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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cab Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

Damman, Dennis

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Cooling by heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce the idea of actually cooling quantum systems by means of incoherent thermal light, hence giving rise to a counter-intuitive mechanism of "cooling by heating". In this effect, the mere incoherent occupation of a quantum mechanical mode serves as a trigger to enhance the coupling between other modes. This notion of effectively rendering states more coherent by driving with incoherent thermal quantum noise is applied here to the opto-mechanical setting, where this effect occurs most naturally. We discuss two ways of describing this situation, one of them making use of stochastic sampling of Gaussian quantum states with respect to stationary classical stochastic processes. The potential of experimentally demonstrating this counter-intuitive effect in opto-mechanical systems with present technology is sketched.

A. Mari; J. Eisert

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Nuclear reactor safety heat transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reviewed is a book which has 5 parts: Overview, Fundamental Concepts, Design Basis Accident-Light Water Reactors (LWRs), Design Basis Accident-Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs), and Special Topics. It combines a historical overview, textbook material, handbook information, and the editor's personal philosophy on safety of nuclear power plants. Topics include thermal-hydraulic considerations; transient response of LWRs and LMFBRs following initiating events; various accident scenarios; single- and two-phase flow; single- and two-phase heat transfer; nuclear systems safety modeling; startup and shutdown; transient response during normal and upset conditions; vapor explosions, natural convection cooling; blockages in LMFBR subassemblies; sodium boiling; and Three Mile Island.

Jones, O.C.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Heating and Cooling Equipment Selection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is one of a series of technology fact sheets created to help housing designers and builders adopt a whole-house design approach and energy efficient design practices. The fact sheet helps people choose the correct equipment for heating and cooling to reduce initial costs, increase homeowner comfort, increase operating efficiency, and greatly reduce utility costs.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Cooling Flows or Heating Flows?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is now clear that AGN heat cooling flows, largely by driving winds. The winds may contain a relativistic component that generates powerful synchrotron radiation, but it is not clear that all winds do so. The spatial and temporal stability of the AGN/cooling flow interaction are discussed. Collimation of the winds probably provides spatial stability. Temporal stability may be possible only for black holes with masses above a critical value. Both the failure of cooling flows to have adiabatic cores and the existence of X-ray cavities confirm the importance of collimated outflows. I quantify the scale of the convective flow that the AGN Hydra would need to drive if it balanced radiative inward flow by outward flow parallel to the jets. At least in Virgo any such flow must be confined to r<~20 kpc. Hydrodynamical simulations suggest that AGN outbursts cannot last longer than ~25 Myr. Data for four clusters with well studied X-ray cavities suggests that heating associated with cavity formation approximately balances radiative cooling. The role of cosmic infall and the mechanism of filament formation are briefly touched on.

James Binney

2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

8

Towards Occupancy-Driven Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Towards Occupancy-Driven Heating and Cooling Kamin Whitehouse, Juhi Ranjan, Jiakang Lu, Tamim Burke Parabola Architects Galen Staengl Staengl Engineering h HEATING, VENTILATION, AND cooling (HVAC required for heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) by 20%­30% by tailoring the conditioning of buildings

Whitehouse, Kamin

9

HEATING AND COOLING PROTOSTELLAR DISKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using three-dimensional radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magnetorotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers are heated by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations in the fields move the starlight-absorbing surface up and down. The height ranges between 13% and 24% of the radius over timescales of several orbits, with implications for infrared variability. The fields are buoyant, so the accretion heating occurs higher in the atmosphere than the stresses. The heating is localized around current sheets, caused by magnetorotational instability at lower elevations and by Parker instability at higher elevations. Gas in the sheets is heated above the stellar irradiation temperature, even though accretion is much less than irradiation power when volume averaged. The hot optically thin current sheets might be detectable through their line emission.

Hirose, S. [Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Turner, N. J., E-mail: shirose@jamstec.go.jp, E-mail: neal.turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

10

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

11

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Cooling and Clusters: When Is Heating Needed?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are (at least) two unsolved problems concerning the current state of the thermal gas in clusters of galaxies. The first is identifying the source of the heating which offsets cooling in the centers of clusters with short cooling times (the ``cooling flow'' problem). The second is understanding the mechanism which boosts the entropy in cluster and group gas. Since both of these problems involve an unknown source of heating it is tempting to identify them with the same process, particular since AGN heating is observed to be operating at some level in a sample of well-observed ``cooling flow'' clusters. Here we show, using numerical simulations of cluster formation, that much of the gas ending up in clusters cools at high redshift and so the heating is also needed at high-redshift, well before the cluster forms. This indicates that the same process operating to solve the cooling flow problem may not also resolve the cluster entropy problem.

Greg L. Bryan; G. Mark Voit

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

13

Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment, August 2003 Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment, August 2003 Industrial applications of CHP...

14

Cooling, Heating, and Power for Commercial Buildings - Benefits...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling, Heating, and Power for Commercial Buildings - Benefits Analysis, April 2002 Cooling, Heating, and Power for Commercial Buildings - Benefits Analysis, April 2002 In this...

15

Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices 2012 DOE...

16

An analysis of electrothermodynamic heating and cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Bhattacharyya, et al. 1995; Rowe 1995; Goodfellow 1994). First, the results for a positive J when heat is absorbed at the interface, i. e. , when the interface cools (initially), is reported. An examination of various product catalogs (for example, Melcor...

Honea, Mark Stephen

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

Burdick, A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

ANDREWS,J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Right-Size Heating and Cooling Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is one of a series of technology fact sheets created to help housing designers and builders adopt a whole-house design approach and energy efficient design practices. The fact sheet helps people choose the correct equipment size for heating and cooling to improve comfort and reduce costs, maintenance, and energy use.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

22

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Jones-Onslow EMC- Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Jones-Onslow Electric Membership Corporation offers rebates to residential members who install energy efficient heating and cooling equipment. Members can replace an existing central AC or heat...

24

A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating the Market for Home Heating and Cooling EquipmentFuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling," LBLTHE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT* David

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Heating Cooling Flows with Weak Shock Waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The discovery of extended, approximately spherical weak shock waves in the hot intercluster gas in Perseus and Virgo has precipitated the notion that these waves may be the primary heating process that explains why so little gas cools to low temperatures. This type of heating has received additional support from recent gasdynamical models. We show here that outward propagating, dissipating waves deposit most of their energy near the center of the cluster atmosphere. Consequently, if the gas is heated by (intermittent) weak shocks for several Gyrs, the gas within 30-50 kpc is heated to temperatures that far exceed observed values. This heating can be avoided if dissipating shocks are sufficiently infrequent or weak so as not to be the primary source of global heating. Local PV and viscous heating associated with newly formed X-ray cavities are likely to be small, which is consistent with the low gas temperatures generally observed near the centers of groups and clusters where the cavities are located.

W. G. Mathews; A. Faltenbacher; F. Brighenti

2005-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

26

Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

27

Modelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Paul Byrne1 *, Jacques-012-0089-0 #12;1. ABSTRACT The heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) carries out space heating to a standard reversible heat pump (HP). The air evaporator is defrosted by a two-phase thermosiphon without

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Solar heating and cooling diode module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high efficiency solar heating system comprising a plurality of hollow modular units each for receiving a thermal storage mass, the units being arranged in stacked relation in the exterior frame of a building, each of the units including a port for filling the unit with the mass, a collector region and a storage region, each region having inner and outer walls, the outer wall of the collector region being oriented for exposure to sunlight for heating the thermal storage mass; the storage region having an opening therein and the collector region having a corresponding opening, the openings being joined for communicating the thermal storage mass between the storage and collector regions by thermosiphoning; the collector region being disposed substantially below and in parallel relation to the storage region in the modular unit; and the inner wall of the collector region of each successive modular unit in the stacked relation extending over the outer wall of the storage region of the next lower modular unit in the stacked relation for reducing heat loss from the system. Various modifications and alternatives are disclosed for both heating and cooling applications.

Maloney, Timothy J. (Winchester, VA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Heat Transfer and Cooling Techniques at Low Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The first part of this chapter gives an introduction to heat transfer and cooling techniques at low temperature. We review the fundamental laws of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) and give useful data specific to cryogenic conditions (thermal contact resistance, total emissivity of materials and heat transfer correlation in forced or boiling flow for example) used in the design of cooling systems. In the second part, we review the main cooling techniques at low temperature, with or without cryogen, from the simplest ones (bath cooling) to the ones involving the use of cryocoolers without forgetting the cooling flow techniques.

Baudouy, B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Cedarville...

31

ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Cooling, Heating, and Power...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

United States Government or any agency thereof. Abstract Investigators analyzed the energy consumption and end-user economics of Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) systems in...

32

Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

Wiltsee, G.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Simulation study of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling coupled to buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulation study of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling coupled to buildings Redouane) 141-149" DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.12.047 #12;ABSTRACT In several situations, a heat pump occur. Unlike a reversible heat pump that works alternatively in heating or cooling, a HPS operates

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

THERMOFLUID OPTIMIZATION OF A HEATED HELICOPTER ENGINE COOLING BAY SURFACE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effectiveness of an aircraft de-icing strategy by re-designing the cooling bay surface shape. The design of a helicopter cooling bay can be ice prone under certain atmospheric conditions. Its effective shape design1 THERMOFLUID OPTIMIZATION OF A HEATED HELICOPTER ENGINE COOLING BAY SURFACE D. Wang 1 , G. F

Wang, Gaofeng Gary

35

Heat pipe cooling for scramjet engines. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced.

Silverstein, C.C.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions between the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power and power density can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper will introduce the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options will be discussed, depending on the cooling pipe locations. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations will be presented.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling D.J. Wood,AND TECHNOLOGY CHOICE IN HOME HEATING AND COOLING* David J.nology choices in home heating and cooling is presented. We

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Cooling by heating in the quantum optics domain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A class of Hamiltonians that are experimentally feasible in several contexts within quantum optics and lead to so-called cooling by heating for fermionic as well as for bosonic systems has been analyzed numerically. We have found a large range of parameters for which cooling by heating can be observed either for the fermionic system alone or for the combined fermionic and bosonic systems. Analyzing the experimental requirements, we conclude that cooling by heating is achievable with present-day technology, especially in the context of trapped-ion and cavity QED, thus contributing to the understanding of this interesting and counterintuitive effect.

D. Z. Rossatto; A. R. de Almeida; T. Werlang; C. J. Villas-Boas; N. G. de Almeida

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Preliminary Analysis of a Solar Heat Pump System with Seasonal Storage for Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and cooling were set up, which is responsible for the space heating and cooling and domestic hot water for a residential block. Through hourly simulation, the performance and the economics of such systems were analyzed, for the different tank volumes...

Yu, G.; Chen, P.; Dalenback, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Surface cooling of scramjet engine inlets using heat pipe, transpiration, and film cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports the results of applying a finite-difference-based computational technique to the problem of predicting the transient thermal behavior of a scramjet engine inlet exposed to a typical hypersonic flight aerodynamic surface heating environment, including type IV shock interference heating. The leading-edge cooling model utilized incorporates liquid metal heat pipe cooling with surface transpiration and film cooling. Results include transient structural temperature distributions, aerodynamic heat inputs, and surface coolant distributions. It seems that these cooling techniques may be used to hold maximum skin temperatures to near acceptable values during the severe aerodynamic and type IV shock interference heating effects expected on the leading edge of a hypersonic aerospace vehicle scramjet engine. 15 refs.

Modlin, J.M.; Colwell, G.T. (U.S. Army, Strategic Defense Command, Huntsville, AL (United States) Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

models: aggregated by SMSA market share central cooling all gas space heat all oilmodels: aggregated by regions market share central cooling all gas space heat all oil

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indus- trial process heat, and solar. heating and coolingSolar Energy for Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat (and heat transfer processes which are appropriate to passive solar

Authors, Various

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump Systems and Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump use of buildings Gas Heat Pump Solution #12;Gas Heat Pump - deserves special attention due to its source in addition to the outside air ·A further essential component of Gas Heat Pump air conditioning

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

45

Evaluation of proposed German safety criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work reviews proposed safety criteria prepared by the German Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) for future licensing of gas-cooled high-temperature reactor (HTR) concepts in the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparison is made with US General Design Criteria (GDCs) in 10CFR50 Appendix A and with German light water reactor (LWR) criteria. Implications for the HTR design relative to the US design and safety approach are indicated. Both inherent characteristics and design features of the steam cycle, gas turbine, and process heat concepts are taken into account as well as generic design options such as a pebble bed or prismatic core.

Barsell, A.W.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Policymakers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling (Revised) (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides an overview of the NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebook for Heating and Cooling with information directing people to the Web site for more in-depth information.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Title 8 of Maryland’s property tax code includes a state-wide special assessment for solar and geothermal heating and cooling systems. Under this provision, such systems are to be assessed at not...

48

THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

(and-eventually, spray ponds) that are proposed to be used as ultimate heat sinks in nuclear power plant emergency core cooling systems. The need is derived from the concern...

49

Covered Product Category: Light Commercial Heating and Cooling  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal purchases of light commercial heating and cooling equipment must be ENERGY STAR®–qualified. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. This product overview explains how to meet energy-efficiency requirements for Federal purchases of light commercial heating and cooling equipment and how to maximize energy savings throughout products' useful lives.

50

Heat transfer and film cooling with steam injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for both coolants was determined for similar blowing rates and was used as a basis for comparisons. Heat transfer coefficients were calcula- ted from the experimental data using a transient analysis. DEDICATION To my wife and family. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... LIST OF TABLES PAGE TABLE 1 Variation in the Blowing Rate ------------ 55 TABLE 2 TABLE 3 Typical Air Film Cooling Effectiveness Data Typical Steam Film Cooling Effectiveness Data 62 62 1X LIST OF FIGURES PAGE Figure 1 Comparison of Heat...

Conklin, Gary Eugene

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Materials Reliability Program: Development of a New Process for Calculating RPV Heat-Up and Cool-Down Curves - Proof of Concept  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A strategy and framework were developed for incorporating best-estimate, fracture toughness models and methodologies into procedures for fracture safety assessment of nuclear RPVs during normal heat-up and cool-down operations. The process included detailed process flow diagramming to identify all details of the current process for obtaining heat-up and cool-down curves.

M. EricksonKirk

2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

The heating of the cooling flow (The feedback effervescent heating model)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The standard cooling flow model has predicted a large amount of cool gas in the clusters of galaxies. The failure of the Chandra and XXM-Newton telescopes to detect cooling gas (below 1-2 keV) in clusters of galaxies has suggested that some heating process must work to suppress the cooling. The most likely heating source is the heating by AGNs. There are many heating mechanisms, but we will adopt the effervescent heating model which is a result of the interaction of the bubbles inflated by AGN with the intra-cluster medium(ICM). Using the FLASH code, we have carried out time dependent simulations to investigate the effect of the heating on the suppression of the cooling in cooling flow clusters. We have found that the effervescent heating model can not balance the radiative cooling and it is an artificial model. Furthermore, the effervescent heating is a function of the ICM pressure gradient but the cooling is proportional to the gas density square and square root of the gas temperature.

Nasser Mohamed Ahmed

2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

53

Optimization of a transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle for simultaneous cooling and heating applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of a transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle for simultaneous cooling and heating of a transcritical carbon dioxide heat pump system are presented in this article. A computer code has been developed conditions. q 2004 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved. Keywords: Optimization; Heat pump; Carbon

Bahrami, Majid

54

A simplified methodology for sizing ground coupled heat pump heat exchangers in cooling dominated climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between GSIM and two commercially available heat exchanger sizing methods, the National Water Well Association (NWWA) and the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA) methods, was performed. GSIM heat exchanger lengths for Dallas were... Pump Capacity and Cooling Load. . . . . Oversizing and Undersizing the Heat Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary. . 72 74 76 78 80 82 85 87 90 92 IX COMPARISON OF HEAT EXCHANGER SIZING METHODS . . 93 International Ground Source Heat...

Gonzalez, Jose Antonio

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Magnetars as cooling neutron stars with internal heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study thermal structure and evolution of magnetars as cooling neutron stars with a phenomenological heat source in a spherical internal layer. We explore the location of this layer as well as the heating rate that could explain high observable thermal luminosities of magnetars and would be consistent with the energy budget of neutron stars. We conclude that the heat source should be located in an outer magnetar's crust, at densities rho heat intensity of the order of 1e20 erg/s/cm^3. Otherwise the heat energy is mainly emitted by neutrinos and cannot warm up the surface.

A. D. Kaminker; D. G. Yakovlev; A. Y. Potekhin; N. Shibazaki; P. S. Shternin; O. Y. Gnedin

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

56

Economic Analysis of Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, toaster, washer, dryer, etc. are relatively minor compared to these two "energy gulpers". Reducing air conditioning and hot water heating costs are therefore the two items on which homeowners should concentrate....

Wagers, H. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Bartholomew Heating and Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation,and Cooling Jump to:

58

Investigation of a radiantly heated and cooled office with an integrated desiccant ventilation unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiant heating and cooling has a reputation of increasing the comfort level and reducing the energy consumption of buildings. The main advantages of radiant heating and cooling are low operational noise and reduced fan power cost. Radiant heating...

Gong, Xiangyang

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Heating and cooling in the Perseus cluster core  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is well known that the radiative cooling time of the hot X-ray emitting gas in the cores of most clusters of galaxies is less than 10^10 yr. In many clusters the gas temperature also drops towards the centre. If we draw a causal connection between these two properties then we infer the presence of a cooling flow onto the central galaxy. High spectral resolution XMM-Newton data and high spatial resolution Chandra data, show however a lack of X-ray emitting gas below about one third of the cluster virial temperature. The explanation is that some form of heating balances cooling. The smoothness and similarity of the cooling time profiles and the flatness of the required heating profiles all indicate that we must seek a relatively gentle, quasi-continuous (on timescales heat source. The likely such source is the central black hole and its powerful jets which create bubble-like cavities in the inner hot gas. We briefly review the general heating and cooling statistics in an X-ray bright sample of cluster before we discuss the detailed situation in the Perseus cluster, the X-ray brightest cluster in the Sky.

A. C. Fabian; J. S. Sanders

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Mpemba effect, Newton cooling law and heat transfer equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we suggest a simple theoretical solution of the Mpemba effect in full agreement with known experimental data. This solution follows simply as an especial approximation (linearization) of the usual heat (transfer) equation, precisely linearization of the second derivation of the space part of the temperature function (as it is well-known Newton cooling law can be considered as the effective approximation of the heat (transfer) equation for constant space part of the temperature function).

Vladan Pankovic; Darko V. Kapor

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

62

Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEAT RECOVERY FROM ARC FURNACES USING WATER COOLED PANELS D. F. Darby Deere & Company Moline, Illinois ABSTRACT In 1980-81, the John Deere Foundry at East Moline underwent an expansion program that in creased its capacity by over 60...%. This expansion was centered around the melt department where the four existing 13MVA electric arc furnaces were augmented with two additional 13MVA arc furnaces. A waste heat recovery system was installed on all six of the arc furnaces which, with modifica...

Darby, D. F.

63

Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatusButler Tina Butler Tina-Butler.jpg Tina L.Ducts Tips:Heat

64

Heating & Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOfCoal_Budget_Fact_Sheet.pdf More DocumentsAtA revolutionaryHeating

65

Underground Mine Water Heating and Cooling Using Geothermal Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In many regions of the world, flooded mines are a potentially cost-effective option for heating and cooling using geothermal heat pump systems. For example, a single coal seam in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio contains 5.1 x 1012 L of water. The growing volume of water discharging from this one coal seam totals 380,000 L/min, which could theoretically heat and cool 20,000 homes. Using the water stored in the mines would conservatively extend this option to an order of magnitude more sites. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce annual costs for heating by 67% and cooling by 50% over conventional methods (natural gas or heating oil and standard air conditioning).

Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

PROGRAM SUPPORT FOR SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BRANCH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of possible impact of passive cooling techniques for ene~·gyTechniques for EvaluaUon of Solar Heating and Cooling SysU•

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

when the need is discovered, but a good preventive maintenance program will reduce the number. This fact sheet will emphasize corrective and preventive maintenance procedures for ventilation, evaporativeAE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E

Watson, Craig A.

68

New and Existing Buildings Heating and Cooling Opportunities: Dedicated Heat Recovery Chiller  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers the new and existing buildings heating and cooling opportunities and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

69

Method and apparatus for heat extraction by controlled spray cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Two solutions to the problem of cooling a high temperature, high heat flux surface using controlled spray cooling are presented for use on a mandrel. In the first embodiment, spray cooling is used to provide a varying isothermal boundary layer on the side portions of a mandrel by providing that the spray can be moved axially along the mandrel. In the second embodiment, a spray of coolant is directed to the lower temperature surface of the mandrel. By taking advantage of super-Leidenfrost cooling, the temperature of the high temperature surface of the mandrel can be controlled by varying the mass flux rate of coolant droplets. The invention has particular applicability to the field of diamond synthesis using chemical vapor deposition techniques.

Edwards, Christopher Francis (5492 Lenore Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Meeks, Ellen (304 Daisyfield Dr., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Kee, Robert (864 Lucille St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); McCarty, Kevin (304 Daisyfield Dr., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

On Heating of Cluster Cooling Flows by Sound Waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate heating of the cool core of a galaxy cluster through the dissipation of sound waves excited by the activities of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a weak shock theory, we show that this heating mechanism alone cannot reproduce observed temperature and density profiles of a cluster, because the dissipation length of the waves is much smaller than the size of the core and thus the wave energy is not distributed to the whole core. However, we find that if it is combined with thermal conduction from the hot outer layer of the cluster, the wave heating can reproduce the observational results.

