating is done by a water source heat pump utilizing the water from the luminaires as source for the heat pump. The energy usage of the heat pump system is then compared with the energy usage of other heat reclaim systems thereby demonstrating the energy conservation capabilities of the system.

Dowless, E.C.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

8

Cool-down and frozen start-up behavior of a grooved water heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A grooved water heat pipe was tested to study its characteristics during the cool-down and start-up periods. The water heat pipe was cooled down from the ambient temperature to below the freezing temperature of water. During the cool-down, isothermal conditions were maintained at the evaporator and adiabatic sections until the working fluid was frozen. When water was frozen along the entire heat pipe, the heat pipe was rendered inactive. The start-up of the heat pipe from this state was investigated under several different operating conditions. The results show the existence of large temperature gradients between the evaporator and the condenser, and the moving of the melting front of the working fluid along the heat pipe. Successful start-up was achieved for some test cases using partial gravity assist. The start-up behavior depended largely on the operating conditions.

Jang, J.H.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. Quarterly reports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The activities conducted by Solaron Corporation from November 1977 through September 1978 are summarized and the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is covered. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

Williamson, R.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. Quarterly reports, November 1976--June 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water. Quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. Included is a comparison of the proposed Solaron-Heat Pump and Solaron-Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, Installation Drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities from July 1, 1977 through November 9, 1977.

Not Available

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The temperature differential of chilled water is an important factor used for evaluating the performance of a chilled water system. A low delta-T may increase the pumping energy consumption and increase the chiller energy consumption. The system studied in this thesis is the chilled water system at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW Airport). This system has the problem of low delta-T under low cooling loads. When the chilled water flow is much lower than the design conditions at low cooling loads, it may lead to the laminar flow of the chilled water in the cooling coils. The main objective of this thesis is to explain the heat transfer performance of the cooling coils under low cooling loads. The water side and air side heat transfer coefficients at different water and air flow rates are calculated. The coefficients are used to analyze the heat transfer performance of the cooling coils at conditions ranging from very low loads to design conditions. The effectiveness-number of transfer units (NTU) method is utilized to analyze the cooling coil performance under different flow conditions, which also helps to obtain the cooling coil chilled water temperature differential under full load and partial load conditions. When the water flow rate drops to 1ft/s, laminar flow occurs; this further decreases the heat transfer rate on the water side. However, the cooling coil effectiveness increases with the drop of water flow rate, which compensates for the influence of the heat transfer performance under laminar flow conditions. Consequently, the delta-T in the cooling coil decreases in the transitional flow regime but increases in the laminar flow regime. Results of this thesis show that the laminar flow for the chilled water at low flow rate is not the main cause of the low delta-T syndrome in the chilled water system. Possible causes for the piping strategy of the low delta-T syndrome existing in the chilled water system under low flow conditions are studied in this thesis: (1) use of two way control valves; and (2) improper tertiary pump piping strategy.

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

15

Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems  

SciTech Connect

The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

Sullivan; Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM), Carlson; Bryan J. (Ojo Caliente, NM), Wingo; Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM), Robison; Thomas W. (Stilwell, KS)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

17

Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project Sunburst is a demonstration system for solar space heating and cooling and solar hot water heating for a 14,400 square foot office building in Richland, Washington. The project is part of the US Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid--liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building to reject surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program has been provided from the beginning of the program and has resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

Not Available

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Space Heating and Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as...

19

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems.

Matson, J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This document describes passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor which employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated evaporator located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forseberg, C.W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This document describes passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor which employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated evaporator located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forseberg, C.W.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Absorption cooling in district heating network: Temperature difference examination in hot water circuit.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Absorption cooling system driven by district heating network is relized as a smart strategy in Sweden. During summer time when the heating demand is… (more)

Yuwardi, Yuwardi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Consumer thermal energy storage costs for residential hot water, space heating and space cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost of household thermal energy storage (TES) in four utility service areas that are representative for hot water, space heating, and space cooling systems in the United States is presented. There are two major sections of the report: Section 2.0 is a technology characterization of commercially available and developmental/conceptual TES systems; Section 3.0 is an evaluation of the consumer cost of the three TES systems based on typical designs in four utility service areas.

None

1976-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

24

The Relative Effects of U.S. Population Shifts (1930-80) on Potential Heating, Cooling and Water Demand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects on potential heating, cooling and water demand induced by the shift and growth of population from cooler and wetter regions of the country to warmer and drier areas were examined. Heating and cooling degree day totals for each of the ...

Henry F. Diaz; Ronald L. Holle

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

Not Available

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Systems Supporting Equipment for Heating and Cooling Systems Addthis Related Articles Glossary of Energy-Related Terms Water Heating Basics Heating and Cooling System Support...

27

Potential of thermal insulation and solar thermal energy in domestic hot water and space heating and cooling sectors in Lebanon in the period 2010 - 2030.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The potential of thermal insulation and solar thermal energy in domestic water heating, space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings Lebanon is studied… (more)

Zaatari, Z.A.R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Definition: Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Cooling Water Cooling Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and large industrial facilities such as steam electric power plants, hydroelectric generators, petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Other uses include cooling the barrels of machine guns, cooling of

29

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Modeling Satellite District Heating and Cooling Networks.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Satellite District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems offer an alternative structure to conventional, centralized DHC networks. Both use a piping network carrying steam or water… (more)

Rulff, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(510) 486-7494 Links Heat Island Group The Cool Colors Project Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Applications Commercial Buildings Cool Roofs and...

32

Guidelines for selecting a solar heating, cooling or hot water design  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines are presented for the professional who may have to choose between competing solar heating and cooling designs for buildings. The experience of the National Solar Data Network in monitoring over 100 solar installations are drawn upon. Three basic principles and a design selection checklist are developed which will aid in choosing the most cost effective design.

Kelly, C.J. Jr.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

37

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on...

39

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower performance. To understand the importance of the optimization techniques, cooling tower theory will be discussed first.

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Piedmont EMC - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Piedmont EMC - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program...

42

Property:Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating-Cooling Application Heating-Cooling Application Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed Generation Study/10 West 66th Street Corp + Domestic Hot Water +, Space Heat and/or Cooling + Distributed Generation Study/Aisin Seiki G60 at Hooligans Bar and Grille + Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Arrow Linen + Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Dakota Station (Minnegasco) + Space Heat and/or Cooling +, Other + Distributed Generation Study/Elgin Community College + Space Heat and/or Cooling +, Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Emerling Farm + Domestic Hot Water +, Process Heat and/or Cooling +

43

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

l U CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING* M.Wahlig,be capable of operating solar heating and cooling systemsand now transferred to ERDA, on solar heating and cooling of

Dols, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

WATER COOLED RETORT COVER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

1962-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Bartholomew Heating and Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating and Cooling Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Name Bartholomew Heating and Cooling Place Linwood, NJ Website http://bartholomewheatingandco References Bartholomew Heating and Cooling[1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Bartholomew Heating and Cooling is a company located in Linwood, NJ. References ↑ "Bartholomew Heating and Cooling" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Bartholomew_Heating_and_Cooling&oldid=381585" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

46

Heat pipe turbine vane cooling  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Restaurateur designs and installs passive solar heating/cooling system  

SciTech Connect

An example of the use of passive solar heating and cooling systems by a Wisconsin restaurateur is discussed. The greenhouse effect is used on three sides of the restaurant's exterior walls. A dozen water-to-air electric heat pumps handle the restaurant's heating and cooling chores. The system doesn't require any fossil fuel for heating or cooling.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

HEPTAFLUOROPROPANE WITH WATER SPRAY COOLING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEPTAFLUOROPROPANE WITH WATER SPRAY COOLING SYSTEM AS A TOTAL ... and evaluation studies on active and passive fire protection ...

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

49

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Tankless Demand Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil & Indirect Water Heaters Water Heating A variety of...

50

Open Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art chemistry programs help to ensure the continued operation of open cooling water systems while mitigating corrosion and fouling mechanisms. This document, Open Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline, prepared by a committee of industry experts, reflects field and laboratory data on corrosion and fouling issues of open cooling systems.BackgroundService Water System Chemical Addition Guideline (Electric Power Research Institute ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

51

Heating & Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Heating & Cooling Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Did you know that heating and cooling accounts for more than half of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes? Energy Saver shares tips and advice on ways you can reduce your heating and cooling costs, putting more money in your wallet.

52

Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Passive thermosyphon solar heating and cooling module with supplementary heating. Quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a collection of three quarterly reports from Sigma Research, Inc., covering progress and status from January through September 1977. Sigma Research is developing and delivering three heat exchangers for use in a solar heating and cooling system for installation into single-family dwellings. Each exchanger consists of one heating and cooling module and one submersed electric water heating element.

Not Available

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."  

SciTech Connect

Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

55

Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Heating Research Water Heating Research to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Appliances Research Building Envelope Research Windows, Skylights, & Doors Research Space Heating & Cooling Research Water Heating Research Lighting Research Sensors & Controls Research Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

56

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Cooling Water Intake Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The types of cooling water systems to be evaluated are: Wet Cooling Tower - The condenser is cooled with water recirculated to a mechanical draft cooling tower. Because there...

57

Evaluation and Analysis of an Integrated PEM Fuel Cell with Absorption Cooling and Water Heating System for Sustainable Building Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a parametric study of a PEM fuel cell integrated with a double effect absorption system is carried out in order to study the effect of different operating conditions on the efficiency of the PEM fuel cell, utilization factor of the over all system, COPs of the double effect cooling and heating system, and power and heat output of the PEM fuel cell. It is found that the efficiency of the cell decreases, ranging from 46.2% to 24.4% with increase in membrane thickness and current density, and at the same time the COP increases ranging from 0.65 to 1.52. The heat and power output of the fuel cell decreases from 10.54 kW to 5.12 kW, and 9.12 kW to 6.99 kW, respectively for the increase in membrane thickness. However, when the temperature of the cell is increased the heat and power output increases from 5.12 kW to 10.54 kW, and 6.9 kW to 7.02 kW, respectively. The COP is found to be decreasing ranging from 1.53 to 0.33 with the increase in temperature of the cell and heat input to the HTG. As for the utilization factor, it increases ranging from 17% to 87% with increase in the temperature of the cell and heat input to the HTG. This study reveals that an integrated PEM fuel cell with a double effect absorption cooling systems has a very high potential to be an economical and environmental solution as compared with conventional systems of high electricity and natural gas prices which emit lots of harmful gasses and are not that efficient.

Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Experimental Study of Hybrid Cooled Heat Exchanger.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A test system for a hybrid cooled heat exchanger was designed, and the test facility was constructed based on ASHRAE Standard 41.2-1987. A conventional air-cooled… (more)

Tsao, Han-Chuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Data Center Rack Cooling with Rear-door Heat Exchanger  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

they can use treated water from a plate-and-frame heat exchanger connected to a cooling tower. These inherent features of a RDHx help reduce energy use while minimizing maintenance...

60

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heaters Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters May 4, 2012 - 5:21pm Addthis A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient than conventional electric storage water heaters. Heat pump water heaters work in locations that remain in the 40Âş-90ÂşF range year-round. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore, they can be two to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Lumbee River EMC - Solar Water Heating Loan Program (North Carolina...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Loan Program (North Carolina) Lumbee River EMC - Solar Water Heating Loan Program (North Carolina) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water...

62

Lumbee River EMC - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program (North...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rebate Program (North Carolina) Lumbee River EMC - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program (North Carolina) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water...

63

Reducing home heating and cooling costs  

SciTech Connect

This report is in response to a request from the House Committee on Energy and Commerce that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake a neutral, unbiased analysis of the cost, safety, and health and environmental effects of the three major heating fuels: heating oil, natural gas, and electricity. The Committee also asked EIA to examine the role of conservation in the choice of heating and cooling fuel. To accommodate a wide audience, EIA decided to respond to the Committee`s request in the context of a report on reducing home heating and cooling costs. Accordingly, this report discusses ways to weatherize the home, compares the features of the three major heating and cooling fuels, and comments on the types of heating and cooling systems on the market. The report also includes a worksheet and supporting tables that will help in the selection of a heating and/or cooling system.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Energy Basics: Space Heating and Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in common, such as thermostats and ducts, which provide opportunities for saving energy. Learn how these technologies and systems work. Learn about: Cooling Systems Heating...

65

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the solar-heated hot water. This heater can be seen inwater (solar heated, boosted, or heated entirely in the auxiliary heater)

Dols, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters...

67

Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:38pm Addthis Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Heating and cooling your home uses more energy and costs more money than any other system in your home -- typically making up about 54% of your

68

Active Solar Heating and Cooling Systems Exemption | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Active Solar Heating and Cooling Systems Exemption Active Solar Heating and Cooling Systems Exemption < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Heating...

69

Integrated solar heating, cooling and hot water system for the San Diego City Schools, University City High School (Engineering Materials)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar system consists of a heating circuit, two 200-ton absorption chiller hot water circuits and a hot water tube bundle circuit combined with solar collection and storage loops into a single integrated thermal system. Gas fired boilers provide backup and load peaking. Solar collection is provided by three types of panels located on a south facing hill from top to bottom are as follows: parabolic tracking concentrating reflectors, 7680 ft/sup 2/; parabolic fixed concentrating reflectors, 7364 ft/sup 2/; and fresnel lens concentrating, tracking, 2488 ft/sup 2/. The storage capacity is 88,800 gallons in 3 steel tanks. Reference DOE/CS/31499-T2.

Not Available

70

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

71

Use advisability of heat pumps for building heating and cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the actual economic and energetic juncture, the reduction of thermal energy consumption in buildings became a major, necessary and opportune problem, general significance. The heat pumps are alternative heating installations more energy efficiency ... Keywords: "Geoterm" system, building heating/cooling, energy and economic analysis, heat pump performances, heat pumps, renewable energy sources

Ioan Sârbu; C?lin Sebarchievici

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Water cooling of HVDC thyristor valves  

SciTech Connect

It is generally accepted that water is a very effective medium to remove heat losses from any type of equipment. When used for HVDC thyristor valves, the fundamentals of electrolyte conduction and water chemistry need to be considered in the design of the cooling circuit. The characteristics of the materials used, in conjunction with high voltage stresses and circuit configuration, play an important role to assure longevity and corrosion-free performance.

Lips, H.P. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 222 194 17...

74

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,100...

75

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,928 1,316...

76

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

77

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

78

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

79

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

80

Heat pipe cooling of metallurgical furnace equipment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current water-cooling technology used in the metallurgical industry poses a major safety concern. In addition, these systems are expensive to operate and result in significant… (more)

Navarra, Pietro, 1979-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past decade, the water requirements for cooling industrial manufacturing processes have changed dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water consumption by increasing the use of recycled water. Simplistically, the circulating cooling water flows through heat exchanger equipment and is cooled by passing through a cooling tower. The recycled water is cooled by evaporation of some of the circulating water as it passes through the tower. As a result of the evaporation process, the dissolved solids in the water become concentrated. The evaporated water is replaced by fresh makeup water. The dissolved solids content of the water is maintained by the rate of water discharge (blowdown). As the amount of dissolved solids increases, their solubility is exceeded and the solids tend to precipitate from the cooling water. The precipitated scale adheres to heat transfer surfaces and reduces heat transfer efficiency. In order to achieve zero discharge of water, it is paramount that the potential for scale formation and deposition be minimized. This can be accomplished through physical separation of scale-forming ions and particulate matter. Two widely used mechanical methods in this category are lime-soda side stream softening and vapor compression blowdown evaporation. Another approach is chemical treatment to promote scale inhibition and dispersion.

Boffardi, B. P.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Control system for solar heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A control system is being developed that will be capable of operating solar heating and cooling systems covering a wide range of configurations, and using different operating strategies that may be optimal for different climatic regions. To insure widespread applicability of the control system, it is being designed to allow for modification for operating with essentially all practical heating and cooling system configurations and control algorithms simply by interchange of replaceable modules in the circuitry. An experimental heating and cooling system, the main purpose of which is to allow testing and exercise of the controller, was designed so that it could be operated in these various configurations.

Wahlig, M.; Binnall, E.; Dols, C.; Graven, R.; Selph, F.; Shaw, R.; Simmons, M.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid cooling, dry cooler, cooling tower 1. INTRODUCTIONsolutions for cooling. Substituting cooling towers,hybrid cooling towers, or dry coolers that provide warmer

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

None,

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Fundamental heat transfer experiments of heat pipes for turbine cooling  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental heat transfer experiments were carried out for three kinds of heat pipes that may be applied to turbine cooling in future aero-engines. In the turbine cooling system with a heat pipe, heat transfer rate and start-up time of the heat pipe are the most important performance criteria to evaluate and compare with conventional cooling methods. Three heat pipes are considered, called heat pipe A, B, and C, respectively. All heat pipes have a stainless steel shell and nickel sintered powder metal wick. Sodium (Na) was the working fluid for heat pipes A and B; heat pipe C used eutectic sodium-potassium (NaK). Heat pipes B and C included noncondensible gas for rapid start-up. There were fins on the cooling section of heat pipes. In the experiments, an infrared image furnace supplied heat to the heat pipe simulating turbine blade surface conditions. In the results, heat pipe B demonstrated the highest heat flux of 17 to 20 W/cm{sup 2}. The start-up time was about 6 minutes for heat pipe B and about 6 minutes for heat pipe A. Thus, adding noncondensible gas effectively reduced start-up time. Although NaK is a liquid phase at room temperature, the start-up time of heat pipe C (about 7 to 8 minutes) was not shorter than the heat pipe B. The effect of a gravitational force on heat pipe performance was also estimated by inclining the heat pipe at an angle of 90 deg. There was no significant gravitational dependence on heat transport for heat pipes including noncondensible gas.

Yamawaki, S. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, T.; Taki, M.; Mimura, F. [National Aerospace Lab., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

87

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

District heating and cooling market assessment  

SciTech Connect

For more than 10 years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported research on and development of district steam, hot-water, and chilled-water systems in the residential and commercial sectors. In 1991, DOE sponsored a research project at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to reestimate the national market for district heating and cooling (DHC) systems to the year 2010. ANL had previously developed a DHC market-penetration model and used it to project future market penetration. The first step in the project was to conduct a literature search to identify major data sources on historical DHC markets and any past studies on the future market potential of DHC systems. On the basis of an evaluation of the available data and methodologies for estimating market penetration of new technologies, it was concluded that ANL should develop a new econometric model for forecasting DHC markets. By using the 1989 DOE/Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Surveys (CBECS) public-use-tape data, a model was estimated for steam, hot-water, and chilled-water demand in the buildings surveyed. The model provides estimates of building steam, hot-water, and chilled-water consumption and expenditures between now and the year 2010. The analysis shows that the total U.S. market for district steam, hot water, and chilled water could grow from 0.8 quadrillion British thermal units (quad) in 1989 to 1.0 quad by 2000 and 1.25 quad by 2010. The demand for chilled water could nearly double in the forecast period, and its share could approach one-third of the total DHC market. This model, and the results, should be of use to policymakers, researchers, and market participants involved in the planning and implementation of community-based, energy-conserving, and environmentally beneficial energy systems.

Teotia, A.P.S.; Karvelas, D.E.; Daniels, E.J.; Anderson, J.L.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Water Cooling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...coil. Usually, two pumps are provided, one as a standby with an automatic switchover, because it is extremely important to circulate water through the coil continuously to prevent it from being damaged. To protect induction furnace equipment during momentary power interruptions or prolonged power...

90

Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for use in power cycles. Such cycles are more readily amenable to use of absorption ''heat pumps.'' For a system that uses ammonia and water as the mixed-working fluid, this paper evaluates using an absorption heat pump to reduce condenser backpressure. At high ambient temperatures, part of the turbine exhaust vapor is absorbed into a circulating mixed stream in an absorber in series with the main condenser. This steam is pumped up to a higher pressure and heated to strip the excess vapor, which is recondensed using an additional air-cooled condenser. The operating conditions are chosen to reconstitute this condensate back to the same concentration as drawn from the original system. We analyzed two power plants of nominal 1-megawatt capacity. The design resource temperatures were 250 F and 300 F. Ambient temperature was allowed to rise from a design value of 50 F to 100 F. The analyses indicate that using an absorption heat pump is feasible. For the 300 F resource, an increased brine flow of 30% resulted in a net power increase of 21%. For the 250 F resource, the increase was smaller. However, these results are highly plant- and equipment-specific because evaluations must be carried out at off-design conditions for the condenser. Such studies should be carried out for specific power plants that suffer most from increased ambient temperatures.

Bharathan, D.; Nix, G.

