Sample records for heating cooling water

  1. Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Nanxi 1986-

    2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling loads, it may lead to the laminar flow of the chilled water in the cooling coils. The main objective of this thesis is to explain the heat transfer performance of the cooling coils under low cooling loads. The water side and air side heat transfer...

  2. Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    be glassified by cooling using hyper- quenching techniques (i.e., with rates of the order of 105 K/s [8Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process

  3. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

    1981-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  4. Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    source and cooling water overall (in comparison with normal system 15% of energy saving) -Adopt large-scale ice heat storage system and realize equalization of electricity load -Adopt turbo chiller and heat recovery facilities as high efficiency heat... screw heat pump - 838MJ/? 1 IHP/Water source screw heat pump (Ice storage and heat recovery) Cool water? 3,080MJ/h Ice Storage? 1,936MJ/h Cool water heat recovery? 3,606MJ/h Ice storage heat recovery? 2,448MJ/h 8Unit ?16? TR1 Water cooling turbo...

  5. Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cawley, R.

    heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks. INTRODUCTION A need for descriptors to evaluate systems that condition space and heat domestic water has been recognized for several... added to and used by the water from the desuperheated refrigerant - heat normally provided by the electric water heater's resistance elements. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT The system considered for this study is best described by U.S. Patent No. 4...

  6. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

  7. One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net at the core of a zero-net-energy demonstration home designed to generate enough electricity to also power policy initiatives to advance zero net energy homes as standard practice. #12;As heat pump systems become

  8. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  9. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

  10. Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Nanxi 1986-

    2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling Coil Efficiency Water viscosity at the water bulk temperature Water fluid viscosity at the pipe wall temperature Fin Pitch ix TABLE OF CONTENTS... of the analysis will be compared with the weather data and chilled water system data of the DFW Airport during 2010. Other possible causes of the reduced delta-T at low loads exist and will be investigated. 8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Heat transfer...

  11. Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

  12. Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

  13. Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Steve

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    eliminating the need for compressor cooling. The plant modelunique design (using compressor cooling only when needed by

  14. Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan; Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM), Carlson; Bryan J. (Ojo Caliente, NM), Wingo; Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM), Robison; Thomas W. (Stilwell, KS)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

  15. Optimization of Cooling Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J.

    A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

  16. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  17. Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    across the hot water control valve is 5 psi and 2 psi for the coil and pipeline. The flow coefficient of the control valves are 9 GPIW~S~~,~ for hot water valve and 13 GPIW~S~~.~ for the chilled water control valve. The designed loop pressure is 7... 14: Using dry coil model will introduce certain error for the cooling coil simulation since the heat transfer coefficient is higher when the coil is wet. Thermostat Model: The thermostat generates a pneumatic pressure signal from 3 to 15 psig...

  18. Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 1The heating and cooling system used in Osaka’s Nakanoshima district uses heat pumps and river water to achieve the efficient use of the heat source and mitigate the heat... source -Utilize waste heat discharged from substation, and supply in large difference of temperature Water intake Heat exchangers Water discharge Turbo chiller Screw heat pump pumps ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference...

  19. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar heated, boosted, or heated entirely in the auxiliary heater)for the solar-heated hot water. This heater can be seen insolar heating and cooling system, showing plumbing runs containing solenoid valves, auxiliary heater (

  20. Selecting the Design Entering Water Temperature for Vertical Geothermal Heat Pumps in Cooling-Dominated Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Thornton, Jeff W. [Thermal Energy Systems Specialists, Inc.; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At a military base in the Southeastern United States, an energy services company (ESCO) has proposed to retrofit more than 1,000 family residences with geothermal heat pumps as part of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Each residence is to have one heat pump with its own ground heat exchanger consisting of two or more vertical bores. A design firm hired by the ESCO sized the heat pumps to meet peak cooling loads, and sized the borefields to limit the maximum entering water temperature (EWT) to the heat pumps to 95 F (35 C). Because there is some disagreement in the geothermal heat pump industry over the peak temperature to be used for design (some designers and design manuals recommend temperatures as low as 85 F [29 C], while equipment manufacturers and others specify temperatures of 100 F [38 C] or higher) the authors were requested to examine the designs in detail to determine whether the 95 F (35 C) limit was adequate to ensure occupant comfort, efficient operation, and low capital and operating costs. It was found that three of the designer's assumptions made the borefield designs more conservative (i.e., longer) than the 95 F (35 C) limit would indicate. In fact, the analysis indicates that with more realistic assumptions about system operation, the maximum entering water temperature at the modeled residence will be about 89 F (32 C). Given the implications of a borefield that is shorter than required, it is likely that other designers are using similarly conservative assumptions to size vertical borefields for geothermal heat pumps. This implies that unless all of the design assumptions are examined, blanket recommendations to limit the entering water temperature to a specific value (such as 90 F [32 C]) may result in borefields that are significantly oversized.

  1. Selecting the Design Entering Water Temperature for Vertical Geothermal Heat Pumps in Cooling-Dominated Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2001-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    At a military base in the Southeastern US, an energy services company (ESCO) has proposed to retrofit more than 1,000 family residences with geothermal heat pumps as part of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Each residence is to have one heat pump with its own ground heat exchanger consisting of two or more vertical bores. A design firm hired by the ESCO sized the heat pumps to meet peak cooling loads, and sized the borefields to limit the maximum entering water temperature (EWT) to the heat pumps to 95 F (35 C). Because there is some disagreement in the geothermal heat pump industry over the peak temperature to be used for design (some designers and design manuals recommend temperatures as low as 85 F [29 C], while equipment manufacturers and others specify temperatures of 100 F [38 C] or higher) the authors were requested to examine the designs in detail to determine whether the 95 F (35 C) limit was adequate to ensure occupant comfort, efficient operation, and low capital and operating costs. It was found that three of the designer's assumptions made the borefield designs more conservative (i.e., longer) than the 95 F (35 C) limit would indicate. In fact, the analysis indicates that with more realistic assumptions about system operation, the maximum entering water temperature at the modeled residence will be about 89 F (32 C). Given the implications of a borefield that is shorter than required, it is likely that other designers are using similarly conservative assumptions to size vertical borefields for geothermal heat pumps. This implies that unless all of the design assumptions are examined, blanket recommendations to limit the entering water temperature to a specific value (such as 90 F [32 C]) may result in borefields that are significantly oversized.

  2. A comparison of the heat transfer capabilities of two manufacturing methods for high heat flux water-cooled devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental program was undertaken to compare the heat transfer characteristics of water-cooled copper devices manufactured via conventional drilled passage construction and via a technique whereby molten copper is cast over a network of preformed cooling tubes. Two similar test blocks were constructed; one using the drilled passage technique, the other via casting copper over Monel pipe. Each test block was mounted in a vacuum system and heated uniformly on the top surface using a swept electron beam. From the measured absorbed powers and resultant temperatures, an overall heat transfer coefficient was calculated. The maximum heat transfer coefficient calculated for the case of the drilled passage test block was 2534 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F. This corresponded to an absorbed power density of 320 w/cm/sup 2/ and resulted in a maximum recorded copper temperature of 346/sup 0/C. Corresponding figures for the cast test block were 363 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F, 91 w/cm/sup 2/, and 453/sup 0/C.

  3. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  4. Guidelines for selecting a solar heating, cooling or hot water design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, C.J. Jr.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guidelines are presented for the professional who may have to choose between competing solar heating and cooling designs for buildings. The experience of the National Solar Data Network in monitoring over 100 solar installations are drawn upon. Three basic principles and a design selection checklist are developed which will aid in choosing the most cost effective design.

  5. Critical review of water based radiant cooling system design methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Embedded Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems, InternationalWATER BASED RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM DESIGN METHODS Jingjuan (Keywords: Radiant Cooling System, Design Approach,

  6. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar heating and cooling systems covering a wide range ofpractical heating and cooling system configurations andexperimental heating and cooling system, the main purpose of

  7. Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

  8. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  9. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  10. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  11. Cooling by heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mari; J. Eisert

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the idea of actually cooling quantum systems by means of incoherent thermal light, hence giving rise to a counter-intuitive mechanism of "cooling by heating". In this effect, the mere incoherent occupation of a quantum mechanical mode serves as a trigger to enhance the coupling between other modes. This notion of effectively rendering states more coherent by driving with incoherent thermal quantum noise is applied here to the opto-mechanical setting, where this effect occurs most naturally. We discuss two ways of describing this situation, one of them making use of stochastic sampling of Gaussian quantum states with respect to stationary classical stochastic processes. The potential of experimentally demonstrating this counter-intuitive effect in opto-mechanical systems with present technology is sketched.

  12. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  13. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  14. Cooling Water System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

  15. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  16. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  17. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Applied to National Needs. EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM A generalized system for solar heating and cooling

  18. Heating and Cooling Equipment Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one of a series of technology fact sheets created to help housing designers and builders adopt a whole-house design approach and energy efficient design practices. The fact sheet helps people choose the correct equipment for heating and cooling to reduce initial costs, increase homeowner comfort, increase operating efficiency, and greatly reduce utility costs.

  19. Alternative cooling resource for removing the residual heat of reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H. C.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, D. S.; Jung, C. Y.; Choi, K. Y. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 260 Naa-ri Yangnam-myeon Gyeongju-si, Gyeonasangbuk-do, 780-815 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Recirculated Cooling Water (RCW) system of a Candu reactor is a closed cooling system which delivers demineralized water to coolers and components in the Service Building, the Reactor Building, and the Turbine Building and the recirculated cooling water is designed to be cooled by the Raw Service Water (RSW). During the period of scheduled outage, the RCW system provides cooling water to the heat exchangers of the Shutdown Cooling System (SDCS) in order to remove the residual heat of the reactor, so the RCW heat exchangers have to operate at all times. This makes it very hard to replace the inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers because the replacement work requires the isolation of the RCW. A task force was formed to prepare a plan to substitute the recirculated water with the chilled water system in order to cool the SDCS heat exchangers. A verification test conducted in 2007 proved that alternative cooling was possible for the removal of the residual heat of the reactor and in 2008 the replacement of inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers for both Wolsong unit 3 and 4 were successfully completed. (authors)

  20. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

    2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  1. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  2. Towards Occupancy-Driven Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    Burke Parabola Architects Galen Staengl Staengl Engineering h HEATING, VENTILATION, AND cooling (HVAC required for heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) by 20%­30% by tailoring the conditioning of buildingsTowards Occupancy-Driven Heating and Cooling Kamin Whitehouse, Juhi Ranjan, Jiakang Lu, Tamim

  3. Cooling Flows or Heating Flows?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It is now clear that AGN heat cooling flows, largely by driving winds. The winds may contain a relativistic component that generates powerful synchrotron radiation, but it is not clear that all winds do so. The spatial and temporal stability of the AGN/cooling flow interaction are discussed. Collimation of the winds probably provides spatial stability. Temporal stability may be possible only for black holes with masses above a critical value. Both the failure of cooling flows to have adiabatic cores and the existence of X-ray cavities confirm the importance of collimated outflows. I quantify the scale of the convective flow that the AGN Hydra would need to drive if it balanced radiative inward flow by outward flow parallel to the jets. At least in Virgo any such flow must be confined to r<~20 kpc. Hydrodynamical simulations suggest that AGN outbursts cannot last longer than ~25 Myr. Data for four clusters with well studied X-ray cavities suggests that heating associated with cavity formation approximately balances radiative cooling. The role of cosmic infall and the mechanism of filament formation are briefly touched on.

  4. HEATING AND COOLING PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirose, S. [Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Turner, N. J., E-mail: shirose@jamstec.go.jp, E-mail: neal.turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using three-dimensional radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magnetorotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers are heated by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations in the fields move the starlight-absorbing surface up and down. The height ranges between 13% and 24% of the radius over timescales of several orbits, with implications for infrared variability. The fields are buoyant, so the accretion heating occurs higher in the atmosphere than the stresses. The heating is localized around current sheets, caused by magnetorotational instability at lower elevations and by Parker instability at higher elevations. Gas in the sheets is heated above the stellar irradiation temperature, even though accretion is much less than irradiation power when volume averaged. The hot optically thin current sheets might be detectable through their line emission.

  5. Growth and mortality of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) in an electric generating station cooling lake receiving heated discharge water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oja, Robert Kenneth

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    throughout the tudy. STUDY ARZA AND ?)vTHODS Studg Area Thi. study was conducted at the Houston Lighting and Power Camp- y's Cedar Bayou Generating Station in Baytown, Texas. The plant comprises two 750-mcg watt units with individual water circulating... group, was located at the . intake canal of the power plant. The remaining four stations were located within the cooling lake (I'ig. 2, p. ll ). The station oositions were selected to encompass th maximum water temperature range within the lake. Prior...

  6. 1. Cooling water is one-third of US water usage Basic approach: (a) estimate power consumption, from which you estimate cooling water usage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    joule of waste heat is generated. (Lots of people just used the electricity production as the cooling requirement - that isn't correct!). Therefore, 3 kW per person of waste heat is generated. Cooling water carries away waste heat in the form of sensible heat, i.e. by warming the water slightly. This warming can

  7. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the solar-heated hot water. This heater can be seen inwater (solar heated, boosted, or heated entirely in the auxiliary heater)

  8. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  12. Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Farmer, M.T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facility at a prototypic scale in the lateral direction and about half scale in the vertical direction. Because, by necessity, the scaling is based on a number of approximations, and because no analytical information is available on the performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS, the scaling analysis presented here needs to be 'validated' by analysis of the steady state and transient performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS design. The analysis of the RCCS performance by CFD and system codes presents a number of challenges including: strong 3-D effects in the cavity and the RCCS tubes; simulation of turbulence in flows characterized by natural circulation, high Rayleigh numbers and low Reynolds numbers; validity of heat transfer correlations for system codes for heat transfer in the cavity and the annulus of the RCCS tubes; the potential of nucleate boiling in the tubes; water flashing in the upper section of the RCCS return line (during limiting transient); and two-phase flow phenomena in the water tanks. The limited simulation of heat transfer in cavities presented in Section 4.0, strongly underscores the need of experimental work to validate CFD codes, and heat transfer correlations for system codes, and to support the analysis and design of the RCCS. Based on the conclusions of the scaling analysis, a schematic that illustrates key attributes of the experiment system is shown in Fig. 4. This system contains the same physical elements as the PBMR RCCS, plus additional equipment to facilitate data gathering to support code validation. In particular, the prototype consists of a series of oval standpipes surrounding the reactor vessel to provide cooling of the reactor cavity during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. The standpipes are headered (in groups of four in the prototype) to water supply (header) tanks that are situated well above the reactor vessel to facilitate natural convection cooling during a loss of forced flow event. During normal operations, the water is pumped from a heat sink located outside the containment to the headered inlets to the standpipes. The water is then delivered to each standpipe through a centrally located downcomer that passes the coolant to the bottom of each pipe. The water then turns 180{sup o} and rises up through the annular gap while extracting heat from the reactor cavity due to a combination of natural convection and radiation across the gap between the reactor vessel and standpipes. The water exits the standpipes at the top where it is headered (again in groups of four) into a return line that passes the coolant to the top of the header tank. Coolant is drawn from each tank through a fitting located near the top of the tank where it flows to the heat rejection system located outside the containment. This completes the flow circuit for normal operations. During off-normal conditions, forced convection water cooling in the RCCS is presumed to be lost, as well as the ultimate heat sink outside the containment. In this case, water is passively drawn from an open line located at the bottom of the header tank. This line is orificed so that flow bypass during normal operations is small, yet the line is large enough to provide adequate flow during passive operations to remove decay heat while maintaining acceptable fuel temperatures. In the passive operating mode, water flows by natural convection from the bottom of the supply tank to the standpipes, and returns through the normal pathway to the top of the tanks. After the water reaches saturation and boiling commences, steam will pass through the top of the tanks and be vented to atmosphere. In the experiment system shown in Fig. 4, a steam condensation and collection system is included to quantify the boiling rate, thereby providing additional validation data. This sys

  13. An analysis of electrothermodynamic heating and cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honea, Mark Stephen

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , albeit at the expense of the Joule heating within the conductor. This investigation explores the dynamic nature of thermoelectrically cooled/heated regions in effort to gain a greater understanding of the transient application of thermoelectricity...

  14. Desiccant-based, heat-actuated cooling assessment for DHC (District Heating and Cooling) systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based, heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that such desiccant-based cooling (DBC) systems are generally applicable to District Heating (DH) systems. Since the DH system only has to supply hot water (or steam) to its customers, systems that were designed as conventional two-pipe DH systems can now be operated as DHC systems without major additional capital expense. Desiccant-based DHC systems can be operated with low-grade DH-supplied heat, at temperatures below 180{degree}F, without significant loss in operating capacity, relative to absorption chillers. During this assessment, a systems analysis was performed, an experimental investigation was conducted, developmental requirements for commercializing DBC systems were examined, and two case studies were conducted. As a result of the case studies, it was found that the operating cost of a DBC system was competitive with or lower than the cost of purchasing DHC-supplied chilled water. However, because of the limited production volume and the current high capital costs of desiccant systems, the payback period is relatively long. In this regard, through the substitution of low-cost components specifically engineered for low-temperature DHC systems, the capital costs should be significantly reduced and overall economics made attractive to future users. 17 figs.

  15. A simplified methodology for sizing ground coupled heat pump heat exchangers in cooling dominated climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Jose Antonio

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between GSIM and two commercially available heat exchanger sizing methods, the National Water Well Association (NWWA) and the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA) methods, was performed. GSIM heat exchanger lengths for Dallas were... Pump Capacity and Cooling Load. . . . . Oversizing and Undersizing the Heat Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary. . 72 74 76 78 80 82 85 87 90 92 IX COMPARISON OF HEAT EXCHANGER SIZING METHODS . . 93 International Ground Source Heat...

  16. A Free Cooling Based Chilled Water System at Kingston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansen, P. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the concept of cooling chilled water with condenser water via plate heat exchangers. The other free cooling scheme considered was a process called 'strainer cycle'. In strainer cycle, the cooling tower water is pumped directly into the chilled water... and process equipment and the CDD's (coolant distribution units) of computers installed and on test. Additionally, switchover to strainer cycle would be more time consuming and difficult. For a high technology site the switch over must be smooth...