Yutaka Fujita; Takeru Ken Suzuki

2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

71

Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

Josh A. Salmond

2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

72

Final report-passive safety optimization in liquid sodium-cooled reactors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a three-year collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to identify and quantify the performance of innovative design features in metallic-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor designs. The objective of the work was to establish the reliability and safety margin enhancements provided by design innovations offering significant potential for construction, maintenance, and operating cost reductions. The project goal was accomplished with a combination of advanced model development (Task 1), analysis of innovative design and safety features (Tasks 2 and 3), and planning of key safety experiments (Task 4). Task 1--Computational Methods for Analysis of Passive Safety Design Features: An advanced three-dimensional subassembly thermal-hydraulic model was developed jointly and implemented in ANL and KAERI computer codes. The objective of the model development effort was to provide a high-accuracy capability to predict fuel, cladding, coolant, and structural temperatures in reactor fuel subassemblies, and thereby reduce the uncertainties associated with lower fidelity models previously used for safety and design analysis. The project included model formulation, implementation, and verification by application to available reactor tests performed at EBR-II. Task 2--Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Innovative Design Features: Integrated safety assessments of innovative liquid metal reactor designs were performed to quantify the performance of inherent safety features. The objective of the analysis effort was to identify the potential safety margin enhancements possible in a sodium-cooled, metal-fueled reactor design by use of passive safety mechanisms to mitigate low-probability accident consequences. The project included baseline analyses using state-of-the-art computational models and advanced analyses using the new model developed in Task 1. Task 3--Safety Implications of Advanced Technology Power Conversion and Design Innovations and Simplifications: Investigations of supercritical CO{sub 2} gas turbine Brayton cycles coupled to the sodium-cooled reactors and innovative concepts for sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers were performed to discover new designs for high efficiency electricity production. The objective of the analyses was to characterize the design and safety performance of equipment needed to implement the new power cycle. The project included considerations of heat transfer and power conversion systems arrangements and evaluations of systems performance. Task 4--Post Accident Heat Removal and In-Vessel Retention: Test plans were developed to evaluate (1) freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in subassembly geometry, (2) retention of metallic fuel core melt debris within reactor vessel structures, and (3) consequences of intermixing of high pressure CO{sub 2} and sodium. The objective of the test plan development was to provide planning for measurements of data needed to characterize the consequences of very low probability accident sequences unique to metallic fuel and CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycles. The project produced three test plans ready for execution.

Cahalana, J. E.; Hahn, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.

2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

73

Incremental cooling load determination for passive direct gain heating systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the applicability of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) full load compressor hour method for predicting the cooling load increase in a residence, attributable to direct gain passive heating systems. The NAHB method predictions are compared with the results of 200 hour-by-hour simulations using BLAST and the two methods show reasonable agreement. The degree of agreement and the limitations of the NAHB method are discussed.

Sullivan, P.W.; Mahone, D.; Fuller, W.; Gruber, J.; Kammerud, R.; Place, W.; Andersson, B.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Safety aspects of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced reactor concept under development through a cooperative program involving the US Government, the nuclear industry and the utilities. The design utilizes the basic high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) features of ceramic fuel, helium coolant, and a graphite moderator. The qualitative top-level safety requirement is that the plant's operation not disturb the normal day-to-day activities of the public. The MHTGR safety response to events challenging the functions relied on to retain radionuclides within the coated fuel particles has been evaluated. A broad range of challenges to core heat removal have been examined which include a loss of helium pressure and a simultaneous loss of forced cooling of the core. The challenges to control of heat generation have considered not only the failure to insert the reactivity control systems, but the withdrawal of control rods. Finally, challenges to control chemical attack of the ceramic coated fuel have been considered, including catastrophic failure of the steam generator allowing water ingress or of the pressure vessels allowing air ingress. The plant's response to these extreme challenges is not dependent on operator action and the events considered encompass conceivable operator errors. In the same vein, reliance on radionuclide retention within the full particle and on passive features to perform a few key functions to maintain the fuel within acceptable conditions also reduced susceptibility to external events, site-specific events, and to acts of sabotage and terrorism. 4 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Silady, F.A.; Millunzi, A.C.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Rod Bundle Heat Transfer: Steady-State Steam Cooling Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through the joint efforts of the Pennsylvania State University and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an experimental rod bundle heat transfer (RBHT) facility was designed and built. The rod bundle consists of a 7 x 7 square pitch array with spacer grids and geometry similar to that found in a modern pressurized water reactor. From this facility, a series of steady-state steam cooling experiments were performed. The bundle inlet Reynolds number was varied from 1 400 to 30 000 over a pressure range from 1.36 to 4 bars (20 to 60 psia). The bundle inlet steam temperature was controlled to be at saturation for the specified pressure and the fluid exit temperature exceeded 550 deg. C in the highest power tests. One important quantity of interest is the local convective heat transfer coefficient defined in terms of the local bulk mean temperature of the flow, local wall temperature, and heat flux. Steam temperatures were measured at the center of selected subchannels along the length of the bundle by traversing miniaturized thermocouples. Using an analogy between momentum and energy transport, a method was developed for relating the local subchannel centerline temperature measurement to the local bulk mean temperature. Wall temperatures were measured using internal thermocouples strategically placed along the length of each rod and the local wall heat flux was obtained from an inverse conduction program. The local heat transfer coefficient was calculated from the data at each rod thermocouple location. The local heat transfer coefficients calculated for locations where the flow was fully developed were compared against several published correlations. The Weisman and El-Genk correlations were found to agree best with the RBHT steam cooling data, especially over the range of turbulent Reynolds numbers. The effect of spacer grids on the heat transfer enhancement was also determined from instrumentation placed downstream of the spacer grid locations. The local heat transfer was found to be greatest at locations immediately downstream of the grid, and as the flow moved further downstream from the grid it became more developed, thus causing the heat transfer to diminish. The amount of heat transfer enhancement was found to depend not only on the spacer grid design, but also on the local Reynolds number. It was seen that decreasing Reynolds number leads to greater heat transfer enhancement. (authors)

Spring, J.P.; McLaughlin, D.M. [The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Shields Building University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

None,

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Hypersonic aerospace vehicle leading-edge cooling using heat-pipe, transpiration and film-cooling techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of cooling hypersonic-vehicle leading-edge structures exposed to severe aerodynamic surface heat fluxes was studied, using a combination of liquid-metal heat pipes and surface-mass-transfer cooling techniques. A generalized, transient, finite-difference-based hypersonic leading-edge cooling model was developed that incorporated these effects and was demonstrated on an assumed aerospace plane-type wing leading edge section and a SCRAMJET engine inlet leading-edge section. The hypersonic leading-edge cooling model was developed using an existing, experimentally verified heat-pipe model. Then the existing heat-pipe model was modified by adding both transpiration and film-cooling options as new surface boundary conditions. The models used to predict the leading-edge surface heat-transfer reduction effects of the transpiration and film cooling were modifications of more-generalized, empirically based models obtained from the literature. It is concluded that cooling leading-edge structures exposed to severe hypersonic-flight environments using a combination of liquid-metal heat pipe, surface transpiration, and film cooling methods appears feasible.

Modlin, J.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

AOSC 621AOSC 621 Radiative Heating/CoolingRadiative Heating/Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? Why drop off near sfc? 4 #12;Net flux Net flux: F = F+ - F- 1 2 F-(1) F+(1) F-(2) F+(2) Net energy at the top of the atmosphere is zero. Then we can write 1' ' )',( )'()0,()( 0 * dz dz zzdT zBzTBzF z z F F · The heating rate at z is defined as follows: )( )( d zdF zH net four termsofconsistwilland dz A

Li, Zhanqing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling with Spins: Review and Prospects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Application of multiple rounds of Quantum Error Correction (QEC) is an essential milestone towards the construction of scalable quantum information processing devices. However, experimental realizations of it are still in their infancy. The requirements for multiple round QEC are high control fidelity and the ability to extract entropy from ancilla qubits. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) based quantum devices have demonstrated high control fidelity with up to 12 qubits. On the other hand, the major challenge in the NMR QEC experiment is to efficiently supply ancilla qubits in highly pure states at the beginning of each round of QEC. Purification of qubits in NMR, or in other ensemble based quantum systems can be accomplished through Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling (HBAC). It is an efficient method for extracting entropy from qubits that interact with a heat bath, allowing cooling below the bath temperature. For practical HBAC, coupled electron-nuclear spin systems are more promising than conventional NMR quantum processors, since electron spin polarization is about $10^3$ times greater than that of a proton under the same experimental conditions. We provide an overview on both theoretical and experimental aspects of HBAC focusing on spin and magnetic resonance based systems, and discuss the prospects of exploiting electron-nuclear coupled systems for the realization of HBAC and multiple round QEC.

Daniel K. Park; Nayeli A. Rodriguez-Briones; Guanru Feng; Robabeh R. Darabad; Jonathan Baugh; Raymond Laflamme

2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

82

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

eliminating the need for compressor cooling. The plant modelunique design (using compressor cooling only when needed by

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Cooling and Heating of the Quantum Motion of Trapped Cd+ Louis Deslauriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fluctuating electric fields with the motional state of the ion leads to heating and thus to decoherence of decoherence in ion traps and possibly other charge-based quantum systems. #12;Cooling and HeatingABSTRACT Cooling and Heating of the Quantum Motion of Trapped Cd+ Ions by Louis Deslauriers Chair

Monroe, Christopher

84

Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

Shivvers, Steve D. (Prole, IA)

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

85

Design and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling using HFC or CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Design and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling using HFC or CO2: +33 2 23 23 42 97 Fax: +33 2 23 23 40 51 ABSTRACT This article presents a Heat Pump for Simultaneous heat pump i in is isentropic mec mechanical nof without frosting o out r refrigerant S sublimation sc

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

"Cooling by heating" - demonstrating the significance of the longitudinal specific heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating a solid sphere at the surface induces mechanical stresses inside the sphere. If a finite amount of heat is supplied, the stresses gradually disappear as temperature becomes homogeneous throughout the sphere. We show that before this happens, there is a temporary lowering of pressure and density in the interior of the sphere, inducing a transient lowering of the temperature here. For ordinary solids this effect is small because c_p is almost equal to c_V. For fluent liquids the effect is negligible because their dynamic shear modulus vanishes. For a liquid at its glass transition, however, the effect is generally considerably larger than in solids. This paper presents analytical solutions of the relevant coupled thermoviscoelastic equations. In general, there is a difference between the isobaric specific heat, c_p, measured at constant isotropic pressure and the longitudinal specific heat, c_l, pertaining to mechanical boundary conditions that confine the associated expansion to be longitudinal. In the exact treatment of heat propagation the heat diffusion constant contains c_l rather than c_p. We show that the key parameter controlling the magnitude of the "cooling-by-heating" effect is the relative difference between these two specific heats. For a typical glass-forming liquid, when temperature at the surface is increased by 1 K, a lowering of the temperature in the sphere center of order 5 mK is expected if the experiment is performed at the glass transition. The cooling-by-heating effect is confirmed by measurements on a 19 mm diameter glucose sphere at the glass transition.

Jon J. Papini; Jeppe C. Dyre; Tage Christensen

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

87

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

joint probability of a household choosing each particular heating/cooling technology combination is a function of the capital and operating

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Active solar heating and cooling information user study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on active solar heating and cooling (SHAC). An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 19 SHAC groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Manufacturers (4 groups), Distributors, Installers, Architects, Builders, Planners, Engineers (2 groups), Representatives of Utilities, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, Building Owners/Managers, and Homeowners (2 groups). The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Recommended requirements to code officials for solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. Model document for code officials on solar heating and cooling of buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These recommended requirements include provisions for electrical, building, mechanical, and plumbing installations for active and passive solar energy systems used for space or process heating and cooling, and domestic water heating. The provisions in these recommended requirements are intended to be used in conjunction with the existing building codes in each jurisdiction. Where a solar relevant provision is adequately covered in an existing model code, the section is referenced in the Appendix. Where a provision has been drafted because there is no counterpart in the existing model code, it is found in the body of these recommended requirements. Commentaries are included in the text explaining the coverage and intent of present model code requirements and suggesting alternatives that may, at the discretion of the building official, be considered as providing reasonable protection to the public health and safety. Also included is an Appendix which is divided into a model code cross reference section and a reference standards section. The model code cross references are a compilation of the sections in the text and their equivalent requirements in the applicable model codes. (MHR)

None

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The emergence of technologies that efficiently convert heat into cooling, such as absorption chillers, has opened up many new opportunities and markets for combined heat and power systems. These...

91

Energy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: Results from human subject tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technology Roadmap. Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating andH, Zhai Y. Enabling energy-efficient approaches to thermalEnergy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: results

Pasut, Wilmer; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Ed; Zhai, Yongchao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Optimization of Advanced Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems A heat pump is a technology in which heating and cooling are provided by a single piece of equipment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of Advanced Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems A heat pump is a technology in which heating and cooling are provided by a single piece of equipment. In a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system a length of pipe is buried in the ground and the ground acts as a reservoir to store the heat

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

93

Methanol-based heat pump for solar heating, cooling, and storage. Phase III. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction of CH/sub 3/OH vapor with solid (pellet) CaCl/sub 2/ to form the solid phase compound CaCll/sub 2/ . 2CH/sub 3/OH can be used as the basis of a combined solar heat pump/thermal energy storage system. Such a system is capable of storing heat indefinitely at ambient temperature, and can be used for space and domestic hot water heating, and for air conditioning with forced air (dry) heat rejection. It combines all features required of a residential or commercial space conditioning system except for solar collection. A detailed thermal analysis shows that the coefficient of performance for heating is greater than 1.5, and for cooling, greater than 0.5. This has been confirmed by direct experimental measurement on an engineering development test unit (EDTU). The experimental rate of CH/sub 3/OH absorption is a strong function of the absorber-evaporator temperature difference. The minimum practical hourly rate, 0.10 moles CH/sub 3/OH per mole CaCl/sub 2/, was observed with the salt-bed heat transfer fluid at 40/sup 0/C and the CH/sub 3/OH evaporator at -15/sup 0/C. a detailed performance and economic analysis was carried out for a system operated in Washington, DC. With 25 square meters of evacuated tube solar collectors, the CaCl/sub 2/-CH/sub 3/OH chemical heat pump should be capable of meeting over 90% of the cooling load, 80% of the heating load, and 70% of the domestic hot water load with nonpurchased energy in a typical well-insulated single family residence, thus saving about $600 per year. In small-scale production, the installed cost of the system, including solar collectors and backup, is estimated to be about $10,000 greater than a conventional heating and cooling system, and a much lower cost should be possible in the longer term.

Offenhartz, P O'D; Rye, T V; Malsberger, R E; Schwartz, D

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION IN COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equation in cooling load calculations. The performance of nine different procedures (the four methods and

Michal Duška; Martin Barták; František Drkal; Jan Hensen

95

Remote Measurement of Heat Flux from Power Plant Cooling Lakes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments have demonstrated a correlation between the rate of heat loss q? from an experimental fluid to the air above and the standard deviation ? of the thermal variability in images of the fluid surface. These experimental results imply that q? can be derived directly from thermal imagery by computing ?. This paper analyses thermal imagery collected over two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the same relationship exists. Turbulent boundary layer theory predicts a linear relationship between q? and ? when both forced (wind driven) and free (buoyancy driven) convection are present. Datasets derived from ground- and helicopter-based imagery collections had correlation coefficients between ? and q? of 0.45 and 0.76, respectively. Values of q? computed from a function of ? and friction velocity u* derived from turbulent boundary layer theory had higher correlations with measured values of q? (0.84 and 0.89). This research may be applicable to the problem of calculating losses of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during high-latitude cold-air outbreaks because it does not require the information typically needed to compute sensible, evaporative, and thermal radiation energy losses to the atmosphere.

Garrett, A.; Kurzeja, R.; Villa-Aleman, E.; Bollinger, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 1: Basic concepts and performance verification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manufacturer. The operation of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling, heating and cooling energies using the same electric energy input at the compressor. Chua et al. [31 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 1

Boyer, Edmond

97

Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 2 the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out without stopping the heat production

Boyer, Edmond

98

Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be glassified by cooling using hyper- quenching techniques (i.e., with rates of the order of 105 K/s [8Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process

Sciortino, Francesco

100

Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Safety Basis and Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various international efforts are underway to assess the safety of advanced nuclear reactor designs. For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency has recently held its first Consultancy Meeting on a new cooperative research program on high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) safety. Furthermore, the Generation IV International Forum Reactor Safety Working Group has recently developed a methodology, called the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology, for use in Generation IV advanced reactor technology development, design, and design review. A risk and safety assessment white paper is under development with respect to the Very High Temperature Reactor to pilot the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology and to demonstrate its validity and feasibility. To support such efforts, this information paper on the modular HTGR safety basis and approach has been prepared. The paper provides a summary level introduction to HTGR history, public safety objectives, inherent and passive safety features, radionuclide release barriers, functional safety approach, and risk-informed safety approach. The information in this paper is intended to further the understanding of the modular HTGR safety approach. The paper gives those involved in the assessment of advanced reactor designs an opportunity to assess an advanced design that has already received extensive review by regulatory authorities and to judge the utility of recently proposed new methods for advanced reactor safety assessment such as the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology.

David Petti; Jim Kinsey; Dave Alberstein

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

REVIEW OF GEOTHERMAL HEATING AND COOLING OF BUILDINGS C. A. Coles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be developed without employing geothermal heat pumps [4, 6]. Another reason for the slow development heating with air, residential buildings in Chaude Aigues, France during the 14th century were heatedREVIEW OF GEOTHERMAL HEATING AND COOLING OF BUILDINGS C. A. Coles Memorial University

Coles, Cynthia

103

Title and author(s) REMI/HEAT COOL A COMPUTER PROGRAMME FOR CALCULATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/tøEAT COOL, which is part of a set of programmes, aimed at the calculation of the reactor core responseTitle and author(s) REMI/HEAT COOL A COMPUTER PROGRAMME FOR CALCULATION OF CORE HEAT UP WITH 3PRAY COOLING. by ·Jens Andersen Henning Abel-Larsen O a t ^ktobber VV Y Department or group Reactor Physic

104

Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

MHTGR (modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor) control: A non-safety related system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) design meets stringent top-level safety regulatory criteria and user requirements that call for high plant availability and no disruption of the public's day to day activities during normal and off-normal operation of the plant. These requirements lead to a plant design that relies mainly on physical properties and passive design features to ensure plant safety regardless of operator actions, plus simplicity and automation to ensure high plant availability and lower cost of operations. The plant does not require safety-related operator actions, and it does not require the control room to be safety related.

Rodriguez, C.; Swart, F.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Dynamics of Circumstellar Disks II: Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a series of 2-d ($r,\\phi$) hydrodynamic simulations of marginally self gravitating disks around protostars using an SPH code. We implement simple dynamical heating and we cool each location as a black body, using a photosphere temperature obtained from the local vertical structure. We synthesize SEDs from our simulations and compare them to fiducial SEDs derived from observed systems. These simulations produce less distinct spiral structure than isothermally evolved systems, especially in the inner third of the disk. Pattern are similar further from the star but do not collapse into condensed objects. The photosphere temperature is well fit to a power law in radius with index $q\\sim1.1$, which is very steep. Far from the star, internal heating ($PdV$ work and shocks) are not responsible for generating a large fraction of the thermal energy contained in the disk matter. Gravitational torques responsible for such shocks cannot transport mass and angular momentum efficiently in the outer disk. Within $\\sim$5--10 AU of the star, rapid break up and reformation of spiral structure causes shocks, which provide sufficient dissipation to power a larger fraction of the near IR energy output. The spatial and size distribution of grains can have marked consequences on the observed near IR SED and can lead to increased emission and variability on $\\lesssim 10$ year time scales. When grains are vaporized they do not reform into a size distribution similar to that from which most opacity calculations are based. With rapid grain reformation into the original size distribution, the disk does not emit near infrared photons. With a plausible modification to the opacity, it contributes much more.

Andrew F. Nelson; Willy Benz; Tamara Ruzmaikina

1999-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

107

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the following tasks; solar heating with isothermal collector operation and advanced control strategy; solar cooling with solid desiccant; liquid desiccant cooling system development; solar house III -- development and improvement of solar heating systems employing boiling liquid collectors; generic solar domestic water heating systems; advanced residential solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems; management and coordination of Colorado State/DOE program; and field monitoring workshop.

Not Available

1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

108

Methodology for Calculating Cooling and Heating Energy-Imput-Ratio (EIR) From the Rated Seasonal Performance Efficiency (SEER or HSPF)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report provides the recommendations to calculate cooling and heating energy-input-ratio (EIR) for DOE-2 simulations excluding indoor fan energy, from the rated cooling and heating seasonal performance efficiency (i.e., SEER or HSPF) that does...

Kim, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

source and cooling water overall (in comparison with normal system 15% of energy saving) -Adopt large-scale ice heat storage system and realize equalization of electricity load -Adopt turbo chiller and heat recovery facilities as high efficiency heat... screw heat pump - 838MJ/? 1 IHP/Water source screw heat pump (Ice storage and heat recovery) Cool water? 3,080MJ/h Ice Storage? 1,936MJ/h Cool water heat recovery? 3,606MJ/h Ice storage heat recovery? 2,448MJ/h 8Unit ?16? TR1 Water cooling turbo...

Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks. INTRODUCTION A need for descriptors to evaluate systems that condition space and heat domestic water has been recognized for several... added to and used by the water from the desuperheated refrigerant - heat normally provided by the electric water heater's resistance elements. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT The system considered for this study is best described by U.S. Patent No. 4...

Cawley, R.

111

East Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

East Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system Coal Storage Building 39 NA Cooke Hall 56 Donhowe Building 044 East Gateway District Steam Distr. 199

Webb, Peter

112

192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Ground-source heat pumps for cooling-dominated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research ABSTRACT Ground-source heat pumps for cooling- tion of the heat pump performance is avoided by offsetting the annual load imbalance in the borefield operating and control strategies in a hybrid ground-source heat pump application using an hourly system

Ghajar, Afshin J.

113

WICKING OPTIMIZATION FOR THERMAL COOLING -WITH A TITANIUM BASED HEAT PIPE SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WICKING OPTIMIZATION FOR THERMAL COOLING -WITH A TITANIUM BASED HEAT PIPE SYSTEM C. Ding1* , P for a proposed flat heat pipe system. This unique bitextured titania structure (BTS) provides a suprerhydrophilic based flat heat pipe is proposed to integrate the BTS wicks and study the concept of this titanium based

MacDonald, Noel C.

114

Convective heat transfer as a function of wavelength: Implications for the cooling of the Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Convective heat transfer as a function of wavelength: Implications for the cooling of the Earth C, in particular, on its variation with the wavelength of convection. The heat transfer strongly depends in Earth's mantle can significantly reduce the efficiency of heat transfer. The likely variations

115

UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings Sunday 19 heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES

Hayden, Nancy J.

116

IMPACT OF THE SUN PATCH ON HEATING AND COOLING POWER EVALUATION: APPLIED TO A LOW ENERGY CELL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPACT OF THE SUN PATCH ON HEATING AND COOLING POWER EVALUATION: APPLIED TO A LOW ENERGY CELL A-step. Heating or cooling power is compared to the power calculated with no sun patch incorporation (solar loads impact on the observed results. Keywords: sun patch, fast climatic variations, heating and cooling power

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

to allow for the use of central heating and air conditioning. Publications Directory American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Resource guide...

