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Sample records for heating cooling roof

  1. Promising Technology: Cool Roofs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A cool roof increases the solar reflectance of the roof surface. By reflecting more sunlight, the roof surface maintains a cooler temperature. This decrease in temperature leads to less heat transfer through the roof into the building below. During the cooling season, the addition of a cool roof can decrease the cooling load of the building.

  2. Urban Heat Islands: Cool Roof Infrastructure | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cool Roof Infrastructure Urban Heat Islands: Cool Roof Infrastructure Lead Performer: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center Project Partners: -- Guangdong Provincial Academy of Building Research - Guangdong, China -- Chongqing University - Chongqing, China -- Research Institute of Standards and Norms - China -- Chinese Academy of Sciences - Beijing, China DOE Funding: $795,000 Project Term: Jan. 2011 - Dec. 2015 Project Objective The U.S.-China Clean

  3. Cool Roofs and Heat Islands | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Cool Roofs AgencyCompany Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Resource...

  4. Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design » Design for Efficiency » Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Learn how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. A cool roof is one that has been designed to reflect more sunlight and absorb less heat than a standard roof. Cool roofs can be made of a highly reflective type of paint, a sheet covering, or highly reflective tiles or shingles. Nearly any type of building can benefit from a cool roof, but consider the climate and other factors before deciding to install

  5. Guide to Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb sunlight, making them warm in the sun and increasing the need for air conditioning. White or special "cool color" roofs absorb less sunlight, stay cooler in the sun and transmit less heat into the building.

  6. Cool Roofs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    strikes the roof it is either reflected or it is absorbed by the roof. The reflected radiation or solar reflectance is that fraction which is reflected. It's a scale of zero...

  7. CERC-BEE Cool Roofs and Urban Heat Islands: infrastructure and anti-soiling coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ronnen Levinson, Staff Scientist, LBNL RMLevinson@LBL.gov Scott Hunter, Senior Research Scientist, ORNL HunterSR@ORNL.gov CERC-BEE Cool Roofs and Urban Heat Islands: infrastructure and anti-soiling coatings 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 Project Summary (Cool Roof Infrastructure) Timeline: Start date: January 2011 Planned end date: December 2015 Key Milestones 1. Initiate natural exposure trials in many Chinese cities for roof product rating (6/2014) 2. Start black/white/garden

  8. Urban Heat Islands: Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings Urban Heat Islands: Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings Performers: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Project Partners: -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Dow Chemical Company - Midland, MI DOE Funding: $500,000 Cost Share: $500,000 Project Term: Jan. 2013 - Dec. 2014 Project Objective The U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) is a pioneering research and development (R&D) consortium bringing together governments, key policymakers,

  9. One Cool Roof

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 134,629 sq. ft. (about 3 acres) roof of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee is now officially a "Cool Roof" -- making it energy efficient in ways that darker roofs are not. Cool roofs are light in color, and therefore, reflect rather than absorb sunlight.

  10. New "Cool Roof Time Machine" Will Accelerate Cool Roof Deployment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Cool Roof Time Machine" Will Accelerate Cool Roof Deployment New "Cool Roof Time Machine" Will Accelerate Cool Roof Deployment April 24, 2015 - 4:21pm Addthis Berkeley Lab...

  11. Guide to Cool Roofs

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    beautify your home. The immediate and long-term benefits of roofs that stay cool in the sun have made cool roofing the fastest growing sector of the building industry. Studies...

  12. Cool Roofs: An Introduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar.

  13. Energy 101: Cool Roofs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment.

  14. Why Cool Roofs?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  15. Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of 150F or more in the summer sun. A cool roof under the same conditions could stay more than 50F cooler. Benefits of Cool Roofs A cool roof can benefit a building and...

  16. Why Cool Roofs?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple,...

  17. Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs February 1, 2011 - 10:50am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which in turn transfers heat to a building. Cool roofs use light-colored,

  18. Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs January 31, 2011 - 12:38pm Addthis This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which transfers heat into a building. This can also cause the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces

  19. Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    power plant emissions, including carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and mercury, by reducing cooling energy use in buildings. Types of Roofs and How They Can Be Made...

  20. New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies...

  1. Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

    2008-07-11

    Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

  2. Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Description This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. Text Version Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Cool Roofs video. The video opens with "Energy 101: Cool Roofs." This is followed by images of residential rooftops. Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is, or what it's made of. But your roof could be costing you more money

  3. Cool Roofs Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cool Roofs Webinar Cool Roofs Webinar On April 11, 2011, Blaise Stoltenberg and Kosol Kiatreungwattana of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented a Webinar about roofs that are designed to maintain a lower roof temperature than traditional roofs do, in order to reduce energy bills by decreasing air conditioning needs, improve indoor thermal comfort, and decrease room operating temperature to try to extend roof service life. It's one of the presentations in a series of Sustainable

  4. Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades Addthis 1 of 3 PPG Industries and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are partnering to develop a new class of dark-colored pigments for cool metal roof and façade coatings that incorporate near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance to improve energy performance. Image: PPG Industries 2 of 3 Berkeley Lab Heat Island Group physicist Paul

  5. Cool Roofs: An Easy Upgrade | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Roofs: An Easy Upgrade Cool Roofs: An Easy Upgrade December 14, 2010 - 9:25am Addthis Cathy Zoi Former Assistant Secretary, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy What does this mean for me? Dark roofs can be 50 degrees hotter than light roofs. Combined with dark roads and parking lots, dark roofs lead to the 'urban heat island' effect: cities tend to be 2-5 degrees hotter. A cooler roof means energy bills that are up to 10-15% lower because your air conditioner doesn't have to work

  6. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

    2011-05-25

    Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

  7. Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities July 23, 2010 - 2:07pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofs and roadways create what is called the "urban heat island effect," meaning a city is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. Light colored roofs reduce the heat island effect and improve air quality by reducing emissions. Lighter-colored roofing surfaces reflect

  8. Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Selecting Cool Roofs Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs Guide covers how to understand, evaluate, and implement cool roof technologies. PDF icon coolroofguide.pdf More Documents & Publications Green Roofs - Federal Technology Alert Microsoft PowerPoint - Cool Roofs_090804 Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials - 2013 BTO Peer Review

  9. Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

    2003-04-07

    We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

  10. Cool Roof Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TOOL Name: Cool Roof Calculator AgencyCompany Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Online...

  11. Installation of Cool Roofs on Department of Energy Buildings...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Installation of Cool Roofs on Department of Energy Buildings Installation of Cool Roofs on Department of Energy Buildings PDF icon 2010.06.01 S-1 memo, Installation of Cool Roofs...

  12. Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save ...

  13. Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Labs Join with Dow Chemical to Develop Next-Generation Cool Roofs Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy

  14. Cool Roofs | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has been estimated to have the potential to offset the carbon emissions of 300 million automobiles." Y-12 began installing cool roofs in 2008, which was well before Secretary of...

  15. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  16. Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Saving 'Cool ... Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 Posted: October 17, 2012 - 4:08pm The Y-12 National Security Complex has taken additional steps to reduce its energy costs by installing almost 100,000 square feet of new heat reflective "cool" roofs at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee facility. The latest Y-12 cool roofs were added to Buildings 9204-2E and 9103. Fifteen percent of roofs at Y-12 are currently equipped with cool roof technology. This technology is

  17. DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI, US Dept of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Science Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs DOE Cool Roof Calculator Visit the Science Showcase homepage. Last updated on Wednesday 12 February 2014

  18. Inclusion of cool roofs in nonresidential Title 24 prescriptive requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steve; Bretz, Sarah

    2002-12-15

    Roofs that have high solar reflectance (high ability to reflect sunlight) and high thermal emittance (high ability to radiate heat) tend to stay cool in the sun. The same is true of low-emittance roofs with exceptionally high solar reflectance. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof tends to decrease cooling electricity use, cooling power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower the ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. DOE-2.1E building energy simulations indicate that use of a cool roofing material on a prototypical California nonresidential building with a low-sloped roof yields average annual cooling energy savings of approximately 300 kWh/1000 ft2 [3.2 kWh/m2], average annual natural gas deficits of 4.9 therm/1000 ft2 [5.6 MJ/m2], average source energy savings of 2.6 MBTU/1000 ft2 [30 MJ/m2], and average peak power demand savings of 0. 19 kW/1000 ft2 [2.1 W/m2]. The 15-year net present value (NPV) of energy savings averages $450/1000 ft2 [$4.90/m2] with time dependent valuation (TDV), and $370/1000 ft2 [$4.00/m2] without TDV. When cost savings from downsizing cooling equipment are included, the average total savings (15-year NPV + equipment savings) rises to $550/1000 ft2 [$5.90/m2] with TDV, and to $470/1000 ft2 [$5.00/m2] without TDV. Total savings range from 0.18 to 0.77 $/ft2 [1.90 to 8.30 $/m2] with TDV, and from 0.16 to 0.66 $/ft2 [1.70 to 7.10 $/m2] without TDV, across California's 16 climate zones. The typical cost premium for a cool roof is 0.00 to 0.20 $/ft2 [0.00 to 2.20 $/m2]. Cool roofs with premiums up to $0.20/ft2 [$2.20/m2] are expected to be cost effective in climate zones 2 through 16; those with premiums not exceeding $0.18/ft2 [$1.90/m2] are expected to be also cost effective in climate zone 1. Hence, this study recommends that the year-2005 California building energy efficiency code (Title 24, Pa rt 6 of the California Code of Regulations) for nonresidential buildings with low-sloped roofs include a cool-roof prescriptive requirement in all California climate zones. Buildings with roofs that do not meet prescriptive requirements may comply with the code via an ''overall-envelope'' approach (non-metal roofs only), or via a performance approach (all roof types).

  19. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  20. Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 The ...

  1. Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, William J. (Kansas City, KS); Snyder, Marvin K. (Overland Park, KS); Harter, James W. (Independence, MO)

    1983-01-01

    The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

  2. Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, W.J.; Harter, J.W.; Snyder, M.K.