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

91

CONTROLS FOR SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING  

SciTech Connect

An experimental test facility for solar heating and cooling has been constructed to evaluate the operation and performance of an LBLdeveloped solar controller that has promising commercial potential. The LBL controller was designed to be intermediate in performance between a simple differential thermostat and an on-line microprocessor. The PROM~based controller operates the solar system according to a preprogrammed algorithm that translates operating state conditions (fluid temperatures, switch positions, comparator outputs) into a set of operating instructions (open or close valves, turn pumps on or off). The operating algorithm can be changed by reprogramming or exchanging the plug-in integrated circuit component, or by changing the sensors selected for comparison. The experimental solar heating system can be operated using different control algorithms, input meteorological conditions, and output load demands. In FY 1979 the test facility became operational and initial testing began. Emphasis has been on refinement of system instrumentation and the development of necessary computer software to run the facility and perform data analysis. Preliminary energy balance experiments with the load and collector loops under microcomputer control were successfully completed in November 1979. Experiment modifications have been completed to permit variable-flow and proportional-flow control of the collector loop. A series of experimental comparisons of proportional and on/off collector loop strategies are planned using typical meteorological year data. The evaluation of configurations for combined domestic hot water and heating systems has begun to determine necessary experiment modifications to test one and two tank domestic hot water systems in combination with hydronic space heating systems. Other work has included the application of theoretical models to describe dynamic collector operation and building temperature response. Theoretical analysis of the energy collection performance of on/off and proportional flow control collector loop strategies has been completed. Papers have been presented at the Second System Simulation and Economics Conference held in January 1980 in San Diego. Technical program support activities, in cooperation with SERI and SAN, are continuing.

Warren, Mashuri L.; Schiller, Steven R.; Wahlig, Michael

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 1: Technology Demonstration Projects Project Description - Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School, Middle School and Elementary School. - Provide jobs, and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District, and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession. - The new Heat Pumps will be targeted to perform at very high efficiency with EER (energy efficiency ratios) of 22+/-. System capacity is planned at 610 tons. - Remove unusable antiquated existing equipment and systems from the campus heating and cooling system, but utilize ductwork, piping, etc. where feasible. The campus is served by antiquated air conditioning units combined with natural gas, and with very poor EER estimated at 6+/-. - Monitor for 3 years the performance of the new systems compared to benchmarks from the existing system, and provide data to the public to promote adoption of Geothermal technology. - The Geothermal installation contractor is able to provide financing for a significant portion of project funding with payments that fall within the energy savings resulting from the new high efficiency heating and cooling systems.

93

5 Cool Things about Solar Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 Cool Things about Solar Heating 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating March 26, 2013 - 3:08pm Addthis Solar heating systems can be a cost-effective way to heat your home. | Photo...

94

Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

95

Use of Degraded Water Sources as Cooling Water in Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In electricity production, nearly all thermal power plants reject heat either to a large body of water (once-through cooling) or to the atmosphere via wet cooling towers — the predominant form of cooling in California. These towers, however, use considerable quantities of water. Competing state demands for freshwater have forced California thermal power plants to consider alternative cooling water supplies, though the availability of such supplies and data on their use and impact is limited. In fac...

2003-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

96

Eight evacuated collector installations. Interim report for the IEA task on the performance of solar heating, cooling and hot water systems using evacuated collectors  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative IEA task on evacuated collector systems includes the following research and development projects: solar heated and cooled single family residences in Japan and the USA, a solar heated single family residence in the Netherlands, a solar heated multi-family unit in West Germany, a solar test facility in the United Kingdom, solar heated and cooled offices in Australia, a solar heated and cooled laboratory in Italy, an industrial process heat application in Canada, a solar heated and cooled university building in the USA and district heating systems in Sweden and Switzerland. The task covers the important evacuated collector applications. The same collectors are used in several installations and nearly all currently available evacuated collectors are used in at least one installation. Exchange of performance results within the task has been greatly enhanced by adoption of a mandatory highly prescriptive common reporting structure. Detailed unambiguous performance comparisons are made which would otherwise be difficult or impractical. This report, the first in a series of reports that will be published through 1986, describes the system and climate at eight of the installations and illustrates and compares seasonal, monthly, daily and hourly performance of the installations in Japan, Sweden, the USA and West Germany.

Duff, W.S.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

98

Energy Basics: Supporting Equipment for Heating and Cooling Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for Heating and Cooling Systems Thermostats and ducts provide opportunities for saving energy. Dehumidifying heat pipes provide a way to help central air conditioners and heat...

99

Water heater heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to the conservation of energy in a domestic gas water heater by utilizing the hot exhaust gases in a gas water heater for the preheating of the incoming unheated water into the water heater. The exhaust gases from a domestic gas water heater carry wasted heat and the present invention provides a mean to reclaim part of the wasted heat for the preheating of the incoming unheated water during hot water usage periods. During non hot water usage periods the heat in the exhaust gases is not reclaimed to prevent overheating of the water and also to prevent the formation of water deposit in the preheating assembly or heat reclaimer. During the non hot water usage periods the heat produced in the water heater is normally needed only to maintain the desired water temperature of the stored water in the water tank of the water heater. Due to the rapid heating or recovery rate, the present invention enables the use of a smaller water heater. The use of a smaller water heater reduces the normal heat loss from the stored hot water thereby further reduces energy consumption.

Wie, C.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

100

Electronic thermostat with selectable mode to control heating only, cooling only or both heating and cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a thermostat for use in a building having means for cooling the building and means for heating the building, the thermostat being connected to the cooling means and the heating means and operative to generate an energizing signal for only one of the heating means or cooling means at a given time, the thermostat comprising: means for measuring the ambient temperature within the building; manual data entry means; means for storing a program of desired heating temperatures over a repetitive time cycle, programmed by the manual data entry means; a clock operative to generate time signals within the repetitive time cycle; means for generating a signal representative of a desired heating temperature and a desired cooling temperature at the present time based upon the signals from the clock in the stored temperature program; means for placing the thermostat in either a first mode where control signals are generated only for the heating means as a function of the difference between the measured temperature within the building and the desired heating temperature signal. Control signals are generated for either the heating means or the cooling means based upon the measured temperature and the respective desired heating and cooling temperature signals.

Levine, M.R.

1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Towards Occupancy-Driven Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

$100­$200 per home in hardware, and less than $0.10 per square foot in office buildings. It will also a 28% reduction per household in the energy required for heating and cooling, at the cost of only $25. This energy savings is a low hanging fruit: a large amount of energy can be saved at a very low cost

Whitehouse, Kamin

102

HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM FOR CALUTRON  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is invented for heating or cooling the electrostatic liner conventionally disposed in a calutron tank. The apparatus is additionally arranged to mount the liner in its intended position in a readily detachable manner so as to facilitate disassembly of the calutron.

Starr, A.M.

1960-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

103

Solar heating and cooling demonstration project summaries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Brief descriptive overviews are presented of the design and operating characteristics of all commercial and Federal residential solar heating and cooling systems and of the structures themselves. Also included are available pictures of the buildings and simplified solar system diagrams. A list of non-Federal residential installations is provided.

Not Available

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A collection of quarterly reports from the AiResearch Manufacturing Company covering the period July 12, 1976, through December 31, 1977, is presented. AiResearch Manufacturing Company is developing eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems. This effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3, 25 and 75-ton size units.

Not Available

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Liquid metal heat pipe behavior under transient cooling and heating  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation of the transient behavior of a liquid metal heat pipe. A 0.457 m long, screen-wick, sodium heat pipe with 0.0127 m outer diameter was tested in sodium loop facility. The heat pipe reversed under a pulse heat load applied at the condenser. The time at which the heat pipe reversed was dependent of the heat pipe properties, the sodium loop flow rate and heating conditions at the condenser. The start-up and the operational shut-down by forced cooling of the condenser were also studied. During the start-up process, at least part of the heat pipe was active. The active region extended gradually down to the end of the condenser until all working fluid in the heat pipe was molten. With forced cooling at the condenser, the heat pipe approached its heat transport limit before section of the condenser became frozen. The measured heat transport limit was in agreement with the theoretical value. 5 refs.

Nguyen, H.X.; Hahn, T.O.; Hahn, O.J.; Chow, L.C.; Tagavi, K.A.; Morgan, M.J. (Kentucky, University, Lexington (United States) USAF, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reynolds Number (Nu Nu o ) (f f o ) 24% Increase in Cooling Performance Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling Passages with Shaped Turbulators...

107

Jones-Onslow EMC - Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Jones-Onslow EMC - Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program Jones-Onslow EMC - Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program Jones-Onslow EMC - Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Central AC (15 SEER or greater): $35 Central AC (16 SEER or greater): $50 Heat Pump (15 SEER or greater): $250 Geothermal Heat Pump (19 EER or greater): $350 Provider Jones-Onslow EMC Jones-Onslow Electric Membership Corporation offers rebates to residential members who install energy efficient heating and cooling equipment. Members can replace an existing central AC or heat pump, which does not have a SEER rating greater than 13, with a central AC, heat pump, or geothermal heat

108

Principles of Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Principles of Heating and Cooling Principles of Heating and Cooling Principles of Heating and Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:04pm Addthis To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kryzanek. To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kryzanek. Understanding how heat is transferred from the outdoors into your home and from your home to your body is important for understanding the challenge of keeping your house cool. Understanding the processes that help keep your body cool is important in understanding cooling strategies for your home. Principles of Heat Transfer Heat is transferred to and from objects -- such as you and your home -- via

109

Keeping cool on the job. [Heat-resistant protective clothing  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance workers at nuclear power plants need special protective clothing that slows overheating from the 55/sup 0/C temperature caused by waste heat from pipes and pressure vehicles. Cooling garments increase efficiency by extending the time workers can function, as well as safeguarding their health and morale. The Electric Power Research Institute evaluated two cooling concepts: circulating liquid suits already available on the market and a prototype frozen-water garment. Performance tests of the frozen-water suit found that it can more than double the 65-minute stay-time of liquid-cooled systems. The frozen-water garment permits mobility, is compatible with radiation protection and other garments and equipment, is easty to clean or decontaminate, has no moving parts, and is attractively priced. 4 figures. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; O'Brien, J.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

COOLING AND HEATING FUNCTIONS OF PHOTOIONIZED GAS  

SciTech Connect

Cooling and heating functions of cosmic gas are crucial ingredients for any study of gas dynamics and thermodynamics in the interstellar and intergalactic media. As such, they have been studied extensively in the past under the assumption of collisional ionization equilibrium. However, for a wide range of applications, the local radiation field introduces a non-negligible, often dominant, modification to the cooling and heating functions. In the most general case, these modifications cannot be described in simple terms and would require a detailed calculation with a large set of chemical species using a radiative transfer code (the well-known code Cloudy, for example). We show, however, that for a sufficiently general variation in the spectral shape and intensity of the incident radiation field, the cooling and heating functions can be approximated as depending only on several photoionization rates, which can be thought of as representative samples of the overall radiation field. This dependence is easy to tabulate and implement in cosmological or galactic-scale simulations, thus economically accounting for an important but rarely included factor in the evolution of cosmic gas. We also show a few examples where the radiation environment has a large effect, the most spectacular of which is a quasar that suppresses gas cooling in its host halo without any mechanical or non-radiative thermal feedback.

Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Hollon, Nicholas, E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Passive containment cooling water distribution device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Hookstown, PA); Fanto, Susan V. (Plum Borough, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper is a progress report for the period of July 1, 1990 to 31 August 1990 on activities at Colorado State University in a program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Topics covered are: solar heating with isothermal collectors; solid cooling with solid desiccant; liquid desiccant cooling systems; solar heating systems; solar water heaters; fields tests; and program management. 6 figs., 2 tabs. (FSD)

Not Available

1990-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

113

Water cooled scavenged crankcase type otto internal combustion engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a system for a water cooled scavenged crankcase type two-cycle internal combustion engine comprising: a heat reclaimation system for extracting heat from an engine jacket for heating water supplied form an add-on reservoir via a heat exchanger located within the engine cylinder cooling system, the water being subsequently additionally heated by an exhaust pipe type heat exchanger to a superheated steam state and thence conveyed by a conduit to a steam lubricator for adjustably conveying in variably timed spaced succession intervals of regulated droplets of high viscous oil, fortified with adde graphite and tallow enrichment lubricant ingredients, and thence conveying such by steam at atmospheric pressure into an intake manifold which receives a carbureted air/fuel mixture into the crankcase via a manually operated auxiliary air intake device and way check valve and fire screen, due to suction effect of the piston up stroke action of the piston during engine operation.

Bidwell, H.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

114

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

115

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Near-Instantaneous Microwave Heating and Cooling for Microfluidic ...  

home \\ technologies \\ microwave heating of microfluidics. Technologies: Ready-to-Sign Licenses: Software: Patents: Near-Instantaneous Microwave Heating and Cooling ...

117

Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling water is expensive to circulate. Reducing its flow - i.e., hiking exchanger outlet temperatures - can cut tower, pump and piping investment as much as one-third and operating cost almost in half. Heat-exchanger-network optimization has been accomplished in large integrated plants, such as petroleum refineries. In many of the chemical process industries, however, a plant contains several individual processes, and network optimization, except on a limited basis, is not feasible. So far, no one has developed similar procedures for designing and optimizing a cooling-water once through-exchanger system. This article attempts to fill the void by presenting a design basis that will produce a 'near optimum' system. A cooling-water system consists of four major components: heat exchangers, cooling towers, circulation piping and pumps. To optimize such a system, one must define the system interactions and apply these relationships to the simultaneous design of the aforementioned equipment. This article develops criteria that for most applications allow one to ignore system interactions, and still design a 'near optimum' system. Cooling-water systems have long been designed by 'rules of thumb' that call for fixing the cool ant temperature-rise across all heat exchangers (usually 20 F) and setting the coolant inlet temperature to the heat exchanger at the site's wet-bulb temperature plus 8 F. These rules produce a workable cooling system; but, by taking the same coolant rise across all exchangers, regardless of the individual process outlet-temperatures, this cannot result in an optimized design. The design method presented in this article replaces the 'rules of thumb' with criteria that are easy to apply and that take into account the effect that the individual exchanger process outlet- temperatures have on cooling-system economics. Economic analyses of actual process have shown that cooling-system investment can be reduced by one third, and cooling-system operating cost by one half, If the proposed design criteria are used instead of the 'rules of thumb.' It has been found that the controlling economic factor for a cooling system is the quantity of water being circulated. Reducing the flow (raising the coolant outlet temperature of heat exchangers) significantly reduces cooling tower, pump and piping investment, and operating cost, and only moderately increases the heat-exchanger investment. The overriding conclusion to be drawn is that cooling water is very expensive, and its conservation can result in significant savings.

Crozier, R. A., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Recovery Act-Funded Water Heating Projects | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Performance (an efficiency measure) of up to 8. These next generation R-744 heat pump water heaters will be targeted for commercial use where cooling load is...

119

Thermal analysis of a piston cooling system with reciprocating heat pipes  

SciTech Connect

The reciprocating heat pipe is a very promising technology in engine piston cooling, especially for heavy-duty diesel engines. The concept of the reciprocating heat pipe is verified through the experimental observation of a transparent heat pipe and by thermal testing of a copper/water reciprocating heat pipe. A comparative thermal analysis on the reciprocating heat pipe and gallery cooling systems is performed. The approximate analytical results show that the piston ring groove temperature can be significantly reduced using heat pipe cooling technology, which could contribute to an increase in engine thermal efficiency and a reduction in environmental pollution.

Cao, Y.; Wang, Q. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

An analysis of electrothermodynamic heating and cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current advances in semiconductor manufacturing have brought about an increasing use of thermoelectricity in a variety of applications. Most of these applications, however, have involved the steady state application of this phenomenon. As a result, few have considered the transient aspect of this field (Gray 1960). In recent years there has been an increasing demand to heat and cool objects very quickly. One particular proposal to use the transient nature of thermoelectricity was made by Lagoudas and Kinra (I 993) in regard to shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators. In general, SMA actuators have been largely limited by the rate that heat may be extracted from the SMA. In their investigation, they proposed the concept of using the SMA directly as the cold junction of a thermocouple. By way of the Peltier effect, then, heat could be added or removed at the interfaces at a rate proportional to the current density and local temperature; by increasing the current, the rate of cooling would be increased, albeit at the expense of the Joule heating within the conductor. This investigation explores the dynamic nature of thermoelectrically cooled/heated regions in effort to gain a greater understanding of the transient application of thermoelectricity, including the role of the surrounding material properties. To this end, we consider a pair of semi-infinite rods of equal cross-sectional area in perfect thermoelectric contact. At time t = 0, a DC current begins to flow in the axial direction. The electrothermodynamic response of the composite rod at the interface is calculated. The transient interface temperature is completely described by a single dimensionless parameter called the MOET number (Modulus Of ElectroThermodynamics). Perhaps the most interesting result is that the minimum temperature at the interface is independent of the current density. Of course, the time required to reach this minimum temperature does depend on the current density; it varies as 1/J2.

Honea, Mark Stephen

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

District cooling and heating development in Stamford, CT. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the development options for introducing district cooling and heating in downtown Stamford, Connecticut. A district energy system as defined for the Stamford project is the production of chilled and hot water at a central energy plant, and its distribution underground to participating building in the vicinity. The objective of the study was to investigate implementation of a district energy system in conjunction with cogeneration as a means to encourage energy conservation and provide the city with an economic development tool. Analysis of the system configuration focused on selecting an arrangement which offered a realistic opportunity for implementation. Three main alternatives were investigated: (1) construction of an 82 MW cogeneration plant and a district heating and cooling system to serve downtown buildings, (2) construction of a small (4 MW) in-fence cogeneration plant combined with cooling and heating, and (3) construction of a district cooling and heating plant to supply selected buildings. Option (1) was determined to be unfeasible at this time due to low electricity prices. The analysis demonstrated that alternatives (2) and (3) were feasible. A number of recommendations are made for detailed cost estimates and ownership, leasing, and financial issues. 12 figs., 10 tabs.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Assessment of solar heating and cooling techology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to assess in detail the state of the technology for solar heating and cooling of buildings, five 2-day meetings were held. The meeting subjects were solar collectors, thermal storage, air conditioning and heat pumps, systems and controls, and non-engineering aspects of solar energy. This is a condensation of these meetings, presenting for each topic discussed the details of the state of the art, the problem areas, and the objectives of necessary research and development. The existing state of technology for solar heating and cooling presents a mixed picture. Liquid-heating flat-plate solar collectors, for example, are in a rather mature stage, and there is a small, viable industry producing components. Even here, however, there are problems of materials which, if solved, can reduce collector cost, improve performance, or increase lifetime. In other areas such as, for example, desiccant chillers, passive concepts, and many of the systems categories, the technology is at an early stage of evolution, and much research and development remain to be done.

Balcomb, J.D.; Perry, J.E. Jr.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling April 24, 2012 - 4:18pm Addthis Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat and cool your home can be both environmentally friendly and cost effective. In many cases, your heating costs can be reduced to less than half the cost of heating a typical home. Passive solar design can also help lower your cooling costs. Passive solar cooling techniques include carefully designed overhangs and using reflective coatings on windows, exterior walls, and roofs. Newer techniques include placing large, insulated windows on south-facing walls and putting thermal mass, such as a concrete slab floor or a heat-absorbing wall, close to the windows. A passive solar house requires careful design and siting, which vary by

125

Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling April 24, 2012 - 4:18pm Addthis Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat and cool your home can be both environmentally friendly and cost effective. In many cases, your heating costs can be reduced to less than half the cost of heating a typical home. Passive solar design can also help lower your cooling costs. Passive solar cooling techniques include carefully designed overhangs and using reflective coatings on windows, exterior walls, and roofs. Newer techniques include placing large, insulated windows on south-facing walls and putting thermal mass, such as a concrete slab floor or a heat-absorbing wall, close to the windows. A passive solar house requires careful design and siting, which vary by

126

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following tasks; solar heating with isothermal collector operation and advanced control strategy; solar cooling with solid desiccant; liquid desiccant cooling system development; solar house III -- development and improvement of solar heating systems employing boiling liquid collectors; generic solar domestic water heating systems; advanced residential solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems; management and coordination of Colorado State/DOE program; and field monitoring workshop.

1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model was developed for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very-important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy.

Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Program on Technology Innovation: New Concepts of Water Conservation Cooling and Water Treatment Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes 114 proposals received as a result of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) worldwide solicitations that were distributed in February 2011 and June 2012. The solicitations sought early-stage concepts for innovative power plant water-conserving technologies for cooling, waste heat utilization, and water treatment. The report also highlights 18 cooling proposals from 2011, including 5 funded projects. In addition, it describes current cooling ...

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

130

Simulation and analysis of district-heating and -cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer simulation model, GEOCITY, was developed to study the design and economics of district heating and cooling systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, energy source, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree-days, population size and density, energy supply temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. For district cooling, maximum temperature and cooling degree-hours are required. From this input data the model designs the fluid transport and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY was originally developed to simulate geothermal district heating systems and thus, in addition to the fluid transport and distribution models, it includes a reservoir model to simulate the production of geothermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. The reservoir model can be adapted to simulate the supply of hot water from any other energy source. GEOCITY has been used extensively and has been validated against other design and cost studies. GEOCITY designs the fluid transport and distribution facilities and then calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. Both private and municipal utility systems can be simulated.

Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Steamtown District Heating and Cooling Project, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities of a study intended to examine the feasibility of a district heating and cooling alternative for the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the import of steam from the existing district heating system in Scranton which is operated by the Community Central Energy Corporation and through the use of modern technology provide hot and chilled water to Steamtown for its internal heating and cooling requirements. Such a project would benefit Steamtown by introducing a clean technology, eliminating on-site fuel use, avoiding first costs for central heating and cooling plants and reducing operation and maintenance expenditures. For operators of the existing district heating system, this project represents an opportunity to expand their customer base and demonstrate new technologies. The study was conducted by Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc. and performed for the Community Central Energy Corporation through a grant by the US Department of Energy. Steamtown was represented by the National Park Service, the developers of the site.

NONE

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Water-Loop Heat Pump Systems: Assessment Study Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-loop heat pump systems, composed of multiple water-source heat pumps, a boiler, and a cooling tower operating in a closed water loop are a key segment of the commercial building heat pump market. This type of system provides a low-first-cost, versatile, and energy-efficient approach to space conditioning commercial buildings that have simultaneous heating and cooling loads.

1991-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

133

Preliminary Analysis of a Solar Heat Pump System with Seasonal Storage for Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For higher solar fraction and suitability for both heating and cooling, a solar heat pump system with seasonal storage was studied in this paper. The system scheme and control strategy of a solar heat pump system with seasonal storage for heating and cooling were set up, which is responsible for the space heating and cooling and domestic hot water for a residential block. Through hourly simulation, the performance and the economics of such systems were analyzed, for the different tank volumes, operating modes and weather conditions. The results show that 1) for most areas of China, the solar systems with seasonal storage can save energy; 2) for areas with cold winter and hot summer, it is suitable to store heat from summer to winter and store cold energy from winter to summer, but for chilly areas, it is suitable to only store heat from summer to winter; 3) when the ratio of volume of seasonal storage tank to collector areas is 2~3, the system performance is optimal and the payback period is shortest for most areas of north China; and 4) if cooling storage is needed, the seasonal storage coupled with short-term storage may raise the solar fraction largely.

Yu, G.; Chen, P.; Dalenback, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn how to buy the right size of water heater. Read more You can reduce your monthly water heating bills by selecting the appropriate water heater for your home or pool and by using some energy-efficient water heating strategies. Some simple do-it-yourself projects, like insulating hot water pipes and lowering your water heating temperature, can also help you save money and energy on your water heating.

135

FEMP-Solar Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fact sheet details solar water heating and how to use the sun to heat domestic water in any climate. Document explains how solar water heating helps to save energy, reduce utility costs, and preserve the environment.

136

National solar heating and cooling programs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document is a compilation of status reports on the national solar heating and cooling programs of seventeen countries participating in the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society's Solar Energy Pilot Study. These reports were presented in two special sessions of the 25th Congress of the International Solar Energy Society held in May 1979, in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. This information exchange activity was part of the two-year follow up (1978-1980) of the Solar Energy Pilot Study, which ended in October 1978.

Blum, S; Allen, J [eds.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heater: up to $275 Heat Pump Replacement: $400 Provider Rock Hill Utilities Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed above. If both the water heater and heat pump are purchased then the customer may qualify for the Great Rate program. The Great Rate program will add a 25% discount to a

138

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Published 112011 Conference Location Seattle, WA Call Number LBNL-5128E Abstract Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and...

139

Performance analysis of heat transfer processes from wet and dry surfaces : cooling towers and heat exchangers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this work is to study the thermal and hydraulic performance of evaporatively cooled heat exchangers, including closed wet cooling towers, and dry… (more)

Hasan, Ala Ali

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Performance Analysis of Heat Transfer Processes from Wet and Dry Surfaces: Cooling Towers and Heat Exchangers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this work is to study the thermal and hydraulic performance of evaporatively cooled heat exchangers, including closed wet cooling towers, and dry… (more)

Hasan, Ala Ali

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Investigation of the heat pipe arrays for convective electronic cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A combined experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to evaluate a heat pipe convective cooling device consisting of sixteen small copper/water heat pipes mounted vertically in a 4x4 array 25.4 mm square. The analytical portion of the investigation focused on determination of the maximum heat transport capacity and the resistance of the individual heat pipes. The resistance of each beat pipe was found to be 2.51 K/Watt, or more than 3 times smaller than the resistance produced by a solid copper rod with the same dimensions. The maximum predicted heat rejection for the module was over 50 Watts, or a power density in excess of 7.75 Watts/CM2. In the experimental portion of the investigation, two different modules were tested. The first module utilized ten circular aluminum fins mounted on the condenser end of each heat pipe to enhance heat rejection, while the second contained only the sixteen copper/water heat pipes. The effects of flow velocity, input power, and base plate temperature on the overall thermal resistance and the heat rejection capacity were determined, as well as the pressure drop resulting from each module. The finned heat pipe array was found to have a lower overall thermal resistance and thus, a higher heat rejection capacity, but also resulted in a significantly larger pressure drop than the array without fins. The results of the heat pipe array experiments were also compared with experimental and empirical results obtained from flow over a flat plate 25.4 mm square.

Howard, Alicia Ann Harris

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Systems Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Systems < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Solar Heating Program Info State Maryland Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount Eligible property is assessed at no more than the value of a conventional system Provider Department of Assessments and Taxation Title 8 of Maryland's property tax code includes a state-wide special assessment for solar and geothermal heating and cooling systems. Under this provision, such systems are to be assessed at not more than the value of a conventional system for property tax purposes if no conventional system

143

Energy Star Building Upgrade Manual Heating and Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9. Heating and 9. Heating and Cooling Revised January 2008 9.1 Overview 2 9.2 Central Cooling Systems 3 Chiller Plant Operations and Maintenance 4 Chiller Plant Retrofits 6 9.3 Central Heating Systems 10 Boiler System Operations and Maintenance 11 Boiler System Retrofits 11 Improving Furnace Efficiency 13 9.4 Unitary Systems 14 Packaged Rooftop Units 16 Split-System Packaged Units 18 Air-Source Heat Pumps 18 Ground-Source, Closed-Loop Heat Pumps 19 9.5 Additional Strategies 20 Air-Side Economizer 20 Energy Recovery 20 Desiccant Dehumidification 20 Night Precooling 21 Cool Storage 22 Evaporative Cooling 22 9.6 Summary 22 Bibliography 23 Glossary G-1 1 ENERGY STAR ® Building Manual ENERGY STAR ® Building Manual 9. Heating and Cooling 9.1 Overview Although heating and cooling systems provide a useful service by keeping occupants comfort-

144

Cooling by Heat Conduction Inside Magnetic Flux Loops and the Moderate Cluster Cooling Flow Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I study non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas via heat conduction along magnetic field lines inside magnetic flux loops in cooling flow clusters of galaxies. I find that such heat conduction can reduce the fraction of energy radiated in the X-ray band by a factor of 1.5-2. This non-radiative cooling joins two other proposed non-radiative cooling processes, which can be more efficient. These are mixing of cold and hot gas, and heat conduction initiated by magnetic fields reconnection between hot and cold gas. These processes when incorporated into the moderate cooling flow model lead to a general cooling flow model with the following ingredients. (1) Cooling flow does occur, but with a mass cooling rate about 10 times lower than in old versions of the cooling flow model. Namely, heating occurs such that the effective age of the cooling flow is much below the cluster age, but the heating can't prevent cooling altogether. (2) The cooling flow region is in a non-steady state evolution. (3) Non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas can bring the model to a much better agreement with observations. (4) The general behavior of the cooling flow gas, and in particular the role played by magnetic fields, make the intracluster medium in cooling flow clusters similar in some aspects to the active solar corona.

Noam Soker

2003-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

145

Solar heating and cooling diode module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency solar heating system comprising a plurality of hollow modular units each for receiving a thermal storage mass, the units being arranged in stacked relation in the exterior frame of a building, each of the units including a port for filling the unit with the mass, a collector region and a storage region, each region having inner and outer walls, the outer wall of the collector region being oriented for exposure to sunlight for heating the thermal storage mass; the storage region having an opening therein and the collector region having a corresponding opening, the openings being joined for communicating the thermal storage mass between the storage and collector regions by thermosiphoning; the collector region being disposed substantially below and in parallel relation to the storage region in the modular unit; and the inner wall of the collector region of each successive modular unit in the stacked relation extending over the outer wall of the storage region of the next lower modular unit in the stacked relation for reducing heat loss from the system. Various modifications and alternatives are disclosed for both heating and cooling applications.

Maloney, Timothy J. (Winchester, VA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 Main Commercial Primary Energy Use of Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995 Heating Equipment | Cooling Equipment Packaged Heating Units 25% | Packaged Air Conditioning Units 54% Boilers 21% | Room Air Conditioning 5% Individual Space Heaters 2% | PTAC (2) 3% Furnaces 20% | Centrifugal Chillers 14% Heat Pumps 5% | Reciprocating Chillers 12% District Heat 7% | Rotary Screw Chillers 3% Unit Heater 18% | Absorption Chillers 2% PTHP & WLHP (1) 2% | Heat Pumps 7% 100% | 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) PTHP = Packaged Terminal Heat Pump, WLHP = Water Loop Heat Pump. 2) PTAC = Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume 1: Chillers, Refrigerant Compressors, and Heating Systems, Apr. 2001, Figure 5-5, p. 5-14 for cooling and Figure 5-10, p. 5-18 for heating

147

Solar Water Heating  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

publication provides basic informa- publication provides basic informa- tion on the components and types of solar water heaters currently available and the economic and environmental benefits of owning a system. Although the publica- tion does not provide information on building and installing your own system, it should help you discuss solar water heating systems intelligently with a solar equipment dealer. Solar water heaters, sometimes called

148

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands Cool Roofs and Heat Islands Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Roofs Agency/Company /Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Resource assessment Website: eetd.lbl.gov/r-bldgsee-crhi.html References: [1] Logo: Cool Roofs "On warm summer days, a city can be 6 to 8°F warmer than its surrounding areas. This effect is called the urban heat island. Cool roof materials, pavements, and vegetation can reduce the heat island effect, save energy and reduce smog formation. The goal of this research is to develop cool materials to save energy and money." [1] The Cool Roof Calculator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a useful tool for exploring the benefits of cool materials.

149

Performance of a hotel chilled water plant with cool storage  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive monitoring suite was installed at a large convention hotel located in San Francisco, CA. The instrumentation was used for a research project to evaluate the effectiveness of electricity price based controls that automate response to real time pricing and to characterize the operation and performance of the hotel's chilled water plant that included a newly installed ice cool storage system. The hotel operates under real-time electricity rates. To date, over four years of data have been collected. Data included electricity use for all chillers, secondary coolant, chilled water, condenser pumps, and the cooling tower fans. Thermal flow data were also collected for the storage system, ice chiller, direct cooling chillers, and chilled water load loops. This paper (1) describes the chilled water plant, (2) defines the performance measurement objectives for the project, (3) discusses operational experience with the plant, focusing on the cool storage system, (4) analyzes chilled water plant and cool storage system operation by examining the charge/discharge heat flow data, and (5) evaluates how well the plant as a whole and the cool storage system specifically met cooling loads of the facility, and how this affected their use.

Gillespie, K.L.; Blanc, S.L.; Parker, S.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

5 Cool Things about Solar Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 Cool Things about Solar Heating 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating March 26, 2013 - 3:08pm Addthis Solar heating systems can be a cost-effective way to heat your home. | Photo courtesy of Solar Design Associates, Inc. Solar heating systems can be a cost-effective way to heat your home. | Photo courtesy of Solar Design Associates, Inc. Erin Connealy Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy How can I participate? Read Energy Saver's article on solar heating systems to see whether see whether active solar heating is a good option for you. Most people are familiar with solar photovoltaic panels, but far fewer know about using solar as a source of heat in their homes. Active solar heating uses solar energy to heat fluid or air, which then transfers the solar heat

151

Heat Pump Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reviews the technology of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) for commercial building applications. The report discusses the technical and conceptual background of heat pump water heaters, laboratory testing as performed at EPRI's laboratory, and implications of the test results. It provides analysis of the climactic applicability, financial scenarios, the air-cooling benefit or detriment of HPWH technology.

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

152

Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline: Revision 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline addresses the use of chemicals and monitoring methods to mitigate corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in the closed cooling-water (CCW) systems of nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants. The chemical additives used for these purposes depend on plant-design characteristics, water quality, operating parameters, and the specifications of the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) suppliers. The list of chemicals is not as extensive as that ...

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

153

Active solar heating-and-cooling system-development projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) projects with industry and academic institutions directed toward the development of cost effective, reliable, and publically acceptable active solar heating and cooling systems are presented. A major emphasis of the program is to insure that the information derived from these projects is made available to all members of the solar community who will benefit from such knowledge. The purpose of this document is to provide a brief summary of each of the 214 projects that were active during Fiscal Year 1980, and to provide sufficient information to allow the reader to acquire further details on specific projects. For clarity and convenience, projects are organized by either the program element or technology group as follows: (1) Program elements - Rankine Solar Cooling Systems; Absorption Solar Cooling Systems; Desiccant Solar Cooling Systems; Solar Space Heating Systems; Solar Hot Water Systems; Special Projects; and (2) Technology Groups - Solar Collector Technology; Solar Storage Technology; Solar Controls Technology; Solar Analysis Technology; and Solar Materials Technology. For further convenience, this book contains three indices of contracts, with listings by (1) organization, (2) contract number and (3) state where the project is performed. A brief glossary of terms used is also included at the end of the book.

Not Available

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Solar heating and cooling. Research and development: project summaries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Conservation and Solar Applications Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Program is described. The evolution of the R and D program is described and the present program is outlined. A series of project descriptions summarizes the research and development presently supported for further development of collectors, thermal energy storage and heat exchangers, heat pumps, solar cooling, controls, and systems. (MHR)

Not Available

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development: quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for single-family residences, multiple-family residences and commercial applications. This document describes the progress of the program during the fifth program quarter, 1 July 1977 to 30 September 1977.

Not Available

1977-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

156

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development: quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The progress of the program for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test is described for the period, 1 January 1978 through 31 March 1978. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for single-family residences, multiple-family residences, and commercial applications.

Not Available

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

System design package for solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This package contains information used to evaluate the design of Solaron's solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling and back-up heating (when solar energy is not available). Included in the package are such items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A Solaron solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

Not Available

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme. 1984 annual report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress is reported in the following areas: coordination of research and development on solar heating and cooling; performance testing of solar collectors; performance of solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems using evacuated collectors; central solar heating plants with seasonal storage; passive and hybrid solar low energy buildings; and solar radiation and pyranometry studies. Planning was also initiated for a proposed materials research and testing task. (LEW)

Blum, S.B. (ed.)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services June 24, 2012 - 2:50pm Addthis Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for space heating and cooling. Product Information Boilers ENERGY STAR® Information on the benefits of ENERGY STAR boilers, as well as resources to calculate savings and find products. Ceiling Fans ENERGY STAR® Describes the benefits of choosing ENERGY STAR ceiling fans, as well as

160

Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services June 24, 2012 - 2:50pm Addthis Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for space heating and cooling. Product Information Boilers ENERGY STAR® Information on the benefits of ENERGY STAR boilers, as well as resources to calculate savings and find products. Ceiling Fans ENERGY STAR® Describes the benefits of choosing ENERGY STAR ceiling fans, as well as

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services June 24, 2012 - 2:50pm Addthis Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for space heating and cooling. Product Information Boilers ENERGY STAR® Information on the benefits of ENERGY STAR boilers, as well as resources to calculate savings and find products. Ceiling Fans ENERGY STAR® Describes the benefits of choosing ENERGY STAR ceiling fans, as well as

162

Energy Basics: Absorption Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption...

163

Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well a previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--1992 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space hearing systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity not supplied to the grid is analyzed in detail. Further, the new concept of CCHP system with cooling and heating network interconnecting is developed. Then, the Olympic Park energy system is presented to illustrate the advantage and improvement both in economy performance and energy efficiency.

Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Space Heating & Cooling Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Space Heating & Cooling Research Space Heating & Cooling Research Space Heating & Cooling Research The Emerging Technology team conducts research in space heating and cooling technologies, with a goal of realizing aggregate energy savings of 20% relative to a 2010 baseline. In addition to work involving the development of products, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with industry partners and researchers, develops best practices, tests, and guides designed to reduce market barriers and increase public awareness of these energy saving technologies. Research is currently focusing on: Geothermal Heat Pumps Photo of a home with a geothermal heat pump, showing how it can regulate the temperature of a home using the temperature underground to cool warm air or heat cold air.

166

PureComfort 240 Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an interim case study of a PureComfort 240 combined cooling, heating and power project at the University of Toronto, Mississauga.

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

167

ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual Chapter 9: Heating and Cooling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

care resources Small business resources State and local government resources ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual Chapter 9: Heating and Cooling Upgrades The Building Upgrade...

168

Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

Wiltsee, G.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Santa Clara Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program Santa Clara Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Local Government Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Commercial Heating & Cooling Program Info State California Program Type Leasing Program Provider City of Santa Clara Water and Sewer Utility In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water and Sewer Utilities Department supplies, installs and maintains solar water heating systems for residents and businesses. In addition, the city has also installed solar energy equipment for a number of its own facilities. Solar equipment is available from the city for heating swimming pools,

170

Economic Analysis of Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the last eleven years Houston Lighting & Power has raised utility rates an average of 17% per year. Over the last 3 1/2 years the utility rates have doubled. According to Houston City Magazine, Houstonians can expect future raises of 20-25% annually due to required construction of new utility plants to accommodate Houston's future growth. Utility costs could, and in many cases do, exceed the monthly mortgage payment. This has caused all to become concerned with what can be done to lower the utility bill for homes. In a typical Gulf Coast home approximately 50% of household utility costs are due to the air conditioning system, another 15-20% of utility costs are attributed to hot water heating. The remaining items in the home including lights, toaster, washer, dryer, etc. are relatively minor compared to these two "energy gulpers". Reducing air conditioning and hot water heating costs are therefore the two items on which homeowners should concentrate.

Wagers, H. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure (25MPa) and high temperature (500°C average core exit). The high coolant temperature as it leaves the ...

Zhao, Jiyun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Alternatives for metal hydride storage bed heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reaction of hydrogen isotopes with the storage bed hydride material is exothermic during absorption and endothermic during desorption. Therefore, storage bed operation requires a cooling system to remove heat during absorption, and a heating system to add the heat needed for desorption. Three storage bed designs and their associated methods of heating and cooling and accountability are presented within. The first design is the current RTF (Replacement Tritium Facility) nitrogen heating and cooling system. The second design uses natural convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. This design is referred to as the Naturally Cooled/Electrically Heated (NCEH) design. The third design uses forced convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. The design is referred to as the Forced Convection Cooled/Electrically Heated (FCCEH) design. In this report the operation, storage bed design, and equipment required for heating, cooling, and accountability of each design are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are listed and discussed. Based on the information presented within, it is recommended that the NCEH design be selected for further development.

Fisher, I.A.; Ramirez, F.B.; Koonce, J.E.; Ward, D.E.; Heung, L.K.; Weimer, M.; Berkebile, W.; French, S.T.

1991-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

173

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right...

174

New and Underutilized Technology: Water Cooled Oil Free Magnetic...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Cooled Oil Free Magnetic Bearing Compressors New and Underutilized Technology: Water Cooled Oil Free Magnetic Bearing Compressors October 4, 2013 - 3:58pm Addthis The...

175

Flow Stability of Supercritical Water Cooled Systems  

SciTech Connect

Research activities are ongoing worldwide to develop nuclear power plants with supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) with the purpose to achieve a high thermal efficiency and to improve their economical competitiveness. However, the strong variation of the thermal-physical properties of water in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical line results in challenging tasks in thermal-hydraulic design of a SCWR. One of the challenging tasks is to understand and to predict the dynamic behavior and flow stability of supercritical water cooled systems. Although extensive thermal-hydraulic research activities have been carried out worldwide, studies on flow stability of SC water cooled systems are scarce. The present study deals with the flow behavior of SC water cooled systems. For this purpose the computer code SASC was developed, which is applied to a simplified cooling system. The effect of various parameters on the flow behavior is investigated. The first results achieved up to now reveals a complicated dynamic performance of a system cooled by supercritical water. (authors)

Cheng, X.; Kuang, B.; Yang, Y.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Heat pipe cooling for scramjet engines. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced.