118

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40% of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, the Energy Information Administration has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. The Annual Energy Outlook 2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Cooling-load implications for residential passive-solar-heating systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described, along with the computer simulation model used for calculating cooling loads. A sample of interim results is also presented. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy requirement of a given building.

Jones, R.W.; McFarland, R.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Energy Conservation Through Heating/Cooling Retrofits in Small and Medium-Sized Industrial Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses energy conservation projects in the area of industrial environment heating and cooling that have been recommended by the Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) to small and medium-sized industries in Texas...

Saman, N.; Eggebrecht, J.

122

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University of Colorado, 1991 cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP

Victoria, University of

123

"Potential for Combined Heat and Power and District Heating and Cooling from Waste-to-Energy Facilities in the U.S. Learning from the Danish Experience"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is used for the generation of electricity. The advantages of district heating using WTE plants are heating and cooling system in Indianapolis. However, there are few U.S. hot water district heating systems,800 district heating and cooling systems, providing 320 million MWh of thermal energy. Currently, 28 of the 88

Shepard, Kenneth

124

Geothermal potential for heating and cooling facilities, San Bernardino Valley College, San Bernardino, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for converting to geothermal heating at the campus of San Bernardino Valley College is considered. Also considered is the possibility of using well water for water cooled condenser cooling of air conditioning equipment. To provide water supply a production well, water distribution system and an injection well would be installed for each system.

Gemeinhardt, M.A.; Tharaldson, L.C.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Heat transfer and film-cooling for the endwall of a first stage turbine vane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the pressure side horseshoe vortex, develops as the flow is turned by the turbine vane or rotor bladeHeat transfer and film-cooling for the endwall of a first stage turbine vane Karen A. Thole of the airfoils. One means of preventing degradation in the turbine is to film-cool components whereby coolant

Thole, Karen A.

126

An experimental investigation of turbine blade heat transfer and turbine blade trailing edge cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studies have investigated the fluid flow and heat transfer behavior in high Reynolds number flows. Blair [7,8] investigated the effect of grid generated turbulence on flat plate heat transfer. He showed that turbulent heat transfer coefficient in flow... AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF TURBINE BLADE HEAT TRANSFER AND TURBINE BLADE TRAILING EDGE COOLING A Dissertation by JUNGHO CHOI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Choi, Jungho

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

127

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I)  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Concept" completed * Borehole field designed using "Thermal Dynamics" software * Heat Pump Chiller requirements determined * Surveys conducted throughout campus to...

128

Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

The Origin of Ripples in Cool Cores of Galaxy Clusters: Heating by MHD Waves?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider MHD waves as a heating source of cool cores of galaxy clusters. In particular, we focus on transverse waves (Alfven waves), because they can propagate a longer distance than longitudinal waves (sound waves). Using MHD simulations, we found that the transverse waves can stably heat a cool core if the wave period is large enough (>~ 10^8 yr). Moreover, the longitudinal waves that are created as a by-product of the nonlinear evolution of the transverse waves could be observed as the 'ripples' found in cool cores.

Yutaka Fujita; Takeru K. Suzuki; Takahiro Kudoh; Takaaki Yokoyama

2007-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

130

Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, A. Vahab (Golden, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang [Solar Thermal and Geothermal Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Lim, Hyug [Research and Development Center, LHE Co., Ltd., Gimhae 621-874 (Korea)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Asymmetric crystallization during cooling and heating in model glass-forming systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the crystallization process in binary Lennard-Jones systems during heating and cooling to investigate atomic-scale crystallization kinetics in glass-forming materials. For the cooling protocol, we prepared equilibrated liquids above the liquidus temperature $T_l$ and cooled each sample to zero temperature at rate $R_c$. For the heating protocol, we first cooled equilibrated liquids to zero temperature at rate $R_p$ and then heated the samples to temperature $T > T_l$ at rate $R_h$. We measured the critical heating and cooling rates $R_h^*$ and $R_c^*$, below which the systems begin to form a substantial fraction of crystalline clusters during the heating and cooling protocols. We show that $R_h^* > R_c^*$, and that the asymmetry ratio $R_h^*/R_c^*$ includes an intrinsic contribution that increases with the glass-forming ability (GFA) of the system and a preparation-rate dependent contribution that increases strongly as $R_p \\rightarrow R_c^*$ from above. We also show that the predictions from classical nucleation theory (CNT) can qualitatively describe the dependence of the asymmetry ratio on the GFA and preparation rate $R_p$ from the MD simulations and results for the asymmetry ratio measured in Zr- and Au-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG). This work emphasizes the need for and benefits of an improved understanding of crystallization processes in BMGs and other glass-forming systems.

Minglei Wang; Kai Zhang; Zhusong Li; Yanhui Liu; Jan Schroers; Mark D. Shattuck; Corey S. O'Hern

2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

133

Evaluation of a sodium/Hastelloy-X heat pipe for wing leading edge cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers assembly of a sodium heat pipe, testing to verify performance during start-up and under steady-state conditions with stagnation point heat loads to about 80 W/cm{sup 2}, performance analysis and evaluation. Evaluation of this leading edge cooling concept is offered and recommendations for further research discussed.

Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Glass, D.E. [Analytical Services and Materials, Hampton, VA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

Covered Product Category: Light Commercial Heating and Cooling...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

capacities of 240,000 British thermal units per hour (Btuhr) or less. Packaged terminal air conditioners and heat pumps are excluded. Meeting Energy Efficiency Requirements for...

135

Crosslinked crystalline polymer and methods for cooling and heating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to crystalline polyethylene pieces having optimum crosslinking for use in storage and recovery of heat, and it further relates to methods for storage and recovery of heat using crystalline polymer pieces having optimum crosslinking for these uses. Crystalline polymer pieces are described which retain at least 70% of the heat of fusion of the uncrosslinked crystalline polymer and yet are sufficiently crosslinked for the pieces not to stick together upon being cycled above and below the melting point of said polymer, preferably at least 80% of the heat of fusion with no substantial sticking together.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH); Botham, Ruth A. (Dayton, OH); Ball, III, George L. (West Carrollton, OH)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Applications in California, September 2008 CX-010234: Categorical Exclusion Determination Purdue prototype system Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology...

137

Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

American homes. View the video. Addthis Related Articles Geothermal Energy Featured on NBC's Today Show Building America Update - January 15, 2015 Heat Pump Water Heater Basics...

138

5 Cool Things about Solar Heating | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

or deductions for solar energy systems. Solar heating systems reduce the amount of air pollution and greenhouse gases that generally come from the use of fossil fuels for...

139

March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(hot water) #12;14 Decentralisation Central Plant becomes Energy Plant 11 Mechanical Rooms (water heaters Units Chillers recovery Hot Water Heaters recovery Second Stage Heatpumps (HWH + DHW) 70 (tons) X 4;18 Energy Loop 18 Energy Loop Geothermal Cooling Units Chillers recovery Hot Water Heaters recovery Second

140

Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

Hankins, J.D.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling apparatus for an electronics rack is provided which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures and a tube. The heat exchanger, which is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of distinct, coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and a coolant outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

Chainer, Timothy J; Coico, Patrick A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

OHMIC HEATING SUSPENDS, NOT REVERSES, THE COOLING CONTRACTION OF HOT JUPITERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the radius evolution of close-in extra-solar Jupiters under Ohmic heating, a mechanism that was recently proposed to explain the large observed sizes of many of these planets. Planets are born with high entropy and they subsequently cool and contract. We focus on two cases: first, that Ohmic heating commences when the planet is hot (high entropy); and second, that it commences after the planet has cooled. In the former case, we use analytical scaling and numerical experiments to confirm that Ohmic heating is capable of suspending the cooling as long as a few percent of the stellar irradiation is converted into Ohmic heating and the planet has a surface wind that extends to pressures of {approx}10 bar or deeper. For these parameters, the radii at which cooling is stalled are consistent with (or larger than) the observed radii of most planets. The only two exceptions are WASP-17b and HAT-P-32b. In contrast to the high entropy case, we show that Ohmic heating cannot significantly re-inflate planets after they have already cooled. This leads us to suggest that the diversity of radii observed in hot Jupiters may be partially explained by the different epochs at which they are migrated to their current locations.

Wu, Yanqin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Lithwick, Yoram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

144

Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating/Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can systems. A promising application of DR fluids is in district heating/ cooling systems (DHCs)9

Raghavan, Srinivasa

145

Mixed-oxide fuel decay heat analysis for BWR LOCA safety evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel decay heat behavior is analyzed for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) safety evaluation. The physical reasoning on why the decay heat power fractions of MOX fuel fission product (FP) are significantly lower than the corresponding decay heat power fractions of uranium-oxide (UOX) fuel FP is illustrated. This is primarily due to the following physical phenomena. -The recoverable energies per fission of plutonium (Pu)-239 and Pu-241 are significantly higher than those of uranium (U)-235 and U-238. Consequently, the fission rate required to produce the same amount of power in MOX fuel is significantly lower than that in UOX fuel, which leads to lower subsequent FP generation rate and associated decay heat power in MOX fuel than those in UOX fuel. - The effective FP decay energy per fission of Pu-239 is significantly lower than the corresponding effective FP decay energy per fission of U-235, e.g., Pu-239's 10.63 Mega-electron-Volt (MeV) vs. U-235's 12.81 MeV at the cooling time 0.2 second. This also leads to lower decay heat power in MOX fuel than that in UOX fuel. The FP decay heat is shown to account for more than 90% of the total decay heat immediately after shutdown. The FP decay heat results based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI)/American Nuclear Society (ANS)-5.1-1979 standard method are shown very close to the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method are shown very close to but mostly slightly lower than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method are shown significantly larger than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 standard method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. (authors)

Chiang, R. T. [AREVA Inc., 303 Ravendale Drive, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objectives: Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School and Middle School.; Provide jobs; and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District; and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession.

147

Variable-base heating and cooling degree-day data for 24 Saudi Arabian cities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Degree-day data are fundamental for simplified energy calculations. For Saudi Arabia the data necessary for simplified energy analysis are lacking, and the need of designers, engineers, and researchers in the building sector for such data as heating and cooling degree-days is growing. Weather data are available for many Saudi cities but not in a format usable by building designers and engineers. This paper presents variable-base heating and cooling degree-days is growing. Weather data are available for many Saudi cities but not in a format usable by building designers and engineers. This paper presents variable-base heating and cooling degree-day data for 24 Saudi locations based on long-term monthly average temperatures. These data will be of great help in performing simplified energy calculations for Saudi buildings.

Al-Homoud, M.S. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architectural Engineering

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

A spin based heat engine: demonstration of multiple rounds of algorithmic cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show experimental results demonstrating multiple rounds of heat-bath algorithmic cooling in a 3 qubit solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. By dynamically pumping entropy out of the system of interest and into the heat-bath, we are able show purification of a single qubit to a polarization 1.69 times that of the heat-bath and thus go beyond the Shannon bound for closed system cooling. The cooling algorithm implemented requires both high fidelity coherent control and a deliberate controlled interaction with the environment. We discuss the improvements in control that allowed this demonstration. This experimental work shows that given this level of quantum control in systems with sufficiently large polarizations, nearly pure qubits should be achievable.

C. A. Ryan; O. Moussa; J. Baugh; R. Laflamme

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

149

Property:Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyoCoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed JumpMover Jump to: navigation, searchEnergy

150

Urban Heat Islands: Cool Roof Infrastructure | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of Dept. ofUSA RSDepartment of Energy Updated31,Cool Roof

151

Massively-Parallel Direct Numerical Simulation of Gas Turbine Endwall Film-Cooling Conjugate Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MASSIVELY-PARALLEL DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF GAS TURBINE ENDWALL FILM-COOLING CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER A Thesis by CHARLES MICHAEL MEADOR Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2010 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MASSIVELY-PARALLEL DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF GAS TURBINE ENDWALL FILM-COOLING CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER A Thesis by CHARLES MICHAEL MEADOR Submitted to the O ce of Graduate...

Meador, Charles Michael

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

152

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Heat pipe cooled reactors for multi-kilowatt space power supplies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) to radiator heat pipes.

Ranken, W.A.; Houts, M.G.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The Difficulty of the Heating of Cluster Cooling Flows by Sound Waves and Weak Shocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate heating of the cool core of a galaxy cluster through the dissipation of sound waves and weak shocks excited by the activities of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a weak shock theory, we show that this heating mechanism alone cannot reproduce observed temperature and density profiles of a cluster, because the dissipation length of the waves is much smaller than the size of the core and thus the wave energy is not distributed to the whole core.

Yutaka Fujita; Takeru Ken Suzuki

2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

155

A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Heat Recovery and Indirect Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUP STD VELOC [TV fFPM) 495. EXH STD VELOCITY WPM) 495. SUP RECOVERV FACTOR I DRY) .09 IoHNTER OESION CONDITIONS SUP TEMP ENTCFI 14.0 SUP TEMP LEAVCF) ::sO. 3 IEXH TE!"!P ENT CF) 7~.0 EXH TENP LEAV (F) 313.3 FROST THR~SHOLO T~MP SUP REC FACTOR... as an essentially isothermal device (i.e. the same temperature throughout), re gardless of surrounding air temperature. 76 ESL-IE-84-04-14 Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference Volume I, Houston, TX, April 15-18, 1984 HEAT PIP...

Buckley, C. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly News |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject: Guidance forGeospatial Grades: 9-12 Topic:Department of

158

Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cellHeat Transfer in GE JetSHOPPHeatingSpace

159

Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating with  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE:2009 DOEDeploymentHenry C. Foley AprilThermoelectric

160

A TWO-PHASE HEAT SPREADER FOR COOLING HIGH HEAT FLUX SOURCES Mitsuo Hashimoto, Hiroto Kasai, Yuichi Ishida, Hiroyuki Ryoson, a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-sectional area, m2 d mesh wire diameter, m pD particle diameter, m gD channel depth, m h heat transferQ condensation heat, W effr effective pore radius, m t thickness, m T' temperature differential, K W mesh opening heat transfer [23-27]. Few passively cooled devices offer heat dissipation levels approaching 5 W/mm2

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

162

Heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) for high-speed aircraft propulsion. Phase 2 (feasibility) final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos), and CCS Associates are conducting the Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC) for High-Speed Aircraft Propulsion program to determine the advantages and demonstrate the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This innovative approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from adjacent external surfaces. HPRC is viewed as an alternative (or complementary) cooling technique to the use of pumped cryogenic or endothermic fuels to provide regenerative fuel or air cooling of the hot surfaces. The HPRC program has been conducted through two phases, an applications phase and a feasibility phase. The applications program (Phase 1) included concept and assessment analyses using hypersonic engine data obtained from US engine company contacts. The applications phase culminated with planning for experimental verification of the HPRC concept to be pursued in a feasibility program. The feasibility program (Phase 2), recently completed and summarized in this report, involved both analytical and experimental studies.

Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Silverstein, C.C. [CCS Associates, Bethel Park, PA (United States)

1994-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

163

Integrated three-dimensional module heat exchanger for power electronics cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Embodiments discussed herein are directed to a power semiconductor packaging that removes heat from a semiconductor package through one or more cooling zones that are located in a laterally oriented position with respect to the semiconductor package. Additional embodiments are directed to circuit elements that are constructed from one or more modular power semiconductor packages.

Bennion, Kevin; Lustbader, Jason

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

164

Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Nanoscale Joule heating, Peltier cooling and current crowding at graphenemetal contacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoscale Joule heating, Peltier cooling and current crowding at graphene­metal contacts Kyle L are the Joule and Peltier effects. The Joule effect9 occurs as charge carriers dissipate energy within the lattice, and is pro- portional to resistance and the square of the current. The Peltier effect17

King, William P.

166

Irrigation cooling effect on temperature and heat index extremes David B. Lobell,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Irrigation cooling effect on temperature and heat index extremes David B. Lobell,1 Celine J on average monthly temperatures. Given the importance of temperature (T) extremes to agriculture and human health, we evaluated irrigation induced changes in various metrics of T extremes using daily observations

Kueppers, Lara M.

167

Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Dual Heating and Cooling Sorption Heat Pump for a Food Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Complex compound sorption reactions are ideally suited for use in high temperature lift industrial heat pump cycles. Complex compound heat pumping and refrigeration provides a number of energy-saving advantages over present vapor compression systems...

Rockenfeller, U.; Dooley, B.

169

Micro-scale heat-exchangers for Joule-Thomson cooling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project focused on developing a micro-scale counter flow heat exchangers for Joule-Thomson cooling with the potential for both chip and wafer scale integration. This project is differentiated from previous work by focusing on planar, thin film micromachining instead of bulk materials. A process will be developed for fabricating all the devices mentioned above, allowing for highly integrated micro heat exchangers. The use of thin film dielectrics provides thermal isolation, increasing efficiency of the coolers compared to designs based on bulk materials, and it will allow for wafer-scale fabrication and integration. The process is intended to implement a CFHX as part of a Joule-Thomson cooling system for applications with heat loads less than 1mW. This report presents simulation results and investigation of a fabrication process for such devices.

Gross, Andrew John

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8.4.3 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . .and inherent safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II Engineered safety systems 5 Approaches for improving the

Qvist, Staffan Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

A comparison of the heat transfer capabilities of two manufacturing methods for high heat flux water-cooled devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental program was undertaken to compare the heat transfer characteristics of water-cooled copper devices manufactured via conventional drilled passage construction and via a technique whereby molten copper is cast over a network of preformed cooling tubes. Two similar test blocks were constructed; one using the drilled passage technique, the other via casting copper over Monel pipe. Each test block was mounted in a vacuum system and heated uniformly on the top surface using a swept electron beam. From the measured absorbed powers and resultant temperatures, an overall heat transfer coefficient was calculated. The maximum heat transfer coefficient calculated for the case of the drilled passage test block was 2534 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F. This corresponded to an absorbed power density of 320 w/cm/sup 2/ and resulted in a maximum recorded copper temperature of 346/sup 0/C. Corresponding figures for the cast test block were 363 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F, 91 w/cm/sup 2/, and 453/sup 0/C.

McKoon, R.H.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building Na Zhu*, Yu Lei, Pingfang Hu, Linghong Xu, Zhangning Jiang Department of Building Environment and Equipment Engineering... heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage technology could save energy and shift peak load. This paper studied the optimal design of a ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change thermal storage tank in an office...

Zhu, N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effect from CO2 emission resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels in utility power plants and the use of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, which is currently thought to affect depletion of the ozone layer. The ban on fluorocarbon fluids has been...LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF WASTE HEAT OPERATED ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEMS FOR BUILDING HVAC APPLICATIONS V. Murugavel and R. Saravanan Refrigeration and Air conditioning Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University...

Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Assessment of district heating and cooling supply from Goudey Generating Station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the feasibility analysis of retrofitting the New York State Electric and Gas (NYSEG) Goudey Generating Station for district heating and cooling supply to the SUNY-Binghamton Campus. The project involved detailed analysis of the power plant retrofit, dispatch analysis of the retrofitted Goudey Station in the New York Power Pool, environmental and permitting assessment, retrofit analysis of the SUNY campus to low temperature hot water and economic analysis.

McIntire, M.E.; Hall, D.; Beal, D.J. [New York State Electric & Gas Corporation, Binghamton, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Hyperfine spin qubits in irradiated malonic acid: heat-bath algorithmic cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability to perform quantum error correction is a significant hurdle for scalable quantum information processing. A key requirement for multiple-round quantum error correction is the ability to dynamically extract entropy from ancilla qubits. Heat-bath algorithmic cooling is a method that uses quantum logic operations to move entropy from one subsystem to another, and permits cooling of a spin qubit below the closed system (Shannon) bound. Gamma-irradiated, $^{13}$C-labeled malonic acid provides up to 5 spin qubits: 1 spin-half electron and 4 spin-half nuclei. The nuclei are strongly hyperfine coupled to the electron and can be controlled either by exploiting the anisotropic part of the hyperfine interaction or by using pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) techniques. The electron connects the nuclei to a heat-bath with a much colder effective temperature determined by the electron's thermal spin polarization. By accurately determining the full spin Hamiltonian and performing realistic algorithmic simulations, we show that an experimental demonstration of heat-bath algorithmic cooling beyond the Shannon bound is feasible in both 3-qubit and 5-qubit variants of this spin system. Similar techniques could be useful for polarizing nuclei in molecular or crystalline systems that allow for non-equilibrium optical polarization of the electron spin.

Daniel K. Park; Guanru Feng; Robabeh Rahimi; Stephane Labruyere; Taiki Shibata; Shigeaki Nakazawa; Kazunobu Sato; Takeji Takui; Raymond Laflamme; Jonathan Baugh

2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Frictional heating and convective cooling of polycrystalline diamond drag tools during rock cutting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical-analytical model is developed to predict temperatures in stud-mounted polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag tools during rock cutting. Experimental measurements of the convective heat transfer coefficient for PDC cutters are used in the model to predict temperatures under typical drilling conditions with fluid flow. The analysis compares favorably with measurements of frictional temperatures in controlled cutting tests on Tennessee marble. It is shown that mean cutter wearflat temperatures can be maintained below the critical value of 750{sup 0}C only under conditions of low friction at the cutter/rock interface. This is true, regardless of the level of convective cooling. In fact, a cooling limit is established above which increases in convective cooling do not further reduce cutter temperatures. The ability of liquid drilling fluids to reduce interface friction is thus shown to be far more important in preventing excessive temperatures than their ability to provide cutter cooling. Due to the relatively high interface friction developed under typical air drilling conditions, it is doubtful that temperatures can be kept subcritical at high rotary speeds in some formations when air is employed as the drilling fluid, regardless of the level of cooling achieved.

Ortega, A.; Glowka, D.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Experimental evaluation of dry/wet air-cooled heat exchangers. Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultimate goal of this project was to contribute to the development of improved cooling facilities for power plants. Specifically, the objective during FY-81 was to experimentally determine the thermal performance and operating characteristics of an air-cooled heat exchanger surface manufactured by the Unifin Company. The performance of the spiral-wound finned tube surface (Unifin) was compared with two inherently different platefin surfaces (one developed by the Trane Co. and the other developed by the HOETERV Institute) which were previously tested as a part of the same continuing program. Under dry operation the heat transfer per unit frontal area per unit inlet temperature difference (ITD) of the Unifin surface was 10% to 20% below that of the other two surfaces at low fan power levels. At high fan power levels, the performances of the Unifin and Trane surfaces were essentially the same, and 25% higher than the HOETERV surface. The design of the Unifin surface caused a significantly larger air-side pressure drop through the heat exchanger both in dry and deluge operation. Generally higher overall heat transfer coefficients were calculated for the Unifin surface under deluged operation. They ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F as compared to less than 2.0 Btu hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F for the Trane and HOETERV surfaces under similar conditions. The heat transfer enhancement due to the evaporative cooling effect was also measureably higher with the Unifin surface as compared to the Trane surface. This can be primarily attributed to the better wetting characteristics of the Unifin surface. If the thermal performance of the surfaces are compared at equal face velocities, the Unifin surface is as much as 35% better. This method of comparison accounts for the wetting characteristics while neglecting the effect of pressure drop. Alternatively the surfaces when compared at equal pressure drop essentially the same thermal performance.