    1983-12-06

    The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

  3. Status of cool roof standards in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

    2007-06-01

    Since 1999, several widely used building energy efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool roof credits or requirements. We review the technical development of cool roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discuss the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy standards worldwide.

  4. Thermal performance of a Concrete Cool Roof under different climatic conditions of Mexico

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hernández-Pérez, I.; Álvarez, G.; Gilbert, H.; Xamán, J.; Chávez, Y.; Shah, B.

    2014-11-27

    A cool roof is an ordinary roof with a reflective coating on the exterior surface which has a high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance. These properties let the roof keep a lower temperature than a standard roof under the same conditions. In this work, the thermal performance of a concrete roof with and without insulation and with two colors has been analyzed using the finite volume method. The boundary conditions of the external roof surface were taken from hourly averaged climatic data of four cities. For the internal surface, it is considered that the building is air-conditioned and themore » inside air has a constant temperature. The interior surface temperature and the heat flux rates into the roofs were obtained for two consecutive days in order to assess the benefits of a cool roofs in different climates.« less

  5. New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for

  6. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  7. Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

    2004-07-01

    Solar-reflective roofs stay cooler in the sun than solar-absorptive roofs. Such ''cool'' roofs achieve lower surface temperatures that reduce heat conduction into the building and the building's cooling load. The California Energy Commission has funded research in which Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has measured the electricity use and peak demand in commercial buildings to document savings from implementing the Commission's Cool Roofs program. The study seeks to determine the savings achieved by cool roofs by monitoring the energy use of a carefully selected assortment of buildings participating in the Cool Roofs program. Measurements were needed because the peak savings resulting from the application of cool roofs on different types of buildings in the diverse California climate zones have not been well characterized to date. Only a few occupancy categories (e.g., office and retail buildings) have been monitored before this, and those were done under a limited number of climatic conditions. To help rectify this situation, LBNL was tasked to select the buildings to be monitored, measure roof performance before and after replacing a hot roof by a cool roof, and document both energy and peak demand savings resulting from installation of cool roofs. We monitored the effects of cool roofs on energy use and environmental parameters in six California buildings at three different sites: a retail store in Sacramento; an elementary school in San Marcos (near San Diego); and a 4-building cold storage facility in Reedley (near Fresno). The latter included a cold storage building, a conditioning and fruit-palletizing area, a conditioned packing area, and two unconditioned packing areas (counted as one building).

  8. A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron July 15, 2011 - 5:42pm Addthis Berkeley Lab's iconic building, the Advanced Light Source, is getting a new cool roof, righ, that will reflect sunlight back into the atmosphere, playing a small part in mitigating global warming. On left, Ernest Orlando Lawrence talks to colleagues at the construction site of the cyclotron, built in 1941. | Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab

  9. Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building to Save Money by Saving Energy | Department of Energy Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy December 14, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - Secretary Steven Chu today announced the completion of a new cool roof installation on the Department of Energy's Headquarters West Building. There was no incremental cost to adding

  10. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cool Roof Products Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label,

  11. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic ... Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC ...

  12. Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to develop a new class of dark-colored pigments for cool metal roof and faade coatings that incorporate near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance to improve energy performance. ...

  13. Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    395 Kb . Cool roofs are one of the quickest and lowest cost ways we can reduce our global carbon emissions and begin the hard work of slowing climate change, said Secretary...

  14. Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    replacement project and it will save taxpayers 2,000 every year in building energy costs. ... As a result of the new cool roof installations on both buildings, taxpayers will save a ...

  15. Cool Roofs: Your Questions Answered | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Roofs: Your Questions Answered Cool Roofs: Your Questions Answered January 6, 2011 - 2:58pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Last month Secretary Chu announced that the Department of Energy had installed a "cool roof" atop the west building of our Washington, DC headquarters. The announcement elicited a fair number of questions from his Facebook fans, so we decided to reach out to the people behind the project for their insight

  16. Solar Domestic Water Heating: a Roof-Integrated Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-03

    This fact sheet describes an evaluation of the performance of a roof-integrated solar water heating system.

  17. Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Zalich, Ph.D. mzalich@ppg.com PPG Industries, Inc. Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Paul Berdahl, Ph.D. phberdahl@lbl.gov LBNL 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2013 (NEW PROJECT) Planned end date: September 30, 2014 Key Milestones 1. 200g Dark Red Pigment, End Q1 2. Additional Pigments Identified, End Q2 3. 500g of 2 New Pigments, End Q3 4. ESR Measured on New Cool Roof Coating, End Q4 Budget: Total DOE $ to

  18. Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Zalich, Ph.D. Paul Berdahl, Ph.D. mzalich@ppg.com phberdahl@lbl.gov PPG Industries, Inc. LBNL Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2013 Planned end date: September 30, 2015 Key Milestones 1. Additional Pigments Identified, End Q2 and Q6 2. 500g of 2 New Pigments, End Q3 and Q7 3. ESR Measured on New Cool Roof Coating, End Q4 and Q8 4. Potential Manufacturing Partner, Q3 and

  19. NNSA Commitment to Energy Efficiency: Promoting Cool Roof Technologies |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration Commitment to Energy Efficiency: Promoting Cool Roof Technologies | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact

  20. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini

    2014-07-10

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  1. New “Cool Roof Time Machine” Will Accelerate Cool Roof Deployment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A collaboration led by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has established a method to simulate soiling and weathering processes in the lab, reproducing in only a few days the solar reflectance of roofing products naturally aged for three years.

  2. Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE and Across the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Government | Department of Energy Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE and Across the Federal Government Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE and Across the Federal Government July 19, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced a series of initiatives underway at the Department of Energy to more broadly implement cool roof technologies on DOE facilities and buildings across the federal government. Cool

  3. Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Roofs Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs If you've ever stood on a roof on a hot summer day, you know how hot it can get. The heat from your roof makes your air conditioner work even harder to keep your home cool. Cool Roofs If you are building a new home, decide during planning whether you want a cool roof, and if you want to convert an existing roof, you can: Retrofit the roof with specialized heat-reflective material. Re-cover the roof with a new

  4. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  5. A meeting of the minds when NYC CoolRoofs visits PPPL | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which collected data on three white "cool roofs," including one on the Museum of Modern Art Queens in Long Island City, and found there was a 42 degree Fahrenheit difference...

  6. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  7. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance,more » roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.« less

  8. Geothermal Heat Pumps- Cooling Mode

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In summer, the fluid removes heat from the building and transfers it to the relatively cooler ground in order to cool the building.

  9. Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that incorporate near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance to improve energy performance. ... cool pigments that combine near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence with NIR reflectance. ...

  10. Principles of Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is heat traveling through a solid material. On hot days, heat is conducted into your home through the roof, walls, and windows. Heat-reflecting roofs, insulation, and energy...

  11. Sustainable Retrofit of Residential Roofs Using Metal Roofing Panels, Thin-Film Photovoltaic Laminates, and PCM Heat Sink Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan; Miller, William A; Childs, Phillip W; Biswas, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    During September-October 2009, research teams representing Metal Construction Association (the largest North American trade association representing metal building manufacturers, builders, and material suppliers), CertainTeed (one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of thermal insulation and building envelope materials), Unisolar (largest U.S. producer of amorphous silicone photo-voltaic (PV) laminates), Phase Change Energy (manufacturer of bio-based PCM), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) installed three experimental attics utilizing different roof retrofit strategies in the ORNL campus. The main goal of this project was experimental evaluation of a newly-developed sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing amorphous silicone PV laminates integrated with metal roof and PCM heat sink. The experimental attic with PV laminate was expected to work during the winter time as a passive solar collector with PCM storing solar heat, absorbed during the day, and increasing overall attic air temperature during the night.

  12. Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo

  13. Heating & Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science & Innovation » Energy Efficiency » Homes » Heating & Cooling Heating & Cooling Heating and cooling account for about 48% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. <a href="/energysaver/principles-heating-and-cooling">Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling</a>. Heating and cooling account for about 48% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for

  14. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  15. Guide to Home Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Get the most out of your heating and cooling systems, including types, how to choose, and performing maintenance.

  16. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fallahi, A.; Duraschlag, H.; Elliott, D.; Hartsough, J.; Shukla, N.; Kosny, J.

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulk insulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosed reflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  17. Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, nearly half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2011, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, nearly half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy

  18. Heat and Cool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Saver » Heat and Cool Heat and Cool Programmable thermostats and apps make it easy to control the temperature of your home and save energy and money. Programmable thermostats and apps make it easy to control the temperature of your home and save energy and money. Space heating and cooling account for almost half of a home's energy use, while water heating accounts for 18%, making these some of the largest energy expenses in any home. Space Heating and Cooling A variety of technologies

  19. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

    1997-01-01

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  20. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  1. Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling July 27, 2014 - 4:18pm Addthis Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat...

  2. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials - 2013 BTO Peer Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials Stay-Clean and Durable White Elastomeric Roof Coatings New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt...

  3. Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat and cool your home can be both environmentally friendly and cost effective. In many cases, your heating costs can be reduced to less than half the cost of heating a typical home. Passive solar design can also help lower your cooling costs. Passive solar cooling techniques include carefully designed overhangs and using reflective coatings on windows,

  4. Heat and Cool | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    apps make it easy to control the temperature of your home and save energy and money. Space heating and cooling account for almost half of a home's energy use, while water...

  5. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  6. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices 2012 DOE...

  7. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power ...

  8. 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Cool Things about Solar Heating 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating March 26, 2013 - 3:08pm Addthis Solar heating systems can be a cost-effective way to heat your home. | Photo...

  9. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating and Cooling Basics Space Heating and Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:04pm Addthis A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as thermostats and ducts, which provide opportunities for saving energy. Learn how these technologies and systems work. Learn about: Cooling Systems Heating Systems Heat Pump Systems Supporting Equipment for

  10. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and...

  11. Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat and cool your home can be both environmentally friendly and cost effective. In many cases, your heating costs...