Silverstein, C.C.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money July 2, 2010 - 2:25pm Addthis The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center In the summer of 2009, the Orlando Science Center (OSC) was full of hot air, literally. The museum's heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system - which had been an operational challenge for several years - was running at 30 percent capacity. That meant the building's interior temperature was often at a toasty 80 degrees, subjecting patrons to miserable conditions. "To keep visitors happy, the museum had to reduce admission prices and

178

Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool, Saving Water and Money Cool, Saving Water and Money Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money July 2, 2010 - 2:25pm Addthis The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center In the summer of 2009, the Orlando Science Center (OSC) was full of hot air, literally. The museum's heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system - which had been an operational challenge for several years - was running at 30 percent capacity. That meant the building's interior temperature was often at a toasty 80 degrees, subjecting patrons to miserable conditions. "To keep visitors happy, the museum had to reduce admission prices and

179

Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting August 14, 2013 - 1:39pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's efforts to reduce energy bills for American families and businesses and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the Energy Department today announced 12 projects to develop innovative heating, cooling and insulation technologies as well as open source energy efficiency software to help homes and commercial buildings save energy and money. These projects will receive an approximately $11 million Energy Department investment, matched by about $1 million in private sector funding. "Energy efficient technologies - from improved heating and cooling

180

A model for improvement of water heating heat exchanger designs for residential heat pump water heaters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat pump water heaters are a promising technology to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A key component is the water heating heat exchanger.… (more)

Weerawoot, Arunwattana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Heat Pump Water Heating Modeling in EnergyPlus  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling in EnergyPlus Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Eric Wilson Craig Christensen March 1, 2012 2 Modeling Issues Results Motivation Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling... 3 Gap: Existing analysis tools cannot accurately model HPWHs with reasonable runtime. 4 What have we achieved so far? Laboratory Evaluations 14 x Field Monitoring 5 Closing the Gap Laboratory Evaluations 6 sec timestep hourly timestep 14 x Field Monitoring CARB 6 Why is modeling important? * Performance varies: Can't just use EF * System interaction o HPWH affects building heating and cooling o Space conditions affect HPWH performance 7 Modeling Goals * Manage Risks o Accuracy o Run time o Occupant satisfaction * Flexibility to explore the effects of:

182

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the use of heat Heat exchangers between the collectors andlocated access hole. The heat exchanger for the domestic hotmains is preheated by a heat exchanger immersed in the main

Dols, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary is presented of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items in this report include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences (SFR), Multiple-Family Residences (MFR), and commerical applications.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Solar Heating Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,900 Program Info Funding Source New Hampshire Renewable Energy Fund (REF) Start Date 04/21/2010 Expiration Date When funding is exhausted State New Hampshire Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount $1,500, $1,700 or $1,900, depending on annual estimated system output Provider New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission New Hampshire offers a rebate for residential solar water-heating systems and solar space-heating systems. The rebate is equal to $1,500 for systems with an annual estimated output of 5.5 MMBTU to 19.9 MMBTU; $1,700 for

185

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

2 2 Main Commercial Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995, 1999, and 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) (1) Heating Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Cooling Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Packaged Heating Units 29% 38% 28% Packaged Air Conditioning Units 45% 54% 46% Boilers 29% 29% 32% Individual Air Conditioners 21% 21% 19% Individual Space Heaters 29% 26% 19% Central Chillers 19% 19% 18% Furnaces 25% 21% 30% Residential Central Air Conditioners 16% 12% 17% Heat Pumps 10% 13% 14% Heat Pumps 12% 14% 14% District Heat 10% 8% 8% District Chilled Water 4% 4% 4% Other 11% 6% 5% Swamp Coolers 4% 3% 2% Other 2% 2% 2% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Heating and cooling equipment percentages of floorspace total more than 100% since equipment shares floorspace. 2) Malls are no longer included in most CBECs tables; therefore, some data is not directly comparable to past CBECs.

186

Design and Operating Guidelines Manual for Cooling-Water Treatment - Treatment of Recirculated Cooling Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This preliminary manual was developed to provide a systematic procedure for evaluating candidate strategies for the treatment of recirculated cooling water. It presents (1) a means of selecting optimal treatment methods and facilities on the basis of technical and economic considerations, and (2) guidelines for proper cooling-water system operation. Descriptions of, and user's manuals for, the cooling-system process and chemical equilibrium computer simulation models are included.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The program calls for the development and delivery of eight (was 12) prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two (was 6) heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for single-family residences (SFR), multiple-family residences (MFR) and commercial applications. This document describes the progress of the program during the eighth program quarter, 1 April 1978 to 30 June 1978.

Not Available

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Management of Non-Cooling Water Releases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses the efficacy and cost of water management practices that can be used by power companies to address non-cooling water and stormwater release issues with respect to siting, design, and operation of facilities, including generating stations, substations, and rights-of-way in urban and rural settings. The report will be of value to environmental and generation managers within power companies, as well as regulators, water resource managers, and environmentalists.

2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

189

Maryvale Terrace: geothermal residential district space heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary study of the technical and economic feasibility of installing a geothermal district heating and cooling system is analyzed for the Maryvale Terrace residential subdevelopment in Phoenix, Arizona, consisting of 557 residential houses. The design heating load was estimated to be 16.77 million Btu/h and the design cooling load was estimated to be 14.65 million Btu/h. Average annual energy use for the development was estimated to be 5870 million Btu/y and 14,650 million Btu/y for heating and cooling, respectively. Competing fuels are natural gas for heating and electricity for cooling. A geothermal resource is assumed to exist beneath the site at a depth of 6000 feet. Five production wells producing 1000 gpm each of 220/sup 0/F geothermal fluid are required. Total estimated cost for installing the system is $5,079,300. First year system operations cost (including debt service) is $974,361. The average annual geothermal heating and cooling cost per home is estimated to be $1750 as compared to a conventional system annual cost of $1145. Further, the cost of geothermal heating and cooling is estimated to be $47.50 per million Btu when debt service is included and $6.14 per million Btu when only operating costs are included. Operating (or fuel) costs for conventional heating and cooling are estimated to be $15.55 per million Btu.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Heat Generated Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat Generated Cooling Heat Generated Cooling A counterintuitive but promising path to reducing the loads imposed by automotive air conditioning systems is to use heat-specifically the waste heat generated by engines. This can be an abundant source of energy, since most light-duty vehicles with combustion engines are only about 30% efficient at best. With that degree of thermal efficiency, an engine releases 70% of its fuel energy as waste heat through the coolant, exhaust gases, and engine compartment warm-up. During much of a typical drive cycle, the engine efficiency is even lower than 30%. As efficiency decreases, the amount of waste heat increases, representing a larger potential energy source. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) team is investigating a number of heat generated cooling technologies

192

Reducing Home Heating and Cooling Costs  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B1. Annual Cost of Oil Heat in Various Climates for a Range of Heating Oil Prices and System Efficiencies . . . . . 21 B2. Annual Cost of Gas Heat in...

193

Energy Basics: Heat Pump Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Heat...

194

Energy-efficient water heating  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Development of Modeling Capabilities for the Analysis of Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics and Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Develop an experimental and theoretical data base for heat transfer in tubes and channels cooled by water and CO2 at supercritical pressures.

Dr. Michael Z. Podowski

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

196

Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Modeling cooling water discharges from the Burrard Generating Station  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract-A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to examine the impact of the Burrard Generating Station cooling water on the circulation patterns and thermal regime in the receiving water of Port Moody Arm. A key aspect of this study involved properly incorporating the submerged cooling water buoyant jet into the 3D model. To overcome the scale and interface barriers between the near-field and far-field zones of the buoyant jet, a sub-grid scheme was applied, and the coupled system of equations of motion, heat conservation and state are solved with a single modeling procedure over the complete field. Special care was taken with the diffusion and jet entrainment by using a second order turbulence closure model for vertical diffusion and the Smagorinsky formula for horizontal diffusion as well as jet entrainment. The model was calibrated and validated in terms of buoyant jet trajectory, centerline dilution, and temperature and velocity profiles. Extensive modeling experiments without and with the Burrard Generating Station in operation were then carried out to investigate the receiving water circulations and thermal processes under the influence of the cooling water discharge. The model results reveal that under the influence of the cooling water discharge, peak ebb currents are stronger than peak flood currents in the near-surface layer, and the reverse is true in the near-bottom layer. Meanwhile, the model revealed a well-developed eddy at the southeast side of the buoyant jet in the near-surface layer. It is also found that the warmer water released from the cooling water discharge is mainly confined to the upper layer of the Arm, which is largely flushed out of the Arm through tidal mixing processes, and a corresponding inflow of colder water into the Arm occurs within the lower layer. I.

J. Jiang; D. B. Fissel; D. D. Lemon

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (PHASE I) Geothermal Project |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (PHASE I) Geothermal Project BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (PHASE I) Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (PHASE I) Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 1: Technology Demonstration Projects Project Description The Project will result in the construction of the largest ground source geothermal-based closed loop GHP heating and cooling system in America. Phase I of the Project began with the design, competitive bidding, and contract award for the drilling and "looping" of 1,800 boreholes in sports fields and parking lots on the north side of campus. The components of the entire Project include: (1) 4,100 four hundred feet deep boreholes spread over about 25 acres of sport fields and parking lots (Phase I will involve 1,800 boreholes spread over about 8 acres); (2) Each Phase will require a district energy station (about 9,000 sq. feet) that will each contain (A) two 2,500 ton heat pump chillers (which can produce 150 degree (F) water for heating purposes and 42 degree (F) water for cooling purposes); and (B) a variety of water pumps, electrical and other control systems; (3) a closed loop piping system that continuously circulates about 20,000 gallons of water (no anti-freeze) per minute through the boreholes, energy stations, a (two pipe) hot water loop and a (two pipe) chilled water loop (no water is drawn from the aquifer at any point in the operation); and (4) hot/chilled water-to-air heat exchangers in each of the buildings.

199

Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang [Solar Thermal and Geothermal Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Lim, Hyug [Research and Development Center, LHE Co., Ltd., Gimhae 621-874 (Korea)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Involvement in Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Section C:performance of passive solar heating and cooling systems.the design of passive solar heating and cooling systems, J

Authors, Various

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Choice in Home Heating and Cooling D.J. Wood, H. Ruderman,IN HOME HEATING AND COOLING* David J. Wood, Henry RudermanIN HOME HEATING AND COOLING David J. Wood, Henry Ruderman,

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Hot tips on water heating  

SciTech Connect

Water-heater manufacturers responded to the call for energy conservation with innovations and efficiency standards for the home, business, and plant. Conventional tank-type water heaters offer better design and insulation, but the heat-pump water heater offers the highest efficiency. Available in add-on units and integral units, they now represent up to 40% of manufacturers' sales. Other advances are the desuperheater devices which recapture air-conditioner waste heat, solar-water-heating systems, instantaneous water heaters, and industrial heat-recovery systems for process water. 1 figure. (DCK)

Forker, J.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:28pm Addthis Thermostats and ducts provide opportunities for saving energy. Dehumidifying heat pipes provide a way to help central air conditioners and heat pumps dehumidify air. Electric and gas meters allow users to track energy use. Thermostats Programmable thermostats can store and repeat multiple daily settings. Users can adjust the times heating or air-conditioning is activated according to a pre-set schedule. Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about thermostats and control systems in homes. Ducts Efficient and well-designed duct systems distribute air properly throughout a building, without leaking, to keep all rooms at a comfortable

204

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Cooling and Heating Loads | Building  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling and Heating Loads Cooling and Heating Loads The Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) for Small Office Buildings, 30% series, seeks to achieve 30% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. This guide focuses on improvements to small office buildings, less than 20,000ft2. The recommendations in this article are adapted from the implementation section of the guide and focus on heating and cooling system design loads for the purpose of sizing systems and equipment should be calculated in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks such as ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals. Publication Date: Wednesday, May 13, 2009 air_cooling_and_heating_loads.pdf Document Details Affiliation: DOE BECP Focus: Compliance Building Type: Commercial Code Referenced: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999

205

Policymakers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling (Revised) (Brochure)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides an overview of the NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebook for Heating and Cooling with information directing people to the Web site for more in-depth information.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Estimating Historical Heating and Cooling Needs. Per Capita Degree Days  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time series of approximate United States average annual per capita heating and cooling degree days for the years 1895–1983 are presented. The data reflect the combined effects of climate fluctuations and population shifts, and can be used in ...

M. W. Downton; T. R. Stewart; K. A. Miller

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating & Cooling Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Title 8 of Maryland’s property tax code includes a state-wide special assessment for solar and geothermal heating and cooling systems. Under this provision, such systems are to be assessed at not...

208

Radiative Heating and Cooling Rates in the Middle Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the limitations to the accurate calculation of radiative heating and cooling rates in the stratosphere and mesosphere has been the lack of accurate data on the atmospheric temperature and composition. Data from the LIMS experiment on ...

John C. Gille; Lawrence V. Lyjak

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,000 Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Provider Energy Efficiency '''''This program reopened on October 3, 2011 for 2012 applications. Funding is limited and must be reserved through online application before the installation of qualifying solar water heating systems. See Gulf Power's [http://www.gulfpower.com/renewable/solarThermal.asp Solar Water Heating] web site for more information.''''' Gulf Power offers a Solar Thermal Water Heating rebate to customers who install water heaters. This program started after the original pilot

210

Heat pipe radiation cooling evaluation: Task 2 concept studies report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the result of Task 2, Concept Studies for Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC), which was performed for Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract 9-XT1-U9567. Studies under a prior contract defined a reference HPRC conceptual design for hypersonic aircraft engines operating at Mach 5 and an altitude of 80,000 ft. Task 2 involves the further investigation of heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) systems for additional design and operating conditions.

Silverstein, C.C.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Supporting Equipment for Heating and Cooling Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Thermostats and ducts provide opportunities for saving energy. Dehumidifying heat pipes provide a way to help central air conditioners and heat pumps dehumidify air. Electric and gas meters allow users to track energy use.

212

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coil (G) of the absorption chiller (or boiler of a Rankineor heat input to the absorption chiller of approximately

Dols, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

FILM COOLING CALCULATIONS WITH AN ITERATIVE CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER APPROACH USING EMPIRICAL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT CORRECTIONS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An iterative conjugate heat transfer technique was developed and automated to predict the temperatures on film cooled surfaces such as flat plates and turbine blades.… (more)

Dhiman, Sushant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Coupled Reactor Kinetics and Heat Transfer Model for Heat Pipe Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). The paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities.

WRIGHT,STEVEN A.; HOUTS,MICHAEL

2000-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

215

Silicon heat pipes for cooling electronics  

SciTech Connect

The increasing power density of integrated circuits (ICs) is creating the need for improvements in systems for transferring heat away from the chip. In earlier investigations, diamond films were used to conduct heat from ICs and spread the energy across a heat sink. The authors` investigation has indicated that a 635 {mu}m (25 mil) thick silicon substrate with embedded heat pipes could perform this task better than a diamond film. From their study, it appears that the development of a heat-pipe heat-spreading system is both technically and commercially feasible. The major challenge for this heat-spreading system is to develop an effective wick structure to transport liquid to the heated area beneath the chip. This paper discusses the crucial design parameters for this heat-pipe system, such as the required wick properties, the material compatibility issues, and the thermal characteristics of the system. The paper also provides results from some recent experimental activities at Sandia to develop these heat-pipe heat spreader systems.

Adkins, D.R.; Shen, D.S.; Palmer, D.W.; Tuck, M.R.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down July 22, 2010 - 4:14pm Addthis Birmingham Mayor William A. Bell, Sr., City officials, and DOE representatives at Monday's groundbreaking. Birmingham Mayor William A. Bell, Sr., City officials, and DOE representatives at Monday's groundbreaking. Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Birmingham received a $2.4 million Energy Efficiency Community Block Grant under the Recovery Act. The HVAC system will use ground source heat pump technology. It seems like these days there's just no avoiding the heat. Whether we're in our homes, at our places of work, and certainly every time we

217

While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down July 22, 2010 - 4:14pm Addthis Birmingham Mayor William A. Bell, Sr., City officials, and DOE representatives at Monday's groundbreaking. Birmingham Mayor William A. Bell, Sr., City officials, and DOE representatives at Monday's groundbreaking. Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Birmingham received a $2.4 million Energy Efficiency Community Block Grant under the Recovery Act. The HVAC system will use ground source heat pump technology. It seems like these days there's just no avoiding the heat. Whether we're in our homes, at our places of work, and certainly every time we

218

Section E: WATER HEATING  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Form EIA-457A (2005)--Household Questionnaire OMB No.: 1905-0092, ... automatically adjust the cooling temperature setting during the day when no one is at

219

Equilibrium Models of Galaxy Clusters with Cooling, Heating and Conduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is generally argued that most clusters of galaxies host cooling flows in which radiative cooling in the centre causes a slow inflow. However, recent observations by Chandra and XMM conflict with the predicted cooling flow rates. Amongst other mechanisms, heating by a central active galactic nucleus and thermal conduction have been invoked in order to account for the small mass deposition rates. Here, we present a family of hydrostatic models for the intra-cluster medium where radiative losses are exactly balanced by thermal conduction and heating by a central source. We describe the features of this simple model and fit its parameters to the density and temperature profiles of Hydra A.

M. Bruggen

2003-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

220

City of Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate City of Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate < Back Eligibility Installer/Contractor Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 450 Provider City of Tallahassee Utilities The City of Tallahassee Utilities offers a $450 rebate to homeowners* and homebuilders who install a solar water-heating system. This rebate may be applied to a first-time installation or to the replacement of an older solar water-heating system. Homebuilders may also apply for the rebate when installing a solar water heater on a new home. Pool heating systems are not eligible for the rebate. The homeowner must allow the City of Tallahassee to conduct an energy audit

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

222

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

223

Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

Shivvers, Steve D. (Prole, IA)

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

224

Monitoring of the performance of a solar heated and cooled apartment building. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An all-electric apartment building was retrofitted for solar heating and cooling and hot water. The resulting system consists of an array of 1280 square feet of Northrup concentrating tracking collectors, a 5000-gallon hot water storage vessel, a 500-gallon chilled water storage vessel, a 25-ton Arkla Industries absorption chiller, and a two-pipe hydronic air conditioning system. The solar air conditioning equipment is installed in parallel with the existing conventional electric heating and cooling system, and the solar domestic water heating serves as preheat to the existing electric water heaters. With support from the State of Texas Energy Development Fund and the Department of Energy the system was fully instrumented for monitoring.

Vliet, G.C.; Srubar, R.L.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Monitoring of the performance of a solar heated and cooled apartment building. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An all-electric apartment building in Texas was retrofitted for solar heating and cooling and hot water. The system consists of an array of 1280 square feet of Northrup concentrating tracking collectors, a 5000-gallon hot water storage vessel, a 500-gallon chilled water storage vessel, a 25-ton Arkla Industries absorption chiller, and a two-pipe hydronic air conditioning system. The solar air conditioning equipment is installed in parallel with the existing conventional electric heating and cooling system, and the solar domestic water heating serves as preheat to the existing electric water heaters. The system was fully instrumented for monitoring. Detailed descriptions are given of the solar system, the performance monitoring system, and the data reduction processes. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

Vliet, G.C.; Srubar, R.L.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Water Heating | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Heating Water Heating Dataset Summary Description Provides total and average household expenditures on energy for water heating in the United States in 2005. Source EIA Date Released September 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated January 01st, 2009 (6 years ago) Keywords Energy Expenditures Residential Water Heating Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Total.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 70.1 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Avg.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 69.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote

227

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

228

EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Maximum Rebate $7,000 Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount Up to 75% of system cost after rebate Provider Eugene Water and Electric Board Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB) offers residential customers a loan and cash discount program called, "The Bright Way To Heat Water." The program is designed to promote the installation of solar water heaters and solar pool heating systems. It began in May 1990 as part of a demand-side management initiative. The loans have been offered since May 1995. EWEB provides all funding for both loans and cash discounts. Customers may

229

OpenEI - Water Heating  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

http:en.openei.orgdatasetstaxonomyterm560 en Residential Energy Expenditures for Water Heating (2005) http:en.openei.orgdatasetsnode59

Provides total and average...

230

Energy resource alternatives competition. Progress report for the period February 1, 1975--December 31, 1975. [Space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity for homes, farms, and light industry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This progress report describes the objectives and results of the intercollegiate Energy Resource Alternatives competition. The one-year program concluded in August 1975, with a final testing program of forty student-built alternative energy projects at the Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The goal of the competition was to design and build prototype hardware which could provide space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity at a level appropriate to the needs of homes, farms, and light industry. The hardware projects were powered by such nonconventional energy sources as solar energy, wind, biologically produced gas, coal, and ocean waves. The competition rules emphasized design innovation, economic feasibility, practicality, and marketability. (auth)

Matzke, D.J.; Osowski, D.M.; Radtke, M.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

LBNL's Novel Approach to Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems department, chilled water, cooling water tower, double exchanger cooling, dual heat exchanger, high tech and industrial systems group, inrow, lawrence berkeley national...