Hauser, S.G.; Gruel, R.L.; Huenefeld, J.C.; Eschbach, E.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Kreid, D.K.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Fields, Paul R. (Chicago, IL)

1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

180

Assessment of district heating/cooling potential for the Frenchman's Cove redevelopment project. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study undertaken to evaluate the potential for district heating/cooling (DHC) in the City of Ecorse, Michigan is documented. the purpose of the study was to assess the concept of delivering energy from a centralized source (or several sources) through a piping network to many end users for heating domestic (tap) hot water, space heating, and space cooling. The primary focus of the study was the proposed redevelopment of eighty acres in Ecorse along the Detroit River waterfront known as Frenchman's Cove. As planned, the complete development would place nearly 2 million square feet of new, mixed use structures/facilities on the site and an eighteen acre undeveloped island located 300 feet offshore. Other areas of the city were also examined to identify and evaluate existing supply and end use possibilities. In addition, several neighboring communities were examined to determine the feasibility of downriver DHC network. Six large thermal energy producers identified in the study area include the Detroit Edison River Rouge power plant (DECo.-RR), the Wyandotte Municipal Services Commission (WMSC) power plant, a BASF/Wyandotte Corporation plant, a Marathon Oil refinery, the Great Lakes Steel complex, and the E.C. Levy Company slag processing site. Each was examined for potential as a thermal supplier on a district heating network.

Not Available

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt. % a phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably "fully charged". In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboard that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degree. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort.

Stovall, Therese K. (Knoxville, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt.% phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably ``fully charged``. In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboards that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degrees. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort. 7 figs.

Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

183

Design Method for the Heating/Cooling Coil in the AHU Based on Fuzzy Logic - Part Two: Design of the Minimum Heat-Exchanging Unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zhang Yongpan Chen Zhen Liang Ph.D. Professor Doctoral Candidate Instructor School of Municipal & Environmental Eng, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin P. R. China, 150090 zhangjili@hit.edu.cn Abstract: Considering a heating/cooling coil... heat indoor, as is given by Equation (5) (noted in difference scheme), where Qr denotes sensible heat amount indoor (KW); ? denotes time variable (s); ? r denotes air density indoor (Kg/m3); CP denotes air specific heat at constant pressure (KJ...

Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Liang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Status of Physics and Safety Analyses for the Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study has been completed to develop a new baseline core design for the liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR) that is better optimized for liquid coolant and that satisfies the top-level operational and safety targets, including strong passive safety performance, acceptable fuel cycle parameters, and favorable core reactivity response to coolant voiding. Three organizations participated in the study: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Although the intent was to generate a new reference LS-VHTR core design, the emphasis was on performing parametric studies of the many variables that constitute a design. The results of the parametric studies not only provide the basis for choosing the optimum balance of design options, they also provide a valuable understanding of the fundamental behavior of the core, which will be the basis of future design trade-off studies. A new 2400-MW(t) baseline design was established that consists of a cylindrical, nonannular core cooled by liquid {sup 7}Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) salt. The inlet and outlet coolant temperatures were decreased by 50 C, and the coolant channel diameter was increased to help lower the maximum fuel and vessel temperatures. An 18-month fuel cycle length with 156 GWD/t burnup was achieved with a two-batch shuffling scheme, while maintaining a core power density of 10 MW/m{sup 3} using graphite-coated uranium oxicarbide particle fuel enriched to 15% {sup 235}U and assuming a 25 vol-% packing of the coated particles in the fuel compacts. The revised design appears to have excellent steady-state and transient performance. The previous concern regarding the core's response to coolant voiding has been resolved for the case of Flibe coolant by increasing the coolant channel diameter and the fuel loading. Also, the LSVHTR has a strong decay heat removal performance and appears capable of surviving a loss of forced circulation (LOFC) even with failure to scram. Significant natural convection of the coolant salt occurs, resulting in fuel temperatures below steady-state values and nearly uniform temperature distributions during the transient.

Ingersoll, DT

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Empirical Modeling of a Rolling-Piston Compressor Heat Pump for Predictive Control in Low-Lift Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inverter-driven variable-capacity air conditioners, heat pumps, and chillers can provide energy-efficient cooling, particularly at part-load capacity. Varying the capacity of vapor compression systems enables operation at ...

Gayeski, Nicholas

186

Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

187

Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with burnup of a depleted-uranium fueled sodium-cooled B&Bwith burnup of a depleted-uranium fueled sodium-cooled B&Bbalance integral of a depleted-uranium fueled sodium-cooled

Qvist, Staffan Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Passive solar heating and natural cooling of an earth-integrated design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is being designed with innovative features that will greatly reduce its energy consumption for heating, cooling, and lighting. A reference design has been studied and the effects of extending the overhang during summer and fall, varying glazing area, employing RIB, and reducing internal heat by natural lighting have been considered. The use of RIB and the extendable overhang increases the optimum window glazing area and the solar heating fraction. A mass-storage wall which will likely be included in the final design has also been considered. A figure of merit for commercial buildings is the total annual energy consumption per unit area of floor space. A highly efficient office building in the Oak Ridge area typically uses 120 to 160 kWhr/m/sup 2/. The Joint Institute reference design with natural lighting, an annual average heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) equal to 1.8, RIB, and the extendable overhang uses 71 kWhr/m/sup 2/. This figure was determined from NBSLD simulations corrected for the saving from RIB. The internal heat energy from lighting and equipment used in the simulation was 1653 kWhrs/month (high natural lighting case) which is much lower than conventional office buildings. This value was adopted because only a portion of the building will be used as office space and efforts will be made to keep internal heat generation low. The mass-storage wall and ambient air cooling will reduce energy consumption still further. The combined savings of the innovative features in the Joint Institute building are expected to result in a very energy efficient design. The building will be instrumented to monitor its performance and the measured data will provide a means of evaluating the energy-saving features. The efficiency of the design will be experimentally verified over the next several years.

Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems for the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) includes theThey are 1) gas cooled fast reactors (GFR), 2) very high

Galvez, Cristhian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

191

Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

Gaul, Christopher J.

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

The heating mechanism for the warm/cool dust in powerful, radio-loud AGN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The uncertainty surrounding the nature of the heating mechanism for the dust that emits at mid- to far-IR (MFIR) wavelengths in active galaxies limits our understanding of the links between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxy evolution, as well as our ability to interpret the prodigious infrared and sub-mm emission of some of the most distant galaxies in the Universe. Here we report deep Spitzer observations of a complete sample of powerful, intermediate redshift (0.05 power, as traced by [OIII]5007 emission, is strongly correlated with both the mid-IR (24 micron) and the far-IR (70 micron) luminosities, however, with increased scatter in the 70 micron correlation. A major cause of this increased scatter is a group of objects that falls above the main correlation and displays evidence for prodigious recent star formation activity at optical wavelengths, along with relatively cool MFIR colours. These results provide evidence that illumination by the AGN is the primary heating mechanism for the dust emitting at both 24 and 70 microns, with starbursts dominating the heating of the cool dust in only 20 -- 30% of objects. This implies that powerful AGN are not always accompanied by the type of luminous starbursts that are characteristic of the peak of activity in major gas-rich mergers.

C. Tadhunter; D. Dicken; J. Holt; K. Inskip; R. Morganti; D. Axon; C. Buchanan; R. González Delgado; P. Barthel; I. van Bemmel

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Evolution of the Loop-Top Source of Solar Flares--Heating and Cooling Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a study of the spatial and spectral evolution of the loop-top (LT) sources in a sample of 6 flares near the solar limb observed by {\\it RHESSI}. A distinct coronal source, which we identify as the LT source, was seen in each of these flares from the early ``pre-heating'' phase through the late decay phase. Spectral analyses reveal an evident steep power-law component in the pre-heating and impulsive phases, suggesting that the particle acceleration starts upon the onset of the flares. In the late decay phase the LT source has a thermal spectrum and appears to be confined within a small region near the top of the flare loop, and does not spread throughout the loop, as is observed at lower energies. The total energy of this source decreases usually faster than expected from the radiative cooling but much slower than that due to the classical Spitzer conductive cooling along the flare loop. These results indicate the presence of a distinct LT region, where the thermal conductivity is suppressed significantly and/or there is a continuous energy input. We suggest that plasma wave turbulence could play important roles in both heating the plasma and suppressing the conduction during the decay phase of solar flares. With a simple quasi-steady loop model we show that the energy input in the gradual phase can be comparable to that in the impulsive phase and demonstrate how the observed cooling and confinement of the LT source can be used to constrain the wave-particle interaction.

Yan Wei Jiang; Siming Liu; Wei Liu; Vahe Petrosian

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

194

Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

195

How a liquid becomes a glass both on cooling and on heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The onset of structural arrest and glass formation in a concentrated suspension of silica nanoparticles in a water-lutidine binary mixture near its consolute point is studied by exploiting the near-critical fluid degrees of freedom to control the strength of an attraction between particles and multispeckle x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy to determine the particles' collective dynamics. This model system undergoes a glass transition both on cooling and on heating, and the intermediate liquid realizes unusual logarithmic relaxations. How vitrification occurs for the two different glass transitions is characterized in detail and comparisons are drawn to recent theoretical predictions for glass formation in systems with attractive interactions.

Xinhui Lu; S. G. J. Mochrie; S. Narayanan; A. R. Sandy; M. Sprung

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

196

KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

L.E. Demick

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Determining Optimal Equipment Capacities in Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaluation of potential cooling, heating and power (CHP) applications requires an assessment of the operations and economics of a particular system in meeting the electric and thermal demands of a specific end-use facility. A key determinate in whether a candidate system will be economic is the proper selection of equipment capacities. A methodology to determine the optimal capacities for CHP prime movers and absorption chillers using nonlinear optimization algorithms has been coded into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet tool that performs the capacity optimization and operations simulation. This paper presents details on the use and results of this publicly available tool.

DeVault, Robert C [ORNL; Hudson II, Carl Randy [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

A spatially resolved study of photoelectric heating and [CII] cooling in the LMC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(abridged) We study photoelectric heating throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud. We quantify the importance of the [CII] cooling line and the photoelectric heating process of various environments in the LMC and investigate which parameters control the extent of photoelectric heating. We use the BICE [CII] map and the Spitzer/SAGE infrared maps. We examine the spatial variations in the efficiency of photoelectric heating: photoelectric heating rate over power absorbed by grains. We correlate the photoelectric heating efficiency and the emission from various dust constituents and study the variations as a function of H\\alpha emission, dust temperatures, and the total infrared luminosity. From this we estimate radiation field, gas temperature, and electron density. We find systematic variations in photoelectric efficiency. The highest efficiencies are found in the diffuse medium, while the lowest coincide with bright star-forming regions (~1.4 times lower). The [CII] line emission constitutes 1.32% of the far infrared luminosity across the whole of the LMC. We find correlations between the [CII] emission and ratios of the mid infrared and far infrared bands, which comprise various dust constituents. The correlations are interpreted in light of the spatial variations of the dust abundance and by the local environmental conditions that affect the dust emission properties. As a function of the total infrared surface brightness, S_{TIR}, the [CII] surface brightness can be described as: S_{[CII]}=1.25 S_{TIR}^{0.69} [10^{-3} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} sr^{-1}]. The [CII] emission is well-correlation with the 8 micrometer emission, suggesting that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons play a dominant role in the photoelectric heating process.

D. Rubin; S. Hony; S. C. Madden; A. G. G. M Tielens; M. Meixner; R. Indebetouw; W. Reach; A. Ginsburg; S. Kim; K. Mochizuki; B. Babler; M. Block; S. B Bracker; C. W. Engelbracht; B. -Q. For; K. Gordon; J. L. Hora; C. Leitherer; M. Meade; K. Misselt; M. Sewilo; U. Vijh; B. Whitney

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

199

Single family heating and cooling requirements: Assumptions, methods, and summary results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research has created a data base of hourly building loads using a state-of-the-art building simulation code (DOE-2.ID) for 8 prototypes, representing pre-1940s to 1990s building practices, in 16 US climates. The report describes the assumed modeling inputs and building operations, defines the building prototypes and selection of base cities, compares the simulation results to both surveyed and measured data sources, and discusses the results. The full data base with hourly space conditioning, water heating, and non-HVAC electricity consumption is available from GRI. In addition, the estimated loads on a per square foot basis are included as well as the peak heating and cooling loads.

Ritschard, R.L.; Hanford, J.W.; Sezgen, A.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fission gas plenum212 Conventional fast reactor core designGUPTA. “A Compact Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor with an Ultra-Longbreed and burn gas-cooled fast reactor”. Ph.D. Thesis. MIT,

Qvist, Staffan Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

District heating/cooling potential in New York City. phase 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New York City through its Energy Office has identified and evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of district heating and cooling at three locations: Brooklyn Navy Yard, Kings County Medical Complex, and the S.W. Brooklyn Incinerator. Of these the Navy Yard has the most immediate potential for implementation. The Navy Yard has an extensive steam and electrical system that has not been used since the Navy turned most of the property over to New York City more than a decade ago. By remodeling several of the smaller boilers still in place or purchasing new boilers, an ample supply of steam and hot water can be produced. The steam will be used for heating and industrial process for the industrial tenants now occupying the former yards. Hot water will be sold to the New York City Housing Authority to heat between 3,500 and 5,000 nearby public housing units operated by the authority. Electricity will be cogenerated using present generators that will be overhauled. It is expected that some of the electricity will be used directly to supply power to a planned nearby Red Hook Sewage Treatment plant, while most will be sold to the industrial tenants of the Navy Yard. Studies will continue to determine the best market for excess power.

McLoughlin, G.T.; Kuo, R.P.; Karol, J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

A bottom-up engineering estimate of the aggregate heating and cooling loads of the entire U.S. building stock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the amount of commercial building energy usage, particularlycommercial building sector. To compare the aggregated energy usagecommercial buildings. For the residential sector, the total heating and cooling energy usages

Huang, Yu Joe; Brodrick, Jim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar heated and cooled buildings. Final report, January 1, 1979-May 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while thare is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system.

Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Solar site test module. [DOE/NASA solar heating and cooling demonstration installations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solar site test module using the Rockwell AIM 65 micro-computer is described. The module is designed to work at any site where an IBM site data acquisition system (SDAS) is installed and is intended primarily as a troubleshooting tool for DOE/NASA commercial solar heating and cooling system demonstration installations. It collects sensor information (temperatures, flow rates, etc.) and displays or prints it immediately in calibrated engineering units. It will read one sensor on demand, periodically read up to 10 sensors or periodically read all sensors. Performance calculations can also be included with sensor data. Unattended operation is possible to, e.g., monitor a group of sensors once per hour. Work is underway to add a data acquisition system to the test module so that it can be used at sites which have no SDAS.

Kissel, R.R.; Scott, D.R.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Final draft: IEA Task 1. Report on Subtask D, optimization of solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of general techniques and specific methods useful in the optimization of solar heating and cooling systems is undertaken. A discussion of the state-of-the-art and the principal problems in both the simplified thermal performance analysis and economic analysis portions of the optimization problem are presented. Sample economic analyses are performed using several widely used economic criteria. The predicted thermal results of one typical, widely used simplified method is compared to detailed simulation results. A methodology for and the results of a sensitivity study of key economic parameters in the life cycle cost method are presented. Finally, a simple graphical optimization technique based on the life cycle cost method is proposed.

Freeman, T.L. (ed.)

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The eight-month program for 1990 is separated into seven tasks. There are tasks for each of the three solar houses, a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, a management task, and a task funding travel to attend the Field Monitoring for a Purpose'' workshop which was held April 2--5, 1990, in Gothenburg, Sweden. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

Sullivan; Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM), Carlson; Bryan J. (Ojo Caliente, NM), Wingo; Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM), Robison; Thomas W. (Stilwell, KS)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

210

Beam Induced Ferrite Heating of the LHC Injection Kickers and Proposals for Improved Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The two LHC injection kicker systems produce an integrated field strength of 1.3 T·m with a flattop duration variable up to 7860 ns, and rise and fall times of less than 900 ns and 3000 ns, respectively. A beam screen is placed in the aperture of each magnet, which consists of a ceramic tube with conductors in the inner wall. The conductors provide a path for the beam image current and screen the ferrite yoke against wakefields. Recent LHC operation, with high intensity beam stable for many hours, resulted in significant heating of both the ferrite yoke and beam impedance reduction ferrites. For one kicker magnet the ferrite yoke approached its Curie temperature. As a result of a long thermal time-constant the ferrite yoke can require several hours to cool sufficiently to allow re-injection of beam, thus limiting the running efficiency of the LHC. Thermal measurement data has been analysed, a thermal model developed and emissivity measurements carried out. Various measures to improve the ferrite cooling have...

Barnes, M J; Calatroni, S; Day, H; Ducimetière, L; Garlaschè, M; Gomes Namora, V; Mertens, V; Sobiech, Z; Taborelli, M; Uythoven, J; Weterings, W

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar-heated and -cooled buildings. Final report, January 1, 1979-May 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The procedure used was to obtain experimental performance data from a solar system using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions, develop a simulation model for the system, validate the model using the data, apply the model in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year, and estimate the life-cycle cost of the system for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Thermal storage studies for solar heating and cooling: applications using chemical heat pumps. Final report, September 15, 1979-April 15, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TRNSYS-compatible subroutines for the simulation of chemical heat pumps have been written, and simulations (including heating, cooling, and domestic hot water) have been performed for Washington, DC and Ft. Worth, Texas. Direct weekly comparisons of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O and CaCl/sub 2//CH/sub 3/OH cycles have been carried out. Projected performance of the NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3//NH/sub 3/ cycle has also been investigated, and found to be essentially identical to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O. In all cases simulated, the solar collector is a fixed evacuated tube system, which is necessary because chemical heat pumps operate at higher solar collector temperatures (> 100/sup 0/C) than conventional solar systems. With standard residential loads, the chemical heat pumps performed surprisingly well. In the Ft. Worth climate, less than 45 m/sup 2/ of collectors were required to meet over 90% of the heating and cooling loads. In Washington, DC, the area required to meet the cooling load was smaller (as little as 20 m/sup 2/, depending on window shading), but was sufficient to meet only 50 to 60% of the heating load. However, gas-fired backup via the heat pump was quite effective in reducing fossil fuel consumption: the thermal COPs in the heating mode were in the range 1.6 to 1.7. Since chemical heat pumps are designed to reject heat at relatively high temperatures, they were also effective in providing domestic hot water, supplying ca. 70% of the DHW in summer, ca. 50% in winter, and nearly 100% in spring and fall.

Offenhartz, P O.D.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

McCarthy, Matthew

214

The Effect of Optimal Tuning of the Heating/Cooling Curve in AHU of HVAC System in Real Practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be ordered by ISSO. http://www.isso.nl/ Elkhuizen P.A. , Peitsman H.C., ? A new design guideline for the heating and cooling curve in AHU of HVAC systems (a method for the optimal adjustment of AHU in HVAC systems) ?, A40-E-M4-NL-TNO-1, IEA Annex 40...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Laser-controlled vibrational heating and cooling of oriented H This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser-controlled vibrational heating and cooling of oriented H + 2 molecules This article has been-controlled vibrational heating and cooling of oriented H+ 2 molecules Thomas Niederhausen1, Uwe Thumm2 and Fernando Mart-second infrared control-laser pulses. For our three-dimensional calculations, we use infrared laser pulses of 800

Thumm, Uwe

216

Heat removal aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor safety in light of the Three Mile Island incident  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The safety aspects of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) loop design are compared with those of the Light Water Reactor (LWR), in light of the Three Mile Island (TMI) incident. The events at TMI are briefly described, the fundamental differences between the LWR water coolant and the LMFBR sodium coolant are presented, and the design of analogous LMFBR safety systems under similar events as those at TMI is discussed. A preliminary qualitative evaluation of a TMI-equivalent accident for an LMFBR indicates that there is likely to be: (1) negligible pressure transients in the primary loop, (2) no core damage, (3) isolation of the incident at the steam generator, and (4) no radiation release to the environment, except a negligible amount of tritium from the secondary sodium. Furthermore, with the absence of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System), pressurizer, and other pressure-related components in the LMFBR design, operator action for a LMFBR should be much simpler in dealing with the coolant upset condition and the decay heat removal problems.

Victor, H.R.; Graf, D.G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

Su'ud, Zaki, E-mail: szaki@fi.itba.c.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Bandung Institute of Technology (Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia) (Indonesia); Sekimoto, H., E-mail: hsekimot@gmail.com [Research Lab. For Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

219

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are conventional air conditioning and heat pump, given thein heat pump alternative Dummy for oil forced air choiceair choice Dummy for electric baseboard choice Dummy for heat pump

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air choice elec forced air choice heat pump choice elecwith ac elecforced air, with ac heat pump elec baseboard,central air conditioning (including heat pumps), and eight

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU-238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath.

Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

222

Local heat transfer and film effectiveness of a film cooled gas turbine blade tip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas turbine engines due to high operating temperatures undergo severe thermal stress and fatigue during operation. Cooling of these components is a very important issue during the lifetime of the engine. Cooling is achieved through the use...

Adewusi, Adedapo Oluyomi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

Faletti, D.W.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR THE COMMON PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

all zones equally. Remote heating systems can be designed toremote from the building envelope proper. South wall heating

Holtz, Michael J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Optimal Scheduling for Biocide and Heat Exchangers Maintenance Towards Environmentally Friendly Seawater Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOR SEAWATER-COOLED POWER AND DESALINATION PLANTS....................................................... 127 5.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 127 5.2 Introduction... 5.2 Representation of a Once-Thorough Cooling System................................ 141 5.3 An Overall Representation of the Power/Desalination Plant ..................... 152 5.4 The Cooling System for the Case Study...