  12. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    9 Major Commercial HVAC Equipment Lifetimes and Ages Median Equipment Type Lifetime Air Conditioners Through-the-Wall 15 Water-CooledPackage 24 (1) Roof-Top 15 Chillers Reciprocating 20 Centrifugal 25 (1) Absorption 23 Heat Pumps Air-to-Air 15 Water-to-Air 24 (1) Furnaces (gas or oil) 18 Boilers (gas or oil) Hot-Water 24 - 35 Steam 25 - 30 Unit Heaters Gas-Fired or Electric 13 Hot-Water or Steam 20 Cooling Towers (metal or wood) Metal 22 (1) Wood 20 Note(s): Source(s): 1) Data from 2005. All

  13. Cool Asphalt Shingles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Asphalt Shingles Cool Asphalt Shingles Berkeley Lab Heat Island Group research assistant Sharon Chen prepares a prototype of high-performance cool shingle roofing. Credit: Heat Island Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley Lab Heat Island Group research assistant Sharon Chen prepares a prototype of high-performance cool shingle roofing. Credit: Heat Island Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lead Performer: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Berkeley, CA Partners: --

  14. Jones-Onslow EMC- Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jones-Onslow Electric Membership Corporation offers rebates to residential members who install energy efficient heating and cooling equipment. Members can replace an existing central AC or heat...

  15. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  16. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  17. Cooling, heating, and power for industry: A market assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-08-01

    The focus of this study was to assess the market for cooling, heating, and power applications in the industrial sector.

  18. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/activesteve/5259747234/">Flickr user ActiveSteve</a>. Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for space

  19. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

  20. Next Generation Attics and Roof Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials - 2013 BTO Peer Review This graphic...

  1. Principles of Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Principles of Heating and Cooling Principles of Heating and Cooling To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kryzanek. To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kryzanek. Understanding how heat is transferred from the outdoors into your home and from your home to your body is important for

  2. Minimum Efficiency Requirements Tables for Heating and Cooling Product

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Categories | Department of Energy Minimum Efficiency Requirements Tables for Heating and Cooling Product Categories Minimum Efficiency Requirements Tables for Heating and Cooling Product Categories The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) created tables that mirror American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1-2013 tables, which include minimum efficiency requirements for FEMP-designated and ENERGY STAR-qualified heating and cooling product

  3. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  4. Solar heating and cooling diode module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maloney, Timothy J. (Winchester, VA)

    1986-01-01

    A high efficiency solar heating system comprising a plurality of hollow modular units each for receiving a thermal storage mass, the units being arranged in stacked relation in the exterior frame of a building, each of the units including a port for filling the unit with the mass, a collector region and a storage region, each region having inner and outer walls, the outer wall of the collector region being oriented for exposure to sunlight for heating the thermal storage mass; the storage region having an opening therein and the collector region having a corresponding opening, the openings being joined for communicating the thermal storage mass between the storage and collector regions by thermosiphoning; the collector region being disposed substantially below and in parallel relation to the storage region in the modular unit; and the inner wall of the collector region of each successive modular unit in the stacked relation extending over the outer wall of the storage region of the next lower modular unit in the stacked relation for reducing heat loss from the system. Various modifications and alternatives are disclosed for both heating and cooling applications.

  5. Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting August 14, 2013 - 1:39pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's efforts to reduce energy bills for American families and businesses and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the Energy Department today announced 12 projects to develop innovative heating, cooling and insulation technologies as well

  6. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Devices | Department of Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating with Thermoelectric Devices Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating with Thermoelectric Devices 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace048_bozeman_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating

  7. Covered Product Category: Light Commercial Heating and Cooling | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Commercial Heating and Cooling Covered Product Category: Light Commercial Heating and Cooling Federal purchases of light commercial heating and cooling equipment must be ENERGY STAR-qualified. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. This product overview explains how to meet energy-efficiency requirements for Federal purchases of light commercial

  8. Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting August 14, 2013 - 1:39pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's efforts to reduce energy bills for American families and businesses and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the Energy Department today announced 12 projects to develop innovative heating, cooling and insulation technologies as well as open source

  9. Cooling, Heating and Power in the Nation's Colleges and Universities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This 2002 study presents data on cooling, heating, and power in the collegeuniversity ... Campus: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use in Campus District Energy Systems, May 2005

  10. Buildings","Heated Buildings",,"Cooled Buildings",,"Lit Buildingsc...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... with Cooling ......",58474,56361,49482,58474,42420,57936,50055 "Buildings with Water Heating .",56115,54204,48070,52589,38844,55586,48125 "Buildings with Cooking ...

  11. Property:Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed...

  12. Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry: A Market Assessment, August 2003 Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment, August 2003 Industrial applications of CHP have been around for decades,...

  13. Principles of Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kryzanek. To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kryzanek. Understanding how heat is transferred from the outdoors into your home and from your home to your body is important for understanding the challenge of keeping your house cool. Understanding the

  14. Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:28pm Addthis Thermostats and ducts provide opportunities for saving energy. Dehumidifying heat pipes provide a way to help central air conditioners and heat pumps dehumidify air. Electric and gas meters allow users to track energy use. Thermostats Programmable thermostats can store and repeat multiple daily settings. Users can adjust the times heating or air-conditioning is activated

  15. Roof Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The roof of a Federal building is a common placement for a number of renewable energy technologies, so they should be addressed anytime a roof renovation is undertaken, including roof-mounted...

  16. Alternative cooling resource for removing the residual heat of reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H. C.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, D. S.; Jung, C. Y.; Choi, K. Y. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 260 Naa-ri Yangnam-myeon Gyeongju-si, Gyeonasangbuk-do, 780-815 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The Recirculated Cooling Water (RCW) system of a Candu reactor is a closed cooling system which delivers demineralized water to coolers and components in the Service Building, the Reactor Building, and the Turbine Building and the recirculated cooling water is designed to be cooled by the Raw Service Water (RSW). During the period of scheduled outage, the RCW system provides cooling water to the heat exchangers of the Shutdown Cooling System (SDCS) in order to remove the residual heat of the reactor, so the RCW heat exchangers have to operate at all times. This makes it very hard to replace the inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers because the replacement work requires the isolation of the RCW. A task force was formed to prepare a plan to substitute the recirculated water with the chilled water system in order to cool the SDCS heat exchangers. A verification test conducted in 2007 proved that alternative cooling was possible for the removal of the residual heat of the reactor and in 2008 the replacement of inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers for both Wolsong unit 3 and 4 were successfully completed. (authors)

  17. Cooling, Heating and Power in the Nation's Colleges and Universities -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Census, Survey, and Lessons Learned, February 2002 | Department of Energy Heating and Power in the Nation's Colleges and Universities - Census, Survey, and Lessons Learned, February 2002 Cooling, Heating and Power in the Nation's Colleges and Universities - Census, Survey, and Lessons Learned, February 2002 This 2002 study presents data on cooling, heating, and power in the college/university sector including technologies, size of systems, locations, and plans for growth. The data will

  18. Heating and Cooling with Mini Splits in the Northeast

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    buildingscience.com Heating and Cooling with Mini Splits in the Northeast Kohta Ueno October 23, 2014 2014 BA Webinar Mini Splits in Northeast 2 © buildingscience.com Background 2014 BA Webinar Mini Splits in Northeast 3 © buildingscience.com Overview  Transformations, Inc. currently building net-zero homes in Massachusetts  Mini split heat pumps (MSHPs) part of builder's strategy: tradeoff package  Single point of heating/ cooling on each floor  BA study of temperatures throughout

  19. Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers What does this project do? Marine Corps Base Hawaii replaced roofs on two buildings with polyvinyl chloride membrane 'cool' roofs and solar...

  20. Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    carefully assess your property and consult a professional before deciding to install a green roof. Learn More Energy-Efficient Home Design Cool Roofs Financing Energy-Efficient...

  1. Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ventilation can help keep your home cool during hot days. To avoid heat buildup in your home, plan ahead by landscaping your lot to shade your house. If you replace your roof,...

  2. White Roofs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    Secretary Steven Chu discusses the benefits of switching to white roofs and light colored pavements.

  3. Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

  4. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  5. Policymakers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling (Revised) (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This document provides an overview of the NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebook for Heating and Cooling with information directing people to the Web site for more in-depth information.

  6. Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly News

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NBC Nightly News recently featured a story on geothermal heating and cooling systems that are providing 30%-70% energy and cost savings for homeowners in Jordan, New York.

  7. Heat pipe radiation cooling evaluation: Task 2 concept studies report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverstein, C.C.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents the result of Task 2, Concept Studies for Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC), which was performed for Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract 9-XT1-U9567. Studies under a prior contract defined a reference HPRC conceptual design for hypersonic aircraft engines operating at Mach 5 and an altitude of 80,000 ft. Task 2 involves the further investigation of heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) systems for additional design and operating conditions.

  8. Covered Product Category: Light Commercial Heating and Cooling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal purchases of light commercial heating and cooling equipment must be ENERGY STAR®–qualified. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. This product overview explains how to meet energy-efficiency requirements for Federal purchases of light commercial heating and cooling equipment and how to maximize energy savings throughout products' useful lives.

  9. Cool Roofing Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    air- conditioning use *Indirect Effect - Light-colored surfaces in a neighborhood alter surface energy balance; result in lower ambient temperature 6 7 Methodology: Energy and ...

  10. Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    available to heat our homes, nearly half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2011, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type...

  11. Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to heat our homes, nearly half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2011, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type...