232

Introduction to solar heating and cooling design and sizing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This manual is designed to introduce the practical aspects of solar heating/cooling systems to HVAC contractors, architects, engineers, and other interested individuals. It is intended to enable readers to assess potential solar heating/cooling applications in specific geographical areas, and includes tools necessary to do a preliminary design of the system and to analyze its economic benefits. The following are included: the case for solar energy; solar radiation and weather; passive solar design; system characteristics and selection; component performance criteria; determining solar system thermal performance and economic feasibility; requirements, availability, and applications of solar heating systems; and sources of additional information. (MHR)

Not Available

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the oilfield include calcium carbonates (CaCO3, mainly calcite) and alkaline-earth metal sulfates (barite BaSO4, celestite SrSO4, anhydrite CaSO4, hemihydrate CaSO4 1/2H2O, and gypsum CaSO4 2H2O or calcium sulfate). The cause of scaling can be difficult to identify in real oil and gas wells. However, pressure and temperature changes during the flow of fluids are primary reasons for the formation of carbonate scales, because the escape of CO2 and/or H2S gases out of the brine solution, as pressure is lowered, tends to elevate the pH of the brine and result in super-saturation with respect to carbonates. Concerning sulfate scales, the common cause is commingling of different sources of brines either due to breakthrough of injected incompatible waters or mixing of two different brines from different zones of the reservoir formation. A decrease in temperature tends to cause barite to precipitate, opposite of calcite. In addition, pressure drops tend to cause all scale minerals to precipitate due to the pressure dependence of the solubility product. And we can expect that there will be a pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Weather or not this will be offset by the rise in pressure remains to be seen. It's typically left to field testing to prove out. Progress has been made toward the control and treatment of the scale deposits, although most of the reaction mechanisms are still not well understood. Often the most efficient and economic treatment for scale formation is to apply threshold chemical inhibitors. Threshold scale inhibitors are like catalysts and have inhibition efficiency at very low concentrations (commonly less than a few mg/L), far below the stoichiometric concentrations of the crystal lattice ions in solution. There are many chemical classes of inhibitors and even more brands on the market. Based on the water chemistry it is anticipated that there is a high likelihood for sulfate compound precipitation and scaling. This may be dependent on the temperature and pressure, which vary throughout the system. Therefore, various types and amounts of scaling may occur at different

Daily, W D

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

234

FEMP--Solar Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

More than 1 million homeowners and 200,000 busi- More than 1 million homeowners and 200,000 busi- nesses in the United States are using the sun to heat domestic water efficiently in almost any climate. In summer, a solar system properly sized for a resi- dential building can meet 100% of the building's water-heating needs in most parts of the country. In winter, the system might meet only half of this need, so another source of heat is used to back up the solar system. In either case, solar water heating helps to save energy, reduce utility costs, and preserve the environment. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector-the device that actually captures the sun's energy.

235

Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation - Water Heater...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating & Cooling Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Ventilation Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Information Georgia Program Type...

236

Best Management Practices Manual for Preventing Cooling Water Intake Blockages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blockage of the cooling water intake structure (CWIS) occurs frequently at nuclear and fossil power facilities worldwide, regardless of fuel type or cooling water body source. The loss of cooling water impacts facility safety and reliabilityprincipally at nuclear facilitiesand results in a loss of revenue. This Best Management Practices Manual for Preventing Cooling Water Intake Blockages presents a review of debris management at existing facilities and provides procedural and operation and maintenance (...

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

237

Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, A. Vahab (Golden, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Performance of residential solar heating and cooling system with flat-plate and evacuated tubular collectors: CSU Solar House I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurements in Solar House I at Colorado State University have provided comparison data on space heating, water heating, and cooling by systems in which flat-plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors were used. Data were procured on 47 days during operation of the flat-plate collector and on 112 days when the house was heated or cooled by the evacuated tube collector system. It was concluded that the system comprising an evacuated tubular collector, lithium bromide absorption water chiller, and associated equipment is highly effective in providing space heating and cooling to a small building, that it can supply up to twice the space heating and several times the cooling obtainable from an equal occupied area of good quality flat-plate collectors, and that a greater fraction of the domestic hot water can be obtained by supplying its heat from main storage. The cost-effectiveness of the system, in comparison with one employing a good flat-plate collector, can be determined when commercial pricing data are made available. A summary of monthly and annual energy use for space heating, domestic hot water (DHW) heating, and space cooling is presented. The collector performance is presented. The first two months of data were obtained with the system employing flat-plate collectors, whereas heating and cooling during the following nine months were supplied by the evacuated tube collector system.

Duff, W.S.; Conway, T.M.; Loef, G.O.G.; Meredith, D.B.; Pratt, R.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Monitoring of the performance of a solar-heated-and-cooled apartment building. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 12-unit student apartment building was retrofitted for solar heating and cooling and hot water. The retrofit of the all-electric building resulted in a system consisting of an array of 1280 square feet of concentrating tracking collectors, a 5000-gallon hot water storage vessel, a 500-gallon chilled water storage vesel, a 25-ton absorption chiller, and a two-pipe hydronic air conditioning system. The solar air conditioning equipment is installed in parallel with the existing conventional electric heating and cooling system, and the solar domestic water heating serves as preheat to the existing electric water heaters. The system was fully instrumented for temperature, flow rate, electrical power, and meteorological measurements. The data indicate that 11.2% of the cooling load was met by solar and 8.2% of the total load (cooling plus hot water) was met by solar. The performance of the collector array was determined to be approximately 60% of that suggested by the manufacturer. Steady-state chiller operation exhibited a C.O.P. very close to the manufacturer's specified performance values, but the time-averaged chiller C.O.P. is degraded due to cycling. The composite solar fraction (8.2%) is less than solar cooling only (11.2%) because there was no solar domestic hot water delivery during this monitoring period. The evaluation of system performance for the cooling season indicates a lower performance than expected. However, system performance in the cooling mode can be improved by better adjustment of the thermostats and controls. Continued data collection and analysis should be performed, to improve system operations, assess performance limits, and compare results with design projections.

Vliet, G.C.; Srubar, R.L.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

All Green Residential Solar Energy to Heat Absorption Cooling / Heating Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An all-green residential solar to heat absorption cooling / heating system system is designed. It describes the components of the system and working principle, and analyze the prospects of the system and academic value. Finally, To Changsha, for example, ... Keywords: solar, ground-source heat pump, absorption, heat tube

Xu Feng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Energy Basics: Absorption Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

242

Energy Basics: Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

243

Solar Water Heating Incentive Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heating Incentive Program Solar Water Heating Incentive Program Solar Water Heating Incentive Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Maximum Rebate Varies by sector, location, technology, and electric or gas provider; see below for details Program Info Start Date October 2003 State Oregon Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies by sector, water heating fuel, and electric or gas provider; see below for details Provider Energy Trust of Oregon Beginning in the fall of 2003, Energy Trust of Oregon's Solar Water Heating (SWH) Incentive Program offers incentives to customers of Pacific Power, PGE, NW Natural Gas and Cascade Natural Gas who install solar water or pool

244

Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

Hankins, J.D.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

level, the choice alternatives are cooling and no cooling.to zero in central cooling alternative Income ($1000) in airalternatives are conventional air conditioning and heat pump, given the cooling

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems May 30, 2012 - 3:40pm Addthis Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because it is a good thermal conductor and has greater resistance to corrosion. Types of Heat Exchangers Solar water heating systems use three types of heat exchangers: Liquid-to-liquid A liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger uses a heat-transfer fluid that

247

Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenser Water OptimizationCleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization2 Cooling tower and condenser water

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenser WaterEfficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water2 Cooling tower and condenser water

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Drain Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery June 15, 2012 - 6:20pm Addthis Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. How does it work? Use heat from water you've already used to preheat more hot water, reducing your water heating costs. Any hot water that goes down the drain carries away energy with it. That's typically 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture this energy from water you've already used (for example, to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water entering the water heater or going to other water fixtures. This reduces the amount of energy needed for water heating. How It Works Drain-water heat recovery technology works well with all types of water

250

Drain Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery June 15, 2012 - 6:20pm Addthis Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. How does it work? Use heat from water you've already used to preheat more hot water, reducing your water heating costs. Any hot water that goes down the drain carries away energy with it. That's typically 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture this energy from water you've already used (for example, to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water entering the water heater or going to other water fixtures. This reduces the amount of energy needed for water heating. How It Works Drain-water heat recovery technology works well with all types of water

251

Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

252

Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate One rebate per customer Rebates will not exceed purchase price Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Solar Water Heater: $500 Provider Beaches Energy Services Beaches Energy Services offers a solar water heating rebate to their residential customers. This $500 rebate applies to new systems which are properly installed and certified. New construction and solar pool heating systems do not qualify for the rebate payment. Systems must be installed by a licensed Florida contractor and must be FSEC certified. Rebates will not

253

Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info Start Date June 2010 State Florida Program Type Other Incentive Provider Lakeland Electric Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, is the nation's first utility to offer solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility has contracted with a solar equipment vendor, Regenesis Lakeland, LLC, to install solar water heaters on participating customers' homes. Lakeland Electric bills the customer $34.95 per month regardless of use. Each solar heater is metered and equipped with a heating element timer as a demand management feature. The $34.95 monthly charge is a bulk energy

254

Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater...

255

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. |...

256

A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR THE COMMON PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXAMPLES OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS {CONVECTIVE SPACEbeen supported by the Solar Heating and Cooling Research andinteraction. Passive solar heating systems use elements of

Holtz, Michael J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Manual for participants in the solar heating/cooling seminars  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This manual was intended as a text for participants in the Solar Heating/Cooling seminars presented in conjunction with the ERDA Transportable Solar Laboratory in various regions of the US. The seminar was designed to introduce the practical aspects of solar heating/cooling systems to HVAC contractors, architects, engineers, and other interested individuals. The two-day course enabled the attendees to assess potential solar applications in their geographic area, including tools to do a preliminary design of the system and to analyze its economic benefits. (WDM)

Not Available

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

PROGRAM SUPPORT FOR SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BRANCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D Contractors'6782 Program Support for Solar Heating and Marlo Martin andPROGRAN SUPPORT FOR SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING RESEARCH AND

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Home Heating and Cooling Equipment D.J. Wood, H. Ruderman,on home heating appliance choice are referred to Wood,FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT David J. Wood, Henry

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Designated Product: Water-Cooled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FEMP Designated FEMP Designated Product: Water-Cooled Ice Machines to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Designated Product: Water-Cooled Ice Machines on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Designated Product: Water-Cooled Ice Machines on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Designated Product: Water-Cooled Ice Machines on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Designated Product: Water-Cooled Ice Machines on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Designated Product: Water-Cooled Ice Machines on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Designated Product: Water-Cooled Ice Machines on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Federal Requirements

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Covered Product Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers on AddThis.com...

262

Central unresolved issues in thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document explores the frontier of the rapidly expanding field of thermal energy storage, investigates unresolved issues, outlines research aimed at finding solutions, and suggests avenues meriting future research. Issues related to applications include value-based ranking of storage concepts, temperature constraints, consistency of assumptions, nomenclature and taxonomy, and screening criteria for materials. Issues related to technologies include assessing seasonal storage concepts, diurnal coolness storage, selection of hot-side storage concepts for cooling-only systems, phase-change storage in building materials, freeze protection for solar water heating systems, and justification of phase-change storage for active solar space heating.

Swet, C.J.; Baylin, F.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Quarterly reports for RS-600 programmable controller: solar heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three identical microprocessor control subsystems were developed which can be used in heating, heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems for single-family, or commercial applications. The controller incorporates a low cost, highly reliable (all solid state) microprocessor which can be easily reprogrammed. These reports cover the progress made in the development of the controller. Included in these reports are the technical status, program schedules, and other progress made from October 30, 1976 through July 1, 1977.

Not Available

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Heat pipe cooling system for underground, radioactive waste storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

An array of 37 heat pipes inserted through the central hole at the top of a radioactive waste storage tank will remove 100,000 Btu/h with a heat sink of 70/sup 0/F atmospheric air. Heat transfer inside the tank to the heat pipe is by natural convection. Heat rejection to outside air utilizes a blower to force air past the heat pipe condenser. The heat pipe evaporator section is axially finned, and is constructed of stainless steel. The working fluid is ammonia. The finned pipes are individually shrouded and extend 35 ft down into the tank air space. The hot tank air enters the shroud at the top of the tank and flows downward as it is cooled, with the resulting increased density furnishing the pressure difference for circulation. The cooled air discharges at the center of the tank above the sludge surface, flows radially outward, and picks up heat from the radioactive sludge. At the tank wall the heated air rises and then flows inward to comple the cycle.

Cooper, K.C.; Prenger, F.C.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Advanced turbine cooling, heat transfer, and aerodynamic studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The contractual work is in three parts: Part I - Effect of rotation on enhanced cooling passage heat transfer, Part II - Effect of Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) spallation on surface heat transfer, and Part III - Effect of surface roughness and trailing edge ejection on turbine efficiency under unsteady flow conditions. Each section of this paper has been divided into three parts to individually accommodate each part. Part III is further divided into Parts IIIa and IIIb.

Han, Je-Chin; Schobeiri, M.T. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Mpemba effect, Newton cooling law and heat transfer equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we suggest a simple theoretical solution of the Mpemba effect in full agreement with known experimental data. This solution follows simply as an especial approximation (linearization) of the usual heat (transfer) equation, precisely linearization of the second derivation of the space part of the temperature function (as it is well-known Newton cooling law can be considered as the effective approximation of the heat (transfer) equation for constant space part of the temperature function).

Vladan Pankovic; Darko V. Kapor

2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

267

Approximations for radiative cooling and heating in the solar chromosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context. The radiative energy balance in the solar chromosphere is dominated by strong spectral lines that are formed out of LTE. It is computationally prohibitive to solve the full equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium in 3D time dependent MHD simulations. Aims. To find simple recipes to compute the radiative energy balance in the dominant lines under solar chromospheric conditions. Methods. We use detailed calculations in time-dependent and 2D MHD snapshots to derive empirical formulae for the radiative cooling and heating. Results. The radiative cooling in neutral hydrogen lines and the Lyman continuum, the H and K and intrared triplet lines of singly ionized calcium and the h and k lines of singly ionized magnesium can be written as a product of an optically thin emission (dependent on temperature), an escape probability (dependent on column mass) and an ionization fraction (dependent on temperature). In the cool pockets of the chromosphere the same transitions contribute to the heat...

Carlsson, Mats

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condenser water optimization Tengfang Xu Contents HVAC WATERHVAC Water Systems Cooling tower and condenser water optimization

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Retrofitting Power Plants to Provide District Heating and Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Case studies at five utilities documented consumer and utility benefits of retrofitting fossil steam and combined-cycle plants to provide thermal energy for district heating and cooling (DHC) for nearby loads. This cogeneration strategy helps utilities boost revenues and plant energy utilization efficiencies. It can also revitalize communities by providing inexpensive electricity and thermal energy while reducing emissions.

1997-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

270

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems. Monthly progress reports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a collection of monthly status reports from the AiResearch Manufacturing Company, who is developing eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems under NASA Contract NAS8-32091. This effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3-, 25-, and 75-ton size units.

Not Available

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

etc. Heat Exchangers Heat Pipes & Thermal Diodes ConceptJ. Heat Exchangers K. Heat Pipes & Thermal Diodes A. Conceptwith two control, one heat pipe, and one cooling study. In

Authors, Various

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluation and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, August--September 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities of the Colorado State University program on solar heating and cooling systems for the months of August and September 1993. The topics include: rating and certification of domestic water heating systems, unique solar system components, advanced residential solar domestic hot water systems, and desiccant cooling of buildings.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Method and apparatus for heat extraction by controlled spray cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two solutions to the problem of cooling a high temperature, high heat flux surface using controlled spray cooling are presented for use on a mandrel. In the first embodiment, spray cooling is used to provide a varying isothermal boundary layer on the side portions of a mandrel by providing that the spray can be moved axially along the mandrel. In the second embodiment, a spray of coolant is directed to the lower temperature surface of the mandrel. By taking advantage of super-Leidenfrost cooling, the temperature of the high temperature surface of the mandrel can be controlled by varying the mass flux rate of coolant droplets. The invention has particular applicability to the field of diamond synthesis using chemical vapor deposition techniques.

Edwards, Christopher Francis (5492 Lenore Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Meeks, Ellen (304 Daisyfield Dr., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Kee, Robert (864 Lucille St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); McCarty, Kevin (304 Daisyfield Dr., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

Dgiby Macdonald; Mirna Urquidi-Macdonald; John Mahaffy, Amit Jain, Han Sang Kim, Vishisht Gupta; Jonathan Pitt

2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

275

Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five l

Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

276

Utility solar water heating workshops  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

Barrett, L.B. (Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ............................. 2,037 1,378 338 159 163 42.0 28.4 7.0 3.3 3.4 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 249 156 35 41 18 78.6 49.1 11.0 12.9 5.6 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 218 147 32 31 7 54.8 37.1 8.1 7.9 1.7 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 343 265 34 25 18 43.8 33.9 4.4 3.2 2.3 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 270 196 41 13 Q 40.9 29.7 6.3 2.0 2.9 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 269 186 45 13 24 35.8 24.8 6.0 1.8 3.2 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 267 182 56 10 19 35.4 24.1 7.4 1.3 2.6 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 204 134 43 11 17 34.7 22.7 7.3 1.8 2.9 Over 500,000 .............................

278

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ........................... 1,870 1,276 322 138 133 43.0 29.4 7.4 3.2 3.1 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 243 151 34 40 18 78.7 48.9 11.1 13.0 5.7 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 202 139 31 29 Q 54.8 37.6 8.5 7.9 Q 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 300 240 31 21 7 42.5 34.1 4.4 3.0 1.1 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 250 182 40 11 Q 41.5 30.2 6.6 1.9 Q 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 236 169 41 8 19 35.4 25.2 6.2 1.2 2.8 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 241 165 54 7 16 36.3 24.8 8.1 1.0 2.4 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 199 130 42 11 16 35.0 22.8 7.5 1.9 2.8 Over 500,000 ............................. 198

279

Solar Water Heat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Heat Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Water Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarWaterHeat&oldid26719...

280

Application Research of Evaporative Cooling in the Waste Heat Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporative condenser is one kind of high-efficient and energy-water saving heat exchange equipment, which has been widely applied in many engineering fields. The theory and product characteristic of evaporative condenser is introduced in this paper. ... Keywords: Evaporative condenser, Waste heat recovery, Energy saving, Water saving

Zhijiang Wu; Nan Wang; Gongsheng Zhu

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Air-Cooling Project Description The technical approaches are: -UTRC shall develop a lab-based analysis of hybrid-water/air-cooled condensers with minimal water consumption, focusing on combined mist evaporative pre-cooling and mist deluge evaporative cooling technology applied to microchannel heat exchangers. Models to predict evaporative cooling performance will be validated by sub-scale testing. The predicted performance will be compared to that of state-of-the-art commercial evaporative coolers. -UTRC shall analyze the interaction of turbine design and cooling needs and specifically address how an enhanced turbine, which features variable nozzles and diffuser boundary layer suction, would further improve the ORC system performance and enable full utilization of the hybrid-cooled system. UTRC shall design, procure and test the enhanced turbine in an existing 200 kW geothermal ORC system for a technology demonstration. -UTRC shall complete a detailed design of the hybrid-cooled geothermal ORC system with an enhanced turbine that complies with its performance, cost, and quality requirements, and use this system design to prescribe subsystem/component technology requirements and interfaces. UTRC shall optimize UTC's PureCycle® geothermal ORC system integrated with a hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser and an enhanced turbine for net power output, efficiency and water consumption. -UTRC shall analyze the feasibility of addressing pure water supply for hybrid-water/aircooled condenser by using geothermal-driven Liquid-Gap-Membrane-Distillation (LGMD) technology, as an alternative to conventional Reverse Osmosis/De-Ionized treatment.

282

Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

Josh A. Salmond

2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

283

Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates annual dynamic load of a real project to calculate the first investments, annual operation cost and LCC (life cycle cost) of the four schemes, which are electric chillers, electric chillers with ice-storage system, absorption refrigerating machines using excess heat from power plant and absorption refrigerating machines using excess heat from power plant along with ice-storage system. On the basis of the results, the paper analyzes the prospect of the absorption refrigeration using municipal excess heat, as well as the reasonable heat price, which provides a theoretical basis for municipal heating and cooling co-generation development.

Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat to a water heating load. The tests, conducted for Georgia Power Company, examined both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the heat pumps and the overall water heating systems. The results provide valuable insight into the actual operating characteristics of heat pump water heaters and useful guidelines for system design and operation. The capacity and efficiency of the units agreed with manufacturers' specifications. COP values ranged from 2 .6 to 3.0 for water heating only, and from 4.1 to 5.0 when space cooling benefit was included. It was concluded that heat pump water heaters can provide economical water heating and space conditioning. However, application sites must be selected within certain constraints and a minimum level of operating control and maintenance must be observed.

Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Heating and cooling the Raft River geothermal transite pipe line  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary transient heat transfer analysis to aid in defining operating limits for the 4000-foot-long transite pipe line at the Raft River geothermal test site was completed. The heat transfer problem was to determine the time required to cool down the line from a 285/sup 0/F operating temperature to 50/sup 0/F and the time to heat up the line from 50/sup 0/F to 285/sup 0/F such that the temperature differential across the pipe wall will not exceed 25/sup 0/F. The pipe and the surrounding soil was modeled with a two-dimensional heat transfer computer code assuming constant convective heat transfer at the soil-atmosphere interface. The results are sensitive to the soil thermal conductivity used in the calculation and imply that measurement of soil thermal conductivity used in the calculation and imply that measurement of soil thermal properties should be made in order to refine the calculations. Also, the effect of variable convective heat transfer at the soil surface should be investigated. However, the results reported here indicate the order of magnitude to be expected for cool-down and heat-up times when operating the transite pipe at the stated condition.