Binmahfouz, Abdullah

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

227

EVAPORATIVE COOLING - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR ATLAS SCT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conceptual design of an evaporative two-phase flow cooling system for the ATLAS SCT detector is described, using perfluorinated propane (C3F8) as a coolant. Comparison with perfluorinated butane (C4F10) is made, although the detailed design is presented only for C3F8. The two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are calculated in order to determine the dimensions of the cooling pipes and module contacts for the Barrel SCT. The region in which the flow is homogeneous is determined. The cooling cycle, pipework, compressor, heat exchangers and other main elements of the system are calculated in order to be able to discuss the system control, safety and reliability. Evaporative cooling appears to be substantially better than the binary ice system from the point of view of safety, reliability, detector thickness, heat transfer coefficient, cost and simplicity.

Niinikoski, T O

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

High-temperature gas-cooled reactors: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume IV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning medium-enriched uranium/thorium once-through fuel cycle; medium-enrichment uranium-233/thorium recycle fuel; high-enrichment uranium-235/thorium recycle (spiked) fuel cycle; high-enrichment uranium-233/thorium recycle (spiked) fuel cycle; and gas-turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

advances to commercialize stand-alone electric heat-pump storage hot water heaters. These systems offer design uses multiple systems and fuels to provide thermal services, the emerging generation of heat to experience this change as air-source heat-pump water heaters deliver obvious energy savings over electric

California at Davis, University of

230

Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

Sanders, William J. (Kansas City, KS); Snyder, Marvin K. (Overland Park, KS); Harter, James W. (Independence, MO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system areas, Nuclear Heat Supply and Heat Transport, areand Subsystems AREAS Nuclear Heat Supply Heat Transport Main

Scarlat, Raluca Olga

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system specifications is observed. Case study data for various micro-CHP system configurations have been discussed and compared. Comparisons are made of the different prime mover/fuel combinations. Also, micro- CHP monthly energy cost results are compared for each system configuration to conventional monthly utility costs for equivalent monthly building power, heating, and cooling requirements.

Louay Chamra

2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

234

Smoothing HCCI heat release with vaporization-cooling-induced thermal stratification using ethanol.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends are being widely considered as alternative fuels for light-duty automotive applications. At the same time, HCCI combustion has the potential to provide high efficiency and ultra-low exhaust emissions. However, the application of HCCI is typically limited to low and moderate loads because of unacceptably high heat-release rates (HRR) at higher fueling rates. This work investigates the potential of lowering the HCCI HRR at high loads by using partial fuel stratification to increase the in-cylinder thermal stratification. This strategy is based on ethanol's high heat of vaporization combined with its true single-stage ignition characteristics. Using partial fuel stratification, the strong fuel-vaporization cooling produces thermal stratification due to variations in the amount of fuel vaporization in different parts of the combustion chamber. The low sensitivity of the autoignition reactions to variations of the local fuel concentration allows the temperature variations to govern the combustion event. This results in a sequential autoignition event from leaner and hotter zones to richer and colder zones, lowering the overall combustion rate compared to operation with a uniform fuel/air mixture. The amount of partial fuel stratification was varied by adjusting the fraction of fuel injected late to produce stratification, and also by changing the timing of the late injection. The experiments show that a combination of 60-70% premixed charge and injection of 30-40 % of the fuel at 80{sup o}CA before TDC is effective for smoothing the HRR. With CA50 held fixed, this increases the burn duration by 55% and reduces the maximum pressure-rise rate by 40%. Combustion stability remains high but engine-out NO{sub x} has to be monitored carefully. For operation with strong reduction of the peak HRR, ISNO{sub x} rises to around 0.20 g/kWh for an IMEP{sub g} of 440 kPa. The single-cylinder HCCI research engine was operated naturally aspirated without EGR at 1200 rpm, and had low residual level using a CR = 14 piston.

Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

THE CHANDRA DEEP PROTOCLUSTER SURVEY: Ly{alpha} BLOBS ARE POWERED BY HEATING, NOT COOLING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the results of a 400 ks Chandra survey of 29 extended Ly{alpha} emitting nebulae (Ly{alpha} Blobs, LABs) in the z = 3.09 protocluster in the SS A22 field. We detect luminous X-ray counterparts in five LABs, implying a large fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in LABs, f{sub AGN} = 17{sup +12}{sub -7}% down to L{sub 2-32keV} {approx} 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. All of the AGN appear to be heavily obscured, with spectral indices implying obscuring column densities of N{sub H} > 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. The AGN fraction should be considered a lower limit, since several more LABs not detected with Chandra show AGN signatures in their mid-infrared (mid-IR) emission. We show that the UV luminosities of the AGN are easily capable of powering the extended Ly{alpha} emission via photoionization alone. When combined with the UV flux from a starburst component, and energy deposited by mechanical feedback, we demonstrate that 'heating' by a central source, rather than gravitational cooling is the most likely power source of LABs. We argue that all LABs could be powered in this manner, but that the luminous host galaxies are often just below the sensitivity limits of current instrumentation, or are heavily obscured. No individual LABs show evidence for extended X-ray emission, and a stack equivalent to a {approx}>9 Ms exposure of an average LAB also yields no statistical detection of a diffuse X-ray component. The resulting diffuse X-ray/Ly{alpha} luminosity limit implies there is no hot (T {approx}> 10{sup 7} K) gas component in these halos, and also rules out inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons, or local far-IR photons, as a viable power source for LABs.

Geach, J. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Matsuda, Y. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Smail, Ian; Bower, R. G. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Scharf, C. A.; Bauer, F. E.; Basu-Zych, A. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, Pupin Laboratories, 550 West 120th Street, Room 1418, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ivison, R. J. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Volonteri, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yamada, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Blain, A. W. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)], E-mail: j.e.geach@durham.ac.uk

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

236

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Homes & Buildings Space Heating & Cooling Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings...

237

Parametric modelling of a bellows heat pipe for electronic component cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 1. Version I: heat transport limits with two layers of 50 mesh. . . . 52 2. Version I: heat transport limits with two layers of 100 mesh. . . . 54 3. Version I: heat transport limits with two layers of 150 mesh. . . . 57 4. Version I: heat... transport limits with two layers of 200 mesh. . . . 59 5. Version I: maximum heat transport at various meshes. 62 6. Version I: maximum heat transport with different number of layers. 64 7. Version I: variation of heat transport with inclination. 8...

Patnaik, Preetam

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

238

Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Health and safety plan (Revision 2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the Health and Safety Plan (HASP) for the demonstration of IITRI`s EM Treatment Technology. In this process, soil is heated in situ by means of electrical energy for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants. This process will be demonstrated on a small plot of contaminated soil located in the Pit Area of Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D, K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, TN. The purpose of the demonstration is to remove organic contaminants present in the soil by heating to a temperature range of 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C. The soil will be heated in situ by applying 60-Hz AC power to an array of electrodes placed in boreholes drilled through the soil. In this section a brief description of the process is given along with a description of the site and a listing of the contaminants found in the area.

Dev, H.

1994-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

239

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication discusses the effects of heat stress on dairy cows, methods of cooling cows, and research on the effects of cooling cows in the dry period....

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

240

Summer HeatSummer Heat Heat stress solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

occur (then drink a lightly salted beverage like a sports drink). The water's temperature should be cool How should gardeners avoid becoming a safety threat to themselves and others when it's hot? Start to the heat. Become a weather watcher. Set up a small weather station (with a high/low thermom eter, rain

Liskiewicz, Maciej

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. Volume II contains all the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output. Both volumes include the complete table of contents and lists of figures and tables. In addition, both volumes include the indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Design Method for the Heating/Cooling Coil in the AHU Based on Fuzzy Logic - Part One: Basic Structure and Characteristics Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An AHU's energy performance is greatly influenced by its heating/cooling coil energy performance, which is also greatly influenced by the different kinds of control methodologies such as PID control and fuzzy logic control. The conventional...

Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Liang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN DAY PERFORMANCE FOR A RESIDENTIAL MODEL IN SIX CLIMATES: A COMPARISON OF NBSLD, BLAST 2, AND DOE-2.1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BLAST DOE-2 (SWF) Annual Cooling Requirements (10 6 Btu)Btu) I'" I NBSLD III DOE-2 (SW'F) DOE-2 (CW'F) DOE-2 (CWF)Heating (1 Annual Total Btu) City Jan HINNEAPOLIS NBSLD

Carroll, William L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Energy costs of heating and cooling homes continue to increase. Both rural and urban homeowners can reduce these costs by strategically planting trees in their landscape. In  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy costs of heating and cooling homes continue to increase. Both rural and urban homeowners can save energy costs while beautifying your property. Summer Cooling: In the summer months we want to keep to the south, we want our south facing windows to be un-obstructed by trees so passive solar energy from

Blanchette, Robert A.

247

High-temperature gas-cooled reactor safety studies for the Division of Accident Evaluation quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modeling, code development, and analyses of the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) continued with work on the side-by-side design. Fission-product release and transport experiments were completed. A description and assessment report on Oak Ridge National Laboratory HTGR safety codes was issued.

Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Harrington, R.M.; Weber, C.F.; Wilson, J.H.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Design and Operation of Fluid Beds for Heating, Cooling and Quenching Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Castings are then normalized and tempered in separate fluid bath furnaces with the entire operation being completed within a few hours of pouring. Fluid baths are also used for cooling of spent sand and for quenching of castings. Trial applications...

Kemp, W. E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Design of passive decay heat removal system for the lead cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The lead-cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor shows many benefits over other fast-reactor designs; however, the higher power rating and denser primary coolant present difficulties for the design of a passive decay ...

Whitman, Joshua (Joshua J.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Design of compact intermediate heat exchangers for gas cooled fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two aspects of an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for GFR service have been investigated: (1) the intrinsic characteristics of the proposed compact printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE); and (2) a specific design optimizing ...

Gezelius, Knut, 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Development of an air-cooled, loop-type heat pipe with multiple condensers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal management challenges are prevalent in various applications ranging from consumer electronics to high performance computing systems. Heat pipes are capillary-pumped devices that take advantage of the latent heat ...

Kariya, H. Arthur (Harumichi Arthur)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Modeled and measured effects of compressor downsizing in an existing air conditioner/heat pump in the cooling mode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is not uncommon to find oversized central air conditioners in residences. HVAC contractors sometimes oversize central air conditioners for one reason or another--some to the point that they may be 100% larger than needed to meet the load. Retrofit measures done to improve house envelope and distribution system efficiency also contribute to HVAC oversizing, as they reduce house heating and cooling loads. Proper sizing of an air conditioner or heat pump allows more efficient operation and provides a more comfortable environment than a highly oversized unit. Another factor that lowers operating efficiency is an improper refrigerant charge. Field inspections have revealed that about half of the units checked were not properly charged. An option available to homeowners with oversized air conditioners is to replace the existing compressor with a smaller, more efficient compressor, rather than purchasing a new, smaller unit. Such a retrofit may be economically justified, especially during a compressor failure, provided the oversizing of the existing unit is not too great. A used, 15-year old, single-package heat pump with a capillary tube expansion device on the indoor coil was purchased and tested in a set of environmental chambers to determine its cooling performance at various conditions. The system was also modeled to estimate its existing performance, and that with two different types of retrofitted state-of-the-art (SOA) efficient compressors with about 30% less capacity than the original compressor. This reduced the overall system cooling capacity by about 25%. Modeling estimated that the retrofit would increase system EER at 95 F by 30%, SEER by 34%, and reduce power demand by 39% compared to the existing unit. Reduced cycling losses account for the higher increase in SEER.

Levins, W.P.; Rice, C.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Turbulent heat transfer and friction in a segmental channel that simulates leading-edge cooling channels of modern turbine blades  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER AND FRICTION IN A SEGMENTAL CkhQPKL THAT SIMULATES LEADING-EDGE COOLING C~LS OF MODERN TURBINE BLADES A Thesis by RODNEY BRIAN SPENCE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University m partial... Thesis by RODNEY BRIAN SPENCE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: S. C. Lau (Chair of Committee...

Spence, Rodney Brian

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Commissioning Process and Operational Improvement in the District Heating and Cooling-APCBC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-09-25 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 18 Energy simulation In case of the variable cooling water flow system, the cooling water outlet temperature should be a parameter...,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 2012/10/072012/10/28 2012/11/18 2012/12/09 2012/12/30 2/24 ? 3/2 C o n su m ed e le ct ri ci ty p er h ea t u n it [ k W h /G J ] Variable water flow control Cooling tower fun Chilled...

Takase,T.; Takada,O; Shima,K.; Moriya, M.; Shimoda,Y.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Preliminary Retro-Commissioning Study on Optimal Operation for the Heat Source System of a District Heating Cooling Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating Water Suuply Chilled Water Return Heating Water Return To User New System ESL-IC-08-10-57 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 2 attract attention due..., R6 450 1, 1 ESL-IC-08-10-57 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 3 (one office building and one building with hotel rooms and leisure facilities) since November...

Shingu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.; Ono, E.

260

Heat transfer in the trailing edge cooling channels of turbine blades  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Foundation and from the funded research contract (RF5810) through Dr. Han. NOMENCLATURE A area of heat transfer in the pin fin channel AI, area of heat transfer in the long ejection segments Az cross-sectional area, of trailing edge ejection holes A..., ?minimum flow cross-sectional area in the pin fin channel C'~ discharge coefficient Cp specific heat of air 1 diameter of trailing edge ejection holes D diameter of pins f overall friction factor h?heat transfer coefficient in the n th segment...

Kumaran, T. K.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Cylinder wall waste heat recovery from liquid-cooled internal combustion engines utilizing thermoelectric generators.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This report is a dissertation proposal that focuses on the energy balance within an internal combustion engine with a unique coolant-based waste heat recovery… (more)

Armstead, John Randall

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy consumption. EPRI translates these projections into3 Technology Choices in EPRI's Model of Space Heating andPower Research Institute (EPRI) [1984]: "Household Appliance

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

FEMP case study overview of the geothermal/ground source heat pump project at the U.S. Army Fort Knox Disney Barracks.

Not Available

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concepts for space heating using remote col- lection withheating systems in terms of the fan owing matrix: DIRECT INDIRECT ISOLATED SOUTH APERTURE SHADED ROOF APERTURE ROOF APERTURE REMOTE

Authors, Various

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE`s mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studied in this thesis is the chilled water system at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW Airport). This system has the problem of low delta-T under low cooling loads. When the chilled water flow is much lower than the design conditions at low...

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

268

Impact of urban heat island on cooling and environment: A demonstration project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Landscaping has been shown in simulation and field studies to reduce building cooling loads by affecting microclimatic factors such as solar radiation, wind speed and air temperature. A demonstration project was undertaken to determine the magnitude of landscape induced changes in microclimate on building cooling loads and water use on four typical residences in Phoenix, Arizona. The energy use and microclimate of three unlandscaped (bare soil, rock mulch) and one landscaped (turf) home were monitored during summer 1990. In the fall, turf was placed around one of the unlandscaped houses, and shade trees planted on the west and south sides of another. Measurements continued during the summer of 1991. Total house air conditioning and selected appliance electrical data were collected, as well as inside and outside air temperatures. Detailed microclimate measurements were obtained for one to two week periods during both summers. Maximum reductions of hourly outside air temperatures of 1 to 1.5{degrees}C, and of daily average air temperatures of up to 1{degrees}C, resulted from the addition of turf landscaping. Addition of small trees to the south and west sides of another treatment did not have a noticeable effect on air temperature. Cooling load reductions of 10% to 17% were observed between years when well-watered turf landscaping was added to a house previously surrounded by bare soil. Addition of small trees to another bare landscape did not produce a detectable change in cooling load. The results of the study are used as input to a standard building energy use simulation model to predict landscape effects on cooling load and water usage for three typical houses, and to develop guidelines for use of energy efficient residential landscapes in Phoenix, Arizona.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Insights into gas heating and cooling in the disc of NGC 891 from Herschel far-infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy of the most important far-infrared cooling lines in the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 891: [CII] 158 $\\mu$m, [NII] 122, 205 $\\mu$m, [OI] 63, 145 $\\mu$m, and [OIII] 88 $\\mu$m. We find that the photoelectric heating efficiency of the gas, traced via the ([CII]+[OII]63)/$F_{\\mathrm{TIR}}$ ratio, varies from a mean of 3.5$\\times$10$^{-3}$ in the centre up to 8$\\times$10$^{-3}$ at increasing radial and vertical distances in the disc. A decrease in ([CII]+[OII]63)/$F_{\\mathrm{TIR}}$ but constant ([CII]+[OI]63)/$F_{\\mathrm{PAH}}$ with increasing FIR colour suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may become important for gas heating in the central regions. We compare the observed flux of the FIR cooling lines and total IR emission with the predicted flux from a PDR model to determine the gas density, surface temperature and the strength of the incident far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, $G_{0}$. Resolving details on physical scales of ~0.6 kpc, a p...

Hughes, T M; Schirm, M R P; Parkin, T J; De Looze, I; Wilson, C D; Bendo, G J; Baes, M; Fritz, J; Boselli, A; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Karczewski, O ?; Lebouteiller, V; Lu, N; Madden, S C; Spinoglio, L; Viaene, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Effervescent heating: constraints from nearby cooling flow clusters observed with XMM-Newton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used deprojected radial density and temperature profiles of a sample of 16 nearby CF clusters observed with XMM-Newton to test whether the effervescent heating model can satisfactorily explain the dynamics of CF clusters. For each cluster we derived the required extra heating as a function of cluster-centric distance for various values of the unknown parameters $\\dot M$ (mass deposition rate) and $f_c$ (conduction efficiency). We fitted the extra heating curve using the AGN effervescent heating function and derived the AGN parameters $L$ (the time-averaged luminosity) and $r_0$ (the scale radius where the bubbles start rising in the ICM). While we do not find any solution with the effervescent heating model for only one object, we do show that AGN and conduction heating are not cooperating effectively for half of the objects in our sample. For most of the clusters we find that, when a comparison is possible, the derived AGN scale radius $r_0$ and the observed AGN jet extension have the same order of magnitude. The AGN luminosities required to balance radiative losses are substantially lowered if the fact that the AGN deposits energy within a finite volume is taken into account. For the Virgo cluster, we find that the AGN power derived from the effervescent heating model is in good agreement with the observed jet power.

Rocco Piffaretti; Jelle Kaastra

2006-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

271

Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop Study for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermal-hydraulic and cycleefficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermal-hydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. This paper also includes a portion of stress analyses performed on pipe configurations.

C. H. Oh; C. Davis; S. Sherman

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Experimental Study of Gas Turbine Blade Film Cooling and Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modern gas turbine engines require higher turbine-entry gas temperature to improve their thermal efficiency and thereby their performance. A major accompanying concern is the heat-up of the turbine components which are already subject to high...

Narzary, Diganta P.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

273

Movable insulation. A guide to reducing heating and cooling losses through the windows in your home  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A typical house loses 25 to 30% of its heat through windows, and a house with large windows may lose as much as 50%. Numerous movable-insulation systems that will cut the heat loss through windows in half are described. Chapters are: The Energy-Responsive Dwelling, Past to Present; Window Heat Losses and Gains; Enhanced Glazing Systems; Choosing a Window-Insulation Design for Your Home; Pop-In Shutters; Thermal Curtains - Blankets that Fold; Thermal Shades - Blankets that Roll; Thermal Shutters and Folding Screens; Insulation Between Glazing and Interior Louvers; Exterior Hinged and Sliding Shutters; Sun-Shading Screens; Exterior Roll Shutters; Shutters for Skylights; Shutters for Clerestory Windows; Interior Greenhouse Insulation Systems; Exterior Insulation for Greenhouses; Movable Insulation to Assist Passive Space Heating; and Movable Insulation to Assist Solar Water Heaters. Appendices include the following: insulated shade and shutter construction; the economics of window insulation; movable insulation products, hardware, and components; further technical information; and design sources. (MCW)

Langdon, W.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Near-wall reaction effects on film-cooled surface heat transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As commercial and military aircraft engines approach higher total temperatures and increasing overall fuel-to-air ratios, there exists a potential for significant heat release to occur in the turbine if energetic species ...

Kirk, Daniel Robert, 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Home Heating Anderson [21 Oil Price Electric Share Gas ShareBaughman and Joskow [3] Oil Price Gas Price Lin, Hirst,and Cohn [10] Gas Price Oil Price Hartman and Hollyer [8] (

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Energy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: Results from human subject tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for thermal comfort. Energy and Buildings 2002;34:593-9.IEA. Technology Roadmap. Energy-efficient Buildings: HeatingH, Arens E, Webster T. Energy Savings from Extended Air

Pasut, Wilmer; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Ed; Zhai, Yongchao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geothermal reservoir. Greif provides a review of the use of applications of natural circulation to the cooling

Scarlat, Raluca Olga

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decommissioning. For example, methodologies that are common practice for the safety analysis of nuclear

Scarlat, Raluca Olga

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.

Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B

1980-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

280

Heat resistance and outgrowth of clostridium perfringens spores as affected by the type of heating medium, and heating and cooling rates in ground pork  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and cured ground pork (CGP) at 75ºC. The effect of the heating rate on HR, germination and outgrowth of C. perfringens spores in CGP was determined by increasing the temperature from 20 to 75ºC at a rate of 4, 8, and 12ºC/h prior to heating and holding at 75...

Marquez Gonzalez, Mayra

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The evaporative cooling principle applies to all equipment that exchanges sensible heat for latent heat. Equipment of this type falls into two general categories: (1) equipment for heat rejection, such as cooling towers and (2) equipment for air...

Meyer, J. R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

FLUID-COOLED HEAT SINK WITH IMPROVED FIN AREAS AND EFFICENCIES FOR USE IN  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. TheEPSCI Home It isGasERP Submit anHallCOOLING VARIOUS

283

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Heat Transfer Performance of a Dry and Wet / Dry Advanced Cooling Tower Condenser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

phase change pilot plant (0.6 MWth) located at UCC/Linde. The first unit consisted of integral shaved-fin-extruded aluminum tubing designed for dry operation. Heat transfer and air-side pressure loss characteristics were measured under varying air face...

Fricke, H. D.; Webster, D. J.; McIlroy, K.; Bartz, J. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Impact of Climate Change Heating and Cooling Energy Use in Buildings in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the change in outdoor conditions [3, 4]. In 2010, building energy consumption accounted for 41% of the total activities in buildings. One area directly affected by climate change is the energy consumption for heating on future energy uses. There would be a net increase in source energy consumption by the 2080s for climate

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

287

Coordination and management tasks for the IEA solar heating and cooling program and CCMS solar energy pilot study. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the project entitled, Coordination/Management Tasks for the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program and CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study, was to provide support to DOE in connection with the afore-named multilateral cooperative projects. The work included both management assistance for the overall IEA and CCMS projects and technical involvement in IEA Task I, particularly the solar system performance validation effort. The final report, covering the period March 15, 1979 - September 30, 1980, provides an overview of the accomplishments under this contract and gives conclusions and recommendations for future work. Also included in this document is the final project status report for the period May 15, 1980 to September 30, 1980.