  12. Cooling, Heating, and Power for Commercial Buildings- Benefits Analysis, April 2002

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An analysis of the benefits of cooling, heating, and power (CHP) technologies in commercial buildings

  13. Cool Cities, Cool Planet (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur; Pomerantz, Melvin; Levinson, Ronnen

    2011-04-28

    Science at the Theater: Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how cool roofs can cool your building, your city ... and our planet. Arthur Rosenfeld, Professor of Physics Emeritus at UC Berkeley, founded the Berkeley Lab Center for Building Science in 1974. He served on the California Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and is commonly referred to as California's godfather of energy efficiency. Melvin Pomerantz is a member of the Heat Island Group at Berkeley Lab. Trained as a physicist at UC Berkeley, he specializes in research on making cooler pavements and evaluating their effects. Ronnen Levinson is a staff scientist at Berkeley Lab and the acting leader of its Heat Island Group. He has developed cool roofing and paving materials and helped bring cool roof requirements into building energy efficiency standards.

  14. Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy-Efficient Roofs If you've ever stood on a roof on a hot summer day, you know how hot it can get. The heat from your roof makes your air conditioner work even harder to keep...

  15. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project aims to reduce the time to rate aged materials from three years to a few days, which will speed next-generation cool roofing materials to market.

  16. Method and apparatus for heat extraction by controlled spray cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Christopher Francis (5492 Lenore Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Meeks, Ellen (304 Daisyfield Dr., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Kee, Robert (864 Lucille St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); McCarty, Kevin (304 Daisyfield Dr., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    1999-01-01

    Two solutions to the problem of cooling a high temperature, high heat flux surface using controlled spray cooling are presented for use on a mandrel. In the first embodiment, spray cooling is used to provide a varying isothermal boundary layer on the side portions of a mandrel by providing that the spray can be moved axially along the mandrel. In the second embodiment, a spray of coolant is directed to the lower temperature surface of the mandrel. By taking advantage of super-Leidenfrost cooling, the temperature of the high temperature surface of the mandrel can be controlled by varying the mass flux rate of coolant droplets. The invention has particular applicability to the field of diamond synthesis using chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  17. Geothermal district heating and cooling in Vicenza, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leoni, P.

    1995-06-01

    The discovery of a large low-enthalpy geothermal water reservoir under the city of Vicenza (110,000 people) in northern Italy, through an oil prospecting venture, opened up the opportunity to install a district heating system with low energy consumption. Although the geothermal water is at 67{degrees}C, this is insufficient for heating the city`s commercial and residential buildings using their existing high-temperature heat distribution systems. Heat pumps are, therefore, used to obtain optimum useful heat energy from the geothermal source. Experience so far suggests that the system can reduce energy consumption by up to 60%, or 3885 MWh/year. The 2000 m deep well was completed in 1983 and is the first such well in Italy to be located within an urban area, making it ideal as a heat source for a district heating system. It produces 100 m{sup 3}/h of low salt-content water. The {open_quotes}Vicenza{close_quotes} geothermal heating and cooling project was developed by {open_quotes}Aziende Industriali Muncipalizzate{close_quotes} from 1988 to 1991, a utility company owned by the city of Vicenza, with the purpose of distributing approximately 40,000 MWh year to residential and commercial buildings. The project includes the installation of a power plant, and a district heating and cooling network. A reduction in the consumption of conventional fuels both for heating and domestic water has been achieved through a highly-efficient thermodynamic system based on reversible heat pumps. The system provides heating in the winter and air conditioning in summer.

  18. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josh A. Salmond

    2009-08-07

    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

  19. Predicts the Steady-State Heating and Cooling Performance of Electric Heat Pump

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-01-13

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a leader in the development of analytical tools for the design of electrically driven, air-to-air heat pumps. Foremost among these tools is the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, which can be used to predict the steady-state heating and cooling performance of an electrically driven, air-source heat pump. This version is three to five times faster than the earlier version, easier to use and more versatile.

  20. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer region, diffusive transport is the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The resulting thermal bottleneck largely determines the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger. No one has yet devised a practical solution to the boundary layer problem. Another longstanding problem is inevitable fouling of the heat exchanger surface over time by particulate matter and other airborne contaminants. This problem is especially important in residential air conditioner systems where often little or no preventative maintenance is practiced. The heat sink fouling problem also remains unsolved. The third major problem (alluded to earlier) concerns inadequate airflow to heat exchanger resulting from restrictions on fan noise. The air-cooled heat exchanger described here solves all of the above three problems simultaneously. The 'Air Bearing Heat Exchanger' provides a several-fold reduction in boundary layer thickness, intrinsic immunity to heat sink fouling, and drastic reductions in noise. It is also very practical from the standpoint of cost, complexity, ruggedness, etc. Successful development of this technology is also expected to have far reaching impact in the IT sector from the standpointpoint of solving the 'Thermal Brick Wall' problem (which currently limits CPU clocks speeds to {approx}3 GHz), and increasing concern about the the electrical power consumption of our nation's information technology infrastructure.

  1. THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING PONDS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING PONDS R. K. Hadlock 0 . B. Abbey Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories Prepared for U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission b + NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, nor

  2. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  3. Strategy Guideline. Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  4. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  5. Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

    2002-01-01

    An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

  6. Numerical Model for Conduction-Cooled Current Lead Heat Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M.J.; Wang, X.L.; Brueck, H.D.; /DESY

    2011-06-10

    Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world; however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal intercepts. The model is validated by comparing the numerical model results to ideal cases where analytical equations are valid. In addition, the XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) prototype current leads are modeled and compared to the experimental results from testing at DESY's XFEL Magnet Test Stand (XMTS) and Cryomodule Test Bench (CMTB).

  7. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  8. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  9. Earth-sheltered compromise home saves on heating, cooling costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankhauser, T.

    1985-02-01

    Building a home into the side of a hill to take advantage of the earth's temperature-neutralizing qualities and facing it to the south will reduce heating and cooling costs. A home in North Dakota based on these principles has never had two unheated rooms freeze and needs no air conditioning. Mutli-zoned thermostats are located in the south-facing rooms. Other features are a five-foot overhang, lower ceilings, aluminum foil deflectors beneath carpets and above the plasterboard in the ceiling, and extra insulation. By eliminating an earth covering that would require sturdier support, construction costs were competitive with regular frame construction.

  10. Solar Heating & Cooling: Energy for a Secure Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, more than 30,000 solar heating and cooling systems (SHC) are being installed annually in the United States, employing more than 5,000 American workers from coast to coast. These numbers are good – but they can be a lot better. Installing more SHC systems would provide a huge boost to the economy and help the environment, too. This first-of-its-kind SHC roadmap, developed by a task force made up of SEIA-member companies and BEAM Engineering, lays the groundwork – as well as makes a compelling case – for driving installed SHC capacity from 9 GW thermal to 300 GW thermal by 2050.

  11. Heating and cooling gas-gun targets: nuts and bolts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Richard L; Bartram, Brian D; Gehr, Russell J; Bucholtz, Scott M

    2009-01-01

    The nuts and bolts of a system used to heat and cool gas-gun targets is described. We have now used the system for more than 35 experiments, all of which have used electromagnetic gauging. Features of the system include a cover which is removed (remotely) just prior to projectile impact and the widespread use of metal/polymer insulations. Both the cover and insulation were required to obtain uniform temperatures in samples with low thermal conductivity. The use of inexpensive video cameras to make remote observations of the cover removal was found to be very useful. A brief catalog of useful glue, adhesive tape, insulation, and seal materials is given.

  12. List of Roofs Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Air conditioners CustomOthers pending approval Heat pumps Lighting Roofs Photovoltaics Yes Electric Efficiency Standard (Indiana) Energy Efficiency Resource...

  13. Become One In A Million: Partnership Updates. Million Solar Roofs and Interstate Renewable Energy Council Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tombari, C.

    2005-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Million Solar Roofs Initiative (MSR) is a unique public-private partnership aimed at overcoming market barriers for photovoltaics (PV), solar water heating, transpired solar collectors, solar space heating and cooling, and pool heating. This report contains annual progress reports from 866 partners across the United States.

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Main Commercial Primary Energy Use of Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995 Heating Equipment | Cooling Equipment Packaged Heating Units 25% | Packaged Air Conditioning Units 54% Boilers 21% | Room Air Conditioning 5% Individual Space Heaters 2% | PTAC (2) 3% Furnaces 20% | Centrifugal Chillers 14% Heat Pumps 5% | Reciprocating Chillers 12% District Heat 7% | Rotary Screw Chillers 3% Unit Heater 18% | Absorption Chillers 2% PTHP & WLHP (1) 2% | Heat Pumps 7% 100% | 100% Note(s):

  15. Fluid-cooled heat sink with improved fin areas and efficiencies for use in cooling various devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan; Bennion, Kevin; Kelly, Kenneth; Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2015-04-21

    The disclosure provides a fluid-cooled heat sink having a heat transfer base and a plurality of heat transfer fins in thermal communication with the heat transfer base, where the heat transfer base and the heat transfer fins form a central fluid channel through which a forced or free cooling fluid may flow. The heat transfer pins are arranged around the central fluid channel with a flow space provided between adjacent pins, allowing for some portion of the central fluid channel flow to divert through the flow space. The arrangement reduces the pressure drop of the flow through the fins, optimizes average heat transfer coefficients, reduces contact and fin-pin resistances, and reduces the physical footprint of the heat sink in an operating environment.

  16. Radiant heating and cooling, displacement ventilation with heat recovery and storm water cooling: An environmentally responsible HVAC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, S.C.; Kokko, J.P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of an HVAC system installed as part of a project to demonstrate energy efficiency and environmental responsibility in commercial buildings. The systems installed in the 2180 m{sup 2} office building provide superior air quality and thermal comfort while requiring only half the electrical energy of conventional systems primarily because of the hydronic heating and cooling system. Gas use for the building is higher than expected because of longer operating hours and poor performance of the boiler/absorption chiller.