Shaffer, C.J.

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an rf induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the rf heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

Seliskar, C.J.; Warner, D.K.

1984-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

287

Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an r.f. induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the r.f. heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

Seliskar, Carl J. (Cincinnati, OH); Warner, David K. (Centerville, OH)

1988-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

288

Preliminary feasibility study of heating and cooling alternatives for Nebraska Western College, Scottsbluff, Nebraska  

SciTech Connect

The existence of a recently-recognized, low-temperature, geothermal resource under central and western Nebraska represents a potential alternate energy source. The feasibility of using that resource for space heating and cooling at Nebraska Western College, Scottsbluff, Nebraska, as an alternative to that facility's current, natural-gas fired, heating and cooling system is explored. This study addresses: (1) the geological (hydrological) aspects of such a project; (2) the retrofitting requirements for modifying the existing heating plants to accommodate the geothermal resource; (3) the possible use of shallow, unconfined groundwater with heat pumps as another energy alternative; and (4) the economic costs and benefits of both deep and shallow-water hydrothermal application.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Preliminary feasibility study of heating and cooling alternatives for Nebraska Western College, Scottsbluff, Nebraska  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The existence of a recently-recognized, low-temperature, geothermal resource under central and western Nebraska represents a potential alternate energy source. The feasibility of using that resource for space heating and cooling at Nebraska Western College, Scottsbluff, Nebraska, as an alternative to that facility's current, natural-gas fired, heating and cooling system is explored. This study addresses: (1) the geological (hydrological) aspects of such a project; (2) the retrofitting requirements for modifying the existing heating plants to accommodate the geothermal resource; (3) the possible use of shallow, unconfined groundwater with heat pumps as another energy alternative; and (4) the economic costs and benefits of both deep and shallow-water hydrothermal application.

Not Available

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Energy Basics: Air-Source Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

291

Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.

Clyne, R.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

292

Determination of interaction between different waters and chemical antifreeze additives. Task 3 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical degradation of aqueous glycol solutions was monitored during stagnant exposure at temperatures of 100 C and 180 C. Changes in corrosivity of the solutions toward alloys of construction in solar collectors were also determined. The solutions consisted of equivolume mixtures of reagent grade ethylene glycol and water, and propylene glycol and water. The water was either distilled/deionized, or a mildy corrosive solution containing 100 ppM each of chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate ions. The solutions were exposed with and without contact with metals, these metals being unalloyed copper (CA 122), 1018 steel, and aluminum alloys 1100, 3003, and 6061. Either air or nitrogen was purged through the solutions at 100 C, whereas for solutions at 180 C the autoclave head space was filled with air or nitrogen prior to sealing the autoclave. Degradation was measured by noting changes in solution pH and accumulation of organic acids during prolonged elevated temperature exposures. Changes in corrosivity were measured in terms of weight loss, polarization resistance, and pit depth on metal coupons suspended in the solutions during exposure.

Beavers, J A; Salmons, L A; Diegle, R B

1980-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

293

Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Single-family unit: $2,000 Two- to three-family units: $4,000 Multi-family units (four or more): $10,000 Businesses: $25,000 Program Info Start Date 03/2010 Expiration Date 12/31/2013 State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 25% of costs Provider Minnesota Power Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings; $10,000 for buildings

294

Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Hawaii Program Type Building Energy Code Provider Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism In June 2008, Hawaii enacted legislation, [http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2008/bills/SB644_CD1_.htm SB 644], with the intent to require solar water-heating (SWH) systems to be installed on all single-family new home construction, with a few exceptions. This legislation had several errors that were corrected by legislation passed during the 2009 legislative session. In June 2009, HB 1464 was signed by the governor and addressed the errors in the previous

295

Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info Start Date 11/30/2009 Expiration Date 03/31/2013 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $286/system Provider Duquesne Light Company Duquesne Light provides rebates to its residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a flat rebate of $286 per qualifying system. Various equipment, installation, contractor, and warranty requirements apply, as summarized above and described in more detail in program documents. Customers must

296

Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $450 Rebates must not exceed purchase price Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $450 per system Provider City of Lake Worth Utilities The City of Lake Worth Utilities (CLWU), in conjunction with Florida Municipal Power Agency, offers rebates to customers who purchase and install a solar water heating system for residential use. A rebate of $450 per system is available to eligible applicants. Eligible equipment must be located on customer premises within the CLWU service territory, and must

297

Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Nevada Program Type Utility Loan Program Provider Valley Electric Association Valley Electric Association (VEA), a nonprofit member owned cooperative, developed the domestic solar water heating program to encourage energy efficiency at the request of the membership. VEA partnered with Great Basin College to train and certify installers, creating jobs in the community, and also with Rheem Manufacturing and a local licensed contractor to install the units. A site visit is performed to determine the best installation and system design for each member. Members have the option of

298

Superfluid Heat Conduction and the Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars  

SciTech Connect

We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons, can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to the magnetic field when the magnetic field B > or approx. 10{sup 13} G. At a density of {rho}{approx_equal}10{sup 12}-10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3}, the conductivity due to superfluid phonons is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when the temperature {approx_equal}10{sup 8} K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.

Aguilera, Deborah N. [Tandar Laboratory, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Pons, Jose A. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Alicante, Apartado de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

299

Superfluid heat conduction and the cooling of magnetized neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superftuid neutron matter, called superfiuid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field B {approx}> 10{sup 13} C. At density p {approx_equal} 10{sup 12}--10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3} the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity at when temperature {approx_equal} 10{sup 8} K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction show observationally discernible differences.

Cirigliano, Vincenzo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reddy, Sanjay [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, Rishi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilera, Deborah N [BUENOS AIRES

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Superfluid Heat Conduction and the Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field $B \\gsim 10^{13}$ G. At density $\\rho \\simeq 10^{12}-10^{14} $ g/cm$^3$ the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when temperature $\\simeq 10^8$ K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.

Aguilera, Deborah N; Pons, José A; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Superfluid Heat Conduction and the Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field $B \\gsim 10^{13}$ G. At density $\\rho \\simeq 10^{12}-10^{14} $ g/cm$^3$ the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when temperature $\\simeq 10^8$ K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.

Deborah N. Aguilera; Vincenzo Cirigliano; José A. Pons; Sanjay Reddy; Rishi Sharma

2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

302

Climatic indicators for estimating residential heating and cooling loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive data base of residential energy use generated with the DOE-2.1A simulation code provides an opportunity for correlating building loads predicted by an hourly simulation model to commonly used climatic parameters such as heating and cooling degree-days, and to newer parameters such as insolation-days and latent enthalpy-days. The identification of reliable climatic parameters for estimating cooling loads and the incremental loads for individual building components, such as changing ceiling and wall R-values, infiltration rates or window areas is emphasized.

Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Chang, L.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Advanced Cooling Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling Technology Cooling Technology This component of the program is focused on research to develop technologies that improve performance and reduce costs associated with wet cooling, dry cooling, and hybrid cooling technologies. In addition, the research area covers innovative methods to control bio-fouling of cooling water intake structures as well as advances in intake structure systems. Read More! It is technically possible to cool power plants with minimal water use. However, at this time such cooling methods are not as economically feasible as traditional cooling systems. Additional research and development is necessary to develop cooling systems that use as little water as possible, but at a reasonable cost. Water intake structures are also an area of concern, especially considering the Clean Water Act 316(b) regulation which requires that the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. With plant intake structures, the particular concern is impingement and entrainment of aquatic organisms.

304

Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition  

SciTech Connect

This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Skin and core temperature response to partial- and whole-body heating and cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rate after cooling The whole-body thermal state affects theof Thermal Biology 29 (2004) 549–558 Forehead Head CoolingThermal Biology 29 (2004) 549–558 local spot heating or cooling

Huizenga, Charlie; Zhang, Hui Ph.D; Arens, Edward A

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Joint heating and cooling with the aid of a solar installation using a glazed regenerator-heater for the solution  

SciTech Connect

A solar unit for the joint production of heating and refrigeration has been designed on the basis of glazed solution regeneration. The unit is similar to installations employing glazed solution regenerators for cooling alone. Equations are presented for calculating specific refrigeration and heating capacities as a function of such factors as meteorological conditions. The calculations show that the unit has good heating and refrigeration capacity and that optimum performance is obtained when water must be heated to 45 to 55 C.

Khandurdev, A.; Kakabaev, A.; Kurbankuliev, Ch.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Candidate Materials Evaluation for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Final technical report on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and radiation response of candidate materials for the supercritical water-cooled reactor concept.

T. R. Allen and G. S. Was

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

309

Process Optimization of Cast Alloy 718 for Water Cooled Gas ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

FOR WATER COOLED GAS TURBINE APPLICATION. G.K. Bouse+ and P.W. Schilke*. Gene@ Electric Company+ Materials and Processes Laboratory, and.

310

Water-side Economizer for Non-Fan Cooling Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

changes to the commercial provisions of the 2012 IECC: Water-side Economizer for Non-Fan Cooling Systems R Hart Pacific Northwest National Laboratory January 2013 Proposal...

311

Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Heat Budget Analysis of Nocturnal Cooling and Daytime Heating in a Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nocturnal cooling and daytime heating in a basin were studied on clear and calm days by means of heat budget observations. In the nighttime, drainage flow occurs along the basin sideslope and advects cold air to the boundary layer over the basin ...

Junsei Kondo; Tsuneo Kuwagata; Shigenori Haginoya

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

(Thermal energy storage technologies for heating and cooling applications)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent results from selected TES research activities in Germany and Sweden under an associated IEA annex are discussed. In addition, several new technologies for heating and cooling of buildings and automobiles were reviewed and found to benefit similar efforts in the United states. Details of a meeting with Didier-Werke AG, a leading German ceramics manufacturer who will provide TES media necessary for the United States to complete field tests of an advanced high temperature latent heat storage material, are presented. Finally, an overview of the December 1990 IEA Executive Committee deliberations on TES is presented.

Tomlinson, J.J.

1990-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

314

Solar heating and cooling commercialization research program. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Heating and Cooling Commercialization Research Program has addressed a recognized need to accelerate the commercialization of solar products. The development of communication techniques and materials for a target group of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) wholesalers and distributors has been the primary effort. A summary of the program, the approach to the development of the techniques and materials, the conclusions derived from seminar feedback, the development of additional research activities and reports and the recommendations for follow-on activities are presented. The appendices offer detailed information on specific elements of the research effort.

Christensen, D.L.; Tragert, W.; Weir, S.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems. Monthly progress reports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a combination of monthly progress reports submitted by AiResearch Manufacturing Company. It contains a summary of activities and progress made from November 1, 1978, to February 28, 1979. AiResearch Manufacturing Company is developing prototype solar heating/cooling systems under NASA Contract NAS8-32091. This effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

Not Available

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.  

SciTech Connect

This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

ANDREWS,J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Incremental cooling load determination for passive direct gain heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper examines the applicability of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) full load compressor hour method for predicting the cooling load increase in a residence, attributable to direct gain passive heating systems. The NAHB method predictions are compared with the results of 200 hour-by-hour simulations using BLAST and the two methods show reasonable agreement. The degree of agreement and the limitations of the NAHB method are discussed.

Sullivan, P.W.; Mahone, D.; Fuller, W.; Gruber, J.; Kammerud, R.; Place, W.; Andersson, B.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Signatures of Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption for Typical AHUs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analysis is performed to investigate the signatures of different parameters on the heating and cooling energy consumption of typical air handling units (AHUs). The results are presented in graphic format. HVAC simulation engineers can use these graphs to make quick and rational decisions during the model calibration, identify faulty parameters, and develop optimized operation and control schedules. An application example is given as well in the paper.

Wei, G.; Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations  

SciTech Connect

This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

Burdick, A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Reduced heat flow in light water (H2O) due to heavy water (D2O)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The flow of heat, from top to bottom, in a column of light water can be decreased by over 1000% with the addition of heavy water. A column of light water cools from 25 C to 0 C in 11 hours, however, with the addition of heavy water it takes more than 100 hours. There is a concentration dependence where the cooling time increases as the concentration of added (D2O) increases, with a near maximum being reached with as little as 2% of (D2O) added. This phenomenon will not occur if the water is mixed after the heavy water is added.

William R. Gorman; James D. Brownridge

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

Gary Vine

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Geothermal, People and Policy Phase: Create a Vision, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Develop Finance and Implement Projects Resource Type: Guide/manual, Case studies/examples, Templates, Technical report User Interface: Website Website: www.nrel.gov/geothermal/publications.html Country: United States Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 37.09024°, -95.712891° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.09024,"lon":-95.712891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

323

Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Waste heat from kitchen cuts hot water electricity 23%  

SciTech Connect

Heat recovered from the Hamburger Hamlet's kitchen in Bethesada, Maryland and used to pre-heat the million gallons of hot water used annually reduced hot water costs 23% and paid off the investment in 1.5 years. Potomac Electric initiated the installation of an air-to-water heat pump in the restaurant kitchen above the dishwasher at a cost of about $5300, with the restaurant obliged to reimburse the utility if performance was satisfactory. Outside water recirculates through storage tanks and the ceiling heat pump until it reaches the required 140/sup 0/F. The amount of electricity needed to bring the preheated water to that temperature was $3770 lower after the installation. Cooled air exhausted from the heat pump circulates throughout the kitchen.

Barber, J.

1984-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

325

Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Louisiana) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Louisiana) Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Residential Solutions: $1000/improvement Program Info Start Date 1/1/2011 State Louisiana Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount kWh savings(annual) x $0.34/kWh Provider Energy Smart Solutions Center Entergy New Orleans offers a Solar Water Heater Rebate pilot program designed to help residential customers make energy efficiency improvements. Rebates will be offered on a first-come, first-served basis and reflected on the invoice as a discount. All systems must be OG 300 rated and incentive amount is based on kWh savings. Walk-through energy assessments

326

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A DUAL-CHANNEL, HELIUM-COOLED, TUNGSTEN HEAT EXCHANGER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A DUAL-CHANNEL, HELIUM-COOLED, TUNGSTEN HEAT EXCHANGER Dennis L. Youchison-cooled, refractory heat exchangers are now under consideration for first wall and divertor applications-channel, helium-cooled heat exchanger made almost entirely of tungsten was designed and fabricated by Thermacore

California at Los Angeles, University of

327

InterTechnology Corporation technology summary, solar heating and cooling. National Solar Demonstration Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of systems technology for solar-thermal heating and cooling of buildings is given. Solar collectors, control systems for solar heating and cooling, selective surfaces, thermal energy storage, solar-assisted heat pumps, and solar-powered cooling systems are discussed in detail. Also, an ITC specification for a solar control system is included. (WHK)

None

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

A Free Cooling Based Chilled Water System at Kingston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In efforts to reduce operating costs, the IBM site at Kingston, New York incorporated the energy saving concept of 'free cooling' (direct cooling of chilled water with condenser water) with the expansion of the site chilled water system. Free cooling was employed to satisfy the winter chilled water load of approximately 3000 tons resulting in electrical savings of up to 70% in the winter with wet bulb temperatures below 38 oF. Other energy efficient features included variable speed pumping, high efficiency motors and chillers with reduced entering condenser water limits. This paper will describe the various possible operating modes and their associated savings using computer simulation techniques.

Jansen, P. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.  

SciTech Connect

Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Water-Cooled Ice Machines, Purchasing Specifications for Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice Makers. b) Measured in accordance with ARI Standard 810-2003. Does not include condenser water use. Buying Energy-Efficient Water-Cooled Ice Machines Several types of...

332

Multifunctional robot to maintain boiler water-cooling tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A robot has been developed to maintain boiler water-cooling tubes. This robot has a double tracked moving mechanism, an ash cleaning device, a slag purging device, a tubes' thickness measurement device, a marking device, and a control system. This robot ... Keywords: Boiler maintenance, Boiler water-cooling tube, Climbing robot, Mobile robot

Xueshan Gao; Dianguo Xu; Yan Wang; Huanhuan Pan; Weimin Shen

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heat to water in a storage tank. Heat-transfer fluids, such as antifreeze, protect the solar collector from freezing in cold weather. Liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers have...

334

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a...

335

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads are high and the cooling season is long. Because commercial kitchens and laundry facilities have simultaneous water heating and cooling needs, they are excellent applications for heat pump water heaters. Typical heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) operate at an annual coefficient of performance (COP) of approximately 3.0 for water heating alone. Space conditioning benefits of about 0.67 Btu are delivered at no additional cost for each Btu of water heating output. In situations in which this cooling output is valued, the dual thermal outputs for heating and cooling make heat pump water heaters particularly attractive. The comfort value of added cooling in overheated facilities and the resulting increase in employee and customer satisfaction are frequently cited as additional benefits. This paper describes currently available heat pump water heating equipment and offers guidelines for successful applications in commercial facilities. The results of field test programs involving more than 100 units in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, South Carolina, and other areas are incorporated. Initial conclusions are drawn from a reliability database, and interviews with utility applications specialists and manufacturers are discussed. Design tools are reviewed, including a new comprehensive computer simulation model. Emphasis is placed on identifying sound candidates for installations and on application and design considerations. A brief survey is provided of environmental implications of heat pump water heaters and new developments in heat pump water heater equipment.

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Solar heating and cooling system design and development. Status summary, April--June 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Information is provided on the development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems. This effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and monitoring the operation of prototype systems. The program currently consists of development of heating and cooling equipment for single-family residential and commercial applications and eight operational test sites (four heating and four heating and cooling). Four are single-family residences and four are commercial buildings.

Not Available

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenser Water Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-58634 Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenser Water Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization Tengfang Xu Contents HVAC WATER SYSTEMS.............................................................................................. 2 Cooling tower and condenser water optimization

339

District heating and cooling: a 28-city assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Findings of a project that assessed the potential for construction of district heating and cooling (DHC) systems in 28 US cities are presented. The project sought to determine whether DHC could promote local community and economic development. In the preliminary assessment, 17 of the cities identified up to 23 projects that could be built within three to five years. Most of these projects would rely on nonscarce heat sources such as refuse or geothermal energy, and to improve financial feasibility, the majority would cogenerate electricity along with heat. Many would use existing power plants or industrial boilers to hold down capital costs. Overall, the projects could generate as amany as 24,000 jobs and retain $165 million that otherwise could leave the communities, thereby helping to stabilize local economies.

Meshenberg, M.J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tips: Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Tips: Water Heating May 2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill. There are four ways to cut your water heating bills: use less hot water, turn down the thermostat on your water heater, insulate your water heater, or buy a new, more efficient model. Water Heating Tips Install aerating, low-flow faucets and showerheads. Repair leaky faucets promptly; a leaky faucet wastes gallons of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating Tips: Water Heating May 2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill. There are four ways to cut your water heating bills: use less hot water, turn down the thermostat on your water heater, insulate your water heater, or buy a new, more efficient model. Water Heating Tips Install aerating, low-flow faucets and showerheads. Repair leaky faucets promptly; a leaky faucet wastes gallons of

342

Numerical Model for Conduction-Cooled Current Lead Heat Loads  

SciTech Connect

Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world; however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal intercepts. The model is validated by comparing the numerical model results to ideal cases where analytical equations are valid. In addition, the XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) prototype current leads are modeled and compared to the experimental results from testing at DESY's XFEL Magnet Test Stand (XMTS) and Cryomodule Test Bench (CMTB).

White, M.J.; Wang, X.L.; /Fermilab; Brueck, H.D.; /DESY

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

343

Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating Permitting Standards Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating Permitting Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Installer/Contractor Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Heating & Cooling Water Heating Program Info State Arizona Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider Maricopa Association of Governments In an effort to promote uniformity, the Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG) approved standard procedures for securing necessary electrical/building permits for residential (single-family) and commercial PV systems. These procedures are a part of the MAG Building Code Standards. The standards address requirements for the solar installation, plans,

344

Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,500 or 50% of installed cost; $2,000 for systems purchased by 12/31/13 Program Info Funding Source LIPA Efficiency Long Island Program Start Date December 2010 State New York Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $20 per kBTU (based on SRCC collector rating) Bonus Incentive for systems purchased by 12/31/13: 2 Collector system: $500 bonus rebate 1 Collector system: $250 bonus rebate Provider Long Island Power Authority '''''Note: For system purchased by December 31, 2013, LIPA is providing a

345

Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline, Revision 1: Revision 1 to TR-107396, Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This "Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline" addresses the use of chemicals to mitigate corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in the closed cooling water (CCW) systems of nuclear power plants. The chemical additives used for these purposes depend on plant design characteristics, water quality, operating parameters, and the specifications of nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) suppliers. The list of chemicals is not as extensive as that for service water systems but can be confusing to utility ...