  17. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  18. Water cooling of HVDC thyristor valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lips, H.P. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany))

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally accepted that water is a very effective medium to remove heat losses from any type of equipment. When used for HVDC thyristor valves, the fundamentals of electrolyte conduction and water chemistry need to be considered in the design of the cooling circuit. The characteristics of the materials used, in conjunction with high voltage stresses and circuit configuration, play an important role to assure longevity and corrosion-free performance.

  19. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  20. Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6660E Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger program and by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies heat exchangers was demonstrated to illustrate an energy efficient cooling capability. This unique

  1. March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Units Chillers recovery Hot Water Heaters recovery Second Stage Heatpumps (HWH + DHW) 70 (tons) X 4;18 Energy Loop 18 Energy Loop Geothermal Cooling Units Chillers recovery Hot Water Heaters recovery Second,338 sq.ft) Heating: steam network at = 100 PSIG (328F) Approximitely 600m (2,000') of buried lines #12

  2. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices 2012 DOE...

  3. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2011 Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power...

  4. REVIEW OF GEOTHERMAL HEATING AND COOLING OF BUILDINGS C. A. Coles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Cynthia

    REVIEW OF GEOTHERMAL HEATING AND COOLING OF BUILDINGS C. A. Coles Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Canada Abstract The exponential growth that has been occurring in the geothermal heat harnessing of low temperature, renewable geothermal energy for hot water heating and heating and cooling

  5. A better cooling water system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, T.E.; Beecher, J.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To prepare their newly constructed reduced crude conversion (RCC) open recirculating cooling water system for the implementation of a corrosion and deposit control water treatment program, Ashland Petroleum, Catlettsburg, Ky., made plans for and carried out precleaning and passivation procedures. Here, the authors share the results, and some potential guidelines for one's own operations. Inspection of equipment after precleaning showed that the precleaning procedures was very effective in removing undesirable matter. After precleaning and passivation of the system, the recommended cooling water treatment program was started. Corrosion rates for mild steel specimens ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mils per year (mpy), with an average of 1.0 mpy. The corrosion rates for admiralty specimens ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mpy. Benefits of the precleaning and passivating programs greatly outweigh the costs, since the normal cooling water treatment program for corrosion and deposit control can then operate more effectively.

  6. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBL buildings, with the solar collectors on the roof, theCBB 757-5496 Figure 3: Solar Collectors Mounted· on the RoofSolar Heating and Cooling Systems. The components include Collectors (

  7. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  8. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  9. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  10. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  11. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  12. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Homes & Buildings Space Heating and Cooling Basics Space Heating and Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:04pm Addthis A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and...

  13. The Asymptotic Cooling of Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadegh Raeisi; Michele Mosca

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purity of quantum states is a key requirement for many quantum applications. Improving the purity is limited by fundamental laws of thermodynamics. Here we are probing the fundamental limits for a natural approach to this problem, namely heat-bath algorithmic cooling(HBAC). The existence of the cooling limit for HBAC techniques was proved by Schulman et al. in, the limit however remained unknown for the past decade. Here for the first time we find this limit. In the context of quantum thermodynamics, this corresponds to the maximum extractable work from the quantum system.

  14. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  15. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Henry

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C: DIRECT LIQUID AND AIR COOLING COMPONENT TCASE FORECASTGRAPHICS Direct Liquid Cooling Thermal Components andThermal Design Margins Air Cooling Thermal Components and

  16. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Henry

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    points for maximum cooling liquid supply temperatures thatLiquid cooling guidelines may include: Supply temperatureliquid supply temperature for liquid cooling guidelines. Due

  17. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Henry

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    defining liquid cooling guidelines for future use. The goalis key to reducing cooling energy consumption for futureliquid-cooling temperatures to guide future supercomputer

  18. Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions Lalit Chordia, PhD, Marc Portnoff 150.thargeo.com Thar Geothermal, LLC © 2013 All Rights Reserved CO2MFORT ADVANTAGE Nature's Talk Outline · Introduction to Thar Geothermal · Carbon Dioxide (R744) the Environmentally Exceptional Refrigerant · Thar

  19. Right-Size Heating and Cooling Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one of a series of technology fact sheets created to help housing designers and builders adopt a whole-house design approach and energy efficient design practices. The fact sheet helps people choose the correct equipment size for heating and cooling to improve comfort and reduce costs, maintenance, and energy use.

  20. Modelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    production and space cooling at the same time. An answer to a dual energy demand is the heat pump, sinceModelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Paul Byrne1 *, Jacques-012-0089-0 #12;1. ABSTRACT The heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) carries out space heating

  1. Radiant cooling research scoping study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Timothy; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    www.Zurn.com PAGE 35 Radiant Cooling Research Scoping Study1988. “Radiant Heating and Cooling, Displacement VentilationHeat Recovery and Storm Water Cooling: An Environmentally

  2. CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

  3. CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

  4. Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly News Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly News April 13, 2009 - 11:24am Addthis NBC Nightly News...

  5. Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

    Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

  6. Passive containment cooling water distribution device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E. (Hookstown, PA); Fanto, Susan V. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

  7. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground...

  8. Cooling, Heating and Power in the Nation's Colleges and Universities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating and Power in the Nation's Colleges and Universities - Census, Survey, and Lessons Learned, February 2002 Cooling, Heating and Power in the Nation's Colleges and...

  9. Jones-Onslow EMC- Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jones-Onslow Electric Membership Corporation offers rebates to residential members who install energy efficient heating and cooling equipment. Members can replace an existing central AC or heat...

  10. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  11. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  12. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    passive solar heating and cooling" Technology development issolar heating and cooling systems, J TABLE II-3 TechnologyTechnology development for passive solar heating and cooling

  13. A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR THE COMMON PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Michael J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Hybrid Heating Cooling Systems Michael]. Holtz, WayneHYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS Michael J. Holtz Solarspace heating and cooling systems. It is based upon the mode

  14. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating the Market for Home Heating and Cooling EquipmentFuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling," LBLTHE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT* David

  15. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    passive and hybrid space heating systems. Space Cooling Aand hybrid solar heating and cooling systems. Experimentspassive, and hybrid systems for heating, cooling, and

  16. UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings Sunday 19 heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES

  17. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  18. Heating Cooling Flows with Weak Shock Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. G. Mathews; A. Faltenbacher; F. Brighenti

    2005-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of extended, approximately spherical weak shock waves in the hot intercluster gas in Perseus and Virgo has precipitated the notion that these waves may be the primary heating process that explains why so little gas cools to low temperatures. This type of heating has received additional support from recent gasdynamical models. We show here that outward propagating, dissipating waves deposit most of their energy near the center of the cluster atmosphere. Consequently, if the gas is heated by (intermittent) weak shocks for several Gyrs, the gas within 30-50 kpc is heated to temperatures that far exceed observed values. This heating can be avoided if dissipating shocks are sufficiently infrequent or weak so as not to be the primary source of global heating. Local PV and viscous heating associated with newly formed X-ray cavities are likely to be small, which is consistent with the low gas temperatures generally observed near the centers of groups and clusters where the cavities are located.

  19. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  20. Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

  1. Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokoi, S.; Miura, H.; Huang, Y.; Nakahara, N.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the specified performance was realized at the heat-pump, e) whether the pipes for fan-coil units are suitably insulated. Output Heat loss from piping Upward and downward heat flow from hot-water mat Heat loss from piping (boiler - header) Heat loss from...Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment S. Hokoi*, H. Miura*, Y. Huang*, N. Nakahara** and A. Iwamae*** * Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan ** Nakahara Laboratory, Environmental Syst...

  2. CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM GUIDELINES For Wet and Hybrid Cooling Towers at Power Plants MAY 17, 2004 DRAFTGUIDELINES NOVEMBER 2005 CEC-700-2005-025 Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor #12;2 DRAFT CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING

  3. A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR THE COMMON PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Michael J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Common Passive and Hybrid Heating Cooling Systems Michael].THE COMMON PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

  4. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  5. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Henry

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders ofthe heat capacity and transfer efficiency of liquids is

  6. Simulations of sizing and comfort improvements for residential forced-air heating and cooling systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, I.S.; Degenetais, G.; Siegel, J.A.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the effect of heating and cooling system inefficiencies onwith inefficient heating and cooling systems in CaliforniaOperation of Residential Cooling Systems. Proceedings of the

  7. Solar heating and cooling diode module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maloney, Timothy J. (Winchester, VA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high efficiency solar heating system comprising a plurality of hollow modular units each for receiving a thermal storage mass, the units being arranged in stacked relation in the exterior frame of a building, each of the units including a port for filling the unit with the mass, a collector region and a storage region, each region having inner and outer walls, the outer wall of the collector region being oriented for exposure to sunlight for heating the thermal storage mass; the storage region having an opening therein and the collector region having a corresponding opening, the openings being joined for communicating the thermal storage mass between the storage and collector regions by thermosiphoning; the collector region being disposed substantially below and in parallel relation to the storage region in the modular unit; and the inner wall of the collector region of each successive modular unit in the stacked relation extending over the outer wall of the storage region of the next lower modular unit in the stacked relation for reducing heat loss from the system. Various modifications and alternatives are disclosed for both heating and cooling applications.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blum, Helcio

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007): “Market Barriers Affecting Water Heating in Norway. ”heating and cooling energy consumed by centrally installed equipment in order to verify whether a marketheating and cooling. The non-existence of the equipment efficiency-related market

  9. Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crozier, R. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling water is expensive to circulate. Reducing its flow - i.e., hiking exchanger outlet temperatures - can cut tower, pump and piping investment as much as one-third and operating cost almost in half. Heat-exchanger-network optimization has been...

  10. Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well a previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--1992 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space hearing systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Heat Transfer and Cooling Techniques at Low Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudouy, B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first part of this chapter gives an introduction to heat transfer and cooling techniques at low temperature. We review the fundamental laws of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) and give useful data specific to cryogenic conditions (thermal contact resistance, total emissivity of materials and heat transfer correlation in forced or boiling flow for example) used in the design of cooling systems. In the second part, we review the main cooling techniques at low temperature, with or without cryogen, from the simplest ones (bath cooling) to the ones involving the use of cryocoolers without forgetting the cooling flow techniques.

  12. Simulation study of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling coupled to buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simulation study of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling coupled to buildings Redouane) 141-149" DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.12.047 #12;ABSTRACT In several situations, a heat pump occur. Unlike a reversible heat pump that works alternatively in heating or cooling, a HPS operates

  13. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Cooling, Heating, and Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    United States Government or any agency thereof. Abstract Investigators analyzed the energy consumption and end-user economics of Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) systems in...

  14. Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry: A Market Assessment, August 2003 Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment, August 2003 Industrial applications of CHP have been around for decades,...

  15. Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

  16. Survival of zooplankton entrained into the cooling water system and supplemental cooling towers of a steam-electric generating station located on Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chase, Cathleen Louise

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is not an unlimited resource. Another method supplements the open ? cycle system with external cooling facilities, through which the heated water passes before it flows into the receiving body. Ex- ternal cooling facilities may be wet-cooling towers, dry-cooling...

  17. Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boffardi, B. P.

    Over the past decade, the water requirements for cooling industrial manufacturing processes have changed dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water...

  18. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating the Market for Home Heating and Cooling EquipmentBIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLINGESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

  19. Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost, webinar-based training on Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems. The webinar will focus the effective use of central heat pump water heaters...

  20. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water-Cooled Electric Chillers Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal...

  1. Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating...

  2. Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jiyun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure (25MPa) and high temperature (500°C average core exit). The high coolant temperature as it leaves the ...

  3. Energy-efficient water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

  4. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  5. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartment of EnergyHearingsWater Heating »

  6. Desiccant-based, heat actuated cooling assessment for DHC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.; Patch, K.; Becker, F.

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the project is to perform a conceptual design, systems analysis and case study evaluation of an application of a desiccant-based, heat actuated cooling system in a District Heating System. The results of this study will encourage the deployment of cooler transport temperatures in District Heating Systems. The proposed concept includes a liquid or solid desiccant-based air cooling and drying system that can be integrated with an existing HVAC system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Heat transfer and film cooling with steam injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conklin, Gary Eugene

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT TRANSFER AND FILM COOLING WITH STEAM INJECTION A Thesis by GARY EUGENE CONKLIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering HEAT TRANSFER AND FILM COOLING WITH STEAM INJECTION A Thesis by GARY EUGENE CONKLIN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm of Committee) (Member) (Memb e r) (Me r (Head Departme ) May 1982 ABSTRACT Heat...

  8. Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang [Solar Thermal and Geothermal Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Lim, Hyug [Research and Development Center, LHE Co., Ltd., Gimhae 621-874 (Korea)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

  9. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling D.J. Wood,AND TECHNOLOGY CHOICE IN HOME HEATING AND COOLING* David J.nology choices in home heating and cooling is presented. We

  10. A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR THE COMMON PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Michael J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive and Hybrid Heating Cooling Systems Michael]. Holtz,PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS Michael J.of passive and hybrid space heating and cooling systems are

  11. Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire offers a rebate for residential solar water-heating systems and solar space-heating systems. The rebate is equal to $1,500 for systems with an annual estimated output of 5.5 MMBTU to...

  12. Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

  13. Preliminary studies on the heat exchanger option for S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle coupled to water cooled SMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Y.; Lee, J. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. I. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa Univ. of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O.Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For more than a half century, the steam Rankine cycle had been the major power conversion cycle for a nuclear power plant. However, as the interest on the next generation reactors grows, a variety of alternative power conversion systems have been studied. Among them, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle (Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle) is considered as a promising candidate due to several benefits such as 1) Relatively high thermal efficiency at relatively low turbine inlet temperature, 2) High efficiency with simple lay-out 3) Compactness of turbo-machineries. 4) Compactness of total cycle combined with PCHE (Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger). According to the conventional classification of heat exchangers (HE), there are three kind of HE, 1) Tubular HEs, 2) Plate-type HEs, 3) Extended surface HEs. So far, the researcher has mostly assumed PCHE type HE for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle due to its compactness with reasonably low pressure drop. However, PCHE is currently one of the most expensive components in the cycle, which can have a negative effect on the economics of the cycle. Therefore, an alternative for the HE should be seriously investigated. By comparing the operating condition (pressure and temperature) there are three kind of HE in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, 1) IHX (Intermediate Heat exchanger) 2) Recuperator and 3) Pre-cooler. In each heat exchanger, hot side and cold side coolants are different, i.e. reactor coolant to S-CO{sub 2} (IHX), S-CO{sub 2} to S-CO{sub 2}(Recuperator), S-CO{sub 2} to water (Pre-cooler). By considering all the attributes mentioned above, all existing types of heat exchangers are compared to find a possible alternative to PCHE. The comparing factors are 1) Size(volume), 2) Cost. Plate fin type HEs are considered to be the most competitive heat exchanger regarding the size and the cost after some improvements on the design limit are made. (authors)

  14. Cooling by heating in the quantum optics domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Z. Rossatto; A. R. de Almeida; T. Werlang; C. J. Villas-Boas; N. G. de Almeida

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of Hamiltonians that are experimentally feasible in several contexts within quantum optics and lead to so-called cooling by heating for fermionic as well as for bosonic systems has been analyzed numerically. We have found a large range of parameters for which cooling by heating can be observed either for the fermionic system alone or for the combined fermionic and bosonic systems. Analyzing the experimental requirements, we conclude that cooling by heating is achievable with present-day technology, especially in the context of trapped-ion and cavity QED, thus contributing to the understanding of this interesting and counterintuitive effect.

  15. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    indus- trial process heat, and solar. heating and coolingSolar Energy for Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat (and heat transfer processes which are appropriate to passive solar

  16. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    models: aggregated by SMSA market share central cooling all gas space heat all oilmodels: aggregated by regions market share central cooling all gas space heat all oil

  17. Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump Systems and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump use of buildings Gas Heat Pump Solution #12;Gas Heat Pump - deserves special attention due to its source in addition to the outside air ·A further essential component of Gas Heat Pump air conditioning

  18. Methanol-based heat pump for solar heating, cooling, and storage. Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Offenhartz, P O'D; Rye, T V; Malsberger, R E; Schwartz, D

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of CH/sub 3/OH vapor with solid (pellet) CaCl/sub 2/ to form the solid phase compound CaCll/sub 2/ . 2CH/sub 3/OH can be used as the basis of a combined solar heat pump/thermal energy storage system. Such a system is capable of storing heat indefinitely at ambient temperature, and can be used for space and domestic hot water heating, and for air conditioning with forced air (dry) heat rejection. It combines all features required of a residential or commercial space conditioning system except for solar collection. A detailed thermal analysis shows that the coefficient of performance for heating is greater than 1.5, and for cooling, greater than 0.5. This has been confirmed by direct experimental measurement on an engineering development test unit (EDTU). The experimental rate of CH/sub 3/OH absorption is a strong function of the absorber-evaporator temperature difference. The minimum practical hourly rate, 0.10 moles CH/sub 3/OH per mole CaCl/sub 2/, was observed with the salt-bed heat transfer fluid at 40/sup 0/C and the CH/sub 3/OH evaporator at -15/sup 0/C. a detailed performance and economic analysis was carried out for a system operated in Washington, DC. With 25 square meters of evacuated tube solar collectors, the CaCl/sub 2/-CH/sub 3/OH chemical heat pump should be capable of meeting over 90% of the cooling load, 80% of the heating load, and 70% of the domestic hot water load with nonpurchased energy in a typical well-insulated single family residence, thus saving about $600 per year. In small-scale production, the installed cost of the system, including solar collectors and backup, is estimated to be about $10,000 greater than a conventional heating and cooling system, and a much lower cost should be possible in the longer term.

  19. BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Create a campus geothermal heating and cooling system; Validate the cost savings associated with a geothermal system; Reduce emissions of CO2, CO, PM, SO2, NOx.

  20. THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (and-eventually, spray ponds) that are proposed to be used as ultimate heat sinks in nuclear power plant emergency core cooling systems. The need is derived from the concern...