Blum, S B; Kennish, W J

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Single Channel Testing for Characterization of the Direct Gas Cooled Reactor and the SAFE-100 Heat Exchanger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments have been designed to characterize the coolant gas flow in two space reactor concepts that are currently under investigation by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory: the direct-drive gas-cooled reactor (DDG) and the SAFE-100 heatpipe-cooled reactor (HPR). For the DDG concept, initial tests have been completed to measure pressure drop versus flow rate for a prototypic core flow channel, with gas exiting to atmospheric pressure conditions. The experimental results of the completed DDG tests presented in this paper validate the predicted results to within a reasonable margin of error. These tests have resulted in a re-design of the flow annulus to reduce the pressure drop. Subsequent tests will be conducted with the re-designed flow channel and with the outlet pressure held at 150 psi (1 MPa). Design of a similar test for a nominal flow channel in the HPR heat exchanger (HPR-HX) has been completed and hardware is currently being assembled for testing this channel at 150 psi. When completed, these test programs will provide the data necessary to validate calculated flow performance for these reactor concepts (pressure drop and film temperature rise)

Bragg-Sitton, S.M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Propulsion Research Center, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Kapernick, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Godfroy, T.J. [Propulsion Research Center, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2004-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

289

Proceedings of the international ANS/ENS topical meeting on thermal reactor safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book presents the papers given at a conference on reactor safety. Topics considered at the conference included containment, fission product release, safety injection, reactor instrumentation, thermal-hydraulic analyses, reactor safety experiments, meltdowns, gas production rates, computerized simulation, occupational safety, human factors engineering, emergency plans, emergency core cooling systems, reactor licensing, after-heat removal, RHR systems, risk assessment, probability, fuel-cladding interactions, safety standards, and molten metal-water interactions.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Novel Controls for Time-Dependent Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling Heating and Power (CCHP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research and development effort detailed in this report directly addresses the challenge of reducing U.S. industrial energy and carbon intensity by contributing to an increased understanding of potential CCHP technology, the CCHP market and the challenges of widespread adoption. This study developed a number of new tools, models, and approaches for the design, control, and optimal dispatch of various CCHP technologies. The UC Irvine campus served as a ‘living laboratory’ of new CCHP technologies and enabled the design and demonstration of several novel control methods. In particular, the integration of large scale thermal energy storage capable of shifting an entire day of cooling demand required a novel approach to the CCHP dispatch optimization. The thermal energy storage proved an economically viable resource which reduced both costs and emissions by enabling generators and chillers to operate under steady high efficiency conditions at all times of the day.

Samuelsen, Scott; Brouwer, Jack

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

High Efficiency Adsorption Chillers: High Efficiency Adsorption Cooling Using Metal Organic Heat Carriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: PNNL is incorporating significant improvements in materials that adsorb liquids or gases to design more efficient adsorption chillers. An adsorption chiller is a type of air conditioner that is powered by heat, solar or waste heat, or combustion of natural gas. Unlike typical chillers, this type has few moving parts and uses almost no electricity to operate. PNNL is designing adsorbent materials at the molecular level with at least 3 times higher refrigerant capacity and up to 20 times faster kinetics than adsorbents used in current chillers. By using the new adsorbent, PNNL is able to create a chiller that is significantly smaller, has twice the energy efficiency, and lower costs for materials and assembly time compared to conventional adsorption chillers.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Film cooling and heat transfer of steam through an inclined injection hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transfer coefficient at blowing rate M 0. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 NOMENCLATURE Symbol Description area circumference of the cross sectional area Cp D E, , Es, Es drag coefficient specific heat diameter of the injection hole minor... the experimental data at low blowing rates; however, the extension to higher injection rates is not correct, and an injected fluid other than air is not discussed. Goldstein [2] reviewed a number of semi- empirical correlations and predictions for two...

Chen, Hun Way

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquid flibe, a high Prandtl number coolant with high volumetric heat capacity,liquid flibe, a high Prandtl number coolant with high volumetric heat capacityliquid fluoride salts, which are high Pradtl number fluids with high volumetric heat capacity,

Scarlat, Raluca Olga

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...

297

Experimental study of gas turbine blade film cooling and internal turbulated heat transfer at large Reynolds numbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Blade Span under No Wake .....52 3.5.2. Showerhead Film Cooling Effectiveness under No Wake.................................56 3.5.3. Film Cooling Effectiveness on Blade Span without Showerhead Ejection and without Wake... ..............................................................................................59 3.5.4. Film Cooling Effectiveness Distribution from Individual Row Ejection..........62 3.5.5. Effect of Stationary, Unsteady Wake on Full Coverage Film Cooling Effectiveness...

Mhetras, Shantanu

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

298

Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 1, Cooling season  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer, Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

Miller, J.D.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Experimental Study of the Effect of Graphite Dispersion on the Heat Transfer Phenomena in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental activity was performed to observe and study the effects of graphite dispersion and deposition on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The small-scale RCCS experimental facility (16.5 x 16.5 x 30.4 cm) used for this activity represents half of the reactor cavity with an electrically heated vessel. Water flowing through five vertical pipes removes the heat produced in the vessel and releases it into the environment by mixing with cold water in a large tank. The particle image velocimetry technique was used to study the velocity field of the air inside the cavity. A set of 52 thermocouples was installed in the facility to monitor the temperature profiles of the vessel, pipe walls, and air. Ten grams of a fine graphite powder (average particle size 2 m) was injected into the cavity through a spraying nozzle placed at the bottom of the vessel. The temperatures and air velocity field were recorded and compared with the measurements obtained before the graphite dispersion, showing a decrease of the temperature surfaces that was related to an increase in their emissivity. The results contribute to the understanding of RCCS capability in an accident scenario.

Rodolfo Vaghetto; Luigi Capone; Yassin A. Hassan

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

The effect of injection hole geometry on flat plate film cooling and heat transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conducted at 50 000 Reynolds number , wi th bo th a ir and C02 inject ion and at f our b lowing ratios for r\\ and a l l five b lowing ratios for h . Each slot con f igurat ion was designed to give a total cross-sectional area equal to that of the holes... Averaged Heat Trans fer Coeff icient Ratio for 45? Hole Injection 20 approx imate ly 1.05. In contrast to 0? hole injection, 45? hole inject ion projects a larger cross-sect ional area to the mainf low, wh i ch results i n h igher turbu lence...

Madsen, Eric Perry

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Heating Up While Staying Cool? | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 IndustrialIsadore Perlman,Bios High EnergyEliane SJulyFrequentlyGrandHeating Up

302

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, January--February 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

303

J. Phys. Chsm. 1960, 84, 2685-2688 2685 adsorption after heating to 300.0 "C then cooling to 60.0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Phys. Chsm. 1960, 84, 2685-2688 2685 adsorption after heating to 300.0 "C then cooling to 60 in a solution. First, the per- turbation is induced in a very short time-on the order of 6-10 ns-with a nitrogen-pumped

Zare, Richard N.

304

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 477483 (2006) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10680.x Magnetars as cooling neutron stars with internal heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the effects of magnetic fields on thermal conduction and neutrino emission. In the blanket- ing envelope We study thermal structure and evolution of magnetars as cooling neutron stars with a phe as the heating rate that could explain high observable thermal luminosities of magnetars and would be consistent

Gnedin, Oleg Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

± 10.5 1 ) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 14.6 [± 12.4]± 4.0) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 25.5 [± 12.2]Primary Energy Space Heating Space Cooling Figure 2: Higher space conditioning end-use energy consumption

Blum, Helcio

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: A survey of decision makers in the HVAC market place. Survey instruments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Telephone screener questionnaires and mail-out questionnaires for marketing surveys for solar heating and cooling equipment are presented. Questionnaires are included for the residential segment, industrial segment, HVAC professionals segment, builder/developer segment, and the commercial segment. No results are reported. (WHK)

Lilien, G. L.; Johnston, P. E.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

The impact of different climates on window and skylight design for daylighting and passive cooling and heating in residential buildings: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study aims to explore the effect of different climates on window and skylight design in residential buildings. The study house is evaluated against climates that have design opportunities for passive systems, with emphasis on passive cooling. The study applies a variety of methods to evaluate the design. It has found that earth sheltering and night ventilation have the potential to provide 12--29% and 25--77% of the cooling requirements respectively for the study house in the selected climates. The reduction of the glazing area from 174 ft{sup 2} to 115 ft{sup 2} has different impacts on the cooling energy cost in the different climates. In climates such Fresno and Tucson, one should put the cooling energy savings as a priority for window design, particularly when determining the window size. In other climates such as Albuquerque, the priority of window design should be first given to heating savings requirements.

Al-Sallal, K.A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Thermal stability of a spherical shell heated by convection and cooled by boiling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), assume an equilibrium tem- perature T (r). To this add a perturbation term e aT(r, t) = e f(r), then T(r, t) = Te(r) + e f(r) and instability occurs for positive values of a. Substituting equation (5) into equations (2) ~ (3) and (4...), and remembering the linear property of the boundary value problem, eventually ( 2 der ) a 2 f ( ) 0 dr dr -k ~df r gqi(T(r, t)) aT f(r) r=rl k~df r ' r2 pq2(T(r, t)) bT f( ) r=r2 If the heat transfer is non-linear, it is proper to define the coefficients...

Qaim-Maqami, Hassan

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Investigating the use of nanofluids to improve high heat flux cooling systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermal performance of high heat flux components in a fusion reactor could be enhanced significantly by the use of nanofluid coolants, suspensions of a liquid with low concentrations of solid nanoparticles. However, before they are considered viable for fusion, the long-term behaviour of nanofluids must be investigated. This paper reports an experiment which is being prepared to provide data on nanofluid stability, settling and erosion in a HyperVapotron device. Procedures are demonstrated for nanofluid synthesis and quality assessment, and the fluid sample analysis methods are described. The end results from this long-running experiment are expected to allow an initial assessment of the suitability of nanofluids as coolants in a fusion reactor.

Barrett, T R; Flinders, K; Sergis, A; Hardalupas, Y

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

Leung, V.T.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety. The Accident at TEPCO’s Fukushima Nuclear Power2: Accident and Thermal Fluids Analysis PIRTs. (Nuclearmolten nuclear reactor core debris following accidents such

Scarlat, Raluca Olga

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported.

Maraman, W.J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

High-temperature gas-cooled reactor safety studies for the division of accident evaluation. Quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work continued on high-temperature gas-cooled reactor safety code development, including both the Fort St. Vrain and the 2240-MW(t) lead plant versions of the three-dimensional core code ORECA, the BLAST steam generator code, and a simplified core model code called SCORE. Oak Ridge National Laboratory participated in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission siting study for the lead plant with three other laboratories. Investigations continued to determine the status of fission-product source-term methodology applicable to postulated severe accidents.

Ball, S.J.; Clapp, N.E. Jr.; Cleveland, J.C.; Conklin, J.C.; Harrington, R.M.; Lindemer, T.B.; Siman-Tov, I.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Radiant cooling research scoping study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

61–65° F (16–18°C) cooling supply air temperatures requiredprovide appropriate cooling with supply water no cooler thancirculation of the cooling/heating supply water through the

Moore, Timothy; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Cooling/heating augmentation during turbine startup/shutdown using a seal positioned by thermal response of turbine parts and consequent relative movement thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a turbine rotor, a thermal mismatch between various component parts of the rotor occurs particularly during transient operations such as shutdown and startup. A thermal medium flows past and heats or cools one part of the turbine which may have a deleterious thermal mismatch with another part. By passively controlling the flow of cooling medium past the one part in response to relative movement of thermally responsive parts of the turbine, the flow of thermal medium along the flow path can be regulated to increase or reduce the flow, thereby to regulate the temperature of the one part to maintain the thermal mismatch within predetermined limits.

Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

A STUDY OF HEATING AND COOLING OF THE ISM IN NGC 1097 WITH HERSCHEL-PACS AND SPITZER-IRS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NGC 1097 is a nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy with a bright circumnuclear starburst ring, a strong large-scale bar, and an active nucleus. We present a detailed study of the spatial variation of the far-infrared (FIR) [C II]158 {mu}m and [O I]63 {mu}m lines and mid-infrared H{sub 2} emission lines as tracers of gas cooling, and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands as tracers of the photoelectric heating, using Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS infrared spectral maps. We focus on the nucleus and the ring, and two star-forming regions (Enuc N and Enuc S). We estimated a photoelectric gas heating efficiency ([C II]158 {mu}m+[O I]63 {mu}m)/PAH in the ring about 50% lower than in Enuc N and S. The average 11.3/7.7 {mu}m PAH ratio is also lower in the ring, which may suggest a larger fraction of ionized PAHs, but no clear correlation with [C II]158 {mu}m/PAH(5.5-14 {mu}m) is found. PAHs in the ring are responsible for a factor of two more [C II]158 {mu}m and [O I]63 {mu}m emission per unit mass than PAHs in the Enuc S. spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling indicates that at most 25% of the FIR power in the ring and Enuc S can come from high-intensity photodissociation regions (PDRs), in which case G{sub 0} {approx} 10{sup 2.3} and n{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 3.5} cm{sup -3} in the ring. For these values of G{sub 0} and n{sub H}, PDR models cannot reproduce the observed H{sub 2} emission. Much of the H{sub 2} emission in the starburst ring could come from warm regions in the diffuse interstellar medium that are heated by turbulent dissipation or shocks.

Beirao, P.; Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Helou, G. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Appleton, P. N. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smith, J.-D. T.; Croxall, K. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mail Drop 111, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Murphy, E. J. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Dale, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wolfire, M. G.; Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Sandstrom, K. M.; Groves, B.; Schinnerer, E.; Rix, H.-W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandl, B. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Crocker, A. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hinz, J. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kennicutt, R. C., E-mail: pedro@ipac.caltech.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

SAFETY MARGINS CONFIDENCE ESTIMATION FOR A PASSIVE RESIDUAL HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are traditionally performed for the verification of the safety performance of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) under, Italy enrico.zio@polimi.it 2 INET, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology Tsinghua University, Beijing,100084, China ABSTRACT For licensing purposes, safety cases of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) must

Boyer, Edmond

319

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

320

MODELS OF THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM WITH HEATING AND COOLING: EXPLAINING THE GLOBAL AND STRUCTURAL X-RAY PROPERTIES OF CLUSTERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling or entropy injection (and/or redistribution) plays a central role in mediating the thermal in excess of observationally estab- lished limits. On the other hand, the simplest entropy-injection models consider models that marry radiative cooling with entropy injection, and confront model predictions

Balogh, Michael L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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321

Cooling load estimation methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Ferrocyanide safety program: Heat load and thermal characteristics determination for selected tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis was conducted to determine the heat loads, conductivities, and heat distributions of waste tanks 241-BY-105, -106, -108, -110, -111, and 241-C-109 at the Hanford Site. The heat distribution of tank 241-BY-111 was determined to be homogeneously distributed throughout the sludge contained in the tank. All of the other tanks, with the exception of 241-C-109, showed evidence of a heat-producing layer at the bottom of the tanks. No evidence of a heat-producing layer in a position above the bottom was found. The thermal conductivities were determined to be within the ranges found by previous laboratory and computer analysis. The heat loads of the tanks were found to be below 2.81 kW (9,600 Btu/hr).

McLaren, J.M.; Cash, R.J.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Heat rejection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

A pre-feasibility study to assess the potential of Open Loop Ground Source Heat to heat and cool the proposed Earth Science Systems Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................................1 1.2. History of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems................................................3 1.3. Components of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems..........................................3 1.4. Types of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems ................................................4 1.5. The Earth Systems Science

326

An Improved Procedure for Developing a Calibrated Hourly Simulation Model of an Electrically Heated and Cooled Commercial Buildling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lighting, energy efficient heat pumps, a photovoltaic system, envelope measures, and a solar domestic water heating system. To accomplish this, a DOE-2 baseline model was calibrated to the measured hourly data and compared to a building model constructed...

Bou-Saada, Tarek Edmond

327

Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

328

Analysis of Thermally Induced Changes in Fractured Rock Permeability during Eight Years of Heating and Cooling at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyzed a data set of thermally induced changes in fractured rock permeability during a four-year heating (up to 200 C) and subsequent four-year cooling of a large volume, partially saturated and highly fractured volcanic tuff at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test, in Nevada, USA. Permeability estimates were derived from about 700 pneumatic (air-injection) tests, taken periodically at 44 packed-off borehole intervals during the heating and cooling cycle from November 1997 through November 2005. We analyzed air-permeability data by numerical modeling of thermally induced stress and moisture movements and their impact on air permeability within the highly fractured rock. Our analysis shows that changes in air permeability during the initial four-year heating period, which were limited to about one order of magnitude, were caused by the combined effects of thermal-mechanically-induced stress on fracture aperture and thermal-hydrologically-induced changes in fracture moisture content. At the end of the subsequent four-year cooling period, air-permeability decreases (to as low as 0.2 of initial) and increases (to as high as 1.8 of initial) were observed. By comparison to the calculated thermo-hydro-elastic model results, we identified these remaining increases or decreases in air permeability as irreversible changes in intrinsic fracture permeability, consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). In this paper, we discuss the possibility that such fracture asperity shortening and associated decrease in fracture permeability might be enhanced by dissolution of highly stressed surface asperities over years of elevated stress and temperature.

Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Min, K.-B.; Elsworth, D.; Tsang, Y.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Dry/wet performance of a plate-fin air-cooled heat exchanger with continuous corrugated fins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger in dry/wet or deluge operations was experimentally determined. Development of the deluge heat/mass transfer model continued. The experiments were conducted in a specially-designed wind tunnel at the PNL. Air that was first heated and humidified to specified conditions was circulated at a controlled rate through a 2 ft x 6 ft heat exchanger module. The heat exchanger used in the tests was a wavy surface, plate fin on tube configuration. Hot water was circulated through the tubes at high flow rates to maintain an essentially isothermal condition on the tube side. Deionized water sprayed on the top of the vertically oriented plate fins was collected at the bottom of the core and recirculated. Instrumentation was provided for measurement of flow rates and thermodynamic conditions in the air, in the core circulation water, and in the deluge water. Measurements of the air side pressure drop and heat rejection rate were made as a function of air flow rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, deluge water flow rate, and the core inclination from the vertical. An overall heat transfer coefficient and an effective deluge film convective coefficient was determined. The deluge model, for predicting heat transfer from a wet finned heat exchanger was further developed and refined, and a major extension of the model was formulated that permits simultaneous calculation of both the heat transfer and evaporation rates from the wetted surface. The experiments showed an increase in the heat rejection rate due to wetting, accompanied by a proportional increase in the air side pressure drop. For operation at the same air side pressure drop, the enhancement ratio Q/sub w//Q/sub d/ varied between 2 and 5 for the conditions tested. Thus, the potential enhancement of heat transfer due to wetting can be substantial.

Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facility at a prototypic scale in the lateral direction and about half scale in the vertical direction. Because, by necessity, the scaling is based on a number of approximations, and because no analytical information is available on the performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS, the scaling analysis presented here needs to be 'validated' by analysis of the steady state and transient performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS design. The analysis of the RCCS performance by CFD and system codes presents a number of challenges including: strong 3-D effects in the cavity and the RCCS tubes; simulation of turbulence in flows characterized by natural circulation, high Rayleigh numbers and low Reynolds numbers; validity of heat transfer correlations for system codes for heat transfer in the cavity and the annulus of the RCCS tubes; the potential of nucleate boiling in the tubes; water flashing in the upper section of the RCCS return line (during limiting transient); and two-phase flow phenomena in the water tanks. The limited simulation of heat transfer in cavities presented in Section 4.0, strongly underscores the need of experimental work to validate CFD codes, and heat transfer correlations for system codes, and to support the analysis and design of the RCCS. Based on the conclusions of the scaling analysis, a schematic that illustrates key attributes of the experiment system is shown in Fig. 4. This system contains the same physical elements as the PBMR RCCS, plus additional equipment to facilitate data gathering to support code validation. In particular, the prototype consists of a series of oval standpipes surrounding the reactor vessel to provide cooling of the reactor cavity during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. The standpipes are headered (in groups of four in the prototype) to water supply (header) tanks that are situated well above the reactor vessel to facilitate natural convection cooling during a loss of forced flow event. During normal operations, the water is pumped from a heat sink located outside the containment to the headered inlets to the standpipes. The water is then delivered to each standpipe through a centrally located downcomer that passes the coolant to the bottom of each pipe. The water then turns 180{sup o} and rises up through the annular gap while extracting heat from the reactor cavity due to a combination of natural convection and radiation across the gap between the reactor vessel and standpipes. The water exits the standpipes at the top where it is headered (again in groups of four) into a return line that passes the coolant to the top of the header tank. Coolant is drawn from each tank through a fitting located near the top of the tank where it flows to the heat rejection system located outside the containment. This completes the flow circuit for normal operations. During off-normal conditions, forced convection water cooling in the RCCS is presumed to be lost, as well as the ultimate heat sink outside the containment. In this case, water is passively drawn from an open line located at the bottom of the header tank. This line is orificed so that flow bypass during normal operations is small, yet the line is large enough to provide adequate flow during passive operations to remove decay heat while maintaining acceptable fuel temperatures. In the passive operating mode, water flows by natural convection from the bottom of the supply tank to the standpipes, and returns through the normal pathway to the top of the tanks. After the water reaches saturation and boiling commences, steam will pass through the top of the tanks and be vented to atmosphere. In the experiment system shown in Fig. 4, a steam condensation and collection system is included to quantify the boiling rate, thereby providing additional validation data. This sys

Tzanos, C.P.; Farmer, M.T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, P.A.; Lindberg, F.A.; Garcen, W.

2000-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

334

Heat pump simulation model and optimal variable-speed control for a wide range of cooling conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The steady-state air-to-air heat pump model presented in this thesis was developed from the first principles. The main objective was to develop a heat pump model that can be used as a part of larger simulation models, and ...