  17. In-Depth Analysis of Simulation Engine Codes for Comparison with DOE s Roof Savings Calculator and Measured Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan; Levinson, Ronnen; Huang, Yu; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Miller, William A.; Mellot, Joe; Childs, Kenneth W.; Kriner, Scott

    2014-06-01

    The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) was developed through collaborations among Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), White Box Technologies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the Environmental Protection Agency in the context of a California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research project to make cool-color roofing materials a market reality. The RSC website and a simulation engine validated against demonstration homes were developed to replace the liberal DOE Cool Roof Calculator and the conservative EPA Energy Star Roofing Calculator, which reported different roof savings estimates. A preliminary analysis arrived at a tentative explanation for why RSC results differed from previous LBNL studies and provided guidance for future analysis in the comparison of four simulation programs (doe2attic, DOE-2.1E, EnergyPlus, and MicroPas), including heat exchange between the attic surfaces (principally the roof and ceiling) and the resulting heat flows through the ceiling to the building below. The results were consolidated in an ORNL technical report, ORNL/TM-2013/501. This report is an in-depth inter-comparison of four programs with detailed measured data from an experimental facility operated by ORNL in South Carolina in which different segments of the attic had different roof and attic systems.

  18. Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shivvers, Steve D. (Prole, IA)

    2009-08-18

    A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

  19. FLUID-COOLED HEAT SINK WITH IMPROVED FIN AREAS AND EFFICENCIES FOR USE IN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COOLING VARIOUS DEVICES - Energy Innovation Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search FLUID-COOLED HEAT SINK WITH IMPROVED FIN AREAS AND EFFICENCIES FOR USE IN COOLING VARIOUS DEVICES DOE Grant Recipients National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A heat transfer device utilizing a central fluid channel to service multiple heat

  20. BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) Project objectives: Create a campus geothermal heating and cooling system; Validate the cost savings associated with a geothermal system; Reduce emissions of CO2, CO, PM, SO2, NOx. PDF icon gshp_lowe_ball_state.pdf More Documents & Publications Retrofit of the Local 150 of International Union of Operating Engineers Analysis & Tools to Spur Increased Deployment Klamath

  1. Hydronic rooftop cooling systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA); Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA)

    2008-01-29

    A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

  2. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The emergence of technologies that efficiently convert heat into cooling, such as absorption chillers, has opened up many new opportunities and markets for combined heat and power systems. These...

  3. Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Techs new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Techs design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

  4. Incorporate Minimum Efficiency Requirements for Heating and Cooling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and ENERGY STAR-qualified heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) and water heating products into tables that mirror American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and ...

  5. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  6. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  7. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials 1 of 2 Berkeley Lab Heat Island Group chemist Mohamad Sleiman prepares to insert clean and soiled roofing specimens into a weatherometer. The weatherometer simulates exposure to heat, moisture, and UV radiation. Image: Heat Island Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 of 2 Berkeley Lab Heat Island Group chemist Mohamad Sleiman configures a weatherometer to simulate the effects of heat, moisture, and UV

  8. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SUSTAINABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT RE-ROOFING TECHNOLOGY USING FIELD-TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Miller, William A; Childs, Phillip W; Kosny, Jan; Kriner, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Three test attics were constructed to evaluate a new sustainable method of re-roofing utilizing photo-voltaic (PV) laminates, metal roofing panels, and PCM heat sink in the Envelope Systems Research Apparatus (ESRA) facility in the ORNL campus. Figure 1 is a picture of the three attic roofs located adjacent to each other. The leftmost roof is the conventional shingle roof, followed by the metal panel roof incorporating the cool-roof coating, and third from left is the roof with the PCM. On the PCM roof, the PV panels are seen as well; they're labelled from left-to-right as panels 5, 6 and 7. The metal panel roof consists of three metal panels with the cool-roof coating; in further discussion this is referred to as the infrared reflective (IRR) metal roof. The IRR metal panels reflect the incoming solar radiation and then quickly re-emit the remaining absorbed portion, thereby reducing the solar heat gain of the attic. Surface reflectance of the panels were measured using a Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. In the 0.35-2.0 {mu}m wavelength interval, which accounts for more than 94% of the solar energy, the IRR panels have an average reflectance of 0.303. In the infrared portion of the spectrum, the IRR panel reflectance is 0.633. The PCM roof consists of a layer of macro-encapsulated bio-based PCM at the bottom, followed by a 2-cm thick layer of dense fiberglass insulation with a reflective surface on top, and metal panels with pre-installed PV laminates on top. The PCM has a melting point of 29 C (84.2 F) and total enthalpy between 180 and 190 J/g. The PCM was macro-packaged in between two layers of heavy-duty plastic foil forming arrays of PCM cells. Two air cavities, between PCM cells and above the fiberglass insulation, helped the over-the-deck natural air ventilation. It is anticipated that during summer, this extra ventilation will help in reducing the attic-generated cooling loads. The extra ventilation, in conjunction with the PCM heat sink, are used to minimize thermal stresses due to the PV laminates on sunny days. In PV laminates sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneous. In case of building integrated applications, a relatively high solar absorption of amorphous silicon laminates can be utilized during the winter for solar heating purposes with PCM providing necessary heat storage capacity. However, PV laminates may also generate increased building cooling loads during the summer months. Therefore, in this project, the PCM heat sink was to minimize summer heat gains as well. The PCM-fibreglass-PV assembly and the IRR metal panels are capable of being installed directly on top of existing shingle roofs during re-roofing, precluding the need for recycling or disposal of waste materials. The PV laminates installed on the PCM attic are PVL-144 models from Uni-Solar. Each laminate contains 22 triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells connected in series. The silicon cells are of dimensions 356 mm x 239 mm (14-in. x 9.4-in.). The PVL-144 laminate is encapsulated in durable ETFE (poly-ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) high light-transmissive polymer. Table 1 lists the power, voltage and current ratings of the PVL-144 panel.

  9. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W.; Leon, Albert M.; Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C.; McCoy, Daniel E.; Fisher, Barry L.; Saiers, Timothy L.; Karstetter, Marlin E.

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  10. Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cooling systems that are providing 30%-70% energy and cost savings for homeowners in Jordan, New York. Demand for these systems is growing; nationally, shipments of geothermal...

  11. Subcooled Boiling Heat Transfer for Cooling of Power Electronics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiator and associated pumping system are still required in HEVs. This additional cooling system adds weight and cost while decreasing the efficiency of HEVs. With the...

  12. Cooling, Heating, and Power for Commercial Buildings - Benefits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating, and Power for Commercial Buildings - Benefits Analysis, April 2002 In this paper, an analysis was performed to determine that the increased production of waste heat...

  13. How Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? How Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? September 23, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday, Chris told you about his new ceiling fan and how it's changed the way he cools his home. In warm weather, ceiling fans cool people (not rooms) by producing a wind-chill effect-which is why you should turn off fans when you leave the room. A ceiling fan allows you to raise the thermostat setting

  14. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90[degrees]C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15[degrees]C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.

  15. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90{degrees}C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15{degrees}C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.

  16. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Main Commercial Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995, 1999, and 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) (1) Heating Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Cooling Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Packaged Heating Units 29% 38% 28% Packaged Air Conditioning Units 45% 54% 46% Boilers 29% 29% 32% Individual Air Conditioners 21% 21% 19% Individual Space Heaters 29% 26% 19% Central Chillers 19% 19% 18% Furnaces 25% 21% 30% Residential Central Air Conditioners 16% 12% 17% Heat Pumps 10% 13% 14% Heat Pumps 12% 14%

  17. Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40% of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, the Energy Information Administration has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. The Annual Energy Outlook 2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

  18. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  19. Roof bolting improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-11-15

    Suppliers partner with mine operators to offer safer, more productive tools for roof bolting. 4 figs.

  20. Emergency Decay Heat Removal in a GEN-IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Ludewig, Hans; Jo, Jae [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A series of transient analyses using the system code RELAP5-3d has been performed to confirm the efficacy of a proposed hybrid active/passive combination approach to the decay heat removal for an advanced 2400 MWt GEN-IV gas-cooled fast reactor. The accident sequence of interest is a station blackout simultaneous with a small break (10 sq.inch/0.645 m{sup 2}) in the reactor vessel. The analyses cover the three phases of decay heat removal in a depressurization accident: (1) forced flow cooling by the power conversion unit (PCU) coast down, (2) active forced flow cooling by a battery powered blower, and (3) passive cooling by natural circulation. The blower is part of an emergency cooling system (ECS) that by design is to sustain passive decay heat removal via natural circulation cooling 24 hours after shutdown. The RELAP5 model includes the helium-cooled reactor, the ECS (primary and secondary side), the PCU with all the rotating machinery (turbine and compressors) and the heat transfer components (recuperator, pre-cooler and inter-cooler), and the guard containment that surrounds the reactor and the PCU. The transient analysis has demonstrated the effectiveness of passive decay heat removal by natural circulation cooling when the guard containment pressure is maintained at or above 800 kPa. (authors)

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Residential Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Cooling Efficiencies 2005 2007 2007 Stock Equipment Type Air Conditioners SEER 10.2 13.0 21.0 Heat Pump - Cooling Air-Source SEER 10.0 13.0 17.0 Ground-Source EER 13.8 16.0 30.0 Heat Pump - Heating Air-Source HSPF 6.8 7.7 10.6 Ground-Source COP 3.4 3.4 5.0 Source(s): EIA/Navigant Consulting, EIA - Technology Forecast Updates - Residential and Commercial Buildings Technologies Reference Case, Second Edition (Revised), Sept. 2007, p. 26-31. Efficiency

  2. Solar heating and cooling system installed at RKL Controls Company, Lumberton, New Jersey. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-03-01

    Solar heating and cooling of a 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales offices and the solar computer control center/display room are described. Information on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature and as-built drawings are provided also. The solar system is composed of 6000 square feet of Sunworks double glazed flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, controls, ARKLA absorption chiller, heat recovery and a cooling tower.