  1. Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Title 8 of Maryland’s property tax code includes a state-wide special assessment for solar and geothermal heating and cooling systems. Under this provision, such systems are to be assessed at not...

  2. Policymakers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling (Revised) (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides an overview of the NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebook for Heating and Cooling with information directing people to the Web site for more in-depth information.

  3. Coupled Reactor Kinetics and Heat Transfer Model for Heat Pipe Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRIGHT,STEVEN A.; HOUTS,MICHAEL

    2000-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). The paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities.

  4. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rcul2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERSJune 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS*

  5. Covered Product Category: Light Commercial Heating and Cooling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal purchases of light commercial heating and cooling equipment must be ENERGY STAR®–qualified. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. This product overview explains how to meet energy-efficiency requirements for Federal purchases of light commercial heating and cooling equipment and how to maximize energy savings throughout products' useful lives.

  6. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  7. ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS Prepared For: California be obvious that large studies like these require the coordinated work of many people. We would first like from the Duke Energy South Bay and Morro Bay power plants and the PG&E Diablo Canyon Power Plant

  8. Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shivvers, Steve D. (Prole, IA)

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

  9. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. King

    2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

  10. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  11. Optimization of a transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle for simultaneous cooling and heating applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Optimization of a transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle for simultaneous cooling and heating of a transcritical carbon dioxide heat pump system are presented in this article. A computer code has been developed conditions. q 2004 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved. Keywords: Optimization; Heat pump; Carbon

  12. Preliminary Analysis of a Solar Heat Pump System with Seasonal Storage for Heating and Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, G.; Chen, P.; Dalenback, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For higher solar fraction and suitability for both heating and cooling, a solar heat pump system with seasonal storage was studied in this paper. The system scheme and control strategy of a solar heat pump system with seasonal storage for heating...

  13. Preliminary Analysis of a Solar Heat Pump System with Seasonal Storage for Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, G.; Chen, P.; Dalenback, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For higher solar fraction and suitability for both heating and cooling, a solar heat pump system with seasonal storage was studied in this paper. The system scheme and control strategy of a solar heat pump system with seasonal storage for heating...

  14. Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, A. Vahab (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

  15. The heating of the cooling flow (The feedback effervescent heating model)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasser Mohamed Ahmed

    2007-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard cooling flow model has predicted a large amount of cool gas in the clusters of galaxies. The failure of the Chandra and XXM-Newton telescopes to detect cooling gas (below 1-2 keV) in clusters of galaxies has suggested that some heating process must work to suppress the cooling. The most likely heating source is the heating by AGNs. There are many heating mechanisms, but we will adopt the effervescent heating model which is a result of the interaction of the bubbles inflated by AGN with the intra-cluster medium(ICM). Using the FLASH code, we have carried out time dependent simulations to investigate the effect of the heating on the suppression of the cooling in cooling flow clusters. We have found that the effervescent heating model can not balance the radiative cooling and it is an artificial model. Furthermore, the effervescent heating is a function of the ICM pressure gradient but the cooling is proportional to the gas density square and square root of the gas temperature.

  16. 2 15.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's Optimisation of Air-Water Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    -Water Heat Pumps Ziehl-Abegg SE System boundary Improve Air Flow of Fan Improve System Joachim Dietle.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's System boundary Air Flow in Heat Pumps V q d p st p P P L fan )( 1 Relevant for cooling or heating! Optimise heat pump: reduce pressure drop increase

  17. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  18. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  19. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  20. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  1. Magnetars as cooling neutron stars with internal heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Kaminker; D. G. Yakovlev; A. Y. Potekhin; N. Shibazaki; P. S. Shternin; O. Y. Gnedin

    2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study thermal structure and evolution of magnetars as cooling neutron stars with a phenomenological heat source in a spherical internal layer. We explore the location of this layer as well as the heating rate that could explain high observable thermal luminosities of magnetars and would be consistent with the energy budget of neutron stars. We conclude that the heat source should be located in an outer magnetar's crust, at densities rho heat intensity of the order of 1e20 erg/s/cm^3. Otherwise the heat energy is mainly emitted by neutrinos and cannot warm up the surface.

  2. District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.

  3. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design. Proceedings ofWater-based radiant cooling systems are gaining popularityGain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design. Proceedings of

  4. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the oilfield include calcium carbonates (CaCO3, mainly calcite) and alkaline-earth metal sulfates (barite BaSO4, celestite SrSO4, anhydrite CaSO4, hemihydrate CaSO4 1/2H2O, and gypsum CaSO4 2H2O or calcium sulfate). The cause of scaling can be difficult to identify in real oil and gas wells. However, pressure and temperature changes during the flow of fluids are primary reasons for the formation of carbonate scales, because the escape of CO2 and/or H2S gases out of the brine solution, as pressure is lowered, tends to elevate the pH of the brine and result in super-saturation with respect to carbonates. Concerning sulfate scales, the common cause is commingling of different sources of brines either due to breakthrough of injected incompatible waters or mixing of two different brines from different zones of the reservoir formation. A decrease in temperature tends to cause barite to precipitate, opposite of calcite. In addition, pressure drops tend to cause all scale minerals to precipitate due to the pressure dependence of the solubility product. And we can expect that there will be a pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Weather or not this will be offset by the rise in pressure remains to be seen. It's typically left to field testing to prove out. Progress has been made toward the control and treatment of the scale deposits, although most of the reaction mechanisms are still not well understood. Often the most efficient and economic treatment for scale formation is to apply threshold chemical inhibitors. Threshold scale inhibitors are like catalysts and have inhibition efficiency at very low concentrations (commonly less than a few mg/L), far below the stoichiometric concentrations of the crystal lattice ions in solution. There are many chemical classes of inhibitors and even more brands on the market. Based on the water chemistry it is anticipated that there is a high likelihood for sulfate compound precipitation and scaling. This may be dependent on the temperature and pressure, which vary throughout the system. Therefore, various types and amounts of scaling may occur at different

  5. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and federal efficiency requirements for water-cooled ice machines.

  6. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ing the Market for Home Heating and Cooling Equipment," LBLestimating the market shares of space-heating technologiesestimating the market shares of space-heating technologies

  7. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    among different space heating technologies to household andhousehold's choice of heating technology is modeled jointlymodel five space heating technologies given central cooling

  8. Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...

  9. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~O"')4 REFERENCES The air conditioner work is the subject ofAmmonia-Water Absorption Air Conditioner", by M. Simmons, R.water absorption air conditioner, (1) and the establishment

  10. Utility solar water heating workshops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, L.B. [Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

  11. Solar Water Heating Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning in the fall of 2003, Energy Trust of Oregon's Solar Water Heating (SWH) Incentive Program offers incentives to customers of Pacific Power, PGE, NW Natural Gas and Cascade Natural Gas who...

  12. Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging...

  13. Solar Water Heating Webinar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Weatherization Assistance Program Pilot Projects Solar Water Heating Webinar Solar Water Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)...

  14. Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap This roadmap establishes a set of high-priority RD&D...

  15. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  16. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  17. Heating and cooling in the Perseus cluster core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Fabian; J. S. Sanders

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that the radiative cooling time of the hot X-ray emitting gas in the cores of most clusters of galaxies is less than 10^10 yr. In many clusters the gas temperature also drops towards the centre. If we draw a causal connection between these two properties then we infer the presence of a cooling flow onto the central galaxy. High spectral resolution XMM-Newton data and high spatial resolution Chandra data, show however a lack of X-ray emitting gas below about one third of the cluster virial temperature. The explanation is that some form of heating balances cooling. The smoothness and similarity of the cooling time profiles and the flatness of the required heating profiles all indicate that we must seek a relatively gentle, quasi-continuous (on timescales heat source. The likely such source is the central black hole and its powerful jets which create bubble-like cavities in the inner hot gas. We briefly review the general heating and cooling statistics in an X-ray bright sample of cluster before we discuss the detailed situation in the Perseus cluster, the X-ray brightest cluster in the Sky.

  18. Rapid heating and cooling in two-dimensional Yukawa systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan Feng; Bin Liu; J. Goree

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations are reported to investigate solid superheating and liquid supercooling of two-dimensional (2D) systems with a Yukawa interparticle potential. Motivated by experiments where a dusty plasma is heated and then cooled suddenly, we track particle motion using a simulation with Langevin dynamics. Hysteresis is observed when the temperature is varied rapidly in a heating and cooling cycle. As in the experiment, transient solid superheating, but not liquid supercooling, is observed. Solid superheating, which is characterized by solid structure above the melting point, is found to be promoted by a higher rate of temperature increase.

  19. Mpemba effect, Newton cooling law and heat transfer equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladan Pankovic; Darko V. Kapor

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we suggest a simple theoretical solution of the Mpemba effect in full agreement with known experimental data. This solution follows simply as an especial approximation (linearization) of the usual heat (transfer) equation, precisely linearization of the second derivation of the space part of the temperature function (as it is well-known Newton cooling law can be considered as the effective approximation of the heat (transfer) equation for constant space part of the temperature function).

  20. Bubbles as tracers of heat input to cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Binney; F. Alouani Bibi; H. Omma

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the distribution of injected energy in three-dimensional, adaptive-grid simulations of the heating of cooling flows. We show that less than 10 percent of the injected energy goes into bubbles. Consequently, the energy input from the nucleus is underestimated by a factor of order 6 when it is taken to be given by PVgamma/(gamma-1), where P and V are the pressure and volume of the bubble, and gamma the ratio of principal specific heats.

  1. PROGRAM SUPPORT FOR SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BRANCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of possible impact of passive cooling techniques for ene~·gyTechniques for EvaluaUon of Solar Heating and Cooling SysU•

  2. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five l

  3. Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Thursday, October 9, 2014 List of Attendees OrganizationAttendees DOE - John Cymbalsky - Ashley Armstrong - Johanna...

  4. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time:...

  5. New and Existing Buildings Heating and Cooling Opportunities: Dedicated Heat Recovery Chiller

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the new and existing buildings heating and cooling opportunities and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  6. Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    when the need is discovered, but a good preventive maintenance program will reduce the number. This fact sheet will emphasize corrective and preventive maintenance procedures for ventilation, evaporativeAE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E

  7. Heating & Cooling | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHallNot Logged3 HanfordHarry S.Heat Pumps

  8. Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1 TNews & Solar SolarHeat Pumps

  9. Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartmentTest for PumpingThe| Department ofAir Ducts Tips:Heat

  10. Reduced heat flow in light water (H2O) due to heavy water (D2O)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William R. Gorman; James D. Brownridge

    2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The flow of heat, from top to bottom, in a column of light water can be decreased by over 1000% with the addition of heavy water. A column of light water cools from 25 C to 0 C in 11 hours, however, with the addition of heavy water it takes more than 100 hours. There is a concentration dependence where the cooling time increases as the concentration of added (D2O) increases, with a near maximum being reached with as little as 2% of (D2O) added. This phenomenon will not occur if the water is mixed after the heavy water is added.

  11. Method and apparatus for heat extraction by controlled spray cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Christopher Francis (5492 Lenore Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Meeks, Ellen (304 Daisyfield Dr., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Kee, Robert (864 Lucille St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); McCarty, Kevin (304 Daisyfield Dr., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two solutions to the problem of cooling a high temperature, high heat flux surface using controlled spray cooling are presented for use on a mandrel. In the first embodiment, spray cooling is used to provide a varying isothermal boundary layer on the side portions of a mandrel by providing that the spray can be moved axially along the mandrel. In the second embodiment, a spray of coolant is directed to the lower temperature surface of the mandrel. By taking advantage of super-Leidenfrost cooling, the temperature of the high temperature surface of the mandrel can be controlled by varying the mass flux rate of coolant droplets. The invention has particular applicability to the field of diamond synthesis using chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  12. Desiccant-based, heat actuated cooling assessment for DHC systems; Quarterly report, August 1, 1989--October 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.; Becker, F.E.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is Second Quarterly Report for DOE Project {number_sign} FG01-89CE26593 entitled: ``Desiccant-Based, Heat Actuated Cooling Assessment for DHC Systems.`` The goal of the project is to perform a conceptual design, systems analysis and case study evaluation of a application of a desiccant based cooling design within a district heating and cooling system. This Quarterly Report covers project work conducted from August 1, 1989 to October 31, 1989. The goals of the project have their basis in the desire to lower the operating temperature of the transport medium in a district heating system, but still enable cooling via that transport medium. At this time a district heating and cooling system must use a four-pipe heating ad cooling delivery system -- two pipes for hot water supply and return and two pipes for chilled water supply and return if both heating and cooling are to be provided. Unfortunately, such a four-pipe system is expensive, especially for existing D. H. systems that already have a two-pipe system installed. 1 fig.

  13. Desiccant-based, heat actuated cooling assessment for DHC systems; Quarterly report, November 1, 1989--January 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.; Becker, F.E.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Third Quarterly Report for DOE Project Number FG01- 89CE26593 entitled: ``Desiccant-Based, Heat Actuated Cooling Assessment for DHC Systems.`` The goal of the project is to perform a conceptual design, systems analysis and case study evaluation of an application of a desiccant based cooling design within a district heating and cooling system. This Quarterly Report covers project work conducted from November 1, 1989 to January 31, 1990. The goals of the project have their basis in the desire to lower the operating temperature of the transport medium in a district heating system, but still enable cooling via that transport medium. At this time a district heating and cooling system must use a four-pipe heating and cooling delivery system -- two pipes for hot water supply and return and two pipes for chilled water supply and return if both heating and cooling are to be provided. Unfortunately, such a four-pipe system is expensive, especially for existing D. H. systems that already have a two-pipe system installed. 36 figs.

  14. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  15. On Heating of Cluster Cooling Flows by Sound Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yutaka Fujita; Takeru Ken Suzuki

    2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate heating of the cool core of a galaxy cluster through the dissipation of sound waves excited by the activities of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a weak shock theory, we show that this heating mechanism alone cannot reproduce observed temperature and density profiles of a cluster, because the dissipation length of the waves is much smaller than the size of the core and thus the wave energy is not distributed to the whole core. However, we find that if it is combined with thermal conduction from the hot outer layer of the cluster, the wave heating can reproduce the observational results.

  16. Radiant cooling research scoping study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Timothy; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    61–65° F (16–18°C) cooling supply air temperatures requiredprovide appropriate cooling with supply water no cooler thancirculation of the cooling/heating supply water through the

  17. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  18. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josh A. Salmond

    2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

  19. Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

    2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

  20. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

  1. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  2. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer region, diffusive transport is the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The resulting thermal bottleneck largely determines the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger. No one has yet devised a practical solution to the boundary layer problem. Another longstanding problem is inevitable fouling of the heat exchanger surface over time by particulate matter and other airborne contaminants. This problem is especially important in residential air conditioner systems where often little or no preventative maintenance is practiced. The heat sink fouling problem also remains unsolved. The third major problem (alluded to earlier) concerns inadequate airflow to heat exchanger resulting from restrictions on fan noise. The air-cooled heat exchanger described here solves all of the above three problems simultaneously. The 'Air Bearing Heat Exchanger' provides a several-fold reduction in boundary layer thickness, intrinsic immunity to heat sink fouling, and drastic reductions in noise. It is also very practical from the standpoint of cost, complexity, ruggedness, etc. Successful development of this technology is also expected to have far reaching impact in the IT sector from the standpointpoint of solving the 'Thermal Brick Wall' problem (which currently limits CPU clocks speeds to {approx}3 GHz), and increasing concern about the the electrical power consumption of our nation's information technology infrastructure.

  3. Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging Randy H. Wiles Oak Ridge National Laboratory June 10, 2010 Project ID: APE001 This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

  4. advanced water cooled: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    your Cooling Water System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: characteristics limit savings. Figure 1. Predicted Performance Curve PD-3274 HISTORY Colder temperatures allow...

  5. Candidate Materials Evaluation for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. R. Allen and G. S. Was

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Final technical report on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and radiation response of candidate materials for the supercritical water-cooled reactor concept.

  6. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  7. Modern hot water district heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnitz, M.A.; Barnes, M.H.; Kadrmas, C.; Nyman, H.O.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The history of district heating in Europe is drastically different from that in the United States. The development of district heating in northern and eastern Europe started in the early 1950s. Hot water rather than steam was used as the transport medium and the systems have proven to be more economical. Recently, the northern European concept has been introduced into two US cities - St. Paul and Willmar, Minnesota. The hot water project in St. Paul started construction and operation in the summer and fall of 1983, respectively. The entire first phase of the St. Paul project will take two summers to construct and will connect approximately 80 buildings for a total of 150 MW(t). The system spans the entire St. Paul business district and includes privately owned offices and retail buildings, city and county government buildings, hospitals, the state Capitol complex, and several industrial customers. The City of Willmar, Minnesota, replaced an old steam system with a modern hot water system in the summer of 1982. The first phase of the hot water system was constructed in the central business district. The system serves a peak thermal load of about 10 MW(t) and includes about 12,000 ft of network. The Willmar system completed the second stage of development in the fall of 1983. These two new systems demonstrate the benefits of the low-temperature hot water district heating technology. The systems are economical to build, have high reliability, and have low maintenance and operating cost.

  8. Heat transfer to a silicon carbide/water nanofluid.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France , D. M.; Smith, D. S.; Singh, D.; Timofeeva, E. V.; Routbort, J. L.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer experiments were performed with a water-based nanofluid containing 170-nm silicon carbide particles at a 3.7% volume concentration and having potential commercial viability. Heat transfer coefficients for the nanofluid are presented for Reynolds numbers ranging from 3300 to 13,000 and are compared to the base fluid water on the bases of constant Reynolds number, constant velocity, and constant pumping power. Results were also compared to predictions from standard liquid correlations and a recently altered nanofluid correlation. The slip mechanisms of Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis postulated in the altered correlation were investigated in a series of heating and cooling experiments.

  9. Cooling Water Systems - Energy Savings/Lower Costs By Reusing Cooling Tower Blowdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puckorius, P. R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reuse of cooling tower blow down cannot only provide energy conservation, but can provide water conservation and chemical conservation. To be effective, it is critical that the water treatment program be coordinated with the treatment of the blow...