Zakula, Tea

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Investigation of vessel exterior air cooling for a HLMC reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) concept under development at Argonne National Laboratory provides a small (300 MWt) reactor module for steam supply that incorporates design features to attain proliferation resistance, heightened passive safety, and improved cost competitiveness through extreme simplification. Examples are the achievement of 100%+ natural circulation heat removal from the low power density/low pressure drop ultra-long lifetime core and utilization of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant enabling elimination of main coolant pumps as well as the need for an intermediate heat transport circuit. It is required to provide a passive means of removing decay heat and effecting reactor cooldown in the event that the normal steam generator heat sink, including its normal shutdown heat removal mode, is postulated to be unavailable. In the present approach, denoted as the Reactor Exterior Cooling System (RECS), passive decay heat removal is provided by cooling the outside of the containment/guard vessel with air. RECS is similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) incorporated into the PRISM design. However, to enhance the heat removal, RECS incorporates fins on the containment vessel exterior to enhance heat transfer to air as well as removable steel venetian conductors that provide a conduction heat transfer path across the reactor vessel-containment vessel gap to enhance heat transfer between the vessels. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of air cooling in removing heat from the vessel and limiting the coolant temperature increase following a sudden complete loss of the steam generator heat sink.

Sienicki, J. J.; Spencer, B. W.

2000-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

336

Investigation of vessel exterior air cooling for an HLMC reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The secure transportable autonomous reactor (STAR) concept under development at Argonne National Laboratory provides a small [300-MW(thermal)] reactor module for steam supply that incorporates design features to attain proliferation resistance, heightened passive safety, and improved cost competitiveness through extreme simplification. Examples are the achievement of 100% + natural-circulation heat removal from the low-power-density/low-pressure-drop ultralong lifetime core and utilization of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant enabling elimination of main coolant pumps as well as the need for an intermediate heat transport circuit. It is required to provide a passive means of removing decay heat and effecting reactor cooldown in the event that the normal steam generator heat sink, including its normal shutdown heat removal mode, is postulated to be unavailable. In the present approach, denoted as the reactor exterior cooling system (RECS), passive decay heat removal is provided by cooling the outside of the containment/guard vessel with air. RECS is similar to the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) incorporated into the PRISM design. However, to enhance the heat removal, RECS incorporates fins on the containment vessel exterior to enhance heat transfer to air as well as removable steel venetian conductors that provide a conduction heat transfer path across the reactor vessel-containment vessel gap to enhance heat transfer between the vessels. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of air cooling in removing heat from the vessel and limiting the coolant temperature increase following a sudden complete loss of the steam generator heat sink.

Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

339

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fraction (SPF) of cooling Supply Plenum SPF heat transfer bythrough the supply ple- Figure 2: Design day cooling loadsupply represent the????????????????????????????????????????????? air temperature, diffuser type and number, room setpoint instantaneous cooling

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder. Volume 2. Reactor safety assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The safety features of the reference fission suppressed fusion breeder reactor are presented. These include redundancy and overcapacity in primary coolant system components to minimize failure probability, an improved valve location logic to provide for failed component isolation, and double-walled coolant piping and steel guard vessel protection to further limit the extent of any leak. In addition to the primary coolant and decay heat removal system, reactor safety systems also include an independent shield cooling system, the module safety/fuel transfer coolant system, an auxiliary first wall cooling system, a psssive dump tank cooling system based on the use of heat pipes, and several lithium fire suppression systems. Safety system specifications are justified based on the results of thermal analysis, event tree construction, consequence calculations, and risk analysis. The result is a reactor design concept with an acceptably low probability of a major radioactivity release. Dose consequences of maximum credible accidents appear to be below 10CFR100 regulatory limits.

Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.; Garner, J.K.; Bradbury, S.J.; Steele, W.G.; Berwald, D.H.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Design of an experimental loop for post-LOCA heat transfer regimes in a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this thesis is to design an experimental thermal-hydraulic loop capable of generating accurate, reliable data in various convection heat transfer regimes for use in the formulation of a comprehensive convection ...

Cochran, Peter A. (Peter Andrew)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Cool Links  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Links Explore Science Explore Explore these Topics Activities Videos Cool Links Favorite Q&A invisible utility element Cool Links Los Alamos National Laboratory links Los...

346

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

Matson, J.

347

Peak Heating/Cooling Load Design Methods: How We Got To Where We Are Today In The U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

 textile  mills  in  N.C., which became widely adapted as the terminology that described artificial cooling system (Donaldson et al., 1994). #3; Proceedings of BS2013: 13th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Chambéry... ,Q#3; #20;#27;#19;#20;#15;#3; WKH#3; (QJOLVK#3; FKHPLVW#15;#3; PHWHRURORJLVW#3; DQG#3; SK\\VLFLVW#15;#3; -RKQ#3; 'DOWRQ#3; #11;#20;#26;#25;#25;#16;#20;#27;#23;#23;#12;#15;#3; LQWURGXFHG#3; WKH#3; FRQFHSW#3; RI#3; ³SDUWLDO#3; SUHVVXUH´#15;#3; ZKLFK#3...

Mao, Chunliu; Haberl, Jeff; Baltazar, Juan Carlos

348

Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy and off-peak electric resistance heating. Estimated energy and first cost savings, as compared with an all-electric VAV HVAC system, are: 30 to 50% in ductwork size and cost; 30% in fan energy; 25% in air handling equipment; 20 to 40% in utility...

Meckler, G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Study on the use of adaptive control for energy conservation in large solar heated and cooled buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Security and Resources Study Center at LASL provides the basis for a general model used in this simulation. The NSRSC is a 59,000 ft/sup 2/ library and conference facility. A simplified model of the solar heating system is used. The adaptive optimal control technique is described and applied and the results are discussed. (MHR)

Farris, D.R.; Melsa, J.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Total Space Heat-  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

351

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

352

STOCHASTIC COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Stochastic Cooling i n ICE, IEEE Transaction's in Nucl. SICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling

Bisognano, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the demand for cooling energy, urban trees indirectly reducesurfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improvethe energy savings and GHG benefits of cool roofs and tree

Akbari, Hashem

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

An improved procedure for developing a calibrated hourly simulation model of an electrically heated and cooled commercial building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TO PREDICT RETROFIT SAVINGS . 211 6, 1 Methodology . . . . 2 1 3 6. 2 Energy Efficient Lighting. . . . . . 217 6. 3 Photovoltaic System. . 6. 4 Energy Management and Control System. . . . . 2 1 8 . . . . 219 6. 5 Lighting Controls. 6. 6 Envelope... Sections . . . . 85 4. 7 Daycare Center . . . . . . . 86 4, 8 Sun Angle Calculator and Altitude Measurement Device . . . 4. 9 Photovoltaic and Domestic Hot Water Solar Panels. . . . . . . . . . 92 4. 10 Heating, Ventilating, and Air...

Bou-Saada, Tarek Edmond

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Geothermal Heat Pumps Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps Addthis Description An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the...

357

Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiant heat transfer for cooling load calculation.heat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationload calculation approach for radiant systems, Corgnati [17] also tackled the direct radiant heat

Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

COOL03 Workshop September 27, 2003 Muon Cooling Channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Japan 19 to 23 May 2003 My WWW home directory: http://keil.home.cern.ch/keil/ MuMu/Doc/COOL03/talk03.pdf and II and have ­ no dispersion ­ transverse cooling ­ no wedge-shaped absorbers ­ longitudinal heating and heating by multiple scattering and straggling rate of change per unit length of RMS relative momentum

Keil, Eberhard

359

Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications.

Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN THE DENSE GAS HEATING AND COOLING IN M51 FROM HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy of the most important far-infrared cooling lines in M51, [C II](158 ?m), [N II](122 and 205 ?m), [O I](63 and 145 ?m), and [O III](88 ?m). We compare the observed flux of these lines with the predicted flux from a photon-dominated region model to determine characteristics of the cold gas such as density, temperature, and the far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, G{sub 0}, resolving details on physical scales of roughly 600 pc. We find an average [C II]/F{sub TIR} of 4 × 10{sup –3}, in agreement with previous studies of other galaxies. A pixel-by-pixel analysis of four distinct regions of M51 shows a radially decreasing trend in both the FUV radiation field, G{sub 0}, and the hydrogen density, n, peaking in the nucleus of the galaxy, and then falling off out to the arm and interarm regions. We see for the first time that the FUV flux and gas density are similar in the differing environments of the arm and interarm regions, suggesting that the inherent physical properties of the molecular clouds in both regions are essentially the same.

Parkin, T. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Foyle, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Baes, M.; De Looze, I. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Boquien, M.; Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d'Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Cormier, D. [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Karczewski, O. ?. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S. C.; Sauvage, M. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roussel, H. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Spinoglio, L., E-mail: parkintj@mcmaster.ca [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

M. Sri, J. Remund, T. Cebecauer, D. Dumortier, L. Wald, T. Huld, P. Blanc, Proceeding of the EUROSUN 2008, International Conference on Solar Heating, Cooling and Buildings, Lisbon, Portugal, 7 10 October 2008.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the EUROSUN 2008, 1st International Conference on Solar Heating, Cooling and Buildings, Lisbon, Portugal, 7 ­ 10 October 2008. First Steps in the Cross-Comparison of Solar Resource Spatial Products in Europe M in complex climate conditions of mountains, along some coastal zones and in areas where solar radiation

Boyer, Edmond

362

Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS has been widely used in SFR designs and in liquid salt cooled high temperature reactors. The containment cooling system in BWR is another example of volume based decay removal systems. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one in reactor side and another is in environment side. DRACS has the benefits of increasing the power as needed (scalability) and modularity. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance HTGRs passive safety and economy.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

Muraviev, E. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

366

STOCHASTIC COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led tol . . Physics and Techniques o f Stochastic Cooling, PhysicsCooling o f Momentum Spread by F i l t e r Techniques, CERN-

Bisognano, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

MERIT Safety Review Meeting Feb. 3, 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Re-cooling (stored LN2 quantity in DVB phase seperator + LN2 surplus supplied from surface dewar) B5 for Experiments Accelerator Technology Department #12;Points · Magnet · Operation, Cooling, Safety Requirements #12;2. Operation, Cooling, Safety Requirements · Magnet operating temperature 80 K · Cooling agent LN2

McDonald, Kirk

368

Cooling load calculations for radiant systems: are they the same traditional methods?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat transfer is handled in traditional cooling load calculationheat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationload calculations for radiant systems should use the ASHRAE heat

Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Air Cooling Technology for Power Electronic Thermal Control  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* FY10 - Develop novel micro-fin air cooled heat sink - prototype and test - Research new novel cooling technologies - synthetic jets - Evaluate fan efficiency for input into...

370

THE EFFECT OF AIR-COOLING HEAT TREATMENTS ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF Fe/4Cr/ 0.3C/2Mn ALLOY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high temperature (1100°-1150°C) to dissolve carbide structures entirely and then quickly cooled (hot water

Rabe, T.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN DAY PERFORMANCE FOR A RESIDENTIAL MODEL IN SIX CLIMATES: A COMPARISON OF NBSLD, BLAST 2, AND DOE-2.1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

detailed heat-balance approach f or load calculations, DOE-Loads for Computerized Energy Calculations: Algorithms for Building Heat

Carroll, William L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

374

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Information technology equipment cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

Schultz, Mark D.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

377

Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

Matson, J.

378

advanced heat pump: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

379

Innovative safety features of the modular HTGR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced reactor concept under development through a cooperative program involving the US Government, the nuclear industry, and the utilities. Near-term development is focused on electricity generation. The top-level safety requirement is that the plant's operation not disturb the normal day-to-day activities of the public. Quantitatively, this requires that the design meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's Protective Action Guides at the site boundary and hence preclude the need for sheltering or evacuation of the public. To meet these stringent safety requirements and at the same time provide a cost competitive design requires the innovative use of the basic high temperature gas-cooled reactor features of ceramic fuel, helium coolant, and a graphite moderator. The specific fuel composition and core size and configuration have been selected to the use the natural characteristics of these materials to develop significantly higher margins of safety. In this document the innovative safety features of the MHTGR are reviewed by examining the safety response to events challenging the functions relied on to retain radionuclides within the coated fuel particles. A broad range of challenges to core heat removal are examined, including a loss of helium pressure of a simultaneous loss of forced cooling of the core. The challenges to control of heat generation consider not only the failure to insert the reactivity control systems but also the withdrawal of control rods. Finally, challenges to control of chemical attack of the ceramic-coated fuel are considered, including catastrophic failure of the steam generator, which allows water ingress, or failure of the pressure vessels, which allows air ingress. The plant's response to these extreme challenges is not dependent on operator action, and the events considered encompass conceivable operator errors.

Silady, F.A.; Simon, W.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Innovative safety features of the modular HTGR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced reactor concept under development through a cooperative program involving the US Government, the nuclear industry, and the utilities. Near-term development is focused on electricity generation. The top-level safety requirement is that the plant`s operation not disturb the normal day-to-day activities of the public. Quantitatively, this requires that the design meet the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Protective Action Guides at the site boundary and hence preclude the need for sheltering or evacuation of the public. To meet these stringent safety requirements and at the same time provide a cost competitive design requires the innovative use of the basic high temperature gas-cooled reactor features of ceramic fuel, helium coolant, and a graphite moderator. The specific fuel composition and core size and configuration have been selected to the use the natural characteristics of these materials to develop significantly higher margins of safety. In this document the innovative safety features of the MHTGR are reviewed by examining the safety response to events challenging the functions relied on to retain radionuclides within the coated fuel particles. A broad range of challenges to core heat removal are examined, including a loss of helium pressure of a simultaneous loss of forced cooling of the core. The challenges to control of heat generation consider not only the failure to insert the reactivity control systems but also the withdrawal of control rods. Finally, challenges to control of chemical attack of the ceramic-coated fuel are considered, including catastrophic failure of the steam generator, which allows water ingress, or failure of the pressure vessels, which allows air ingress. The plant`s response to these extreme challenges is not dependent on operator action, and the events considered encompass conceivable operator errors.

Silady, F.A.; Simon, W.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT LABORATORY SAFETY AUDITS & COMPLIANCE BIOSAFETY and ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT and MISSION CONTINUITY FIRE PREVENTION and LIFE SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY TRAINING

382

Parametric Study of Turbine Blade Internal Cooling and Film Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is used to remove heat from the hot turbine blade. This air flows through passages in the hollow blade (internal cooling), and is also ejected onto the surface of the blade to form an insulating film (film cooling). Modern land-based gas turbine engines...

Rallabandi, Akhilesh P.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

383

Development and assessment of a coupled strategy for conjugate heat transfer with Large Eddy Simulation: Application to a cooled turbine blade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parameters. The coupled tool is then applied to a cooled turbine blade model where results demonstrate both walls is an important phenomenon in combustion chambers and a main design constraint in gas turbines Simulation: Application to a cooled turbine blade F. Duchaine a,*, A. Corpron b , L. Pons b , V. Moureau b

Nicoud, Franck

384

Non-intrusive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

2001-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

385

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Summer in Minnesota means high humidity and sunny, hot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Summer in Minnesota means high humidity and sunny, hot days the victim liquids to drink. Treat for shock until professional medical help arrives. Heat Stress Safety Tip the information provided on the reverse side of this safety tip sheet. Please refrain from reading the information

Minnesota, University of

386

Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

387

Major Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Laboratories --Implications for Health and Safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory facilities present a unique challenge for energy efficient design, partly due to their health and safety requirements. Recent experience has shown that there is significant energy efficiency potential in laboratory buildings. However, there is often a misperception in the laboratory community that energy efficiency will inherently compromise safety. In some cases, energy efficiency measures require special provisions to ensure that safety requirements are met. In other cases, efficiency measures actually improve safety. In this paper we present five major, yet under-utilized, energy efficiency strategies for ventilation-intensive laboratories and discuss their implications for health and safety. These include: (a) optimizing ventilation rates; (b) reducing laboratory chemical hood energy use; (c) low-pressure drop HVAC design; (d) right-sizing HVAC systems; and (e) reducing simultaneous heating and cooling. In all cases, the successful design and implementation of these strategies requires active and informed participation by health and safety personnel.

Mathew, Paul A.; Sartor, Dale A.; Bell, Geoffrey C.; Drummond,David

2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

388

Cooling using complimentary tapered plenums  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Where a fluid cooling medium cools a plurality of heat-producing devices arranged in a row along a generalized coordinate direction, with a space between each adjacent pair of devices, each space may have a partition that defines a boundary between a first plenum and a second plenum. The first plenum carries cooling medium across an entrance and thence into a first heat-producing device located on a first side of the partition facing the first plenum. The second plenum carries cooling medium away from a second heat-producing device located on a second side of the partition facing the second plenum and thence across an exit. The partition is disposed so that the first plenum becomes smaller in cross-sectional area as distance increases from the entrance, and the second plenum becomes larger in cross sectional area as distance decreases toward the exit.

Hall, Shawn Anthony (Pleasantville, NY)

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

SRS reactor control rod cooling without normal forced convection cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes an analytical study of the coolability of the control rods in the Savannah River site (SRS) K production reactor under conditions of loss of normal forced convection cooling. The study was performed as part of the overall safety analysis of the reactor supporting its restart. The analysis addresses the buoyancy-driven boiling flow over the control rods that occurs when forced cooling is lost. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the control rods will remain cooled (i.e., no melting) at powers representative of those anticipated for restart of the reactor.

Smith, D.C. (SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Easterling, T.C. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

EnergyPlus vs DOE-2: The Effect of Ground Coupling on Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption of a Slab-On-Grade Code House in a Cold Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGYPLUS VS DOE-2: THE EFFECT OF GROUND COUPLING ON HEATING AND COOLING ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF A SLAB-ON-GRADE CODE HOUSE IN A COLD CLIMATE Simge Andolsun, Charles H. Culp, Jeff Haberl Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA...-on-grade constructions. This paper extends the previous comparative work by comparing EnergyPlus and DOE-2.1e results for GCHT based on a slab-on- grade code house in a cold climate. Three GCHT models were used in the study. These models were Winkelmann?s (2002...

Andolsun, S.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J.

391

2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

392

HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the Fluorinel Dissolution Process Makeup and Cooling and Heating Systems Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Action Plan Tank Systems INTEC-066, INTEC-067, INTEC-068, and INTEC-072  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the fluorinel dissolution process makeup and cooling and heating systems located in the Fluorinel Dissolution Process and Fuel Storage Facility (CPP-666), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory Site, was developed to meet milestones established under the Voluntary Consent Order. The systems to be closed include waste piping associated with the fluorinel dissolution process makeup systems. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of achieving those standards.

M.E. Davis

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat fluxes, solar radiation, and electric power consumed byheat fluxes, solar radiation, and electric power consumed byheat fluxes, solar radiation, and electric power consumed by

Akbari, Hashem

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Horizontal Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis for Passive Heat Removal Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a three-year project to investigate the major factors of horizontal heat exchanger performance in passive containment heat removal from a light water reactor following a design basis accident LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The heat exchanger studied in this work may be used in advanced and innovative reactors, in which passive heat removal systems are adopted to improve safety and reliability The application of horizontal tube-bundle condensers to passive containment heat removal is new. In order to show the feasibility of horizontal heat exchangers for passive containment cooling, the following aspects were investigated: 1. the condensation heat transfer characteristics when the incoming fluid contains noncondensable gases 2. the effectiveness of condensate draining in the horizontal orientation 3. the conditions that may lead to unstable condenser operation or highly degraded performance 4. multi-tube behavior with the associated secondary-side effects This project consisted of two experimental investigations and analytical model development for incorporation into industry safety codes such as TRAC and RELAP. A physical understanding of the flow and heat transfer phenomena was obtained and reflected in the analysis models. Two gradute students (one funded by the program) and seven undergraduate students obtained research experience as a part of this program.

Vierow, Karen

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

396

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev FNAL - AD April 28, 2005 #12;Electron Cooling methods must "get around the theorem" e.g. by pushing phase-space around. #12;Electron Cooling - Nagaitsev 3 TodayToday''s Menus Menu What is cooling? Types of beam cooling Electron cooling Conclusions #12

Fermilab

397

The (safety-related) heat exchangers aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants, and developments since 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US nuclear power plant utilities, is preparing a series of aging management guidelines (AMGs) for commodity types of components (e.g., heat exchangers, electrical cable and terminations, pumps). Commodities are included in this series based on their importance to continued nuclear plant operation and license renewal. The AMGs contain a detailed summary of operating history, stressors, aging mechanisms, and various types of maintenance and surveillance practices that can be combined to create an effective aging management program. Each AMG is intended for use by the systems engineers and plant maintenance staff (i.e., an AMG is intended to be a hands-on technical document rather than a licensing document). The heat exchangers AMG, published in June 1994, includes the following information of interest to nondestructive examination (NDE) personnel: aging mechanisms determined to be non-significant for all applications; aging mechanisms determined to be significant for some applications; effective conventional programs for managing aging; and effective unconventional programs for managing aging. Since the AMG on heat exchangers was published four years ago, a brief review has been conducted to identify emerging regulatory issues, if any. The results of this review and lessons learned from the collective set of AMGs are presented.

Clauss, J.M.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

399

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

400

Feasibility report on alternative methods for cooling cavern oils at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are subjected to geothermal heating from the surrounding domal salt. This process raises the temperature of the crude oil from around 75 F upon delivery to SPR to as high as 130 F after decades of storage. While this temperature regime is adequate for long-term storage, it poses challenges for offsite delivery, with warm oil evolving gases that pose handling and safety problems. SPR installed high-capacity oil coolers in the mid-1990's to mitigate the emissions problem by lowering the oil delivery temperature. These heat exchanger units use incoming raw water as the cooling fluid, and operate only during a drawdown event where incoming water displaces the outgoing oil. The design criteria for the heat exchangers are to deliver oil at 100 F or less under all drawdown conditions. Increasing crude oil vapor pressures due in part to methane intrusion in the caverns is threatening to produce sufficient emissions at or near 100 F to cause the cooled oil to violate delivery requirements. This impending problem has initiated discussion and analysis of alternative cooling methods to bring the oil temperature even lower than the original design basis of 100 F. For the study described in this report, two alternative cooling methods were explored: (1) cooling during a limited drawdown, and (2) cooling during a degas operation. Both methods employ the heat exchangers currently in place, and do not require extra equipment. An analysis was run using two heat transfer models, HEATEX, and CaveMan, both developed at Sandia National Laboratories. For cooling during a limited drawdown, the cooling water flowrate through the coolers was varied from 1:1 water:oil to about 3:1, with an increased cooling capacity of about 3-7 F for the test cavern Bryan Mound 108 depending upon seasonal temperature effects. For cooling in conjunction with a degas operation in the winter, cavern oil temperatures for the test cavern Big Hill 102 were cooled sufficiently that the cavern required about 9 years to return to the temperature prior to degas. Upon reviewing these results, the authors recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy that a broader study of the cooling during degas be pursued in order to examine the potential benefits of cooling on all caverns in the current degasification schedule.