  3. Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment, August 2003

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Industry: A Market Assessment, August 2003 Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment, August 2003 Industrial applications of CHP have been around for decades, producing electricity and byproduct thermal energy onsite, and converting 80 percent or more of the input fuel into useable energy. The focus of this study was to assess the market for cooling, heating, and power applications in the industrial sector. PDF icon

  4. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 | Department of Energy Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 University of California, Irvine, in collaboration with Siemens Corporate Research, developed and demonstrated novel algorithms and dynamic control technology for optimal economic use of CHP systems under 5 MW. The control

  5. Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs April 2, 2010 - 2:42pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers What does this project do? Marine Corps Base Hawaii replaced roofs on two buildings with polyvinyl chloride membrane 'cool' roofs and solar panels. The new roofs saves $20,000 a year in energy costs. Built on the end of the Mokapu Peninsula on Oahu's northeast coast, the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay gets plenty of sunlight. But

  6. SolarRoofs com | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    95608 Sector: Solar Product: California-based manufacturer of the patented Skyline solar water heating systems. References: SolarRoofs.com1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  7. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

  8. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air Conditioning Research Institute A directory listing air conditioning and heat pump products that meet energy performance tiers established by the Consortium for Energy...

  9. 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or deductions for solar energy systems. Solar heating systems reduce the amount of air pollution and greenhouse gases that generally come from the use of fossil fuels for...

  10. Crosslinked crystalline polymer and methods for cooling and heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH); Botham, Ruth A. (Dayton, OH); Ball, III, George L. (West Carrollton, OH)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to crystalline polyethylene pieces having optimum crosslinking for use in storage and recovery of heat, and it further relates to methods for storage and recovery of heat using crystalline polymer pieces having optimum crosslinking for these uses. Crystalline polymer pieces are described which retain at least 70% of the heat of fusion of the uncrosslinked crystalline polymer and yet are sufficiently crosslinked for the pieces not to stick together upon being cycled above and below the melting point of said polymer, preferably at least 80% of the heat of fusion with no substantial sticking together.

  11. Off-axis cooling of rotating devices using a crank-shaped heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Todd A.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Waynert, Joseph A.

    2007-01-30

    The present invention is a crank-shaped heat pipe for cooling rotating machinery and a corresponding method of manufacture. The crank-shaped heat pipe comprises a sealed cylindrical tube with an enclosed inner wick structure. The crank-shaped heat pipe includes a condenser section, an adiabatic section, and an evaporator section. The crank-shape is defined by a first curve and a second curve existing in the evaporator section or the adiabatic section of the heat pipe. A working fluid within the heat pipe provides the heat transfer mechanism.

  12. Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Coico, Patrick A.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2015-09-15

    A method is provided for fabricating a cooling apparatus for cooling an electronics rack, which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures, and a tube. The heat exchanger is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

  13. Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan; Hassani, A. Vahab

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

  14. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO); Anderson, Ren (Broomfield, CO)

    2001-01-01

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  15. ASHRAE Minimum Efficiency Requirements Tables for Heating and Cooling Product Categories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) created tables that mirror American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1-2013 tables, which include minimum efficiency requirements for FEMP-designated and ENERGY STAR-qualified heating and cooling product categories. Download the tables below to incorporate FEMP and ENERGY STAR purchasing requirements into federal product acquisition documents.

  16. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-11-30

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

  17. Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J; Coico, Patrick A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    A cooling apparatus for an electronics rack is provided which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures and a tube. The heat exchanger, which is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of distinct, coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and a coolant outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

  18. Analytical and experimental studies of heat pipe radiation cooling of hypersonic propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S. ); Silverstein, C.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary, research-oriented, analytical and experimental studies were completed to assess the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This new approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from an external heat pipe nacelle. For propulsion systems using heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC), it is possible to continue to use hydrocarbon fuels into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 speed range, thereby enhancing the economic attractiveness of commercial or military hypersonic flight. In the second-phase feasibility program recently completed, we found that heat loads produced by considering both convection and radiation heat transfer from the combustion gas can be handled with HPRC design modifications. The application of thermal insulation to ramburner and nozzle walls was also found to reduce the heat load by about one-half and to reduce peak HPRC system temperatures to below 2700{degrees}F. In addition, the operation of HPRC at cruise conditions of around Mach 4.5 and at an altitude of 90, 000 ft lowers peak hot section temperatures to around 2800{degrees}F. An HPRC heat pipe was successfully fabricated and tested at Mach 5 conditions of heat flux, heat load, and temperature. 24 refs.

  19. Analytical and experimental studies of heat pipe radiation cooling of hypersonic propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S.; Silverstein, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Preliminary, research-oriented, analytical and experimental studies were completed to assess the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This new approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from an external heat pipe nacelle. For propulsion systems using heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC), it is possible to continue to use hydrocarbon fuels into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 speed range, thereby enhancing the economic attractiveness of commercial or military hypersonic flight. In the second-phase feasibility program recently completed, we found that heat loads produced by considering both convection and radiation heat transfer from the combustion gas can be handled with HPRC design modifications. The application of thermal insulation to ramburner and nozzle walls was also found to reduce the heat load by about one-half and to reduce peak HPRC system temperatures to below 2700{degrees}F. In addition, the operation of HPRC at cruise conditions of around Mach 4.5 and at an altitude of 90, 000 ft lowers peak hot section temperatures to around 2800{degrees}F. An HPRC heat pipe was successfully fabricated and tested at Mach 5 conditions of heat flux, heat load, and temperature. 24 refs.

  20. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School and Middle School.; Provide jobs; and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District; and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession.

  1. While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Birmingham Mayor William A. Bell, Sr., City officials, and DOE representatives at Monday's groundbreaking. Birmingham Mayor William A. Bell, Sr., City officials, and DOE representatives at Monday's groundbreaking. Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Birmingham received a $2.4 million Energy Efficiency Community Block Grant under the Recovery Act. The HVAC system will use ground source heat pump technology. It seems like

  2. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Surfaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated aging of roofing surfaces Hugo Destaillats, Ph.D. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory HDestaillats@LBL.gov (510) 486-5897 http://HeatIsland.LBL.gov April 4, 2013 Development of Advanced Building Envelope Surface Materials & Integration of Artificial Soiling and Weathering in a Commercial Weatherometer New York Times, 30 July 2009 2010 2012 Challenge: speed the development of high performance building envelope materials that resist soiling, maintain high solar reflectance, and

  3. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  4. Thermionic nuclear reactor with internal heat distribution and multiple duct cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, C.R.; Perry, L.W. Jr.

    1975-11-01

    A Thermionic Nuclear Reactor is described having multiple ribbon-like coolant ducts passing through the core, intertwined among the thermionic fuel elements to provide independent cooling paths. Heat pipes are disposed in the core between and adjacent to the thermionic fuel elements and the ribbon ducting, for the purpose of more uniformly distributing the heat of fission among the thermionic fuel elements and the ducts.

  5. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHUGH, Devesh; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; Abdelaziz, Omar; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

  6. Mine roof support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollmann, A.

    1981-02-24

    A mine roof support has a base and a roof shield pivoted to the base and carrying at its upper end a pivoted cap which is urged upwardly against the mine roof by a hydraulic pit prop reacting between the cap and the base. The lower end of the roof shield is connected to the base by two links each having a pivot cooperating with a pivot on the roof shield, and a pivot cooperating with a pivot on the base. In addition, the base and/or the lower end of the roof shield has an auxiliary for each link and each link has an auxiliary pivot which can be connected with one of the auxiliary pivots of the base or lower end.

  7. Integrated three-dimensional module heat exchanger for power electronics cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennion, Kevin; Lustbader, Jason

    2013-09-24

    Embodiments discussed herein are directed to a power semiconductor packaging that removes heat from a semiconductor package through one or more cooling zones that are located in a laterally oriented position with respect to the semiconductor package. Additional embodiments are directed to circuit elements that are constructed from one or more modular power semiconductor packages.

  8. Heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) for high-speed aircraft propulsion. Phase 2 (feasibility) final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S.; Silverstein, C.C.

    1994-03-25

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos), and CCS Associates are conducting the Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC) for High-Speed Aircraft Propulsion program to determine the advantages and demonstrate the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This innovative approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from adjacent external surfaces. HPRC is viewed as an alternative (or complementary) cooling technique to the use of pumped cryogenic or endothermic fuels to provide regenerative fuel or air cooling of the hot surfaces. The HPRC program has been conducted through two phases, an applications phase and a feasibility phase. The applications program (Phase 1) included concept and assessment analyses using hypersonic engine data obtained from US engine company contacts. The applications phase culminated with planning for experimental verification of the HPRC concept to be pursued in a feasibility program. The feasibility program (Phase 2), recently completed and summarized in this report, involved both analytical and experimental studies.

  9. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  10. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  11. Micro-scale heat-exchangers for Joule-Thomson cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Andrew John

    2014-01-01

    This project focused on developing a micro-scale counter flow heat exchangers for Joule-Thomson cooling with the potential for both chip and wafer scale integration. This project is differentiated from previous work by focusing on planar, thin film micromachining instead of bulk materials. A process will be developed for fabricating all the devices mentioned above, allowing for highly integrated micro heat exchangers. The use of thin film dielectrics provides thermal isolation, increasing efficiency of the coolers compared to designs based on bulk materials, and it will allow for wafer-scale fabrication and integration. The process is intended to implement a CFHX as part of a Joule-Thomson cooling system for applications with heat loads less than 1mW. This report presents simulation results and investigation of a fabrication process for such devices.