  10. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  11. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  12. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyGlossaryProgramRussiaSpace Heating and Cooling Basics Space

  13. Passive containment cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  14. Water Heating Requirements Overview Page 5-1 5 Water Heating Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Heating Requirements ­ Overview Page 5-1 5 Water Heating Requirements 5.1 Overview 5.1.1 Water Heating Energy Water heating energy use is an important end use in low-rise residential buildings. Roughly 90 percent of California households use natural gas fueled water heaters, typically storage gas

  15. Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

  16. Decoupled Modeling of Chilled Water Cooling Coils Using a Finite Element Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Liu, M.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decoupled Modeling of Chilled Water Cooling Coils Using a Finite Element Method Gang Wang Research Associate University of Nebraska – Lincoln Mingsheng Liu Professor University of Nebraska – Lincoln David E. Claridge Professor Texas A... be decoupled using a constant sensible heat ratio (SHR) and the saturation humidity ratio vs. temperature curve can be treated as linear in a small area corresponding to a finite element of the coil. This paper presents the decoupled cooling coil model...

  17. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  18. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  19. Rehabilitation of Secondary Heating and Cooling Systems - Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Hugghins, J.; Brundidge, T.; Claridge, D.; Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H., Jr.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VAV boxes use hot water reheat coils and supply air dampers, which are pneumatically controlled. A schematic diagram of the chilled water system in the building is shown in Figure 2. A schematic diagram of the heating water system... than the dynamic or modulating rating. The close-off pressure value is proportional to the size of actuator and inverse to valve size. The close-off pressure for electronic actuator is 3 ~ 5 times the values for pneumatic actuator. The pressure...

  20. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  1. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) Development2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiencyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  2. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  3. Numerical Model for Conduction-Cooled Current Lead Heat Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M.J.; Wang, X.L.; /Fermilab; Brueck, H.D.; /DESY

    2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world; however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal intercepts. The model is validated by comparing the numerical model results to ideal cases where analytical equations are valid. In addition, the XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) prototype current leads are modeled and compared to the experimental results from testing at DESY's XFEL Magnet Test Stand (XMTS) and Cryomodule Test Bench (CMTB).

  4. Water-cooled solid-breeder blanket concept for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Clemmer, R.C.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, C.E.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water cooled solid-breeder blanket concept was developed for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for the ITER operation. Several design features are incorporated in this blanket concept to increase its attractiveness. The main features are the following: (a) a multilayer concept which reduces fabrication cost; (b) a simple blanket configuration which results in reliability advantages; (c) a very small breeder volume is employed to reduce the tritium inventory and the blanket cost; (d) a high tritium breeding ratio eliminates the need for an outside tritium supply; (e) a low-pressure system decreases the required steel fraction for structural purposes; (f) a low-temperature operation reduces the swelling concerns for beryllium; and (g) the small fractions of structure and breeder materials used in the blanket reduce the decay heat source. The key features and design analyses of this blanket are summarized in this paper.

  5. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the choice of space heating technology is depen- dent on thefor Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling,"fuel or technology for residential space heating. The

  6. Water-loop heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, C.; Hydeman, M. (Eley (Charles) Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-loop heat pump (WLHP) systems are reliable, versatile, energy-efficient alternatives to conventional systems such as packaged rooftop or central chiller systems. These systems offer low installed costs, unparalleled design flexibility, and an inherent ability to recover heat in a variety of commercial and multifamily residential buildings for both new construction and retrofit markets. Southern California Edison Co. (SCE) teamed with EPRI to develop a comprehensive design guide for WLHP systems that incorporated recent research by EPRI, SCE, and others. The project team reviewed current literature, equipment data, and design guidelines from equipment manufacturers. They next discussed design and application practices with consulting engineers as well as design and building contractors. The team also ran extensive computer simulations on commercial and multifamily residential building models for Southern California, both to determine the sensitivity of energy use to WLHP system design parameters and to establish optimal design parameters. This information culminated in a comprehensive engineering guide. Volume 1 of this report, provides step-by-step technical design data for selection, application, and specification of WLHP systems. This guide emphasizes energy-efficient design principles and incorporates the findings of the computer simulations and research. For example, it recommends lowering the loop temperature in buildings dominated by internal loads. Reducing the loop temperature from 90 to 80[degrees]F provides a 7--10% savings in the total system energy in Southern California climate areas. Other recommendations include (1) installing a cooling tower with a propeller fan, which uses one fourth to one third of the energy of a cooling tower with a centrifugal fan; and (2) incorporating variable-speed pumps in conjunction with two-position valves in the heat pumps to reduce the system pump energy use by up to 50%.

  7. Commissioning Process and Operational Improvement in the District Heating and Cooling-APCBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takase,T.; Takada,O; Shima,K.; Moriya, M.; Shimoda,Y.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : 2,900kW TR1,2 Centrifugal Chiller (Constant Speed ) Cooling Capacity : 3,516kW (1,000RT) 2 TR3,4 Inverter Centrifugal Chiller Cooling Capacity : 1,758kW (500RT) 2 BTR1,2 Centrifugal Chiller for Ice Storage Cooling Capacity : 1,571kW (447RT) 2 Ice... Making Capacity : 1297kW (369RT) IST1,2 Ice Storage Tank Capacity of Thermal Storage :11,603kWh (3,300RTh) 2 BO1,2 Hot Water Boiler Heating Capacity : 465kW 2 7 ABOUT THE DHC PLANT ESL-IC-14-09-25 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference...

  8. Computer simulation of a lithium bromide-water absorption heat pump for temperature boosting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, G.; Childs, K.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer-simulation model has been developed to predict the performance of an absorption heat pump for temperature boosting of low-grade heat. The model simulated a single-stage, lithium bromide-water system currently being constructed. Te effects of waste-heat temperature, cooling-water temperature, and solution circulation rate were investigated. The temperature boost and delivered capacity increased almost linearly with an increase in the waste-heat temperature or a decrease in the cooling-water temperature. The system's coefficient of performance (COP) increases slightly under either of these conditions.

  9. District heating and cooling technology development program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated, desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications; Quarterly report, August 20, 1990--November 24, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first Quarterly Report for DOE Project Number FG01-90CE26603. The principal objective of this program is to perform a more detailed study aimed at producing lower-cost heat-actuated liquid desiccant cooling system for use with two-pipe District Heating (DH) systems. This quarterly report covers project work conducted from August 20, 1990 to November 24, 1990. The goals of the project have their basis in the desire to lower the operating temperature of the transport medium in a DH system, but still enable cooling via that transport medium. At this time a district heating and cooling (DHC) system must use a four-pipe heating and cooling delivery system -- two pipes for hot water supply and return and two pipes for chilled water supply and return if both heating and cooling are to be provided. Unfortunately, such a four-pipe system is expensive, especially for existing DH systems that already have a two-pipe system installed.

  10. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  11. Energy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: Results from human subject tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasut, Wilmer; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Ed; Zhai, Yongchao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for heating and cooling systems (setpoint deadband) ischair system’s maximum power is 4.8 watts for cooling (3.6Wsystems (PCS) are a promising technology for both improving occupants’ thermal comfort and simultaneously reducing buildings’ heating and cooling

  12. Solar Heating & Cooling: Energy for a Secure Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, more than 30,000 solar heating and cooling systems (SHC) are being installed annually in the United States, employing more than 5,000 American workers from coast to coast. These numbers are good – but they can be a lot better. Installing more SHC systems would provide a huge boost to the economy and help the environment, too. This first-of-its-kind SHC roadmap, developed by a task force made up of SEIA-member companies and BEAM Engineering, lays the groundwork – as well as makes a compelling case – for driving installed SHC capacity from 9 GW thermal to 300 GW thermal by 2050.

  13. Heating and cooling gas-gun targets: nuts and bolts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gehr, Russell J [HONEYWEL FM& T; Bucholtz, Scott M [HINEYWELL FM& T

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuts and bolts of a system used to heat and cool gas-gun targets is described. We have now used the system for more than 35 experiments, all of which have used electromagnetic gauging. Features of the system include a cover which is removed (remotely) just prior to projectile impact and the widespread use of metal/polymer insulations. Both the cover and insulation were required to obtain uniform temperatures in samples with low thermal conductivity. The use of inexpensive video cameras to make remote observations of the cover removal was found to be very useful. A brief catalog of useful glue, adhesive tape, insulation, and seal materials is given.

  14. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rculperformance of solar thermos i phon water heaters with heatSolar Jubilee, Phoenix, AZ, June 2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS

  15. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  16. AOSC 621AOSC 621 Radiative Heating/CoolingRadiative Heating/Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    ? Why drop off near sfc? 4 #12;Net flux Net flux: F = F+ - F- 1 2 F-(1) F+(1) F-(2) F+(2) Net energy at the top of the atmosphere is zero. Then we can write 1' ' )',( )'()0,()( 0 * dz dz zzdT zBzTBzF z z F F · The heating rate at z is defined as follows: )( )( d zdF zH net four termsofconsistwilland dz A

  17. Preliminary Retro-Commissioning Study on Optimal Operation for the Heat Source System of a District Heating Cooling Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shingu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.; Ono, E.

    In order to improve the energy performance of a district heating and cooling (DHC) plant, the expected performance of the plant is studied using simulations based on mathematical models. A complete heat source system model, equipped with an embedded...

  18. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

  19. Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling with Spins: Review and Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel K. Park; Nayeli A. Rodriguez-Briones; Guanru Feng; Robabeh R. Darabad; Jonathan Baugh; Raymond Laflamme

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of multiple rounds of Quantum Error Correction (QEC) is an essential milestone towards the construction of scalable quantum information processing devices. However, experimental realizations of it are still in their infancy. The requirements for multiple round QEC are high control fidelity and the ability to extract entropy from ancilla qubits. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) based quantum devices have demonstrated high control fidelity with up to 12 qubits. On the other hand, the major challenge in the NMR QEC experiment is to efficiently supply ancilla qubits in highly pure states at the beginning of each round of QEC. Purification of qubits in NMR, or in other ensemble based quantum systems can be accomplished through Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling (HBAC). It is an efficient method for extracting entropy from qubits that interact with a heat bath, allowing cooling below the bath temperature. For practical HBAC, coupled electron-nuclear spin systems are more promising than conventional NMR quantum processors, since electron spin polarization is about $10^3$ times greater than that of a proton under the same experimental conditions. We provide an overview on both theoretical and experimental aspects of HBAC focusing on spin and magnetic resonance based systems, and discuss the prospects of exploiting electron-nuclear coupled systems for the realization of HBAC and multiple round QEC.

  20. Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) Decay Heat Removal Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. D. Weaver; L-Y. Cheng; H. Ludewig; J. Jo

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current research and development on the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) has focused on the design of safety systems that will remove the decay heat during accident conditions, ion irradiations of candidate ceramic materials, joining studies of oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; and within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) the fabrication of carbide fuels and ceramic fuel matrix materials, development of non-halide precursor low density and high density ceramic coatings, and neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic fuel matrix and metallic materials. The vast majority of this work has focused on the reference design for the GFR: a helium-cooled, direct power conversion system that will operate with an outlet temperature of 850ºC at 7 MPa. In addition to the work being performed in the United States, seven international partners under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have identified their interest in participating in research related to the development of the GFR. These are Euratom (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, Euratom (including the United Kingdom), France, and Japan have active research activities with respect to the GFR. The research includes GFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This report is a compilation of work performed on decay heat removal systems for a 2400 MWt GFR during this fiscal year (FY05).

  1. Identification of Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient of Secondary Cooling Zone of CCM based on Least Squares Method and Stochastic Approximation Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanova, Anna

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detailed mathematical model of heat and mass transfer of steel ingot of curvilinear continuous casting machine is proposed. The process of heat and mass transfer is described by nonlinear partial differential equations of parabolic type. Position of phase boundary is determined by Stefan conditions. The temperature of cooling water in mould channel is described by a special balance equation. Boundary conditions of secondary cooling zone include radiant and convective components of heat exchange and account for the complex mechanism of heat-conducting due to airmist cooling using compressed air and water. Convective heat-transfer coefficient of secondary cooling zone is unknown and considered as distributed parameter. To solve this problem the algorithm of initial adjustment of parameter and the algorithm of operative adjustment are developed.

  2. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  3. Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik Srensen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik Sørensen Department of Energy Technology and product lifetime. The high power Light Emitting Diodes (LED) belongs to the group of electronics

  4. applying water cooled: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-9-4 Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities WL Lee Hua Chen Assistant Professor...

  5. Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) was selected as one of the promising candidates in Generation IV reactors for its prominent advantages; those are the high thermal efficiency, the system...

  6. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, R. M.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  7. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    joint probability of a household choosing each particular heating/cooling technology combination is a function of the capital and operating

  8. "Cooling by heating" - demonstrating the significance of the longitudinal specific heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jon J. Papini; Jeppe C. Dyre; Tage Christensen

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating a solid sphere at the surface induces mechanical stresses inside the sphere. If a finite amount of heat is supplied, the stresses gradually disappear as temperature becomes homogeneous throughout the sphere. We show that before this happens, there is a temporary lowering of pressure and density in the interior of the sphere, inducing a transient lowering of the temperature here. For ordinary solids this effect is small because c_p is almost equal to c_V. For fluent liquids the effect is negligible because their dynamic shear modulus vanishes. For a liquid at its glass transition, however, the effect is generally considerably larger than in solids. This paper presents analytical solutions of the relevant coupled thermoviscoelastic equations. In general, there is a difference between the isobaric specific heat, c_p, measured at constant isotropic pressure and the longitudinal specific heat, c_l, pertaining to mechanical boundary conditions that confine the associated expansion to be longitudinal. In the exact treatment of heat propagation the heat diffusion constant contains c_l rather than c_p. We show that the key parameter controlling the magnitude of the "cooling-by-heating" effect is the relative difference between these two specific heats. For a typical glass-forming liquid, when temperature at the surface is increased by 1 K, a lowering of the temperature in the sphere center of order 5 mK is expected if the experiment is performed at the glass transition. The cooling-by-heating effect is confirmed by measurements on a 19 mm diameter glucose sphere at the glass transition.

  9. Evaluation of models for predicting evaporative water loss in cooling impoundments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helfrich, Karl Richard

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling impoundments can offer a number of advantages over cooling towers for condenser water cooling at steam electric power plants. However, a major disadvantage of cooling ponds is a lack of confidence in the ability ...

  10. Valley Electric Association- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Valley Electric Association (VEA), a nonprofit member owned cooperative, developed the domestic solar water heating program to encourage energy efficiency at the request of the membership. VEA...

  11. EWEB- Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eugene Water & Electric Board (EWEB) offers residential customers a loan and cash discount program called, "The Bright Way To Heat Water." The program is designed to promote the installation of...

  12. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The emergence of technologies that efficiently convert heat into cooling, such as absorption chillers, has opened up many new opportunities and markets for combined heat and power systems. These...

  13. Energy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: Results from human subject tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasut, Wilmer; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Ed; Zhai, Yongchao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology Roadmap. Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating andH, Zhai Y. Enabling energy-efficient approaches to thermalEnergy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: results

  14. Impingement cooling and heat transfer measurement using transient liquid crystal technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yizhe

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer study on jet impingement cooling is presented. The study focuses on the effect of impingement jet flow rate, jet angle, and flow exit direction on various target surface heat transfer distributions. A two-channel test section...

  15. A SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ROOF POND SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavana, Medhi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Heating Performance of Roof Pond XSL803-6664 Fig. 4.on Heating Performance of Roof Pond Phoenix, Arizona Auguston Cooling Performance of Roof Pond HOur of the doy (solar

  16. Investigation of a radiantly heated and cooled office with an integrated desiccant ventilation unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xiangyang

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    comprehensive study of several technical issues relative to radiant heating and cooling systems that have received little attention in previous research. The following aspects are covered in this dissertation: First, a heat transfer model of mullion radiators...

  17. Active solar heating and cooling information user study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on active solar heating and cooling (SHAC). An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 19 SHAC groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Manufacturers (4 groups), Distributors, Installers, Architects, Builders, Planners, Engineers (2 groups), Representatives of Utilities, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, Building Owners/Managers, and Homeowners (2 groups). The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  18. Mold heating and cooling microprocessor conversion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.P.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of the microprocessors and software for the Mold Heating and Cooling (MHAC) pump package control systems was initiated to allow required system enhancements and provide data communications capabilities with the Plastics Information and Control System (PICS). The existing microprocessor-based control systems for the pump packages use an Intel 8088-based microprocessor board with a maximum of 64 Kbytes of program memory. The requirements for the system conversion were developed, and hardware has been selected to allow maximum reuse of existing hardware and software while providing the required additional capabilities and capacity. The new hardware will incorporate an Intel 80286-based microprocessor board with an 80287 math coprocessor, the system includes additional memory, I/O, and RS232 communication ports.

  19. How a liquid becomes a glass both on cooling and on heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xinhui Lu; S. G. J. Mochrie; S. Narayanan; A. R. Sandy; M. Sprung

    2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The onset of structural arrest and glass formation in a concentrated suspension of silica nanoparticles in a water-lutidine binary mixture near its consolute point is studied by exploiting the near-critical fluid degrees of freedom to control the strength of an attraction between particles and multispeckle x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy to determine the particles' collective dynamics. This model system undergoes a glass transition both on cooling and on heating, and the intermediate liquid realizes unusual logarithmic relaxations. How vitrification occurs for the two different glass transitions is characterized in detail and comparisons are drawn to recent theoretical predictions for glass formation in systems with attractive interactions.