Levin, Bruce L.; Lord, David L.; Hadgu, Teklu

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water consumption by increasing the use of recycled water. Simplistically, the circulating cooling water flows through heat... exchanger equipment and is cooled by passing through a cooling tower. The recycled water is cooled by evaporation of some of the circulating water as it passes through the tower. As a result of the evaporation process, the dissolved solids in the water...

Boffardi, B. P.

404

Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationheat gain and building thermal mass, which is particularly important in cooling load calculation,

Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Cool Cities, Cool Planet (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Science at the Theater: Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how cool roofs can cool your building, your city ... and our planet. Arthur Rosenfeld, Professor of Physics Emeritus at UC Berkeley, founded the Berkeley Lab Center for Building Science in 1974. He served on the California Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and is commonly referred to as California's godfather of energy efficiency. Melvin Pomerantz is a member of the Heat Island Group at Berkeley Lab. Trained as a physicist at UC Berkeley, he specializes in research on making cooler pavements and evaluating their effects. Ronnen Levinson is a staff scientist at Berkeley Lab and the acting leader of its Heat Island Group. He has developed cool roofing and paving materials and helped bring cool roof requirements into building energy efficiency standards.

Rosenfeld, Arthur; Pomerantz, Melvin; Levinson, Ronnen

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

406

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Produce prototype heat exchangers for electronics cooling and high pressure waste heat recovery power system applications Test integrity and confirm high performance of...

408

NightCool: An Innovative Residential Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) will store sensible cooling to reduce daytime space conditioning needs. The concept may also be able to help with daytime heating needs in cold climates as well by using a darker roof as a solar collector. SIMULATION MODEL Within the assessment, we...NIGHTCOOL: AN INNOVATIVE RESIDENTIAL NOCTURNAL RADIATION COOLING CONCEPT Danny S. Parker John Sherwin Principal Research Scientist Research Engineer Florida Solar Energy Center Cocoa, FL ABSTRACT Using a...

Parker, D. S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

A critical review of cooling techniques in proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review A critical review of cooling techniques in proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks of a cooling system. To promote the development of effective cooling strategies, cooling techniques reported, challenges and progress of various cooling techniques, including (i) cooling with heat spreaders (using high

Kandlikar, Satish

410

ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN DAY PERFORMANCE FOR A RESIDENTIAL MODEL IN SIX CLIMATES: A COMPARISON OF NBSLD, BLAST 2, AND DOE-2.1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of NBSLD, BLAST 2. and Effect of Selected Changessignificant effect on annual heating loads, BLAST 2 predictsComparison of NBSLD, BLAST 2, and DOE~2.1 Effect of Climate

Carroll, William L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Measured Effects of Retrofits - A Refrigerant Oil Additive and a Condenser Spray Device - On the Cooling Performance of a Heat Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A 15-year old, 3-ton single package air-to-air heat pump was tested in laboratory environmental chambers simulating indoor and outdoor conditions. After documenting initial performance, the unit was retrofitted with a prototype condenser water...

Levins, W. P.; Sand, J. R.; Baxter, V. D.; Linkous, R. S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Active heat transfer enhancement in integrated fan heat sinks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modern computer processors require significant cooling to achieve their full performance. The "efficiency" of heat sinks is also becoming more important: cooling of electronics consumes 1% of worldwide electricity use by ...

Staats, Wayne Lawrence

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Modular HTGR Safety Basis and Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a licensed commercial high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) capable of producing electricity and/or high temperature process heat for industrial markets supporting a range of end-user applications. The NGNP Project has adopted the 10 CFR 52 Combined License (COL) process, as recommended in the NGNP Licensing Strategy - A Report to Congress, dated August 2008, as the foundation for the NGNP licensing strategy [DOE/NRC 2008]. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing of the NGNP plant utilizing this process will demonstrate the efficacy for licensing future HTGRs for commercial industrial applications. This information paper is one in a series of submittals that address key generic issues of the priority licensing topics as part of the process for establishing HTGR regulatory requirements. This information paper provides a summary level introduction to HTGR history, public safety objectives, inherent and passive safety features, radionuclide release barriers, functional safety approach, and risk-informed safety approach. The information in this paper is intended to further the understanding of the modular HTGR safety approach with the NRC staff and public stakeholders. The NGNP project does not expect to receive comments on this information paper because other white papers are addressing key generic issues of the priority licensing topics in greater detail.

Thomas Hicks

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchanger was configured to use higher temperature water produced by a cooling tower alone. The other coilLBNL-6660E Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger-temperature cooling water, so that it can support many more hours of free cooling compared to traditional systems

415

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Gas heat transfer in a heated vertical channel under deteriorated turbulent heat transfer regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Passive cooling via natural circulation of gas after a loss of coolant (LOCA) accident is one of the major goals of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). Due to its high surface heat flux and low coolant velocities under ...

Lee, Jeongik

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Gas Heat Transfer in a Heated Vertical Channel under Deteriorated Turbulent Heat Transfer Regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Passive cooling via natural circulation of gas after a loss of coolant (LOCA) accident is one of the major goals of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). Due to its high surface heat flux and low coolant velocities under ...

Lee, Jeongik

419

Facility Safety  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes facility safety requirements related to: nuclear safety design, criticality safety, fire protection and natural phenomena hazards mitigation.

1996-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

420

Facility Safety  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes facility safety requirements related to: nuclear safety design, criticality safety, fire protection and natural phenomena hazards mitigation.

1995-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

New Approaches to Final Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A high-energy muon collider scenario requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

Neuffer, David

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

425

An experimental and analytical study of the transient behavior of vertical u-tube ground-coupled heat pumps in the cooling mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for an ON/OFF Cycle Using Actual and Averaged Heat Input Rate 123 6. 2 Daily Comparison Between GSIM Predictions and Experimental Data from September 3 to September 7 131 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE Typical Start-Up Behavior of Capacity and EWT... temperature decrease during the off-cycle when the "excess heat" is dissipated. The importance of this fact will become more evident when the experimental data and modeling work are discussed. SUMMARY The primary components which are incuded with a GCHP...

Dobson, Monte Keith

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

427

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

428

Performance of Horizontal Field Earth-Coupled Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An alternative to traditional methods of residential heating and cooling is the heat pump. However, heat pumps which use the outside air as a heat source/sink become inefficient during the periods of highest demand. Another possible heat source...

Abbott, C. A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The application of a floating cooling concept to evaporative heat rejection systems can have significant impact on improving plant performance. The floating cooling concept refers to the optimization of yearly plant output and energy consumption by taking...

Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Droplet Impingement Cooling Experiments on Nano-structured Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spray cooling has proven to be efficient in managing thermal load in high power applications. Reliability of electronic products relies on the thermal management and understanding of heat transfer mechanisms including those related to spray cooling...

Lin, Yen-Po

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

431

A Microcomputer Model of Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy use characteristics of evaporative cooling towers are of interest because, although such towers are widely used in industry, they do require a substantial amount of energy. Evaporative cooling towers are basically large heat exchangers...

Reichelt, G. E; Jones, J. W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

Harto, Andang Widi [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

433

PBMR as an Ideal Heat Source for High-Temperature Process Heat Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is an advanced helium-cooled, graphite-moderated High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). A 400 MWt PBMR Demonstration Power Plant (DPP) for the production of electricity is being developed in South Africa. This PBMR technology is also an ideal heat source for process heat applications, including Steam Methane Reforming, steam for Oil Sands bitumen recovery, Hydrogen Production and co-generation (process heat and/or electricity and/or process steam) for petrochemical industries. The cycle configuration used to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant or to convert the reactor's heat into electricity or steam directly influences the cycle efficiency and plant economics. The choice of cycle configuration depends on the process requirements and is influenced by practical considerations, component and material limitations, maintenance, controllability, safety, performance, risk and cost. This paper provides an overview of the use of a PBMR reactor for process applications and possible cycle configurations are presented for applications which require high temperature process heat and/or electricity. (authors)

Correia, Michael; Greyvenstein, Renee [PBMR - Pty Ltd., 1279 Mike Crawford Avenue, Centurion, 0046 (South Africa); Silady, Fred; Penfield, Scott [Technology Insights, 6540 Lusk Blvd, Suite C-102, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume IV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the following: discussion of cost estimating methodology, detailed cost estimates of Hudson No. 2 retrofit, intermediate thermal plant (Kearny No. 12) and local heater plants; transmission and distribution cost estimate; landfill gas cost estimate; staged development scenarios; economic evaluation; fuel use impact; air quality impact; and alternatives to district heating.

Not Available

1984-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

The Binary Cooling Tower Process: An Energy Conserving Water Reuse Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Binary Cooling Tower (BCT) harnesses cooling system waste heat to accomplish concentration of waste and process streams. The BCT can also be integrated to isolate and improve the efficiency of critical cooling loops. This paper describes the BCT...

Lancaster, R. L.; Sanderson, W. G.; Cooke, R. L., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia Design cooling load calculation methods are, by the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Handbook--Fundamentals (ASHRAE 1997) and the Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual (Mc514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia ABSTRACT Design cooling load calculation methods are Load Calculation Methods (942-RP)" are also given. INTRODUCTION Design cooling load calculation

439

Preliminary studies on the heat exchanger option for S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle coupled to water cooled SMR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than a half century, the steam Rankine cycle had been the major power conversion cycle for a nuclear power plant. However, as the interest on the next generation reactors grows, a variety of alternative power conversion systems have been studied. Among them, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle (Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle) is considered as a promising candidate due to several benefits such as 1) Relatively high thermal efficiency at relatively low turbine inlet temperature, 2) High efficiency with simple lay-out 3) Compactness of turbo-machineries. 4) Compactness of total cycle combined with PCHE (Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger). According to the conventional classification of heat exchangers (HE), there are three kind of HE, 1) Tubular HEs, 2) Plate-type HEs, 3) Extended surface HEs. So far, the researcher has mostly assumed PCHE type HE for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle due to its compactness with reasonably low pressure drop. However, PCHE is currently one of the most expensive components in the cycle, which can have a negative effect on the economics of the cycle. Therefore, an alternative for the HE should be seriously investigated. By comparing the operating condition (pressure and temperature) there are three kind of HE in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, 1) IHX (Intermediate Heat exchanger) 2) Recuperator and 3) Pre-cooler. In each heat exchanger, hot side and cold side coolants are different, i.e. reactor coolant to S-CO{sub 2} (IHX), S-CO{sub 2} to S-CO{sub 2}(Recuperator), S-CO{sub 2} to water (Pre-cooler). By considering all the attributes mentioned above, all existing types of heat exchangers are compared to find a possible alternative to PCHE. The comparing factors are 1) Size(volume), 2) Cost. Plate fin type HEs are considered to be the most competitive heat exchanger regarding the size and the cost after some improvements on the design limit are made. (authors)

Ahn, Y.; Lee, J. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. I. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa Univ. of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O.Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Gas cooled traction drive inverter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The effect of injection hole orientation on flat-plate film cooling and heat transfer using a transient liquid crystal technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-UP. . . . . EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE THEORY OF OPERATION. . . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. . Heat transfer. . Local Spanwise Variations. . Effect of Density Ratio and Compound Angle. . . . Momentuin Flux Ratio. Film Effectiveness. . . . . . Local Spanwise Variations... cavity for mixing and ejecta through the holes onto the test plate. Temperature controllers for the mainstream and coolant flows allow for desired temperature levels to be reached and inaintained. The coolant temperature is monitored at an injection...

Zapata, Dyrk Oliver

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

442

Thermal Response of the Hybrid Loop-Pool Design for Sodium Cooled Faster Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative hybrid loop-pool design for the sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) has been recently proposed with the primary objective of achieving cost reduction and safety enhancement. With the hybrid loop-pool design, closed primary loops are immersed in a secondary buffer tank. This design takes advantage of features from conventional both pool and loop designs to further improve economics and safety. This paper will briefly introduce the hybrid loop-pool design concept and present the calculated thermal responses for unproctected (without reactor scram) loss of forced circulation (ULOF) transients using RELAP5-3D. The analyses examine both the inherent reactivity shutdown capability and decay heat removal performance by passive safety systems.

Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Davis, Cliff

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume begins with an Introduction summarizing the history, methodology and scope of the study, the project team members and the private and public groups consulted in the course of the study. The Load and Service Area Assessment follows, including: a compilation and analysis of existing statistical thermal load data from census data, industrial directories, PSE and G records and other sources; an analysis of responses to a detailed, 4-page thermal load questionnaire; data on public buildings and fuel and energy use provided by the New Jersey Dept. of Energy; and results of other customer surveys conducted by PSE and G. A discussion of institutional questions follows. The general topic of rates is then discussed, including a draft hypothetical Tariff for Thermal Services. Financial considerations are discussed including a report identifying alternative ownership/financing options for district heating systems and the tax implications of these options. Four of these options were then selected by PSE and G and a financial (cash-flow) analysis done (by the PSE and G System Planning Dept.) in comparison with a conventional heating alternative. Year-by-year cost of heat ($/10/sup 6/ Btu) was calculated and tabulated, and the various options compared.

Not Available

1984-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

444

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Safety Shoes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Safety Shoes and Boots Safety Tip #21 Don't let your day guards) can be used in conjunction with standard safety shoes. Safety boots Safety boots come in many varieties, and which you will use will depend on the specific hazards you face. Boots offer more protection

Minnesota, University of

445

Ammoniated salt heat pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat.

Haas, W.R.; Jaeger, F.J.; Giordano, T.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Mechanically-reattachable liquid-cooled cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus comprising a rack having a row of shelves, each shelf supporting an electronics circuit board, each one of the circuit boards being manually removable from the shelve supporting the one of the circuit boards and having a local heat source thereon. The apparatus also comprises a cooler attached to the rack and being able to circulate a cooling fluid around a channel forming a closed loop. The apparatus further comprises a plurality of heat conduits, each heat conduit being located over a corresponding one of the circuit boards and forming a path to transport heat from the local heat source of the corresponding one of the circuit boards to the cooler. Each heat conduit is configured to be manually detachable from the cooler or the circuit board, without breaking a circulation pathway of the fluid through the cooler.

Arney, Susanne; Cheng, Jen-Hau; Kolodner, Paul R; Kota-Venkata, Krishna-Murty; Scofield, William; Salamon, Todd R; Simon, Maria E

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

447

E-Print Network 3.0 - auxiliary cooling system Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Panels Summary: Heating System Preheat - Solar thermal 80-gal tank, electric auxiliary heating Active, indirect forced... -circulation system for cool climates Four solar thermal...

448

Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

449

Secondary Heat Exchanger Design and Comparison for Advanced High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of next generation nuclear reactors, such as the high temperature gas-cooled reactor and advance high temperature reactor (AHTR), are to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology, giving rise to the following study. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more efficient conversion cycles, such as the Rankine super critical and subcritical cycles. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers—helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger—as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with the following three different options: (1) A single heat exchanger transfers all the heat (3,400 MW(t)) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants; (2) Two heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants, each exchanger transfers 1,700 MW(t) with a parallel configuration; and (3) Three heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants. Each heat exchanger transfers 1,130 MW(t) with a parallel configuration. A preliminary cost comparison will be provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations.

Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush; Michael McKellar; Michael Patterson; Eung Soo Kim

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Solar Cooling Using Variable Geometry Ejectors Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pumps were other notable benefits. Heat pump cooling systems dominate the air-conditioning market electrically driven heat pumps to be deployed to locations such as houses where a steady source of heat may to consider solar heat driven cooling systems, most prominently since the 1990s. The Ejector Heat Pump

451

Assessment of Energy Use and Comfort in Buildings Utilizing Mixed-Mode Controls with Radiant Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat transfer for cooling from air movement (as radiant systems do), indicate when it will be counterproductive to open

Borgeson, Samuel Dalton

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Analysis of oscillating flow cooled SMA actuator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

literature, most of the cooling mechanisms involve unidirectional forced convection. This may not be the most effective method. Oscillating flow in a channel can sometimes enhance heat transfer over a unidirectional flow. One possible explanation...

Pachalla Seshadri, Rajagopal

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Polymer-based electrocaloric cooling devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cooling devices (i.e., refrigerators or heat pumps) based on polymers which exhibit a temperature change upon application or removal of an electrical field or voltage, (e.g., fluoropolymers or crosslinked fluoropolymers that exhibit electrocaloric effect).

Zhang, Qiming; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Li, Xinyu; Gorny, Lee; Cheng, Jiping; Neese, Bret P; Chu, Baojin

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

454

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

slows the transfer of heat inside but doesn't eliminate it. Researchers have measured energy savings up to 10 to 15 percent for homes with cool roof coatings. And if a standard...

455

Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

456

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is generally recognized that as much as 60% of the air conditioning load in a building is generated by solar heat from the roof. This paper on SOLAR ROOF COOLING BY EVAPORATION is presented in slide form, tracing the history of 'nature's way...

Patterson, G. V.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

Not Available

1984-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

458

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

459

Optimum Design of Micro Bare-Tube Heat Exchanger Tomohisa OKU, Nobuhide KASAGI and Yuji SUZUKI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for automobiles, electronic equipement cooling system, and recuperator for micro gas turbine. Key words : Heat

Tokyo, University of

460

Reactor safety method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

Vachon, Lawrence J. (Clairton, PA)

1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

JOB SAFETY ASSESSMENT ENVIRONMENTAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Bump Cap Respirator (air purifying/supplied air) Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Filters (specific/Coat Fall Protection Equipment Traction Devices Cooling Vest High Visibility Clothing/Safety Vest MSDS (for any chemicals being used) Emergency Equipment/Supplies Other:____________________________ NOTES: Use

Hartman, Chris

462

CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during stead-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the stead-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

Hassan, Yassin; Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

463

Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

it work? A geothermal heat pump uses the constant below ground temperature of soil or water to heat and cool your home. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes referred to as...

464

A new cylinder cooling system using oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of engine cylinders must satisfy two conflicting requirements, good cooling performance and ease of manufacture. A cooling system was designed to permit the circulation of engine lubricating oil as a coolant at high speed through grooves provided on the external periphery of the cylinder liner. Testing in an actual operating engine confirmed that this cooling system design not only provides better heat transfer and higher cooling performance but also simplifies the manufacturing of the cylinder since external cooling fins are not required. In this paper, the authors will discuss the cylinder cooling effect of the new cylinder cooling system, referring mainly to the test results of a single-cylinder motorcycle engine with lubricating oil from the crankcase used as the coolant.

Harashina, Kenichi; Murata, Katsuhiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Hamamura, Masahiro

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

465

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always General site safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always General site safety During the course of construction barrier at least 5 feet (1.5m) high having a fire-resistance rating of at least one half hour. Site Safety and Clean-up Safety Tip #20 Safety has no quitting time. All contractors should clean up their debris, trash

Minnesota, University of

466

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Safety Tip #22  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Safety Tip #22 Mowing Operations Mowing unsafely just doesn for out-of-control vehicles. Wear hearing protection and a safety vest. Wear a hard hat and safety goggles of this safety tip sheet. Please refrain from reading the information verbatim--paraphrase it instead

Minnesota, University of

467

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

469

Cool Links  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-Gov ContactsContractOffice ofConversionCool

470

Small LBE-Cooled Fast Reactor for Expanding Market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A long-life safe simple small portable proliferation-resistant reactor is expected to solve many problems associating future energy and globally environmental problems. From discussions on mainly neutronics and safety points it has been shown that the heavy liquid metal cooled fast reactor is the best candidate to satisfy the above requirements. A lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE) cooled fast reactor LSPR (LBE-Cooled Long-Life Safe Simple Small Portable Proliferation-Resistant Reactor) has been designed and continues to be improved. In the present paper a recent version of LSPR is presented. The total power of the present design is 150 MWt (53 MWe). During whole reactor life of 12 years the excess reactivity required for burnup is very low, and negative coolant dilatation coefficient is confirmed. This characteristic together with some other characteristics makes unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accident inherently safe. It can survive even simultaneous rod run-out transient over power (UTOP), ULOF and unprotected loss of heat sink (ULOHS) accident without the help of an operator or active device. (authors)

Hiroshi Sekimoto [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shinichi Makino [Nissan Motor Company Ltd. (Japan); Kunihiko Nakamura; Yoshio Kamishima [Advanced Reactor Technology Company Ltd. (Japan); Takashi Kawakita [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Gas-cooled nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Emergency core cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

Schenewerk, William E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

AGN and Cooling Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For two decades the steady-state cooling-flow model has dominated the literature of cluster and elliptical-galaxy X-ray sources. For ten years this model has been in severe difficulty from a theoretical point of view, and it is now coming under increasing pressure observationally. For two decades the steady-state cooling-flow model has dominated the literature of cluster and elliptical-galaxy X-ray sources. For ten years this model has been in severe difficulty from a theoretical point of view, and it is now coming under increasing pressure observationally. A small number of enthusiasts have argued for a radically different interpretation of the data, but had little impact on prevailing opinion because the unsteady heating picture that they advocate is extremely hard to work out in detail. Here I explain why it is difficult to extract robust observational predictions from the heating picture. Major problems include the variability of the sources, the different ways in which a bi-polar flow can impact on X-ray emission, the weakness of synchrotron emission from sub-relativistic flows, and the sensitivity of synchrotron emission to a magnetic field that is probably highly localized.

James Binney

2001-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

474

Availability of refrigerants for heat pumps in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

grids Smart cities #12;8 Residential HPs Refrigerants Use of aero-geo- +hydrothermal renewable energy cooling and heating Residential Future: Heating of electric cars and cooling the batteries Future: Smart

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

475

Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Geothermal Heat Pumps Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps January 4, 2011 - 12:15pm Addthis An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves...

476

Policy Supporting Energy Efficiency and Heat Pump Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policy Supporting Energy Efficiency and Heat Pump Technology Antonio M. Bouza, DOE/BTP Technology Space Heating ResidentialMELs Residential Lighting ResidentialWashing & drying Residential Cooking Residential Refrigeration Residential Water Heating Residential Space Cooling Residential Space Heating 80

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

477

Numerical model of mixed convection heat transfer between a series of vertical parallel plates with planar heat sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat transfer between a series of vertical parallel plates with planar heat sources has been studied numerically. The series of plates formed a series of channels, or cooling passages, in which fluid could flow. Heat dissipation from the heat...

Watson, James Christopher

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

478

Ground heat exchanger design for direct geothermal energy systems .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Direct geothermal energy systems use the ground to heat and cool buildings. Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are the most widespread form of direct geothermal… (more)

COLLS, STUART

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

480

Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heating cooling safety" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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