  12. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  13. Very low temperature radiant heating/cooling indoor end system for efficient use of renewable energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Jianbo; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Congrong; Xiong, Weicheng; Zhu, Li

    2010-06-15

    Solar or solar-assisted space heating systems are becoming more and more popular. The solar energy utilization efficiency is high when the collector is coupled with indoor radiant heating suppliers, since in principle, lower supply temperature means lower demand temperature and then the system heat loss is less. A new type radiant end system is put forward for even lower supply temperature compared to the conventional radiant floor heating systems. A three dimensional model was established to investigate its energy supply capacities. Simulation results show that 50 W per meter length tube can be achieved with the medium temperature of 30 C for heating and 15 C for cooling. The predicted results agree well with the actual data from a demonstration building. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a supply temperature of 22 C in winter and of 17 C in summer already met the indoor requirements. The new end system has good prospects for effective use of local renewable resources. (author)

  14. Stirling cycle heat pump for heating and/or cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijer, R.J.; Khalili, K.; Meijer, E.; Godett, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a duplex Stirling cycle machine acting as a heat pump. It comprises: a Stirling engine having pistons axially displaceable within parallel cylinders, the engine further having a swashplate rotatable about an axis of, rotation parallel to the cylinders and defining a plane inclined from the axis of rotation. The pistons connected to the swashplate via crossheads whereby axial displacement of the pistons is converted to rotation of the swashplate, and a Stirling cycle heat pump having a compression heat exchanger, an expansion heat exchanger and a regenerator with pistons equal in number to the engine pistons and axially displaceable within cylinders which are oriented co-axially with the engine cylinders. The crossheads further connected to the heat pump pistons whereby the heat pump pistons move simultaneously with the engine pistons over an equal stroke distance.

  15. IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    2001-04-01

    The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

  16. Demonstration of a high heat removal CVD diamond substrate edge-cooled multichip module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.; Andaleon, D.D.; Renzi, R.F.; Johnson, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    A single substrate intended for a 3-dimensional (3D) edge-cooled multichip module (MCM) has been built and thermally tested. The substrate, with dimensions 1.9 in. by 2 in., is mounted in a fluid cooled block at one end. To test this cooling architecture and verify the accuracy of thermal models, the authors constructed thermal test modules using alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum nitride (AlN), and CVD diamond substrate materials. Each module was populated with an array of 16 Sandia ATC03 test chips with resistive heaters and temperature sensing diode thermometers. Comparative measurements of the 3 substrates were made in which the top row of 4 die were heated at 5 W each for a total of 20 W. The maximum temperature differences between the heated die and the interface with the cold chuck, {delta}T{sub js}, were 24, 126, and 265{degrees}C for diamond, AIN and alumina, respectively. Measurements on the diamond thermal test module, uniformly heated at a total power of 40 W, gave a measured junction-to-sink temperature of {delta}T{sub js} = 18{degrees}C. This result indicates that the diamond edge-cooled substrate could dissipate a total power {approximately}200 W for a maximum {delta}T{sub js} {approximately}100{degrees}C. If multiple substrates were mounted in the fluid cooled block, spaced 0.075 in. apart, the volumetric power density would be about 880 W/in.

  17. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-09

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  18. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  19. Simplified method for calculating heating and cooling energy in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Garnier, J.Y.

    1981-10-01

    A microcomputer-based program, Computerized, Instrumented, Residential Audit (CIRA), for determining economically optimal mixes of energy-saving measures in existing residential buildings was developed which requires extensive calculation of heating and cooling energy consumptions. In this paper, a simplified method of calculation that satisfies the requirements of speed and memory imposed by the type of microcomputer on which CIRA runs is presented. The method is based on monthly calculations of degree days and degree nights for both heating and cooling seasons. The base temperatures used in calculating the degree days and degree nights are derived from thermostat settings, solar and internal gains, sky radiation losses, and the thermal characteristics of the building envelope. Thermostat setbacks are handled by using the concept of effective thermal mass of the house. Performance variations of HVAC equipment with changes of part load and ambient conditions are taken into account using correlation curves based on experimental data. Degree days and nights for different base temperatures are evaluated by using a climate-specific empirical correlation with monthly average daily and nightly temperatures. Predictions obtained by this method and by DOE-2.1 are compared for the so-called Hastings ranch house for seven different climates in the United States. Heating and cooling energy consumptions predicted by CIRA lie generally within +- 10% of DOE-2.1 predictions.

  20. Roof bolting equipment & technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-04-15

    Technology provides an evaluator path to improvement for roof bolting machines. Bucyrus offers three different roof bolts models for various mining conditions. The LRB-15 AR is a single-arm boiler recommended for ranges of 32 inches and above; the dual-arm RB2-52A for ranges of 42 inches and above; and the dual-arm RB2-88A for ranges of 54 inches and above. Design features are discussed in the article. Developments in roof bolting technology by Joy Mining Machinery are reported. 4 photos.

  1. Mine roof support system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culley, D.H.

    1982-01-26

    A mine roof support system is disclosed having sets of laterally spaced pairs of elongated support members adapted to be moved into and out of abutting relation with a mine roof. Wheel supported frames extend between and connect adjacent end portions of each pair of support members with adjacent wheel supported frames at the ends of the support members being in spaced tandem relation and connected to each other by connector members. Extensible prop members are connected to and move the wheel supported frames and the elongated support members connected thereto selectively toward and away from the mine roof.

  2. Experimental evaluation of dry/wet air-cooled heat exchangers. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Gruel, R.L.; Huenefeld, J.C.; Eschbach, E.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Kreid, D.K.

    1982-08-01

    The ultimate goal of this project was to contribute to the development of improved cooling facilities for power plants. Specifically, the objective during FY-81 was to experimentally determine the thermal performance and operating characteristics of an air-cooled heat exchanger surface manufactured by the Unifin Company. The performance of the spiral-wound finned tube surface (Unifin) was compared with two inherently different platefin surfaces (one developed by the Trane Co. and the other developed by the HOETERV Institute) which were previously tested as a part of the same continuing program. Under dry operation the heat transfer per unit frontal area per unit inlet temperature difference (ITD) of the Unifin surface was 10% to 20% below that of the other two surfaces at low fan power levels. At high fan power levels, the performances of the Unifin and Trane surfaces were essentially the same, and 25% higher than the HOETERV surface. The design of the Unifin surface caused a significantly larger air-side pressure drop through the heat exchanger both in dry and deluge operation. Generally higher overall heat transfer coefficients were calculated for the Unifin surface under deluged operation. They ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F as compared to less than 2.0 Btu hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F for the Trane and HOETERV surfaces under similar conditions. The heat transfer enhancement due to the evaporative cooling effect was also measureably higher with the Unifin surface as compared to the Trane surface. This can be primarily attributed to the better wetting characteristics of the Unifin surface. If the thermal performance of the surfaces are compared at equal face velocities, the Unifin surface is as much as 35% better. This method of comparison accounts for the wetting characteristics while neglecting the effect of pressure drop. Alternatively the surfaces when compared at equal pressure drop essentially the same thermal performance.

  3. Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bons, Jeffrey; Ameri, Ali

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling. The new deposition model was implemented into the CFD model as a wall boundary condition, with various particle sizes investigated in the simulation. Simulations utilizing a steady mixing plane formulation and an unsteady sliding mesh were conducted and the flow solution of each was validated against experimental data. Results from each of these simulations, including impact and capture distributions and efficiencies, were compared and potential reasons for differences discussed in detail. The inclusion of a large range of particle sizes allowed investigation of trends with particle size, such as increased radial migration and reduced sticking efficiency at the larger particle sizes. The unsteady simulation predicted lower sticking efficiencies on the rotor blades than the mixing plane simulation for the majority of particle sizes. This is postulated to be due to the preservation of the hot streak and cool vane wake through the vane-rotor interface (which are smeared out circumferentially in the mixing-plane simulation). The results reported here represent the successful implementation of a novel deposition model into validated vane-rotor flow solutions that include a non-uniform inlet temperature profile and simulated vane cooling.

  4. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Fields, Paul R.

    1981-04-21

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  5. Mine roof support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollmann, A.

    1982-01-05

    A mine roof support has a base, a supporting prop extending upwardly from the base, an elongated roof-supporting element having one portion supported by the supporting prop and another portion telescopable relative to the one portion toward a mine face and having a free end formed as a housing with a width corresponding to the width of the one portion, and a thrust prop arranged to support the free end section of the telescopable portion of the roof-supporting element and having a roof-side end section which is forcedly displaceable in the housing in direction of elongation of a mine and pivotable in a substantially vertical plane about an axle arranged in the housing.

  6. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1996-03-26

    A method is described for energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt.% phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably ``fully charged``. In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboards that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degrees. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort. 7 figs.

  7. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stovall, Therese K.; Tomlinson, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A method of energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt. % a phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably "fully charged". In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboard that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degree. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort.

  8. Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger for High-Temperature Power Electronics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S. K.; Lustbader, J.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2015-05-06

    This work demonstrates a direct air-cooled heat exchanger strategy for high-temperature power electronic devices with an application specific to automotive traction drive inverters. We present experimental heat dissipation and system pressure curves versus flow rate for baseline and optimized sub-module assemblies containing two ceramic resistance heaters that provide device heat fluxes. The maximum allowable junction temperature was set to 175 deg.C. Results were extrapolated to the inverter scale and combined with balance-of-inverter components to estimate inverter power density and specific power. The results exceeded the goal of 12 kW/L and 12 kW/kg for power density and specific power, respectively.

  9. Experimental validation of advanced regulations for superconducting magnet cooling undergoing periodic heat loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Hoa, C.; Bonnay, P.

    2014-01-29

    Superconducting magnets used in tokamaks undergo periodic heat load caused by cycling plasma operations inducing AC losses, neutrons fluxes and eddy currents in magnet structures. In the cryogenic system of JT60-SA tokamak, the Auxiliary Cold Box (ACB) distributes helium from the refrigerator to the cryogenic users and in particular to the superconducting magnets. ACB comprises a saturated helium bath with immersed heat exchangers, extracting heat from independent cooling loops. The supercritical helium flow in each cooling loop is driven by a cold circulator. In order to safely operate the refrigerator during plasma pulses, the interface between the ACB and the refrigerator shall be as stable as possible, with well-balanced bath inlet and outlet mass flows during cycling operation. The solution presented in this paper relies on a combination of regulations to smooth pulsed heat loads and to keep a constant refrigeration power during all the cycle. Two smoothing strategies are presented, both regulating the outlet mass flow of the bath: the first one using the bath as a thermal buffer and the second one storing energy in the loop by varying the cold circulator speed. The bath outlet mass flow is also controlled by an immersed resistive heater which enables a constant evaporation rate in the bath when power coming from the loops is decreasing. The refrigeration power is controlled so that the compensating power remains within an acceptable margin. Experimental validation is achieved using the HELIOS facility. This facility running at CEA Grenoble since 2010 is a scaled down model of the ACB bath and Central Solenoid magnet cooling loop of the JT60-SA tokamak. Test results show performances and robustness of the regulations.