  20. Heat rejection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  1. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) DevelopmentJ. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into The2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiency

  2. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 2 the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out without stopping the heat production

  3. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  4. Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faletti, D.W.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

  5. CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU-238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath.

  6. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R. [SPX Cooling Technologies Inc. (United States)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  7. ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION IN COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michal Duška; Martin Barták; František Drkal; Jan Hensen

    equation in cooling load calculations. The performance of nine different procedures (the four methods and

  8. Heat-transfer characteristics of a dry and wet/dry advanced condenser for cooling towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, H.D.; McIlroy, K.; Webster, D.J.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An EPRI-funded, experimental evaluation of two types of advanced, air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase-change dry/wet cooling system for electric power plants is described. Condensers of similar design, but much bigger, are being tested in a 15 MWe demonstration plant at the Pacific Gas and Electric Kern Power Station in Bakersfield, California. These condensers, featuring different air-side augmentation, were tested in Union Carbide's ammonia phase-change pilot plant (0.3 MWe). The first unit consisted of the Curtiss-Wright integral shaved-fin extruded aluminum tubing designed for dry operation. Heat transfer and air-side pressure loss characteristics were measured under varying air face velocities (600 to 1000 FPM) and initial temperature differences, ITD (20 to 60/sup 0/F). Overall heat transfer coefficients (based on air-side surface), U, ranged between 7.0 to 8.6 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ F. The second configuration constituted the Hoterv aluminum plate-fin/tube assembly of which two different sizes (5 ft/sup 2/ and 58 ft/sup 2/ frontal area) were performance tested; in both dry and wet modes at 200 to 800 FPM air face velocities, ITD's of 10 to 60/sup 0/F and at water deluge rates up to 3.0 gpm/ft. of core width. In the dry mode, U's ranged from 7.0 to 12.0 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ F. Increasing water deluge greatly enhanced the heat rejection capacity over dry operation - as high as 4 times, depending on operating conditions. This deluge augmentation was greater for lower air relative humidities and lower ITD's. A brief description of the recently completed ammonia phase-change dry/wet-dry cooling demonstration plant at the Kern Power Station concludes this document.

  9. Santa Clara Water and Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water and Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  11. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  12. Single family heating and cooling requirements: Assumptions, methods, and summary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritschard, R.L.; Hanford, J.W.; Sezgen, A.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research has created a data base of hourly building loads using a state-of-the-art building simulation code (DOE-2.ID) for 8 prototypes, representing pre-1940s to 1990s building practices, in 16 US climates. The report describes the assumed modeling inputs and building operations, defines the building prototypes and selection of base cities, compares the simulation results to both surveyed and measured data sources, and discusses the results. The full data base with hourly space conditioning, water heating, and non-HVAC electricity consumption is available from GRI. In addition, the estimated loads on a per square foot basis are included as well as the peak heating and cooling loads.

  13. District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications. Final report, August 20, 1990--January 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.

  14. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock sequence above the mines. Utilizing pumping strategy No.1 (two mines) capital costs were 25 percent lower a

  15. The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been made the further study about the water quality issue of the central air-conditioning circulation cooling water. Based on the comparison of the existing common adopted disposal ways, put forward the new ways of combination...

  16. Condensate polishers for brackish water-cooled PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadler, M.A.; Darvill, M.R.; Bickerstaffe, J.A.; Chakravorti, R.; Siegwarth, D.P.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of project RP 1571-5 ''Optimization of Pressurized Water Reactor Secondary Water Treatment: Task 4 Conceptual Design Options - Condensate Polishing'' were to provide detailed guidelines for the design of a condensate polishing system for retrofitting to a seawater cooled PWR. For this purpose a national 1100MW PWR with recirculating steam generators was defined. The polished water to be produced by this plant must be of such a quality so as to permit the advisory SGOG guidelines on impurity levels in Steam Generator water to be achieved. Target maximum impurity levels in the final polished water were proposed by the RP 1571 Project review Team and adopted for this study.

  17. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  18. Dynamics of Circumstellar Disks II: Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew F. Nelson; Willy Benz; Tamara Ruzmaikina

    1999-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a series of 2-d ($r,\\phi$) hydrodynamic simulations of marginally self gravitating disks around protostars using an SPH code. We implement simple dynamical heating and we cool each location as a black body, using a photosphere temperature obtained from the local vertical structure. We synthesize SEDs from our simulations and compare them to fiducial SEDs derived from observed systems. These simulations produce less distinct spiral structure than isothermally evolved systems, especially in the inner third of the disk. Pattern are similar further from the star but do not collapse into condensed objects. The photosphere temperature is well fit to a power law in radius with index $q\\sim1.1$, which is very steep. Far from the star, internal heating ($PdV$ work and shocks) are not responsible for generating a large fraction of the thermal energy contained in the disk matter. Gravitational torques responsible for such shocks cannot transport mass and angular momentum efficiently in the outer disk. Within $\\sim$5--10 AU of the star, rapid break up and reformation of spiral structure causes shocks, which provide sufficient dissipation to power a larger fraction of the near IR energy output. The spatial and size distribution of grains can have marked consequences on the observed near IR SED and can lead to increased emission and variability on $\\lesssim 10$ year time scales. When grains are vaporized they do not reform into a size distribution similar to that from which most opacity calculations are based. With rapid grain reformation into the original size distribution, the disk does not emit near infrared photons. With a plausible modification to the opacity, it contributes much more.

  19. Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenserfor Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condensertower and condenser water optimization Summary Cleanroom energy

  20. Methodology for Calculating Cooling and Heating Energy-Imput-Ratio (EIR) From the Rated Seasonal Performance Efficiency (SEER or HSPF) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the recommendations to calculate cooling and heating energy-input-ratio (EIR) for DOE-2 simulations excluding indoor fan energy, from the rated cooling and heating seasonal performance efficiency (i.e., ...

  1. High Heat Flux Exposure Tests on 10mm Beryllium Tiles Brazed on Actively Cooled Vapotron made from CUCRZR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Heat Flux Exposure Tests on 10mm Beryllium Tiles Brazed on Actively Cooled Vapotron made from CUCRZR

  2. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  3. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  4. Lakeland Electric- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, is the nation's first utility to offer solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility has contracted with a solar...

  5. Recovery Act-Funded Water Heating Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy was allocated funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to conduct research into water heating technologies and applications. Projects funded by the...

  6. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  7. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States...

  8. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal...

  9. Convective heat transfer as a function of wavelength: Implications for the cooling of the Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Convective heat transfer as a function of wavelength: Implications for the cooling of the Earth C, in particular, on its variation with the wavelength of convection. The heat transfer strongly depends in Earth's mantle can significantly reduce the efficiency of heat transfer. The likely variations

  10. 192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Ground-source heat pumps for cooling-dominated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research ABSTRACT Ground-source heat pumps for cooling- tion of the heat pump performance is avoided by offsetting the annual load imbalance in the borefield operating and control strategies in a hybrid ground-source heat pump application using an hourly system

  11. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including water-cooled electric chillers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  12. Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40% of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, the Energy Information Administration has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. The Annual Energy Outlook 2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

  13. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  14. INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and AirFOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS Paul W. Sullivan,FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS* Paul W. Sullivan,t

  15. air-to-water heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Reprocessing Cooling Times on Light Water Reactor and Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. M. Ferrer; S. Bays; M. Pope

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of variations of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and fast reactor reprocessing cooling time on a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) assuming a single-tier fuel cycle scenario. The results from this study show the effects of different cooling times on the SFR’s transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) and transuranic fuel enrichment. Also, the decay heat, gamma heat and neutron emission of the SFR’s fresh fuel charge were evaluated. A 1000 MWth commercial-scale SFR design was selected as the baseline in this study. Both metal and oxide CR=0.50 SFR designs are investigated.

  17. Cooling-load implications for residential passive-solar-heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; McFarland, R.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described, along with the computer simulation model used for calculating cooling loads. A sample of interim results is also presented. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy requirement of a given building.

  18. Cooling and Heating of the Quantum Motion of Trapped Cd+ Louis Deslauriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Christopher

    ABSTRACT Cooling and Heating of the Quantum Motion of Trapped Cd+ Ions by Louis Deslauriers Chair information processor has seen tremendous progress in many fields of physics. In the last decade, trapped ions for entanglement generation limiting the fidelity of quantum logic gates. Effective ground state cooling of trapped

  19. Heat transfer and film-cooling for the endwall of a first stage turbine vane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    as the pressure side horseshoe vortex, develops as the flow is turned by the turbine vane or rotor bladeHeat transfer and film-cooling for the endwall of a first stage turbine vane Karen A. Thole of the airfoils. One means of preventing degradation in the turbine is to film-cool components whereby coolant

  20. Thermal stability of a spherical shell heated by convection and cooled by boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qaim-Maqami, Hassan

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such high heat transfer rates by forced convection would require extremely high veloc- ities with subsequent high pressure dropsy With nuclee, boiling, however, such high heat transfe. rates an be obtained at much smaller velocities. Boiling heat...THERMAL STABILITY OF A. SPHERICAL SHELL HEATED BY CONVECTION AND COOLED BY BOILING A Thesis HASSAN @AIM-MAQAMI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  1. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  2. Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki [Course of Applied Science, School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan)

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce {sup 233}U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces {sup 233}U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of {sup 233}U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce {sup 233}U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

  3. RAMI Analysis for Designing and Optimizing Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) for the ITER's Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL] [ORNL; Reiersen, Wayne T [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S.-ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). TCWS is designed to provide cooling and baking for client systems that include the first wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, divertor, and neutral beam injector. Additional operations that support these primary functions include chemical control of water provided to client systems, draining and drying for maintenance, and leak detection/localization. TCWS interfaces with 27 systems including the secondary cooling system, which rejects this heat to the environment. TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak during nominal pulsed operation - 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. Impurities are diffused from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200-240 C at up to 4.4 MPa. TCWS is complex because it serves vital functions for four primary clients whose performance is critical to ITER's success and interfaces with more than 20 additional ITER systems. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed; however, several issues remain that must be resolved before moving to the next stage of the design process. The 2004 baseline design indicated cooling loops that have no fault tolerance for component failures. During plasma operation, each cooling loop relies on a single pump, a single pressurizer, and one heat exchanger. Consequently, failure of any of these would render TCWS inoperable, resulting in plasma shutdown. The application of reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) tools during the different stages of TCWS design is crucial for optimization purposes and for maintaining compliance with project requirements. RAMI analysis will indicate appropriate equipment redundancy that provides graceful degradation in the event of an equipment failure. This analysis helps demonstrate that using proven, commercially available equipment is better than using custom-designed equipment with no field experience and lowers specific costs while providing higher reliability. This paper presents a brief description of the TCWS conceptual design and the application of RAMI tools to optimize the design at different stages during the project.

  4. Use of an open-cycle absorption system for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlepp, D. R.; Collier, R. K.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cooling for commercial applications using open-cycle absorption refrigeration systems has been investigated and found to be feasible. If an open-cycle absorption system can be operated as a chemical heat pump for winter heating operation, the system would offer year-round operation that could make the system economically viable for many regions of the US. An analysis of heating operation for the open-cycle system is presented using a computer program that simulates heat and mass transfer processes for any environmental condition. The open-cycle absorption refrigeration system can be operated as a chemical heat pump. Simulations for winter heating operation were run for five US cities, with solar COP's in the range of .06 to .16. At these levels, the OCAR system can provide full heating and cooling operation for office buildings in many southern US cities.

  5. BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Concept" completed * Borehole field designed using "Thermal Dynamics" software * Heat Pump Chiller requirements determined * Surveys conducted throughout campus to...

  6. Off-axis cooling of rotating devices using a crank-shaped heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Todd A.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Waynert, Joseph A.

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a crank-shaped heat pipe for cooling rotating machinery and a corresponding method of manufacture. The crank-shaped heat pipe comprises a sealed cylindrical tube with an enclosed inner wick structure. The crank-shaped heat pipe includes a condenser section, an adiabatic section, and an evaporator section. The crank-shape is defined by a first curve and a second curve existing in the evaporator section or the adiabatic section of the heat pipe. A working fluid within the heat pipe provides the heat transfer mechanism.

  7. Heat Recovery and Indirect Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckley, C. C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two thirds of the waste heat sources in the U.S. are in the low temperature range of less than 200 deg F. A primary contributor of this heat is building exhaust. Heat pipe exchangers are ideally suited for recovering this waste. Plant comfort air...

  8. Use of cooling-temperature heat for sustainable food production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Food production and energy are undoubtedly interlinked. However, at present food production depends almost exclusively on direct use of stored energy sources, may they be nuclear-, petroleum- or bio-based. Furthermore, non-storage based “renewable” energy systems, like wind and solar, need development before bering able to contribute at a significant level. This presentation will point towards surplus heat as a way to bridge the gap between today’s food systems and truly sustainable ones, suitable to be performed in urban and peri-urban areas. Considering that arable land and fresh water resources are the base for our present food systems, but are limited, in combination with continued urbanisation, such solutions are urgently needed. By combining the use of surplus energy with harvest of society’s organic side flows, like e.g. food waste and aquatic based cash crops, truly sustainable and urban close food systems are possible at a level of significance also for global food security.

  9. Apparatus and method of direct water cooling several parallel circuit cards each containing several chip packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cipolla, Thomas M. (Katonah, NY); Colgan, Evan George (Chestnut Ridge, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Hall, Shawn Anthony (Pleasantville, NY); Tian, Shurong (Mount Kisco, NY)

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling apparatus, system and like method for an electronic device includes a plurality of heat producing electronic devices affixed to a wiring substrate. A plurality of heat transfer assemblies each include heat spreaders and thermally communicate with the heat producing electronic devices for transferring heat from the heat producing electronic devices to the heat transfer assemblies. The plurality of heat producing electronic devices and respective heat transfer assemblies are positioned on the wiring substrate having the regions overlapping. A heat conduit thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies. The heat conduit circulates thermally conductive fluid therethrough in a closed loop for transferring heat to the fluid from the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader. A thermally conductive support structure supports the heat conduit and thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader transferring heat to the fluid of the heat conduit from the support structure.

  10. Water Heating Requirements – Overview Page 5-1 5. Water Heating Requirements 5.1 Overview 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    . Electric heat pump water heaters, however, are closer to the efficiency of typical gas systems, because

  11. St. Paul -West Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Peter

    's cooling system is scheduled to be on. Status Color Code: On In Progress Not started Building Name BuildingSt. Paul - West Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building # Date Central Cooling On Status Date Window A/C Units installed Status 19th ave ramp 217 N/A N/A N/A 21

  12. Health Sciences District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Peter

    system is scheduled to be on. Status Color Code: On In Progress Not started *** - Typically between May 1Health Sciences District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling-15, as requested. Building Name Building # Date Central Cooling On Status Date Window A/C Units installed Status

  13. East Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Peter

    East Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on. Status Color Code: On In Progress Not started Building Name Building # Date Central Cooling On Status Date Window A/C Units installed Status 1425 University Ave. 127 1901 University Ave SE

  14. Heating and cooling of a two-dimensional electron gas by terahertz radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budkin, G. V.; Tarasenko, S. A., E-mail: tarasenko@coherent.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The absorption of terahertz radiation by free charge carriers in n-type semiconductor quantum wells accompanied by the interaction of electrons with acoustic and optical phonons is studied. It is shown that intrasubband optical transitions can cause both heating and cooling of the electron gas. The cooling of charge carriers occurs in a certain temperature and radiation frequency region where light is most efficiently absorbed due to intrasubband transitions with emission of optical phonons. In GaAs quantum wells, the optical cooling of electrons occurs most efficiently at liquid nitrogen temperatures, while cooling is possible even at room temperature in GaN heterostructures.

  15. Asymmetric crystallization during cooling and heating in model glass-forming systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minglei Wang; Kai Zhang; Zhusong Li; Yanhui Liu; Jan Schroers; Mark D. Shattuck; Corey S. O'Hern

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the crystallization process in binary Lennard-Jones systems during heating and cooling to investigate atomic-scale crystallization kinetics in glass-forming materials. For the cooling protocol, we prepared equilibrated liquids above the liquidus temperature $T_l$ and cooled each sample to zero temperature at rate $R_c$. For the heating protocol, we first cooled equilibrated liquids to zero temperature at rate $R_p$ and then heated the samples to temperature $T > T_l$ at rate $R_h$. We measured the critical heating and cooling rates $R_h^*$ and $R_c^*$, below which the systems begin to form a substantial fraction of crystalline clusters during the heating and cooling protocols. We show that $R_h^* > R_c^*$, and that the asymmetry ratio $R_h^*/R_c^*$ includes an intrinsic contribution that increases with the glass-forming ability (GFA) of the system and a preparation-rate dependent contribution that increases strongly as $R_p \\rightarrow R_c^*$ from above. We also show that the predictions from classical nucleation theory (CNT) can qualitatively describe the dependence of the asymmetry ratio on the GFA and preparation rate $R_p$ from the MD simulations and results for the asymmetry ratio measured in Zr- and Au-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG). This work emphasizes the need for and benefits of an improved understanding of crystallization processes in BMGs and other glass-forming systems.

  16. Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

  17. Impact of Climate Change Heating and Cooling Energy Use in Buildings in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Impact of Climate Change Heating and Cooling Energy Use in Buildings in the United States Haojie activities in buildings. One area directly affected by climate change is the energy consumption for heating data for use in building energy simulations by EnergyPlus. Two types of residential buildings and seven

  18. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO); Anderson, Ren (Broomfield, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  19. air cooled heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: was made against the two datasets recently downloaded from the California Energy Commission (CEC) database (CEC 2012) and the 2012 Air- Conditioning, Heating, and...

  20. Crosslinked crystalline polymer and methods for cooling and heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH); Botham, Ruth A. (Dayton, OH); Ball, III, George L. (West Carrollton, OH)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to crystalline polyethylene pieces having optimum crosslinking for use in storage and recovery of heat, and it further relates to methods for storage and recovery of heat using crystalline polymer pieces having optimum crosslinking for these uses. Crystalline polymer pieces are described which retain at least 70% of the heat of fusion of the uncrosslinked crystalline polymer and yet are sufficiently crosslinked for the pieces not to stick together upon being cycled above and below the melting point of said polymer, preferably at least 80% of the heat of fusion with no substantial sticking together.

  1. 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or deductions for solar energy systems. Solar heating systems reduce the amount of air pollution and greenhouse gases that generally come from the use of fossil fuels for...

  2. Cooling, Heating, and Power for Commercial Buildings - Benefits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    this paper, an analysis was performed to determine that the increased production of waste heat associated with lower generation efficiencies cannot compensate for the lower...