2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

346

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Paul Johnston-Knight Introduction Federal laws and regulations require Federal agencies to reduce water use and improve water efficiency. Namely, Executive Order 13514 Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, requires an annual two percent reduction of water use intensity (water use per square foot of building space) for agency potable water consumption as well as a two percent reduction of water use for industrial, landscaping, and agricultural applica- tions. Cooling towers can be a significant

348

Electric Power Plant Cooling Water Intakes and Related Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of Drought on U.S. Steam Impact of Drought on U.S. Steam Electric Power Plant Cooling Water Intakes and Related Water Resource Management Issues April 2009 DOE/NETL-2009/1364 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

349

Study of Operating Control Strategies for Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System with Supplemental Cooling Tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground source heat pump for cooling-dominated commercial buildings may utilize supplemental cooling towers to reduce system first cost and to improve system performance. The use of hybrid ground source heat pump (HGSP) can reduce the size of the ground-loop ... Keywords: hybrid ground source heat pump, supplement heat rejection, control strategies, operating performance

Wang Jinggang; Gao Xiaoxia; Yin Zhenjiang; Li Fang

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report. 6 figs.

Not Available

1991-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

351

Effect of Watering and Non-Watering Cooling Rates on the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effect of Watering and Non-Watering Cooling Rates on the Mechanical Properties of an Aluminum Smelter's Potshell · Energy Reduction Technology for  ...

352

Energy Basics: Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

353

Use of Reclaimed Water for Power Plant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CONTENTS Chapter 1 - Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1 Power Plants Need Water .................................................................................................. 1 Meeting Water Demands in a Water-Constrained Environment ....................................... 3 Purpose and Structure of the Report .................................................................................. 3 Chapter 2 - Database of Reclaimed Water Use for Cooling ................................................... 5 Data Collection .................................................................................................................. 5 The Database...................................................................................................................... 7

354

LOW COST HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER (HPWH)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water heating accounts for the second largest portion of residential building energy consumption, after space conditioning. Existing HPWH products are a technical success, with demonstrated energy savings of 50% or more compared with standard electric resistance water heaters. However, current HPWHs available on the market cost an average of $1000 or more, which is too expensive for significant market penetration. What is needed is a method to reduce the first cost of HPWHs, so that the payback period will be reduced from 8 years to a period short enough for the market to accept this technology. A second problem with most existing HPWH products is the reliability issue associated with the pump and water loop needed to circulate cool water from the storage tank to the HPWH condenser. Existing integral HPWHs have the condenser wrapped around the water tank and thus avoid the pump and circulation issues but require a relatively complex and expensive manufacturing process. A more straightforward potentially less costly approach to the integral, single package HPWH design is to insert the condenser directly into the storage tank, or immersed direct heat exchanger (IDX). Initial development of an IDX HPWH met technical performance goals, achieving measured efficiencies or energy factors (EF) in excess of 1.79. In comparison conventional electric water heaters (EWH) have EFs of about 0.9. However, the initial approach required a 2.5" hole on top of the tank for insertion of the condenser - much larger than the standard openings typically provided. Interactions with water heater manufacturers indicated that the non standard hole size would likely lead to increased manufacturing costs (at least initially) and largely eliminate any cost advantage of the IDX approach. Recently we have been evaluating an approach to allow use of a standard tank hole size for insertion of the IDX condenser. Laboratory tests of a prototype have yielded an EF of 2.02.

Mei, Vince C [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Design, fabrication and testing of a model heating and cooling system for a vacuum vessel  

SciTech Connect

A full-size model of a typical cooling and heating system for a vacuum vessel was manufactured and examined in order to clarify and enhance the efficiency and reliability of the designed system. The model consisted of two parts; one of which had the same structure as the other and was located facing each other to simulate the adiabatic condition of the vacuum-side of a vacuum vessel. Its components were rectangular plates, eletric heater units, cooling pipes inside of which water and air flew as cooling fluid. A lot of kinds of tests and measurements were performed to evaluate efficiency and reliability on the model. The numerical and theoretical analyses on the system were also carried out using the dimensional finite difference technique. The analytical results agreed pretty well with the experimental.

Shimizu, M.; Miyauchi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Kajiura, S.; Koizumi, M.; Hata, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Modeling Free Convection Flow of Liquid Hydrogen within a Cylindrical Heat Exchanger Cooled to 14 K  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lau, W, and Yang, S. , “A Heat Exchanger between Forced FlowWITHIN A CYLINDRICAL HEAT EXCHANGER COOLED TO 14 K S. Qof the container is a heat exchanger between the hydrogen

Yang, S.W.; Oxford U.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Heat-transfer dynamics during cryogen spray cooling of substrate at different initial temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aguilar G 2004 Radial heat transfer dynamics during cryogenof droplet dynamics and heat transfer in spray cooling Exp.S0031-9155(04)84030-2 Heat-transfer dynamics during cryogen

Jia, W; Aguilar, G; Wang, G X; Nelson, J S

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, November--December 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

359

Microelectronic chip cooling: an experimental assessment of a liquid-passing heat sink, a microchannel heat rejection module, and a microchannel-based recirculating-liquid cooling system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of heat transfer testing of heat absorption modules (HAM), heat rejection modules (HRM), and a recirculating-liquid cooling system are reported. Low-profile, Cu-based, microchannel heat exchangers (MHEs) were fabricated and used as the HAM as ...

Bin Lu; W. J. Meng; Fanghua Mei

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solar heating and cooling system design and development (status summay through December 1977)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The program scope is to develop, fabricate, install, and monitor the operation of prototype solar heating and cooling systems. Application studies have been completed for three application categories: single-family residential, multi-family residential, and commercial. The program currently consists of development of heating and cooling euipment for single-family residential and commercial applications and eight operational test sites (four heating and four heating and cooling). Four are single-family residences and four are commercial buildings.

Not Available

1978-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Water Heating Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

research updates. Solar Water Heaters Photo of a solar water heater system mounted on a rooftop. Solar water heaters can be cost-effective options for heating a buildings water...

362

Study on Water-Cooled Solar Semiconductor Air Conditioner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-cooled solar semiconductor air conditioner was designed. Relevant calculation was made to determine the room's cooling load, which export the solar panels and battery capacity, followed by selection of CNC matcher. Development work also involves ... Keywords: solar energy, peltier effect, semiconductor air conditioner

Dong Zhi-Ming; Chang Ji-Bin; Xiang Li-Juan; Zhou Xue-Bin

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous)...

364

Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

energy savings and can reduce the use of fossil fuels by buildings. While conventional heat pump water heater designs are limited to using toxic ammonia water ...

365

Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

Essebaggers, Jan (39 Honeyman Dr., Succasunna, NJ 07876)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Performance of residential solar heating and cooling system with flat-plate and evacuated tubular collectors: CSU Solar House I  

SciTech Connect

Measurements in Solar House I at Colorado State University have provided comparison data on space heating, water heating, and cooling by systems in which flat-plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors were used. Data were procured on 47 days during operation of the flat-plate collector and on 112 days when the house was heated or cooled by the evacuated tube collector system. It was concluded that the system comprising an evacuated tubular collector, lithium bromide absorption water chiller, and associated equipment is highly effective in providing solar heating and cooling to a small building, that it can supply up to twice the space heating and several times the cooling obtainable from an equal occupied area of good quality flat-plate collectors, and that a greater fraction of the domestic hot water can be obtained by supplying its heat from main storage. The cost-effectiveness of the system, in comparison with one employing a good flat-plate collector, can be determined when commercial pricing data are made available.

Duff, W.S.; Conway, T.M.; Loef, G.O.G.; Meredith, D.B.; Pratt, R.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) Decay Heat Removal Concepts  

SciTech Connect

Current research and development on the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) has focused on the design of safety systems that will remove the decay heat during accident conditions, ion irradiations of candidate ceramic materials, joining studies of oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; and within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) the fabrication of carbide fuels and ceramic fuel matrix materials, development of non-halide precursor low density and high density ceramic coatings, and neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic fuel matrix and metallic materials. The vast majority of this work has focused on the reference design for the GFR: a helium-cooled, direct power conversion system that will operate with an outlet temperature of 850şC at 7 MPa. In addition to the work being performed in the United States, seven international partners under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have identified their interest in participating in research related to the development of the GFR. These are Euratom (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, Euratom (including the United Kingdom), France, and Japan have active research activities with respect to the GFR. The research includes GFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This report is a compilation of work performed on decay heat removal systems for a 2400 MWt GFR during this fiscal year (FY05).

K. D. Weaver; L-Y. Cheng; H. Ludewig; J. Jo

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Application Prospect Analysis of the Surface Water Source Heat-Pump in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface water resources in China are rather abundant and it can be use as the heat or cool source for heat pump. The winter surface water temperatures of 17 typical cities are investigated in December, and they are all distributed in the interval of 2~5?. The critical technical issue in the surface water heat pump is how to extract the freezing latent heat. The urban surface water supplying areas of 102 large or median cities in China are measured and counted. The supply area ratio, and mean heating or cooling need index are calculated separately and the 102 cities are classified by the three parameters. The data indicate that surface water can supply heat and cool source for 42.1% of the urban waterside buildings in China.

Zhang, C.; Zhuang, Z.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Sun, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program (Arizona) Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program (Arizona) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government General Public/Consumer Industrial Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Maximum Rebate 50% of system cost Program Info State Nevada Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $15.00/therm Provider Southwest Gas Corporation '''''Note: Effective July 15, 2013, Southwest Gas is no longer accepting applications for the current program year. Systems installed during the current program year will not be eligible for a rebate in the next program

371

Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate One rebate per account Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $450 per system Provider Ocala Utility Services The Solar Water Heater Rebate Program is offered to residential retail electric customers by the City of Ocala Utility Services. Interested customers must complete an application and receive approval from the Ocala Utility Services before installing equipment. The application can be found on the [http://www.ocalafl.org/COO3.aspx?id=947 program web site.] The system must be installed by a licensed Florida contractor on the customer's

372

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Local Government Nonprofit Residential State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Residential: 30% of system cost or $3,000, whichever is less Small Commercial: 30% of system cost or $7,500, whichever is less Schools, Religious, Non-profit, Public Facilities and Civic and County Facilities: 50% of system cost or $30,000, whichever is less Program Info State Nevada Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Residential and Small Business: $14.50 per therm Schools, Religious, Non-profit, Public Facilities and Civic and County

373

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) was selected as one of the promising candidates in Generation IV reactors for its prominent advantages; those are the high thermal efficiency, the system simplification, the R&D cost minimization and the flexibility for core design. As the demand for advanced nuclear system increases, Japanese R&D project started in 1999 aiming to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through three sub-themes of 1. Plant conceptual design, 2. Thermal-hydraulics, and 3. Material. Although the material development is critical issue of SCWR development, previous studies were limited for the screening tests on commercial alloys

374

Use of Alternate Water Sources for Power Plant Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report lays out a framework developed to evaluate the potential use of non-traditional water supplies for cooling new or existing power plants. The report will be of value to environment, generation, and planning managers within power companies.

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik Srensen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik Sørensen Department of Energy Technology and product lifetime. The high power Light Emitting Diodes (LED) belongs to the group of electronics

Sørensen, Henrik

376

Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

377

On the Use of Cool Materials as a Heat Island Mitigation Strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mitigation of the heat island effect can be achieved by the use of cool materials that are characterized by high solar reflectance and infrared emittance values. Several types of cool materials have been tested and their optical and thermal ...

A. Synnefa; A. Dandou; M. Santamouris; M. Tombrou; N. Soulakellis

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:...

379

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

380

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

382

New and Existing Buildings Heating and Cooling Opportunities: Dedicated Heat Recovery Chiller  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Langfitt Langfitt U S Department of State Overseas Buildings Operations Mechanical Engineering Division *Engineers are working Harder AND Smarter *New Energy Economy *Heating Is Where The Opportunity Is  39% of total US energy goes into non-residential buildings.  Gas for heating is about 60% of energy used in a building  Gas for heating is at least 25% of total energy used in the US. Heat Generation System Heat Disposal System What's Wrong With This Picture? Keep the heat IN the system Don't run main plant equipment until necessary ! Less rejected heat Less gas consumption High Temp >160F with conventional boilers Hydronic heating... condensing style modular boilers. The entire heating system... designed for low temperature water, recommend maximum temperature of 135ºF.

383

A solar thermal cooling and heating system for a building: Experimental and model based performance analysis and design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar thermal cooling and heating system at Carnegie Mellon University was studied through its design, installation, modeling, and evaluation to deal with the question of how solar energy might most effectively be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building. This solar cooling and heating system incorporates 52 m{sup 2} of linear parabolic trough solar collectors; a 16 kW double effect, water-lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chiller, and a heat recovery heat exchanger with their circulation pumps and control valves. It generates chilled and heated water, dependent on the season, for space cooling and heating. This system is the smallest high temperature solar cooling system in the world. Till now, only this system of the kind has been successfully operated for more than one year. Performance of the system has been tested and the measured data were used to verify system performance models developed in the TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program (TRNSYS). On the basis of the installed solar system, base case performance models were programmed; and then they were modified and extended to investigate measures for improving system performance. The measures included changes in the area and orientation of the solar collectors, the inclusion of thermal storage in the system, changes in the pipe diameter and length, and various system operational control strategies. It was found that this solar thermal system could potentially supply 39% of cooling and 20% of heating energy for this building space in Pittsburgh, PA, if it included a properly sized storage tank and short, low diameter connecting pipes. Guidelines for the design and operation of an efficient and effective solar cooling and heating system for a given building space have been provided. (author)

Qu, Ming [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Yin, Hongxi [School of Engineering Education, Purdue University, 701 W. Stadium Ave., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2061 (United States); Archer, David H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Optimal Scheduling for Biocide and Heat Exchangers Maintenance Towards Environmentally Friendly Seawater Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using seawater in cooling systems is a common practice in many parts of the world where there is a shortage of freshwater. However, biofouling is one of the major operational problems associated with the usage of seawater in cooling systems. Microfouling is caused by the activities of microorganisms, such as bacteria and algae, producing a very thin layer that sticks to the inside surface of the tubes in heat exchangers. This thin layer has a tremendously negative impact on heat transferred across the heat exchanger tubes in the system. In some instances, even a 250 micrometer thickness of fouling film can reduce the heat exchanger's heat transfer coefficient by 50 percent. On the other hand, macrofouling is the blockage caused by relatively large marine organisms, such as oysters, mussels, clams, and barnacles. A biocide is typically added to eliminate, or at least reduce, biofouling. Typically, microfouling can be controlled by intermittent dosages, and macrofouling can be controlled by continuous dosages of biocide. The aim of this research work is to develop a systematic approach to the optimal operating and design alternatives for integrated seawater cooling systems in industrial facilities. A process integration framework is used to provide a holistic approach to optimizing the design and operation of the seawater cooling system, along with the dosage and discharge systems. Optimization formulations are employed to systematize the decision-making and to reconcile the various economic, technical, and environmental aspects of the problem. Building blocks of the approach include the biocide water chemistry and kinetics, process cooling requirements, dosage scenarios and dynamic profiles, biofilm growth, seawater discharge, and environmental regulations. Seawater chemistry is studied with emphasis on the usage of biocide for seawater cooling. A multi-period optimization formulation is developed and solved to determine: * The optimal levels of dosing and dechlorination chemicals * The timing of maintenance to clean the heat-exchange * The dynamic dependence of the biofilm growth on the applied doses, the seawater-biocide chemistry, the process conditions, and seawater characteristics for each time period. The technical, economic, and environmental considerations of the system are accounted for and discussed through case studies.

Binmahfouz, Abdullah

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

A SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ROOF POND SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tex. , 3rd Ann. Solar Heating & Cooling R&D Contractors'Proceedings, Passive Solar Heating & Cooling~'-~&-l~orkshop,Solar Jubilee, Phoenix, AZ, June 2-6, 1980 A SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ROOF POND SYSTEMS FOR HEATING

Tavana, Medhi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

maintenance includes having effective drift eliminators, periodically cleaning the system if appropriate, minimization of process leads into the cooling system that provide nutrients for bacteria, maintenance management plan shall describe how the system will be returned to normal microbial control following an upset

387

Energy Saver 101: Water Heating Infographic | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Infographic Energy Saver 101: Water Heating Infographic Looking for ways to save money on water heating? Energy Saver 101: Water Heating infographic lays out evergything you...

388

Building Technologies Office: Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative Search Search Help Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative EERE Building Technologies Office Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative...

389

Category:Solar Water Heating Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Water Heating Incentives Jump to: navigation, search Category for Solar Water Heating Incentives. Pages in category "Solar Water Heating Incentives" The following 200 pages...

390

Evaluation of models for predicting evaporative water loss in cooling impoundments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling impoundments can offer a number of advantages over cooling towers for condenser water cooling at steam electric power plants. However, a major disadvantage of cooling ponds is a lack of confidence in the ability ...

Helfrich, Karl Richard

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Santa Clara Water & Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

392

An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model Title An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-6031E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Wang, Liping, Philip Haves, and Walter F. Buhl Conference Name SimBuild 2012 IBPSA Conference Date Published 08/2012 Abstract The accurate prediction of cooling and dehumidification coil performance is important in model-based fault detection and in the prediction of HVAC system energy consumption for support of both design and operations. It is frequently desirable to use a simple cooling coil model that does not require detailed specification of coil geometry and material properties. The approach adopted is to match the overall UA of the coil to the rating conditions and to estimate the air-side and water-side components of the UA using correlations developed by Holmes (1982). This approach requires some geometrical information about the coil and the paper investigates the sensitivity of the overall performance prediction to uncertainties in this information, including assuming a fixed ratio of air-side to water-side UA at the rating condition. Finally, simulation results from different coil models are compared, and experimental data are used to validate the improved cooling coil model.

393

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait and other counties of Arabian Peninsula, reduced airflow can lead to reduction in water consumption as well, since during the summer season, the dry bulb temperature of the ambient air is higher than the incoming hot water temperature, and the air undergoes sensible cooling. This paper presents the findings of a study conducted in the Avenues mall, Kuwait. Initially, the CTs operated only at high speed, and on a typical summer day nearly one fourth of the make-up water was used for self cooling of air. The study based on measured data revealed that the use of VFD can reduce the water wastage for self-cooling of air by as much as 75% and overall water consumption by 18.6% while keeping the cooling system performance at design level.

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Absorption Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial...

395

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, December 1994--January 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This progress report summarizes activities, experiments, and testing performed on a variety of solar heating and cooling systems in conjunction with four technical research tasks. Areas of focus include: Unique solar system components; Rating and certification of domestic water heating systems; and, Advanced residential solar domestic hot water systems.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING PONDS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING PONDS R. K. Hadlock 0 . B. Abbey Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories Prepared for U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission b + NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, nor assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, pro- duct or process disclosed, nor represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. F Available from National Technical Information Service

397

Active solar heating and cooling information user study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on active solar heating and cooling (SHAC). An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 19 SHAC groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Manufacturers (4 groups), Distributors, Installers, Architects, Builders, Planners, Engineers (2 groups), Representatives of Utilities, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, Building Owners/Managers, and Homeowners (2 groups). The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

PureComfort 240 Combined Cooling,Heating,and Power Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the second interim case study of a PureComfort 240 combined cooling, heating and power project at the University of Toronto, Mississauga.

2006-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

399

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

For decades, space heating and cooling (space conditioning) accounted for more than half of all residential energy consumption. Estimates from the ...

400

Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on a comprehensive evaluation of the market for active solar heating and cooling products focusing on the attributes and behavior of HVAC decision makers. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Standards applicable to performance measurement of solar heating and cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The advantage of the utilization of existing standards in the performance monitoring of solar heating and cooling systems is discussed. Existing applicable measurement standards and practices are listed.

Lior, N.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

THE STIRLING ENGINE: THERMODYNAMICS AND APPLICATIONS IN COMBINED COOLING, HEATING, AND POWER SYSTEMS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The goal of this study is to assess the potential of the Stirling engine in alternative energy applications including combined cooling, heating, and power… (more)

Harrod, James C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Design and evaluation of heat transfer fluids for direct immersion cooling of electronic systems .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Comprehensive molecular design was used to identify new heat transfer fluids for direct immersion phase change cooling of electronic systems. Four group contribution methods for… (more)

Harikumar Warrier, Pramod Kumar Warrier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Impingement cooling and heat transfer measurement using transient liquid crystal technique.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A heat transfer study on jet impingement cooling is presented. The study focuses on the effect of impingement jet flow rate, jet angle, and flow… (more)

Huang, Yizhe

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Modeling of Heat Transfer during Cooling of a Hot Steel Plate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thus, it is crucial to develop accurate heat transfer models in order to predict the temperature history during cooling of steel plates. The present study describes a  ...

406

Vibration Induced Droplet Generation from a Liquid Layer for Evaporative Cooling in a Heat Transfer Cell .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??During this investigation, vibration induced droplet generation from a liquid layer was examined as a means for achieving high heat flux evaporative cooling. Experiments were… (more)

Pyrtle, Frank, III

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

A micro-COOLING, HEATING, AND POWER (m-CHP) INSTRUCTIONAL MODULE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) is an emerging category of energy systems consisting of power generation equipment coupled with thermally activated components. The application of… (more)

Oliver, Jason Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rculperformance of solar thermos i phon water heaters with heatSolar Jubilee, Phoenix, AZ, June 2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The eight-month program for 1990 is separated into seven tasks. There are tasks for each of the three solar houses, a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, a management task, and a task funding travel to attend the Field Monitoring for a Purpose'' workshop which was held April 2--5, 1990, in Gothenburg, Sweden. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.  