  3. Direct-Contact Process Water Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamann, M. R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the manufacturing processes utilizing direct steam injection from process boilers to a hot water storage tank. Although the boiler plant was in fair operating condition, the boilers were over 30 years old and had measured seasonal heating efficiencies of 60... water heater. Since the new system was better matched to the plant load, energy savings occurred as a result of the new systems reduced input capacity and higher efficiency. This project, which can be duplicated in other industries with facility...

  4. Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

  5. Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J; Coico, Patrick A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling apparatus for an electronics rack is provided which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures and a tube. The heat exchanger, which is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of distinct, coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and a coolant outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

  6. Time variability of AGN and heating of cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Nipoti; James Binney

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    There is increasing evidence that AGN mechanical feedback is important in the energetics of cooling flows in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We investigate the implications of the variability of AGN mechanical luminosity L_m on observations of cooling flows and radio galaxies in general. It is natural to assume that l=ln(L_m/L_x) is a Gaussian process. Then L_m will be log-normally distributed at fixed cooling luminosity L_x, and the variance in a measure of L_m will increase with the time-resolution of the measure. We test the consistency of these predictions with existing data. These tests hinge on the power spectrum of l(t). Monitoring of Seyfert galaxies combined with estimates of the duty cycle of quasars imply flicker noise spectra, similar to those of microquasars. We combine a sample of sources in cooling flows that have cavities with the assumption that the average mechanical luminosity of the AGN equals L_x. Given that the mechanical luminosities are characterized by flicker noise, we find that their spectral amplitudes lie between the estimated amplitudes of quasars and the measured values for the radio luminosities of microquasars. The model together with the observation that powerful radio galaxies lie within a narrow range in optical luminosity, predicts the luminosity function of radio galaxies, in agreement with observations. Forthcoming radio surveys will test the prediction that the luminosity function turns over at about the smallest luminosities so far probed. [Abridged

  7. Building America Standing Technical Committee- Water Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building America program is focused on delivering market acceptable energy efficiency solutions to homeowners, builders, and contractors. Near term goals of 30-50% source energy savings are currently targeted. This document examines water heating gaps and barriers, and is updated as of Feb. 2012.

  8. Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating/Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can systems. A promising application of DR fluids is in district heating/ cooling systems (DHCs)9

  9. artificially heated waters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other...

  10. Design and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling using HFC or CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    subcooling vol volumetric w water 1. Context and objectives Nowadays, global warming being a major concern and the large temperature glide at heat rejection used for DHW production. Keywords: design, simulation, heating;2 NOMENCLATURE c relative clearance volume (-) C electricity consumption (Wh) Cp specific heat (J kg-1 K-1 ) h

  11. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 1: Basic concepts and performance verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 1 40 51 ABSTRACT This article presents the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating using a two-phase thermosiphon. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out

  12. Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

  13. Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

  14. Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, J. R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling. A recent application of evaporative air cooling equipment in a heat treat area at the John Deere Component Works in Waterloo, Iowa provided the required cooling at an operating cost of 30% of a city water coil and 10% of a chilled water system...

  15. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

  16. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

  17. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial buildings often have extensive periods where one space needs cooling and another heating. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If a building's heating and cooling system could be integrated with the building's structural mass such that the mass can be used to collect, store, and deliver energy, significant energy might be saved. Computer models were developed to simulate this interaction for an existing office building in Seattle, Washington that has a decentralized water-source heat pump system. Metered data available for the building was used to calibrate a base'' building model (i.e., nonintegrated) prior to simulation of the integrated system. In the simulated integration strategy a secondary water loop was manifolded to the main HVAC hydronic loop. tubing in this loop was embedded in the building's concrete floor slabs. Water was routed to this loop by a controller to charge or discharge thermal energy to and from the slabs. The slabs were also in thermal communication with the conditioned spaces. Parametric studies of the building model, using weather data for five other cities in addition to Seattle, predicted that energy can be saved on cooling dominated days. On hot, dry days and during the night the cooling tower can beneficially be used as a free cooling'' source for thermally charging'' the floor slabs using cooled water. Through the development of an adaptive/predictive control strategy, annual HVAC energy savings as large as 30% appear to be possible in certain climates. 8 refs., 13 figs.

  18. A stock water solar heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nydahl, J.; Carlson, B.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the progress in the development of an inexpensive but rugged solar system to heat stock water. Insulation encased in fiber reinforced concrete is the main structural component for the collector and the partition between the unheated stock tank and the heated section. A fully wetted, drain-back collector was designed to produce a high optical efficiency and to permit its water passage to be opened for cleaning. A unique double-glazed design is used in which the inner glazing is a film with a large thermal expansion coefficient. This causes a significant drop in the stagnation temperatures since a single glazed configuration is approached at high temperatures. The collector and the partially covered insulated tank prevented freezing, and held the average water temperature at 6.4 C (44 F) during the day while the mean daily ambient temperature was {minus}5.4 C (22 F) over a nine day test.

  19. ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN DAY PERFORMANCE FOR A RESIDENTIAL MODEL IN SIX CLIMATES: A COMPARISON OF NBSLD, BLAST 2, AND DOE-2.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, William L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lf.20 i 2.4E (1) Cumulative heating and cooling loads only.at the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and AirDecember 3-5, 1979 ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS

  20. A spin based heat engine: demonstration of multiple rounds of algorithmic cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Ryan; O. Moussa; J. Baugh; R. Laflamme

    2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We show experimental results demonstrating multiple rounds of heat-bath algorithmic cooling in a 3 qubit solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. By dynamically pumping entropy out of the system of interest and into the heat-bath, we are able show purification of a single qubit to a polarization 1.69 times that of the heat-bath and thus go beyond the Shannon bound for closed system cooling. The cooling algorithm implemented requires both high fidelity coherent control and a deliberate controlled interaction with the environment. We discuss the improvements in control that allowed this demonstration. This experimental work shows that given this level of quantum control in systems with sufficiently large polarizations, nearly pure qubits should be achievable.

  1. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Parametric modelling of a bellows heat pipe for electronic component cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patnaik, Preetam

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the fluid. Conduction of heat is governed by Eourier's lcm which is given mathematically as qs = -5. 7'T where q" = heat flux (W/ms) K = conductivity of the material {W/m C) 9 = the three - dimensional del operator T = scalar temperature field. Thus.... Convection is governed by Newton'a Low of Cooling which is given mathemat- ically as lI" = /i(T ? T ) where q" = heat flux (W/m'C) h = heat transfer coefficient (W/ms C) T~ = temperature of body (sC) T~ = temperature of ambient surroundings ( C...

  3. Massively-Parallel Direct Numerical Simulation of Gas Turbine Endwall Film-Cooling Conjugate Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meador, Charles Michael

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    MASSIVELY-PARALLEL DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF GAS TURBINE ENDWALL FILM-COOLING CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER A Thesis by CHARLES MICHAEL MEADOR Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2010 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MASSIVELY-PARALLEL DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF GAS TURBINE ENDWALL FILM-COOLING CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER A Thesis by CHARLES MICHAEL MEADOR Submitted to the O ce of Graduate...

  4. Heat transfer and film cooling with steam injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conklin, Gary Eugene

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The cooling medium was injected through the side of the test section into the blade. The apparatus and test section are shown in Figure 3. Great care was taken in the design of the wind tunnel which was designed to be subsonic with uniform flow and a low... 48 inch overall length. The blade was positioned 24 inches from the leading edge of the test section. D. Test Material The aluminum blade was a straight airfoil with a cir- cular leading edge and three staggered rows of injection holes. Using...

  5. Urban Heat Islands: Cool Roof Infrastructure | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads intoMansoor Ghassem )DepartmentUppingDepartmentCool Roof

  6. High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail August 19, 2010 - 12:05pm Addthis The Blaine County Public Safety Facility...

  7. Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant...

  8. Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant...

  9. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  10. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

  11. Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value Grid-interactive renewable water heaters have smart controls that quickly change their charge rate and...

  12. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  13. Water-cooled solid-breeder concept for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Clemmer, R.C.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, C.E.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-cooled solid-breeder blanket concept was developed for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for the ITER operation. Several design features are incorporated in this blanket concept to increase its attractiveness. It is assumed that the blanket operation at commercial power reactor conditions can be sacrificed to achieve a high tritium breeding ratio with minimum additional research and development, and minimal impact on reactor design and operation. Operating temperature limits are enforced for each material to insure a satisfactory blanket performance. In fact, the design was iterated to maximize the tritium breeding ratio and satisfy these temperature limits. The other design constraint is to permit a large increase in the neutron wall loading without exceeding the temperature limits for the different blanket materials. The blanket concept contains 1.8 cm of Li/sub 2/O and 22.5 cm of beryllium both with a 0.8 density factor. The water coolant is isolated from the breeder material by several zones which reduces the tritium buildup in the water by permeation, reduces the chance for water-breeder interaction, and permits the breeder to operate at high temperature with a low temperature coolant. This improves the safety and environmental aspects of the blanket and eliminates the costly process of the tritium recovery from the water. The key features and design analysis of this blanket are summarized in this paper. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lunt, D.L.J. [Tucson Optical Research Corp., AZ (United States)

    1991-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

  15. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

  16. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  17. Reduction of Water Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, J.

    Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

  18. Heat pipe cooled reactors for multi-kilowatt space power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranken, W.A.; Houts, M.G.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) to radiator heat pipes.

  19. Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B

    1980-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.

  20. The Difficulty of the Heating of Cluster Cooling Flows by Sound Waves and Weak Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yutaka Fujita; Takeru Ken Suzuki

    2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate heating of the cool core of a galaxy cluster through the dissipation of sound waves and weak shocks excited by the activities of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a weak shock theory, we show that this heating mechanism alone cannot reproduce observed temperature and density profiles of a cluster, because the dissipation length of the waves is much smaller than the size of the core and thus the wave energy is not distributed to the whole core.

  1. Design Method for the Heating/Cooling Coil in the AHU Based on Fuzzy Logic - Part Two: Design of the Minimum Heat-Exchanging Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Liang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering a heating/cooling coil with adjustable heat-exchange area, an unequal type is put forward in this paper. Aiming at the application of such heat exchanger in an air-handling unit, restriction conditions are given for the minimum heat...

  2. A pre-feasibility study to assess the potential of Open Loop Ground Source Heat to heat and cool the proposed Earth Science Systems Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A pre-feasibility study to assess the potential of Open Loop Ground Source Heat to heat and cool............................................................1 1.2. History of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems................................................3 1.3. Components of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems..........................................3 1.4. Types of Ground

  3. "Potential for Combined Heat and Power and District Heating and Cooling from Waste-to-Energy Facilities in the U.S. Learning from the Danish Experience"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepard, Kenneth

    "Potential for Combined Heat and Power and District Heating and Cooling from Waste- to Engineering Center and the Henry Krumb School of Mines May 2007 #12;1 Executive Summary In District Heating is used for the generation of electricity. The advantages of district heating using WTE plants are

  4. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  5. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  6. INTEGRATED CO2 HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS FOR SPACE HEATING AND HOT WATER HEATING IN LOW-ENERGY HOUSES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    designed as stand-alone systems, i.e. a heat pump water heater (HPWH) in combination with separate units

  7. Nanoscale Joule heating, Peltier cooling and current crowding at graphenemetal contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William P.

    Nanoscale Joule heating, Peltier cooling and current crowding at graphene­metal contacts Kyle L are the Joule and Peltier effects. The Joule effect9 occurs as charge carriers dissipate energy within the lattice, and is pro- portional to resistance and the square of the current. The Peltier effect17

  8. Integrated three-dimensional module heat exchanger for power electronics cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennion, Kevin; Lustbader, Jason

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments discussed herein are directed to a power semiconductor packaging that removes heat from a semiconductor package through one or more cooling zones that are located in a laterally oriented position with respect to the semiconductor package. Additional embodiments are directed to circuit elements that are constructed from one or more modular power semiconductor packages.

  9. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here.Telluric Survey asWest, New Jersey: EnergyGeothermal Heat Pumps and

  10. Cool Roofs and Heat Islands | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.pngRoofs and Heat Islands Jump to: navigation, search Tool

  11. IMPACT OF THE SUN PATCH ON HEATING AND COOLING POWER EVALUATION: APPLIED TO A LOW ENERGY CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IMPACT OF THE SUN PATCH ON HEATING AND COOLING POWER EVALUATION: APPLIED TO A LOW ENERGY CELL A Renardières ­ Ecuelles, 77818 MORET-SUR- LOING Cedex, France ABSTRACT In the context of low energy buildings we study the impact of the incoming radiation through a window (sun patch) on the heating and cooling

  12. Energy Accounting for District Heating and Cooling Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, J. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ...2..?... St"""'. Pressure -psig Burner Pressure paig/B 2 0 Feed Water Temp _ Air temp. _ , Pull Load (.3) .(6. gf 7 Stack temp. __ lba. ata/ft 3 gas ..:.!i.QJ.6 7a/7b --L.1l!L Figure 11 '+/" COEFFIC.IEIlT OF PERFORMANCE CHILLER,L- 0 DATE...

  13. Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J.

    A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

  14. White Dwarf Heating and Subsequent Cooling in Dwarf Nova Outbursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony L. Piro; Phil Arras; Lars Bildsten

    2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We follow the time dependent thermal evolution of a white dwarf (WD) undergoing sudden accretion in a dwarf nova outburst, using both simulations and analytic estimates. The post-outburst lightcurve clearly separates into early times when the WD flux is high, and late times when the flux is near the quiescent level. The break between these two regimes, occurring at a time of order the outburst duration, corresponds to a thermal diffusion wave reaching the base of the freshly accreted layer. Our principal result is that long after the outburst, the fractional flux perturbation about the quiescent flux decays as a power law with time (and {\\it not} as an exponential). We use this result to construct a simple fitting formula that yields estimates for both the quiescent flux and the accreted column, i.e. the total accreted mass divided by WD surface area. The WD mass is not well constrained by the late time lightcurve alone, but it can be inferred if the accreted mass is known from observations. We compare our work with the well-studied outburst of WZ Sge, finding that the cooling is well described by our model, giving an effective temperature $T_{\\rm eff}=14,500 {\\rm K}$ and accreted column $\\Delta y\\approx10^6 {\\rm g cm^{-2}}$, in agreement with the modeling of Godon et al. To reconcile this accreted column with the accreted mass inferred from the bolometric accretion luminosity, a large WD mass $\\gtrsim1.1M_\\odot$ is needed. Our power law result is a valuable tool for making quick estimates of the outburst properties. We show that fitting the late time lightcurve with this formula yields a predicted column within 20% of that estimated from our full numerical calculations.

  15. Micro-scale heat-exchangers for Joule-Thomson cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Andrew John

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on developing a micro-scale counter flow heat exchangers for Joule-Thomson cooling with the potential for both chip and wafer scale integration. This project is differentiated from previous work by focusing on planar, thin film micromachining instead of bulk materials. A process will be developed for fabricating all the devices mentioned above, allowing for highly integrated micro heat exchangers. The use of thin film dielectrics provides thermal isolation, increasing efficiency of the coolers compared to designs based on bulk materials, and it will allow for wafer-scale fabrication and integration. The process is intended to implement a CFHX as part of a Joule-Thomson cooling system for applications with heat loads less than 1mW. This report presents simulation results and investigation of a fabrication process for such devices.

  16. Wet-dry cooling demonstration. Test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allemann, R.T.; DeBellis, D.E.; Werry, E.V.; Johnson, B.M.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale test of dry/wet cooling using the ammonia phase-change system, designated the Advanced Concepts Test (ACT), has been operated at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Kern Station at Bakersfield, California. The facility is capable of condensing 60,000 lbs/h of steam from a small house turbine. Two different modes of combining dry and evaporative cooling have been tested. One uses deluge cooling in which water is allowed to flow over the fins of the dry (air-cooled) heat exchanger on hot days; the other uses a separate evaporative condenser in parallel to the dry heat exchanger. A third mode of enhancing the dry cooling system, termed capacitive cooling has been tested. In this system, the ammonia-cooled steam condenser is supplemented by a parallel conventional water-cooled condenser with water supplied from a closed system. This water is cooled during off-peak hours each night by an ammonia heat pump which rejects heat through the ACT Cooling Tower. If operated over the period of a year, each of the wet/dry systems would use only 25% of the water normally required to reject this heat load in an evaporative cooling tower. The third would consume no water, the evaporative cooling being replaced by the delayed cooling of the closed system water supply.

  17. Mist/steam cooling in a heated horizontal tube -- Part 2: Results and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental studies on mist/steam cooling in a heated horizontal tube have been performed. Wall temperature distributions have been measured under various main steam flow rates, droplet mass ratios, and wall heat fluxes. Generally, the heat transfer performance of steam can be significantly improved by adding mist into the main flow. An average enhancement of 100% with the highest local heat transfer enhancement of 200% is achieved with 5% mist. When the test section is mildly heated, an interesting wall temperature distribution is observed: the wall temperature increases first, then decreases, and finally increases again. A three-stage heat transfer model with transition boiling, unstable liquid fragment evaporation, and dry-wall mist cooling has been proposed and has shown some success in predicting the wall temperature of the mist/steam flow. The PDPA measurements have facilitated better understanding and interpreting of the droplet dynamics and heat transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, this study has shed light on how to generate appropriate droplet sizes to achieve effective droplet transportation, and has shown that it is promising to extend present results to a higher temperature and higher pressure environment.

  18. Dual Heating and Cooling Sorption Heat Pump for a Food Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Dooley, B.

    Complex compound sorption reactions are ideally suited for use in high temperature lift industrial heat pump cycles. Complex compound heat pumping and refrigeration provides a number of energy-saving advantages over present vapor compression systems...

  19. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  20. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  1. Using the earth to heat and cool homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The types of earth- and water-coupled systems available are described. More information on the advantages and drawbacks of these systems is provided. A five-step, decision-making process that helps the consumer decide which system, if any, is most appropriate for his or her situation is also included. The systems used by several grantees from the US Department of Energy's Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program are described and some of the lessons they learned about this technology are highlighted. A resource list is provided that includes current literature on the technology, organizations that can provide more information, and what to look for when shopping for system equipment.

  2. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartmentTest for PumpingThe| Department ofAirTips: ShoppingWater Heating

  3. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

  4. The design and performance of a water cooling system for a prototype coupled cavity linear particle accelerator for the spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernardin, J. D. (John D.); Ammerman, C. N. (Curtt N.); Hopkins, S. M. (Steve M.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. The SNS will generate and employ neutrons as a research tool in a variety of disciplines including biology, material science, superconductivity, chemistry, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of, in part, a multi-cell copper structure termed a coupled cavity linac (CCL). The CCL is responsible for accelerating the protons from an energy of 87 MeV, to 185 MeV. Acceleration of the charged protons is achieved by the use of large electrical field gradients established within specially designed contoured cavities of the CCL. While a large amount of the electrical energy is used to accelerate the protons, approximately 60-80% of this electrical energy is dissipated in the CCL's copper structure. To maintain an acceptable operating temperature, as well as minimize thermal stresses and maintain desired contours of the accelerator cavities, the electrical waste heat must be removed from the CCL structure. This is done using specially designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by a complex water cooling and temperature control system. This paper discusses the design, analysis, and testing of a water cooling system for a prototype CCL. First, the design concept and method of water temperature control is discussed. Second, the layout of the prototype water cooling system, including the selection of plumbing components, instrumentation, as well as controller hardware and software is presented. Next, the development of a numerical network model used to size the pump, heat exchanger, and plumbing equipment, is discussed. Finally, empirical pressure, flow rate, and temperature data from the prototype CCL water cooling tests are used to assess water cooling system performance and numerical modeling accuracy.

  5. Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building Na Zhu*, Yu Lei, Pingfang Hu, Linghong Xu, Zhangning Jiang Department of Building Environment and Equipment Engineering... heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage technology could save energy and shift peak load. This paper studied the optimal design of a ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change thermal storage tank in an office...

  6. Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait...

  7. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  8. CORQUENCH: A model for gas sparging-enhanced, melt-water, film-boiling heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In evaluation of severe-accident sequences for water-cooled nuclear reactors, molten core materials may be postulated to be released into the containment and accumulate on concrete. The heatup and decomposition of concrete is accompanied by the release of water vapor and carbon dioxide gases. Gases flowing through the melt upper surface can influence the rates of heat transfer to water overlying the melt. In particular, the gas flow through the interface can be envisioned to enhance the heat removal from the melt. A mechanistic model (CORQUENCH) has been developed to describe film-boiling heat transfer between a molten pool and an overlying coolant layer in the presence of sparging gas. The model favorably predicts the lead-Feron 11 data of Greene and Greene et al. for which the calculations indicate that area enhancement in the conduction heat transfer across the film is the predominant mechanism leading to augmentation in the heat flux as the gas velocity increases. Predictions for oxidic corium indicate a rapid increase in film-boiling heat flux as the gas velocity rises. The predominant mode of heat transfer for this case is radiation, and the increase in heat flux with gas velocity is primarily a result of interfacial area enhancement of the radiation component of the overall heat transfer coefficient. The CORQUENCH model has been incorporated into the MELTSPREAD-1 computer code{sup 6} for the analysis of transient spreading in containments.

  9. Hydronic rooftop cooling systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA); Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA)

    2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

  10. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  11. The Use of Water Cooling during the Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    The Use of Water Cooling during the Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys J. SENGUPTA, B of aluminum alloy ingots, water is used to cool the mold in the initial stages of solidification between 50 and 300 mm for steel, and up to 500 to 750 mm for aluminum alloys), thin slabs (thickness

  12. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP characterization provided data to assess the CHP potential of the Nexa and validate the model used ambient temperature. #12;iv To improve performance as a CHP heat engine, the Nexa and other air-cooled PEM

  13. Improving Heating System Operations Using Water Re-Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, F.; Han, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to solve the imbalance problem of a heating system, brought about by consumer demand and regulation, and save the electricity energy consumed by a circulation pump, a water mixing and pressure difference control heating system is proposed...

  14. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  15. Title and author(s) REMI/HEAT COOL A COMPUTER PROGRAMME FOR CALCULATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Hydraulic Model 5 2.1. The Energy Production 5 2.1.1. The Decay Heat 5 2.1.2. Metal-Water Reaction 5 2 of the cross section in the down- comer region. The energy production in the fuel is the decay heat, specified

  16. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  17. Decay Heat Removal in GEN IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Lap-Yan; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety goal of the current designs of advanced high-temperature thermal gas-cooled reactors (HTRs) is that no core meltdown would occur in a depressurization event with a combination of concurrent safety system failures. This study focused on the analysis of passive decay heat removal (DHR) in a GEN IV direct-cycle gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) which is based on the technology developments of the HTRs. Given the different criteria and design characteristics of the GFR, an approach different from that taken for the HTRs for passive DHR would have to be explored. Different design options based on maintaining core flow weremore »evaluated by performing transient analysis of a depressurization accident using the system code RELAP5-3D. The study also reviewed the conceptual design of autonomous systems for shutdown decay heat removal and recommends that future work in this area should be focused on the potential for Brayton cycle DHRs.« less

  18. Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effect from CO2 emission resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels in utility power plants and the use of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, which is currently thought to affect depletion of the ozone layer. The ban on fluorocarbon fluids has been...LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF WASTE HEAT OPERATED ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEMS FOR BUILDING HVAC APPLICATIONS V. Murugavel and R. Saravanan Refrigeration and Air conditioning Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University...

  19. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  20. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  1. Hyperfine spin qubits in irradiated malonic acid: heat-bath algorithmic cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel K. Park; Guanru Feng; Robabeh Rahimi; Stephane Labruyere; Taiki Shibata; Shigeaki Nakazawa; Kazunobu Sato; Takeji Takui; Raymond Laflamme; Jonathan Baugh

    2015-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to perform quantum error correction is a significant hurdle for scalable quantum information processing. A key requirement for multiple-round quantum error correction is the ability to dynamically extract entropy from ancilla qubits. Heat-bath algorithmic cooling is a method that uses quantum logic operations to move entropy from one subsystem to another, and permits cooling of a spin qubit below the closed system (Shannon) bound. Gamma-irradiated, $^{13}$C-labeled malonic acid provides up to 5 spin qubits: 1 spin-half electron and 4 spin-half nuclei. The nuclei are strongly hyperfine coupled to the electron and can be controlled either by exploiting the anisotropic part of the hyperfine interaction or by using pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) techniques. The electron connects the nuclei to a heat-bath with a much colder effective temperature determined by the electron's thermal spin polarization. By accurately determining the full spin Hamiltonian and performing realistic algorithmic simulations, we show that an experimental demonstration of heat-bath algorithmic cooling beyond the Shannon bound is feasible in both 3-qubit and 5-qubit variants of this spin system. Similar techniques could be useful for polarizing nuclei in molecular or crystalline systems that allow for non-equilibrium optical polarization of the electron spin.

  2. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, J.D.; Culling, J.R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  3. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Difference Across the Heater and Water Flow Rate MeasuredDifference Across the Heater and Water Flow Rate Measurednew_specs/downloads/water _heaters/Water_Heater_Market_

  4. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems, will take place on January 21, 2015.

  5. Non-Residential Solar Water Heating Site Assessment at Milwaukee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Non-Residential Solar Water Heating Site Assessment at Milwaukee Apartment Buildings The Midwest Renewable Energy Association's certified site assessors conducted 25 site...

  6. Duquesne Light Company- Residential Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Duquesne Light provides rebates to its residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a flat rebate of $286 per qualifying...

  7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ROADMAP FOR WATER HEATING TECHNOLOGIES

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Navigant Consulting, Inc. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ROADMAP FOR WATER HEATING TECHNOLOGIES Prepared for: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Subcontract Number 4000093134...

  8. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

  9. Fort Pierce Utilities Authority- Solar Water Heating Rebate (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Fort Pierce Utilities Authority has suspended the Solar Water Heating rebate program until 2013. Contact the utility for more information on these offerings.'''''

  10. Frictional heating and convective cooling of polycrystalline diamond drag tools during rock cutting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortega, A.; Glowka, D.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical-analytical model is developed to predict temperatures in stud-mounted polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag tools during rock cutting. Experimental measurements of the convective heat transfer coefficient for PDC cutters are used in the model to predict temperatures under typical drilling conditions with fluid flow. The analysis compares favorably with measurements of frictional temperatures in controlled cutting tests on Tennessee marble. It is shown that mean cutter wearflat temperatures can be maintained below the critical value of 750{sup 0}C only under conditions of low friction at the cutter/rock interface. This is true, regardless of the level of convective cooling. In fact, a cooling limit is established above which increases in convective cooling do not further reduce cutter temperatures. The ability of liquid drilling fluids to reduce interface friction is thus shown to be far more important in preventing excessive temperatures than their ability to provide cutter cooling. Due to the relatively high interface friction developed under typical air drilling conditions, it is doubtful that temperatures can be kept subcritical at high rotary speeds in some formations when air is employed as the drilling fluid, regardless of the level of cooling achieved.

  11. Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was conducted to improve the performance and minimize the cost of existing water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks for electric utility and on-site applications. The goals for the electric utility stack technology were a power density of at least 175 watts per square foot over a 40,000-hour useful life and a projected one-of-a-kind, full-scale manufactured cost of less than $400 per kilowatt. The program adapted the existing on-site Configuration-B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduced additional new design features. Task 1 consisted of the conceptual design of a full-scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. The conceptual design was updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments in Tasks 2 and 3, as well as results of stack tests conducted in Task 6. Tasks 2 and 3 developed the materials and processes required to fabricate the components that meet the program objectives. The design of the small area and 10-ft{sup 2} stacks was conducted in Task 4. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks were conducted in Task 5 and subsequent tests were conducted in Task 6. The management and reporting functions of Task 7 provided DOE/METC with program visibility through required documentation and program reviews. This report describes the cell design and development effort that was conducted to demonstrate, by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

  12. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

    1983-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  13. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Promoting Combined Heat and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    residential applications the heat can be used for domestic hot water, space heating, absorption cooling, or dehumidifying at the building where it is produced. CHP systems consist...

  14. Keywordscondensation tube, surface modification, waste heat and condensation water recovery system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    Keywordscondensation tube, surface modification, waste heat and condensation water recovery techniques is waste heat and condensation water recovery system. Waste heat and condensation water recovery system is one of the most important facilities in power plants. High efficiency waste heat

  15. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armitage, D.M.; Bacon, D.J.; Massey-Norton, J.T.; Miller, J.D.

    1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  16. Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

  17. Experimental evaluation of dry/wet air-cooled heat exchangers. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Gruel, R.L.; Huenefeld, J.C.; Eschbach, E.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Kreid, D.K.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate goal of this project was to contribute to the development of improved cooling facilities for power plants. Specifically, the objective during FY-81 was to experimentally determine the thermal performance and operating characteristics of an air-cooled heat exchanger surface manufactured by the Unifin Company. The performance of the spiral-wound finned tube surface (Unifin) was compared with two inherently different platefin surfaces (one developed by the Trane Co. and the other developed by the HOETERV Institute) which were previously tested as a part of the same continuing program. Under dry operation the heat transfer per unit frontal area per unit inlet temperature difference (ITD) of the Unifin surface was 10% to 20% below that of the other two surfaces at low fan power levels. At high fan power levels, the performances of the Unifin and Trane surfaces were essentially the same, and 25% higher than the HOETERV surface. The design of the Unifin surface caused a significantly larger air-side pressure drop through the heat exchanger both in dry and deluge operation. Generally higher overall heat transfer coefficients were calculated for the Unifin surface under deluged operation. They ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F as compared to less than 2.0 Btu hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F for the Trane and HOETERV surfaces under similar conditions. The heat transfer enhancement due to the evaporative cooling effect was also measureably higher with the Unifin surface as compared to the Trane surface. This can be primarily attributed to the better wetting characteristics of the Unifin surface. If the thermal performance of the surfaces are compared at equal face velocities, the Unifin surface is as much as 35% better. This method of comparison accounts for the wetting characteristics while neglecting the effect of pressure drop. Alternatively the surfaces when compared at equal pressure drop essentially the same thermal performance.

  18. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Fields, Paul R. (Chicago, IL)

    1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  19. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by DOE's Building America program, this webinar will focus on the effective use of central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) and control systems to reduce the energy use in hot water distribution.

  20. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to 4:30PM EST This free webinar will focus on the effective use of central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) and control systems to reduce the energy use in hot water...

  1. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of water cooling systems for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of water cooling systems for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

  2. Proposal to negotiate two contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply and upgrade of cooling water pumps for the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal to negotiate two contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply and upgrade of cooling water pumps for the LHC

  3. 1 CO2 Heat Pump System for Space Heating and Hot Water Heating in Low-Energy Houses and Passive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designed as a stand-alone system, i.e. a heat pump water heater in combination with a separate unit for

  4. Empirical Modeling of a Rolling-Piston Compressor Heat Pump for Predictive Control in Low-Lift Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gayeski, Nicholas

    Inverter-driven variable-capacity air conditioners, heat pumps, and chillers can provide energy-efficient cooling, particularly at part-load capacity. Varying the capacity of vapor compression systems enables operation at ...

  5. Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

    2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

  6. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stovall, Therese K. (Knoxville, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt. % a phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably "fully charged". In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboard that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degree. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort.

  7. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt.% phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably ``fully charged``. In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboards that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degrees. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort. 7 figs.

  8. Two Stage Vapor Compression Heat Pump with Solution Circuits: Catering to Simultaneous Chilling and Water Heating Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rane, M. V.; Radermacher, R.

    results indicate that the two stage VCHSC can achiev~ cooling coefficient of performances as high as 1.04 while pumping heat through a lift of 194?F (10S0C). Comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired... conditioning and hot water for various uses will be assessed. comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired furnace (option 2). The basis for comparison being: a) the total primary energy usage, b) the cost...

  9. Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darby, D. F.

    for three 7-ton rod holding furnaces, and a 3500 ACFM air compressor. 104 1--~---------+--;I:---1'--.TOROD 'URNACES AND AIR L:......:~--f-----T"--'1'4'---I--COMPRISSOR flGURI NO ? The cold well pump P2 is started and stopped manually. The hot well... or rust inhibitors were to be added. There were several instances of foaming until anti-foaming agents were introduced to the system. Glycol should be purchased with anti-foaming agents and rust inhibitors already mixed in. 3. The system strainers...

  10. Passive solar heating and natural cooling of an earth-integrated design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is being designed with innovative features that will greatly reduce its energy consumption for heating, cooling, and lighting. A reference design has been studied and the effects of extending the overhang during summer and fall, varying glazing area, employing RIB, and reducing internal heat by natural lighting have been considered. The use of RIB and the extendable overhang increases the optimum window glazing area and the solar heating fraction. A mass-storage wall which will likely be included in the final design has also been considered. A figure of merit for commercial buildings is the total annual energy consumption per unit area of floor space. A highly efficient office building in the Oak Ridge area typically uses 120 to 160 kWhr/m/sup 2/. The Joint Institute reference design with natural lighting, an annual average heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) equal to 1.8, RIB, and the extendable overhang uses 71 kWhr/m/sup 2/. This figure was determined from NBSLD simulations corrected for the saving from RIB. The internal heat energy from lighting and equipment used in the simulation was 1653 kWhrs/month (high natural lighting case) which is much lower than conventional office buildings. This value was adopted because only a portion of the building will be used as office space and efforts will be made to keep internal heat generation low. The mass-storage wall and ambient air cooling will reduce energy consumption still further. The combined savings of the innovative features in the Joint Institute building are expected to result in a very energy efficient design. The building will be instrumented to monitor its performance and the measured data will provide a means of evaluating the energy-saving features. The efficiency of the design will be experimentally verified over the next several years.

  11. Experimental validation of advanced regulations for superconducting magnet cooling undergoing periodic heat loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Hoa, C.; Bonnay, P. [CEA Grenoble INAC/SBT, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting magnets used in tokamaks undergo periodic heat load caused by cycling plasma operations inducing AC losses, neutrons fluxes and eddy currents in magnet structures. In the cryogenic system of JT60-SA tokamak, the Auxiliary Cold Box (ACB) distributes helium from the refrigerator to the cryogenic users and in particular to the superconducting magnets. ACB comprises a saturated helium bath with immersed heat exchangers, extracting heat from independent cooling loops. The supercritical helium flow in each cooling loop is driven by a cold circulator. In order to safely operate the refrigerator during plasma pulses, the interface between the ACB and the refrigerator shall be as stable as possible, with well-balanced bath inlet and outlet mass flows during cycling operation. The solution presented in this paper relies on a combination of regulations to smooth pulsed heat loads and to keep a constant refrigeration power during all the cycle. Two smoothing strategies are presented, both regulating the outlet mass flow of the bath: the first one using the bath as a thermal buffer and the second one storing energy in the loop by varying the cold circulator speed. The bath outlet mass flow is also controlled by an immersed resistive heater which enables a constant evaporation rate in the bath when power coming from the loops is decreasing. The refrigeration power is controlled so that the compensating power remains within an acceptable margin. Experimental validation is achieved using the HELIOS facility. This facility running at CEA Grenoble since 2010 is a scaled down model of the ACB bath and Central Solenoid magnet cooling loop of the JT60-SA tokamak. Test results show performances and robustness of the regulations.

  12. Research and Development Roadmap for Water Heating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Gagne, Claire [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Lutz, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although water heating is an important energy end-use in residential and commercial buildings, efficiency improvements in recent years have been relatively modest. However, significant advancements related to higher efficiency equipment, as well as improved distribution systems, are now viable. DOE support for water heating research, development and demonstration (RD&D) could provide the impetus for commercialization of these advancements.