SciTech Connect

Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort to identify and catalog those plants that are using reclaimed water for cooling.

Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

411

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Identification of Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient of Secondary Cooling Zone of CCM based on Least Squares Method and Stochastic Approximation Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The detailed mathematical model of heat and mass transfer of steel ingot of curvilinear continuous casting machine is proposed. The process of heat and mass transfer is described by nonlinear partial differential equations of parabolic type. Position of phase boundary is determined by Stefan conditions. The temperature of cooling water in mould channel is described by a special balance equation. Boundary conditions of secondary cooling zone include radiant and convective components of heat exchange and account for the complex mechanism of heat-conducting due to airmist cooling using compressed air and water. Convective heat-transfer coefficient of secondary cooling zone is unknown and considered as distributed parameter. To solve this problem the algorithm of initial adjustment of parameter and the algorithm of operative adjustment are developed.

Ivanova, Anna

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Heat Transfer Performance of a Dry and Wet / Dry Advanced Cooling Tower Condenser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an EPRI-funded experimental evaluation of advanced air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase. Change dry/wet cooling system for power plants. Two condenser surfaces with different air-side augmentation were tested in an ammonia phase change pilot plant (0.6 MWth) located at UCC/Linde. The first unit consisted of integral shaved-fin-extruded aluminum tubing designed for dry operation. Heat transfer and air-side pressure loss characteristics were measured under varying air face velocities (1 to 5 m/s) and initial temperature differences, ITD (11 to 33K). Measured overall heat transfer coefficients, U, ranged between 40 and 49 J /m2 S.K (based on air-side surface). The second configuration constituted an aluminum plate-fin/tube assembly, which was tested in both dry and wet (water deluge) modes at 1 to 4 m/s air face velocities and ITD's of 5 to 33K. Deluge rates varied from 1 to 6 m3/s per meter of core width. In the dry mode, U ranged from 42 to 63 J/m2 .S.K. Water deluge enhanced the heat rejection up to 4.5 times over dry operation.

Fricke, H. D.; Webster, D. J.; McIlroy, K.; Bartz, J. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

2011 CERN Waste Heat EN-CV February 28th 2011 Power Dissipated by the Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2011 CERN Waste Heat EN-CV February 28th 2012 1 2011 Power Dissipated by the Cooling Towers The cooling circuits at CERN use evaporative open cooling towers to discharge into the atmosphere the heat towers per complex depend on the amount of cooling power required. LHC one cooling tower per even LHC

Wu, Sau Lan

415

Energy Basics: Cooling Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the...

416

Compact intermediate heat transport system for sodium cooled reactor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combination with a sodium cooled reactor having an intermediate heat exchanger for extracting heat in a nonradioactive secondary sodium loop from the sodium rector. It comprises: first and second upstanding closed cylindrical vessels, one of the cylindrical vessels being exterior of the other of the cylindrical vessels; the other of the cylindrical vessels being interior, smaller, and concentric of the larger cylindrical vessel so as to define between the inside of the larger vessel and the outside of the smaller vessel an interstitial annular volume; at least one feedwater inlet plenums at the bottom of the larger vessel communicated to the interstitial annular volume; at least one feedwater outlet plenums at the top of the larger and outer vessel communicated to the interstitial annular volume; tubes communicated to the feedwater inlet plenum at the bottom of the vessels and to the steam outlet plenum at the top of the vessel; a first conduit; a large submersible electromagnetic pump; and a jet pump having an inlet, a venturi, and a diffusing outlet.

Boardman, C.E.; Maurer, J.P.

1990-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

417

Valance heating/cooling system attains largest application in 1,000-room hotel  

SciTech Connect

Room temperatures in the 1,000 guest rooms of Chicago's Hyatt Regency Hotel are controlled by a valance heating and cooling system that functions by means of radiation and convection. The valances are mounted below the ceiling and consists of finned tubes and a drain tube contained within a wall-mounted enclosure. The finned tubes and drain are connected to a riser system, that is connected to a hot and cold water supply. The economics of the system is discussed and with no fans, motors, or blowers to run, energy is conserved. (MCW)

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Simple strategies for minimization of cooling water usage in binary power plants  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources which could be used for the production of electrical power in the United States are located for the most part in the semi-arid western regions of the country. The availability of ground or surface water in the quantity or quality desired for a conventional wet'' heat rejections system represents a barrier to the development of these resources with the binary cycle technology. This paper investigates some simple strategies to minimize the cooling water usage of binary power plants. The cooling water usage is reduced by increasing the thermal efficiency of the plant. Three methods of accomplishing this are considered here: increasing the average source temperature, by increasing the geofluid outlet temperature; decreasing pinch points on the heat rejection heat exchangers, increasing their size; and using internal recuperation within the cycle. In addition to the impact on water usage, the impact on cost-of-electricity is determined. The paper shows that some of these strategies can reduce the cooling water requirements 20 to 30% over that for a plant similar to the Heber Binary Plant, with a net reduction in the cost-of-electricity of about 15%. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Simple strategies for minimization of cooling water usage in binary power plants  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources which could be used for the production of electrical power in the United States are located for the most part in the semi-arid western regions of the country. The availability of ground or surface water in the quantity or quality desired for a conventional wet'' heat rejections system represents a barrier to the development of these resources with the binary cycle technology. This paper investigates some simple strategies to minimize the cooling water usage of binary power plants. The cooling water usage is reduced by increasing the thermal efficiency of the plant. Three methods of accomplishing this are considered here: increasing the average source temperature, by increasing the geofluid outlet temperature; decreasing pinch points on the heat rejection heat exchangers, increasing their size; and using internal recuperation within the cycle. In addition to the impact on water usage, the impact on cost-of-electricity is determined. The paper shows that some of these strategies can reduce the cooling water requirements 20 to 30% over that for a plant similar to the Heber Binary Plant, with a net reduction in the cost-of-electricity of about 15%. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Cooling Water Systems - Energy Savings/Lower Costs By Reusing Cooling Tower Blowdown  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reuse of cooling tower blow down cannot only provide energy conservation, but can provide water conservation and chemical conservation. To be effective, it is critical that the water treatment program be coordinated with the treatment of the blow down for reuse into the cooling tower system. Several plants have been built and operated with considerable difficulty regarding effective operation of the softener due to improper chemical selection. However, other plants have utilized the proper chemicals which not only improve the softener's performance and operation, but also effectively reduces the size of the softener. Thus, initial capital and operating savings are obtained. Detailed information is provided on guidelines and case histories of operating units.

Puckorius, P. R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Advanced Cooling Options for Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alternative power plant cooling systems exist that offer significant opportunity for reducing the amount of water used in power plant cooling. These systems include direct dry cooling using air-cooled condensers, indirect dry cooling using air-cooled heat exchangers paired with water-cooled surface condensers, and a variety of hybrid systems incorporating both dry and wet cooling elements. The water savings afforded by the use of these systems, however, comes at a price in the form of more expensive ...

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

422

Water-Cooled Electric Chillers, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy efficiency purchasing specifications for federal procurements of water-cooled electric chillers.

Not Available

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Cooling of X-ray Emitting Gas by Heat Conduction in the Center of Cooling Flow Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the possibility that a large fraction of the gas at temperatures of ? 10 7 K in cooling flow clusters cools by heat conduction to lower temperatures, rather than by radiative cooling. We argue that this process, when incorporated into the so-called “moderate cooling flow model”, where the effective age of the intracluster medium is much lower than the age of the cluster, reduces substantially the expected X-ray luminosity from gas residing at temperatures of ? 10 7 K. In this model, the radiative mass cooling rate of gas at ? 10 7 K inferred from X-ray observations, which is heat conduction is regulated by reconnection between the magnetic field lines in cold ( ? 10 4 K) clouds and the field lines in the intracluster medium. A narrow conduction front is formed, which, despite the relatively low temperature, allows efficient heat conduction from the hot ICM to the cold clouds. The reconnection between the field lines in cold clouds and those in the intracluster medium occurs only when the magnetic field in the ICM is strong enough. This occurs only in the very inner regions of cooling flow clusters, at r ? 10 ? 30 kpc. The large ratio of the number of H? photons to the number of cooling hydrogen atoms is explained by this scenario. 1.

Noam Soker; L. Blanton; Craig L. Sarazin; Chandra Fellow

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Critical Design Issues of Tokamak Cooling Water System of ITER's Fusion Reactor  

SciTech Connect

U.S. ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). The TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak to cooling water during nominal pulsed operation 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. This water contains radionuclides because impurities (e.g., tritium) diffuse from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200 240 C at up to 4.4MPa, and corrosion products become activated by neutron bombardment. The system is designated as safety important class (SIC) and will be fabricated to comply with the French Order concerning nuclear pressure equipment (December 2005) and the EU Pressure Equipment Directive using ASME Section VIII, Div 2 design codes. The complexity of the TCWS design and fabrication presents unique challenges. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed with several issues that need to be resolved to move to next stage of the design. Those issues include flow balancing between over hundreds of branch pipelines in parallel to supply cooling water to blankets, determination of optimum flow velocity while minimizing the potential for cavitation damage, design for freezing protection for cooling water flowing through cryostat (freezing) environment, requirements for high-energy piping design, and electromagnetic impact to piping and components. Although the TCWS consists of standard commercial components such as piping with valves and fittings, heat exchangers, and pumps, complex requirements present interesting design challenges. This paper presents a brief description of TCWS conceptual design and critical design issues that need to be resolved.

Kim, Seokho H [ORNL; Berry, Jan [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Standing Technical Committee Standing Technical Committee Water Heating Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder's Meeting February 29, 2012 - Austin, Texas 2 STC Chairman Responsibilities * To maintain the Water Heating Strategic Plan (living document) * To work with stakeholders to identify research activities that resolve gaps & barriers towards achieving Water Heating Strategic Goals * To work with stakeholders to prioritize gaps leading to future BA research efforts * To serve as a collection point for BA research activities and outside research * To facilitate collaboration among BA researchers and the marketplace 3 Water Heating as a Significant End Use According to DOE RECS data, residential water heating represents 20% of the energy delivered to U.S. households. 4 Water Heating Strategic Goals

427

Assessment of Energy Use and Comfort in Buildings Utilizing Mixed-Mode Controls with Radiant Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

can often be met by cooling towers, heat exchange with theradiant surfaces, and cooling towers that chill water toby evaporative chillers or cooling towers) and/or night

Borgeson, Samuel Dalton

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Program on Technology Innovation: Review of Advanced Cooling Tower Technologies with Reduced Cooled Water Temperature and Evaporatio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews current technologies and solutions for advanced cooling towers with reduced cooled water temperature and evaporation losses. This is the first report for the dew-point cooling tower fill development project, funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Program on Technology Innovation, Water Conservation program. It is prepared by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI).This review is based on a literature and patent survey; it summarizes advancements in cooling ...

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

429

Fuzzy incremental control algorithm of loop heat pipe cooling system for spacecraft applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable and high precision thermal control technologies are essential for the safe flight of advanced spacecraft. A fuzzy incremental control strategy is proposed for control of an LHP space cooling system comprising a loop heat pipe and a variable ... Keywords: Fuzzy incremental control, Loop heat pipe, Modeling and simulation, Space cooling system

Su-Jun Dong; Yun-Ze Li; Jin Wang; Jun Wang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant  

SciTech Connect

Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

Faletti, D.W.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

Faletti, D.W.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Improving Water Loop Heat Pump Performance by Using Low Temperature Geothermal Fluid  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water-loop heat pump (WLHP) systems are an important option for space conditioning of commercial buildings. They provide the opportunity of saving energy through heat recovery and thermal balancing when heating and cooling occur simultaneously. WLHP systems typically operate with loop water temperature between 16 C and 32 C. When cooling loads dominate, loop water temperatures are maintained below 32 C by rejecting excess heat with a cooling tower. When heating dominates, loop water temperatures are maintained above 16 C by a heater input. The capacity and efficiency of water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in both operating modes are strong functions of the inlet water temperature. The emphasis of this paper is on the analysis of system performances, energy savings of the mixed cooling and heating mode of the WLHP systems for it is a unique operating mode in the air-conditioning and space heating systems. The energy saving effect by using low temperature geothermal as the heat input for WLHP systems was examined.

Xinguo, Li

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical or horizontal ground-coupling, an open groundwater loop, or a surface water loop. This paper discusses system performance characteristics, component selection procedures presently being used, improvements currently being considered and future possibilities for improved efficiency and reliability. Optimum designs require proper matching of the heat pump unit to the water circulation system, the building space heating/cooling load and water heating requirements. General trends resulting from system and component choices will be discussed. Water heating methods with these heat pumps will be considered.

Kavanaugh, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Timonium Elementary School solar energy heating and cooling augmentation experiment. Final engineering report: executive summary (ER-8877)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers a two-year and seven-month solar space heating and cooling experiment conducted at the Timonium Elementary School, Timonium, Maryland. The system was designed to provide a minimum of 50% of the energy required during the heating season and to determine the feasibility of using solar energy to power absorption-type chillers for cooling. The area to be heated or cooled totaled approximately 8500 square feet of the center wing of the school. To accomplish this a system containing 5000 square feet of collectors, 5300 square feet of reflectors, a 15,000 gallon insulated hot water storage tank, 40,000 gallons of chilled water storage, an absorption chiller, miscellaneous plumbing, and instrumentation and controls, were installed. The system utilized untreated water (except for one time deionization of initial water supply) as a working fluid. The collection system efficiency (without reflectors) reached a maximum of 56% on a clear day in April 1975. This was with an average water temperature of 161/sup 0/F. The collection system efficiency (with collector and reflector area totaling 9550 square feet) on a clear day in August amounted to 40.5%. This was with an average water temperature of 170/sup 0/F. Data on the work accomplished and on the system performance are presented.

Not Available

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU-238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath.

Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

436

Be ŤSun-sible? about Heating Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Be "Sun-sible" about Heating Water Curriculum: Solar Power; (Electromagnetic radiation, conductionconvection, efficiency, Energy transformation, thermodynamics) Grade level: K-4...

437

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, L. Earle, D. Christensen, J. Maguire, and E. Wilson National Renewable Energy Laboratory C.E. Hancock Mountain Energy...

438

Section E: WATER HEATING - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey Form EIA-457A (2001)--Household Questionnaire OMB No.: 1905-0092, Expiring February 29, 2004 24 Section E: WATER HEATING

439

Heat Pump Water Heaters—Laboratory Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI conducted laboratory tests of several heat pump water heaters to assess their performance and energy efficiency. Among U.S. heat pump water heaters tested were new products from A. O. Smith, General Electric (GE), and Rheem. These units are designed to be integral, drop-in replacements for standard electric water heaters. Additionally, EPRI tested the Japanese-based Eco-cute heat pump water heater from Daikin, which is a split unit with an outdoor heat pump using CO2 as the refrigerant and an indoor...

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

440

Water-heating dehumidifier - Energy Innovation Portal  

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Innovative heat exchangers for solar water heaters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The performance of two innovative collector-loop heat exchangers used in pumped circulation solar water heaters was investigated experimentally and numerically, and TRNSYS simulation models were… (more)

Soo Too, Yen Chean

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Assessment of a water-cooled gas-turbine concept. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A program for development of Ultra-High Temperature (UHT) 2800/sup 0/F firing temperature, water-cooled turbine technology began in 1967. In 1973 it was decided to design and build a full-scale gas turbine to demonstrate the feasibility and evaluate the performance and economics of a complete utility-size machine. The preliminary design phase, performed from June 1974 to March 1975 is reported here with information on the definition of the baseline cycle for the UHT machine in a combined cycle power plant; turbine aerodynamics; design of turbine, its cooling system, and the combustor; materials selection; controls; cost estimates; heat flux experiments, and program planning. (LCL)

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

444

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill 15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill 15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill October 26, 2009 - 3:49pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Sometimes it surprises me to see that the most popular pages on the site are the ones about solar water heaters and demand (or tankless) water heaters. But considering that water heating can account for around 12% of a family's utility bill-the biggest chunk after space heating and cooling-it really shouldn't be that surprising that you want to know how to heat your water more efficiently. Obviously, not everyone is in a position to go out and buy a new water heater, but we can all do something to use less water and save on our bills. Whether you're looking for no-cost habit changes, low-cost purchases or

445

Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system is essentially a heat exchanger utilizing water at acooling from the heat exchanger. The passive cooling systemsystem (air-to- water heat exchanger) attached to rear door

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Hybrid space heating/cooling system with Trombe wall, underground venting, and assisted heat pump  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our goal was to design and monitor a hybrid solar system/ground loop which automatically assists the standard, thermostatically controlled home heating/cooling system. The input from the homeowner was limited to normal thermostat operations. During the course of the project it was determined that to effectively gather data and control the various component interactions, a micro-computer based control system would also allow the HVAC system to be optimized by simple changes to software. This flexibility in an untested concept helped us to achieve optimum system performance. Control ranged from direct solar heating and direct ground loop cooling modes, to assistance of the heat pump by both solar space and ground loop. Sensors were strategically placed to provide data on response of the Trombe wall (surface, 4 in. deep, 8 in. deep), and the ground loop (inlet, 3/4 length, outlet). Micro-computer hardware and computer programs were developed to make cost effective decisions between the various modes of operation. Although recent advances in micro-computer hardware make similar control systems more readily achievable utilizing standard components, attention to the decision making criteria will always be required.

Shirley, J.W.; James, L.C.; Stevens, S.; Autry, A.N.; Nussbaum, M.; MacQueen, S.V.

1983-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

447

Single family heating and cooling requirements: Assumptions, methods, and summary results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research has created a data base of hourly building loads using a state-of-the-art building simulation code (DOE-2.ID) for 8 prototypes, representing pre-1940s to 1990s building practices, in 16 US climates. The report describes the assumed modeling inputs and building operations, defines the building prototypes and selection of base cities, compares the simulation results to both surveyed and measured data sources, and discusses the results. The full data base with hourly space conditioning, water heating, and non-HVAC electricity consumption is available from GRI. In addition, the estimated loads on a per square foot basis are included as well as the peak heating and cooling loads.

Ritschard, R.L.; Hanford, J.W.; Sezgen, A.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock sequence above the mines. Utilizing pumping strategy No.1 (two mines) capital costs were 25 percent lower a

Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Performance of solar heating and cooling systems: Solid desiccant cooling/fresh air heating with evacuated-tube collectors in CSU Solar House I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In keeping with the national energy policy goal of fostering an adequate supply of energy at a reasonable cost, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) supports a variety of programs to promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system. The mission of the DOE Solar Buildings Research and Development Program is to support this goal, by providing for the development of solar technology alternatives for the buildings sector. It is the goal of the Program to establish a proven technology base to allow industry to develop solar products and designs for buildings that are economically competitive and can contribute significantly to building energy supplies nationally. Toward this end, the program sponsors research activities related to increasing the efficiency, reducing the cost, and improving the long-term durability of passive and active solar systems for building water and space heating, cooling, and daylighting applications. These activities are conducted in four major areas: Advanced Passive Solar Materials Research, Collector Technology Research, Cooling Systems Research, and Systems Analysis and Applications Research.

Loef, G.O.G.; Beba, S.; Cler, G.; Birdsong, M.; McLay, B.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Thermal storage studies for solar heating and cooling: applications using chemical heat pumps. Final report, September 15, 1979-April 15, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

TRNSYS-compatible subroutines for the simulation of chemical heat pumps have been written, and simulations (including heating, cooling, and domestic hot water) have been performed for Washington, DC and Ft. Worth, Texas. Direct weekly comparisons of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O and CaCl/sub 2//CH/sub 3/OH cycles have been carried out. Projected performance of the NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3//NH/sub 3/ cycle has also been investigated, and found to be essentially identical to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O. In all cases simulated, the solar collector is a fixed evacuated tube system, which is necessary because chemical heat pumps operate at higher solar collector temperatures (> 100/sup 0/C) than conventional solar systems. With standard residential loads, the chemical heat pumps performed surprisingly well. In the Ft. Worth climate, less than 45 m/sup 2/ of collectors were required to meet over 90% of the heating and cooling loads. In Washington, DC, the area required to meet the cooling load was smaller (as little as 20 m/sup 2/, depending on window shading), but was sufficient to meet only 50 to 60% of the heating load. However, gas-fired backup via the heat pump was quite effective in reducing fossil fuel consumption: the thermal COPs in the heating mode were in the range 1.6 to 1.7. Since chemical heat pumps are designed to reject heat at relatively high temperatures, they were also effective in providing domestic hot water, supplying ca. 70% of the DHW in summer, ca. 50% in winter, and nearly 100% in spring and fall.

Offenhartz, P O.D.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

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Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,000 Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $0.40/annual kWh saved (on average $800 to $1,000) Provider Ashland Electric Utilities Department The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers a solar water heating program to its residential electric customers who currently use an electric water heater. Under "The Bright Way to Heat Water Program," qualified home owners may choose either the cash rebate or a zero-interest loan. Cash rebates of up to $1,000 are available for approved systems. The rebate