  13. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  14. Impact of urban heat island on cooling and environment: A demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landscaping has been shown in simulation and field studies to reduce building cooling loads by affecting microclimatic factors such as solar radiation, wind speed and air temperature. A demonstration project was undertaken to determine the magnitude of landscape induced changes in microclimate on building cooling loads and water use on four typical residences in Phoenix, Arizona. The energy use and microclimate of three unlandscaped (bare soil, rock mulch) and one landscaped (turf) home were monitored during summer 1990. In the fall, turf was placed around one of the unlandscaped houses, and shade trees planted on the west and south sides of another. Measurements continued during the summer of 1991. Total house air conditioning and selected appliance electrical data were collected, as well as inside and outside air temperatures. Detailed microclimate measurements were obtained for one to two week periods during both summers. Maximum reductions of hourly outside air temperatures of 1 to 1.5{degrees}C, and of daily average air temperatures of up to 1{degrees}C, resulted from the addition of turf landscaping. Addition of small trees to the south and west sides of another treatment did not have a noticeable effect on air temperature. Cooling load reductions of 10% to 17% were observed between years when well-watered turf landscaping was added to a house previously surrounded by bare soil. Addition of small trees to another bare landscape did not produce a detectable change in cooling load. The results of the study are used as input to a standard building energy use simulation model to predict landscape effects on cooling load and water usage for three typical houses, and to develop guidelines for use of energy efficient residential landscapes in Phoenix, Arizona.

  15. Understanding the Role Water-cooling Plays during Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    Understanding the Role Water-cooling Plays during Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys J the mold and solidifying metal during the continuous casting of steel and aluminum alloys for the control of cooling in casting processes for both steel and aluminum alloys are evaluated. Introduction

  16. argentinean water cooled: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    savings 0.3 to 0.6 k... Hoffman, W. 2011-01-01 98 Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance- Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants all Have A Resource Quietly...

  17. Energy Efficient Design of a Waste Heat Rejection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.

    In small and medium sized manufacturing facilities, several situations exist where sources of waste heat and sinks needing heat transfer coexist. Examples of waste heat include but are not limited to: drained hot water streams from water cooled...

  18. Methodology for Calculating Cooling and Heating Energy-Imput-Ratio (EIR) From the Rated Seasonal Performance Efficiency (SEER or HSPF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the simulations. For a simulation input, a SEER or a HSPF rating needs to be converted to COP95 (i.e., Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER)/3.412) or COP47, respectively, which is the steady-state efficiency at certain test conditions specified in the ANSI.../AHRI Standard 210/240-2008 (AHRI 2008). Issue 2: Fan Energy Removal • The system efficiency ratings currently available (i.e., SEER, EER, or HSPF) are based on net cooling or heating capacity (i.e., total cooling capacity less supply fan heat for cooling...

  19. Experimental Study of the Effect of Graphite Dispersion on the Heat Transfer Phenomena in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodolfo Vaghetto; Luigi Capone; Yassin A. Hassan

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental activity was performed to observe and study the effects of graphite dispersion and deposition on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The small-scale RCCS experimental facility (16.5 x 16.5 x 30.4 cm) used for this activity represents half of the reactor cavity with an electrically heated vessel. Water flowing through five vertical pipes removes the heat produced in the vessel and releases it into the environment by mixing with cold water in a large tank. The particle image velocimetry technique was used to study the velocity field of the air inside the cavity. A set of 52 thermocouples was installed in the facility to monitor the temperature profiles of the vessel, pipe walls, and air. Ten grams of a fine graphite powder (average particle size 2 m) was injected into the cavity through a spraying nozzle placed at the bottom of the vessel. The temperatures and air velocity field were recorded and compared with the measurements obtained before the graphite dispersion, showing a decrease of the temperature surfaces that was related to an increase in their emissivity. The results contribute to the understanding of RCCS capability in an accident scenario.

  20. Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

  1. Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

    2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

  2. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  3. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  4. Conservation of Energy Through The Use of a Predictive Performance Simulator of Operating Cooling Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schell, C. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemical treatment program for the prevention of corrosion, scale and deposit accumulations. Calgon has made available a computerized performance simulator of operating cooling water systems which reliably predicts system corrosion rates, percent scale...

  5. Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: To improve the efficiency and output variability of geothermal-based ORC power production systems with minimal water consumption by deploying: 1) a hybrid-water/air cooled condenser with low water consumption and 2) an enhanced turbine with high efficiency.

  6. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

  7. Evolution of the Loop-Top Source of Solar Flares--Heating and Cooling Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan Wei Jiang; Siming Liu; Wei Liu; Vahe Petrosian

    2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of the spatial and spectral evolution of the loop-top (LT) sources in a sample of 6 flares near the solar limb observed by {\\it RHESSI}. A distinct coronal source, which we identify as the LT source, was seen in each of these flares from the early ``pre-heating'' phase through the late decay phase. Spectral analyses reveal an evident steep power-law component in the pre-heating and impulsive phases, suggesting that the particle acceleration starts upon the onset of the flares. In the late decay phase the LT source has a thermal spectrum and appears to be confined within a small region near the top of the flare loop, and does not spread throughout the loop, as is observed at lower energies. The total energy of this source decreases usually faster than expected from the radiative cooling but much slower than that due to the classical Spitzer conductive cooling along the flare loop. These results indicate the presence of a distinct LT region, where the thermal conductivity is suppressed significantly and/or there is a continuous energy input. We suggest that plasma wave turbulence could play important roles in both heating the plasma and suppressing the conduction during the decay phase of solar flares. With a simple quasi-steady loop model we show that the energy input in the gradual phase can be comparable to that in the impulsive phase and demonstrate how the observed cooling and confinement of the LT source can be used to constrain the wave-particle interaction.

  8. Determining Optimal Equipment Capacities in Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVault, Robert C [ORNL; Hudson II, Carl Randy [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of potential cooling, heating and power (CHP) applications requires an assessment of the operations and economics of a particular system in meeting the electric and thermal demands of a specific end-use facility. A key determinate in whether a candidate system will be economic is the proper selection of equipment capacities. A methodology to determine the optimal capacities for CHP prime movers and absorption chillers using nonlinear optimization algorithms has been coded into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet tool that performs the capacity optimization and operations simulation. This paper presents details on the use and results of this publicly available tool.

  9. Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, K.T.

    2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

  10. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  11. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Simulation of a Smart Water Heater. ” In Workshop inFreezers, Furnaces, Water Heaters, Room and Central AirNovember. ADL. 1982b. Water Heater Computer Model User’s

  12. A spatially resolved study of photoelectric heating and [CII] cooling in the LMC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Rubin; S. Hony; S. C. Madden; A. G. G. M Tielens; M. Meixner; R. Indebetouw; W. Reach; A. Ginsburg; S. Kim; K. Mochizuki; B. Babler; M. Block; S. B Bracker; C. W. Engelbracht; B. -Q. For; K. Gordon; J. L. Hora; C. Leitherer; M. Meade; K. Misselt; M. Sewilo; U. Vijh; B. Whitney

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    (abridged) We study photoelectric heating throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud. We quantify the importance of the [CII] cooling line and the photoelectric heating process of various environments in the LMC and investigate which parameters control the extent of photoelectric heating. We use the BICE [CII] map and the Spitzer/SAGE infrared maps. We examine the spatial variations in the efficiency of photoelectric heating: photoelectric heating rate over power absorbed by grains. We correlate the photoelectric heating efficiency and the emission from various dust constituents and study the variations as a function of H\\alpha emission, dust temperatures, and the total infrared luminosity. From this we estimate radiation field, gas temperature, and electron density. We find systematic variations in photoelectric efficiency. The highest efficiencies are found in the diffuse medium, while the lowest coincide with bright star-forming regions (~1.4 times lower). The [CII] line emission constitutes 1.32% of the far infrared luminosity across the whole of the LMC. We find correlations between the [CII] emission and ratios of the mid infrared and far infrared bands, which comprise various dust constituents. The correlations are interpreted in light of the spatial variations of the dust abundance and by the local environmental conditions that affect the dust emission properties. As a function of the total infrared surface brightness, S_{TIR}, the [CII] surface brightness can be described as: S_{[CII]}=1.25 S_{TIR}^{0.69} [10^{-3} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} sr^{-1}]. The [CII] emission is well-correlation with the 8 micrometer emission, suggesting that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons play a dominant role in the photoelectric heating process.

  13. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  14. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  15. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  16. Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    it work? A geothermal heat pump uses the constant below ground temperature of soil or water to heat and cool your home. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes referred to as...

  17. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

  18. A simplified methodology for sizing ground coupled heat pump heat exchangers in cooling dominated climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Jose Antonio

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the end nodes as shown in Figure 4. 2. Tn + Tn + r 2 (4 6) The first law was then applied to each element during the on-cycle: mc(T +T~, i) ? hPdz(T. ? T ) =ply. (4. 7) T +T dt This said that the energy entering the element by advection minus... that the energy removed by the heat putnp, Q. , must equal the load on the home, Qc. The energy balance when the unit is on is given by: f Q ddt ? f g. dt = mC(T2 ? Ti) (4. 1 1) The right side of equation 4, 11 yields the energy removed from the home during...

  19. Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Plummer

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

  20. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  1. THE EFFECT OF AIR-COOLING HEAT TREATMENTS ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF Fe/4Cr/ 0.3C/2Mn ALLOY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabe, T.H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high temperature (1100°-1150°C) to dissolve carbide structures entirely and then quickly cooled (hot water

  2. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  3. An Improved Procedure for Developing a Calibrated Hourly Simulation Model of an Electrically Heated and Cooled Commercial Buildling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Saada, Tarek Edmond

    lighting, energy efficient heat pumps, a photovoltaic system, envelope measures, and a solar domestic water heating system. To accomplish this, a DOE-2 baseline model was calibrated to the measured hourly data and compared to a building model constructed...

  4. A Gas-Cooled-Reactor Closed-Brayton-Cycle Demonstration with Nuclear Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Dorsey, Daniel J.; Williamson, Joshua [Advanced Nuclear Concepts Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Peters, Curtis D.; Brown, Nicholas [Advanced Nuclear Concepts Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States); Jablonski, Jennifer [Advanced Nuclear Concepts Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Department of Education, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States)

    2005-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled reactor may be coupled directly to turbomachinery to form a closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) system in which the CBC working fluid serves as the reactor coolant. Such a system has the potential to be a very simple and robust space-reactor power system. Gas-cooled reactors have been built and operated in the past, but very few have been coupled directly to the turbomachinery in this fashion. In this paper we describe the option for testing such a system with a small reactor and turbomachinery at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia currently operates the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at steady-state powers up to 4 MW and has an adjacent facility with heavy shielding in which another reactor recently operated. Sandia also has a closed-Brayton-Cycle test bed with a converted commercial turbomachinery unit that is rated for up to 30 kWe of power. It is proposed to construct a small experimental gas-cooled reactor core and attach this via ducting to the CBC turbomachinery for cooling and electricity production. Calculations suggest that such a unit could produce about 20 kWe, which would be a good power level for initial surface power units on the Moon or Mars. The intent of this experiment is to demonstrate the stable start-up and operation of such a system. Of particular interest is the effect of a negative temperature power coefficient as the initially cold Brayton gas passes through the core during startup or power changes. Sandia's dynamic model for such a system would be compared with the performance data. This paper describes the neutronics, heat transfer, and cycle dynamics of this proposed system. Safety and radiation issues are presented. The views expressed in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect agreement by the government.

  5. A gas-cooled-reactor closed-Brayton-cycle demonstration with nuclear heating.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, Jennifer A.; Williamson, Joshua J.; Wright, Steven Alan; Dorsey, Daniel John; Brown, Nicholas; Peters, Curtis D.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled reactor may be coupled directly to turbomachinery to form a closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) system in which the CBC working fluid serves as the reactor coolant. Such a system has the potential to be a very simple and robust space-reactor power system. Gas-cooled reactors have been built and operated in the past, but very few have been coupled directly to the turbomachinery in this fashion. In this paper we describe the option for testing such a system with a small reactor and turbomachinery at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia currently operates the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at steady-state powers up to 4 MW and has an adjacent facility with heavy shielding in which another reactor recently operated. Sandia also has a closed-Brayton-Cycle test bed with a converted commercial turbomachinery unit that is rated for up to 30 kWe of power. It is proposed to construct a small experimental gas-cooled reactor core and attach this via ducting to the CBC turbomachinery for cooling and electricity production. Calculations suggest that such a unit could produce about 20 kWe, which would be a good power level for initial surface power units on the Moon or Mars. The intent of this experiment is to demonstrate the stable start-up and operation of such a system. Of particular interest is the effect of a negative temperature power coefficient as the initially cold Brayton gas passes through the core during startup or power changes. Sandia's dynamic model for such a system would be compared with the performance data. This paper describes the neutronics, heat transfer, and cycle dynamics of this proposed system. Safety and radiation issues are presented. The views expressed in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect agreement by the government.

  6. South River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South River Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) is providing rebates to encourage their customers to install solar water heating systems. To be eligible for the rebate solar collectors must have...

  7. Southwest Gas Corporation- Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southwest Gas is offering rebates to Nevada customers for solar water heating systems installed in private residential, small business, public and other properties. Rebates are based on the amount...

  8. Beaches Energy Services- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beaches Energy Services offers a solar water heating rebate to their residential customers. This $500 rebate applies to new systems which are properly installed and certified. New construction and...

  9. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

  10. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program (Idaho)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

  11. Lake Worth Utilities- Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Lake Worth Utilities (CLWU), in conjunction with Florida Municipal Power Agency, offers rebates to customers who purchase and install a solar water heating system for residential use. A...

  12. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

  13. GreyStone Power- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative serving 103,000 customers in Georgia, introduced a solar water heating rebate in March 2009. This $500 rebate is available to customers regardless of...

  14. Minnesota Power- Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings;...

  15. Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  16. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  17. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Idaho)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  18. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Oregon)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  19. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Washington)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  20. City of Palo Alto Utilities- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City of Palo Alto Utilities is offering incentives for their residential, commercial and industrial customers to install solar water heating systems on their homes and facilities with a goal of 1...

  1. Florida Sunshine -- Natural Source for Heating Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure, part of the State Energy Program (SEP) Stellar Project series, describes a utility solar hot water program in Lakeland, Florida. It is the first such utility-run solar hot water program in the country.

  2. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    directly replace the existing forced air furnace and water heater, and consist of a high efficiency water heater or boiler and an optimized hydronic air handler. The air handlers...

  3. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearning andDesign inImage of a heat

  4. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'i EstablishesChillerEast WingHeat

  5. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  6. Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production from cooking oil generation of biodiesel using waste cooking oil and algae oil. We consider 5 different technologies is to simultaneously optimize and heat integrate the production of biodiesel from each of the different oil sources

  7. Dawdon Mine Water Heat Pump Trial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;System re-built Replacement heat exchanger Y-strainer filter installed Flow meter installed ­ strainer filter had to be cleared every couple of days (see photo) System finally failed again in April

  8. The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

  9. The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

  10. Proposal for the award of a contract for maintenance work on heating, ventilating and cooling installation and on fluid distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for maintenance work on heating, ventilating and cooling installation and on fluid distribution systems

  11. Study of local heat/mass transfer distributions in multipass channels for turbine blade cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, P.R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat transfer and friction characteristics of turbulent air flow in a two-pass square channel were experimentally investigated via the naphthalene sublimation technique. The test section, which consists of two straight square channels joined by a sharp 180/sup 0/ turn, simulates the internal cooling passages of gas-turbine airfoils. The top and bottom surfaces of the test channel were roughened by rib turbulators. The effects of Reynolds number (between 10,000 and 60,000), rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e = 10 and 20), rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D = 0.063 and 0.094) and rib angle-of-attack (..cap alpha.. = 90/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/ and 45/sup 0/) were studied. The local heat transfer coefficients were measured both on the ribbed side walls and on the smooth side walls along the channel. The friction factors in the before-turn, in-turn, and after-turn regions were also calculated. Average Sherwood number ratios and average friction results were correlated and compared with the published heat transfer and pressure drop data.

  12. Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Timothy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy sources of cooling supply water and an aggressiveas the primary source of cooling supply water. The analysisthermal mass to the cooling supply water source, nighttime

  13. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  14. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  15. Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

  16. Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

  17. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  18. The Effect of Optimal Tuning of the Heating/Cooling Curve in AHU of HVAC System in Real Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper 81, ICEBO 2004 TNO Bouw, The Netherlands Page: 1 of 12 THE EFFECT OF OPTIMAL TUNING OF THE HEATING-/ COOLING CURVE IN AHU OF HVAC SYSTEM IN REAL PRACTISE P.A. (Bert) Elkhuizen(1), J.E. (Jan Ewout) Scholten(1), H.C. (Henk) Peitsman(1... to the settings of the heating/ cooling curve in the central Air Handling Unit?s (AHU?s) of HVAC systems without loss of comfort. In most cases the number of complaints will also be reduced. The method can be used in both new and existing buildings...

  19. The Effect of Optimal Tuning of the Heating/Cooling Curve in AHU of HVAC System in Real Practice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper 81, ICEBO 2004 TNO Bouw, The Netherlands Page: 1 of 12 THE EFFECT OF OPTIMAL TUNING OF THE HEATING-/ COOLING CURVE IN AHU OF HVAC SYSTEM IN REAL PRACTISE P.A. (Bert) Elkhuizen(1), J.E. (Jan Ewout) Scholten(1), H.C. (Henk) Peitsman(1... to the settings of the heating/ cooling curve in the central Air Handling Unit?s (AHU?s) of HVAC systems without loss of comfort. In most cases the number of complaints will also be reduced. The method can be used in both new and existing buildings...

  20. State-of-the-Art Review on Crystallization Control Technologies for water/LiBr Absorption Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Kisari, Padmaja [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The key technical barrier to using water/lithium bromide (LiBr) as the working fluid in aircooled absorption chillers and absorption heat-pump systems is the risk of crystallization when the absorber temperature rises at fixed evaporating pressure. This article reviews various crystallization control technologies available to resolve this problem: chemical inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement methods, thermodynamic cycle modifications, and absorption system-control strategies. Other approaches, such as boosting absorber pressure and J-tube technology, are reviewed as well. This review can help guide future efforts to develop water/LiBr air-cooled absorption chillers and absorption heatpump systems.