  10. Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

    2012-08-21

    Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

  11. Passive solar heating and natural cooling of an earth-integrated design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is being designed with innovative features that will greatly reduce its energy consumption for heating, cooling, and lighting. A reference design has been studied and the effects of extending the overhang during summer and fall, varying glazing area, employing RIB, and reducing internal heat by natural lighting have been considered. The use of RIB and the extendable overhang increases the optimum window glazing area and the solar heating fraction. A mass-storage wall which will likely be included in the final design has also been considered. A figure of merit for commercial buildings is the total annual energy consumption per unit area of floor space. A highly efficient office building in the Oak Ridge area typically uses 120 to 160 kWhr/m/sup 2/. The Joint Institute reference design with natural lighting, an annual average heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) equal to 1.8, RIB, and the extendable overhang uses 71 kWhr/m/sup 2/. This figure was determined from NBSLD simulations corrected for the saving from RIB. The internal heat energy from lighting and equipment used in the simulation was 1653 kWhrs/month (high natural lighting case) which is much lower than conventional office buildings. This value was adopted because only a portion of the building will be used as office space and efforts will be made to keep internal heat generation low. The mass-storage wall and ambient air cooling will reduce energy consumption still further. The combined savings of the innovative features in the Joint Institute building are expected to result in a very energy efficient design. The building will be instrumented to monitor its performance and the measured data will provide a means of evaluating the energy-saving features. The efficiency of the design will be experimentally verified over the next several years.

  12. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  13. Passive cooling and heating program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY-1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapira, H.B.; Kaplan, S.I.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    Construction was completed of an earth-sheltered, passively solar heated office-dormitory, the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, designed at ORNL. Instrumentation of the building was designed, procured, and installed. Building performance will be monitored and compared with predictions of the DOE-2 code. A study of the incorporation of vegetation on architecture was conducted by the Harvard School of Design. A final report was issued which is a prototype handbook for the use of vegetation to reduce cooling loads in structures. An experiment to reduce the cooling requirement of mobile homes by shading with fast-growing vines was begun: a maintenance-oriented trellis was constructed and vines were planted. An RFP for the production of a prototype set of reflective insulating blinds was issued.

  14. Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2003-07-01

    A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

  15. Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

    2008-06-18

    The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

  16. Mist/steam cooling in a heated horizontal tube -- Part 1: Experimental system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.

    2000-04-01

    To improve the airfoil cooling significantly for the future generation of advanced turbine systems (ATS), a fundamental experimental program has been developed to study the heat transfer mechanisms of mist/steam cooling under highly superheated wall temperatures. The mist/steam mixture was obtained by blending fine water droplets (3 {approximately} 15 {micro}m in diameter) with the saturated steam at 1.5 bars. Two mist generation systems were tested by using the pressure atomizer and the steam-assisted pneumatic atomizer, respectively. The test section, heated directly by a DC power supply, consisted of a thin-walled ({approximately} 0.9 mm), circular stainless steel tube with an ID of 20 mm and a length of 203 mm. Droplet size and distribution were measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) system through view ports grafted at the inlet and the outlet of the test section. Mist transportation and droplet dynamics were studied in addition to the heat transfer measurements. The experiment was conducted with steam Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 35,000, wall superheat up to 300 C, and droplet mass ratios ranging from 1 {approximately} 6%.

  17. Overall U-values and heating/cooling loads: Manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, C.C.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1992-02-01

    This manual specifies a method for calculating the overall thermal transmittance (also referred to as the overall U-value or U{sub o}), heating load, and cooling load of a manufactured (mobile) home. Rules, examples, and data required by the method are also presented. Compliance with the Department of Housing and Urban Development`s (HUD) U{sub o} and load calculation regulations contained in Sections 3280.506, 3280.510 and 3280.511 of the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards must be demonstrated through the application of the method provided herein.

  18. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  19. Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, K.T.

    2005-10-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

  20. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  1. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    ?A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  2. Prediction of critical heat flux in water-cooled plasma facing components using computational fluid dynamics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, James H.; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Several commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes now have the capability to analyze Eulerian two-phase flow using the Rohsenow nucleate boiling model. Analysis of boiling due to one-sided heating in plasma facing components (pfcs) is now receiving attention during the design of water-cooled first wall panels for ITER that may encounter heat fluxes as high as 5 MW/m2. Empirical thermalhydraulic design correlations developed for long fission reactor channels are not reliable when applied to pfcs because fully developed flow conditions seldom exist. Star-CCM+ is one of the commercial CFD codes that can model two-phase flows. Like others, it implements the RPI model for nucleate boiling, but it also seamlessly transitions to a volume-of-fluid model for film boiling. By benchmarking the results of our 3d models against recent experiments on critical heat flux for both smooth rectangular channels and hypervapotrons, we determined the six unique input parameters that accurately characterize the boiling physics for ITER flow conditions under a wide range of absorbed heat flux. We can now exploit this capability to predict the onset of critical heat flux in these components. In addition, the results clearly illustrate the production and transport of vapor and its effect on heat transfer in pfcs from nucleate boiling through transition to film boiling. This article describes the boiling physics implemented in CCM+ and compares the computational results to the benchmark experiments carried out independently in the United States and Russia. Temperature distributions agreed to within 10 C for a wide range of heat fluxes from 3 MW/m2 to 10 MW/m2 and flow velocities from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in these devices. Although the analysis is incapable of capturing the stochastic nature of critical heat flux (i.e., time and location may depend on a local materials defect or turbulence phenomenon), it is highly reliable in determining the heat flux where boiling instabilities begin to dominate. Beyond this threshold, higher heat fluxes lead to the boiling crisis and eventual burnout. This predictive capability is essential in determining the critical heat flux margin for the design of complex 3d components.

  3. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  4. Transient analysis and energy optimization of solar heating and cooling systems in various configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calise, F.; Dentice d'Accadia, M.; Palombo, A.

    2010-03-15

    In this paper, a transient simulation model of solar-assisted heating and cooling systems (SHC) is presented. A detailed case study is also discussed, in which three different configurations are considered. In all cases, the SHC system is based on the coupling of evacuated solar collectors with a single-stage LiBr-H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, and a gas-fired boiler is also included for auxiliary heating, only during the winter season. In the first configuration, the cooling capacity of the absorption chiller and the solar collector area are designed on the basis of the maximum cooling load, and an electric chiller is used as the auxiliary cooling system. The second layout is similar to the first one, but, in this case, the absorption chiller and the solar collector area are sized in order to balance only a fraction of the maximum cooling load. Finally, in the third configuration, there is no electric chiller, and the auxiliary gas-fired boiler is also used in summer to feed the absorption chiller, in case of scarce solar irradiation. The simulation model was developed using the TRNSYS software, and included the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the building in which the SHC systems were supposed to be installed. The building was simulated using a single-lumped capacitance model. An economic model was also developed, in order to assess the operating and capital costs of the systems under analysis. Furthermore, a mixed heuristic-deterministic optimization algorithm was implemented, in order to determine the set of the synthesis/design variables that maximize the energy efficiency of each configuration under analysis. The results of the case study were analyzed on monthly and weekly basis, paying special attention to the energy and monetary flows of the standard and optimized configurations. The results are encouraging as for the potential of energy saving. On the contrary, the SHC systems appear still far from the economic profitability: however, this is notoriously true for the great majority of renewable energy systems. (author)

  5. Decay Heat Removal in GEN IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Lap-Yan; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    The safety goal of the current designs of advanced high-temperature thermal gas-cooled reactors (HTRs) is that no core meltdown would occur in a depressurization event with a combination of concurrent safety system failures. This study focused on the analysis of passive decay heat removal (DHR) in a GEN IV direct-cycle gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) which is based on the technology developments of the HTRs. Given the different criteria and design characteristics of the GFR, an approach different from that taken for the HTRs for passive DHR would have to be explored. Different design options based on maintaining core flow weremore » evaluated by performing transient analysis of a depressurization accident using the system code RELAP5-3D. The study also reviewed the conceptual design of autonomous systems for shutdown decay heat removal and recommends that future work in this area should be focused on the potential for Brayton cycle DHRs.« less

  6. A solar thermal cooling and heating system for a building: Experimental and model based performance analysis and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Yin, Hongxi; Archer, David H.

    2010-02-15

    A solar thermal cooling and heating system at Carnegie Mellon University was studied through its design, installation, modeling, and evaluation to deal with the question of how solar energy might most effectively be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building. This solar cooling and heating system incorporates 52 m{sup 2} of linear parabolic trough solar collectors; a 16 kW double effect, water-lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chiller, and a heat recovery heat exchanger with their circulation pumps and control valves. It generates chilled and heated water, dependent on the season, for space cooling and heating. This system is the smallest high temperature solar cooling system in the world. Till now, only this system of the kind has been successfully operated for more than one year. Performance of the system has been tested and the measured data were used to verify system performance models developed in the TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program (TRNSYS). On the basis of the installed solar system, base case performance models were programmed; and then they were modified and extended to investigate measures for improving system performance. The measures included changes in the area and orientation of the solar collectors, the inclusion of thermal storage in the system, changes in the pipe diameter and length, and various system operational control strategies. It was found that this solar thermal system could potentially supply 39% of cooling and 20% of heating energy for this building space in Pittsburgh, PA, if it included a properly sized storage tank and short, low diameter connecting pipes. Guidelines for the design and operation of an efficient and effective solar cooling and heating system for a given building space have been provided. (author)

  7. The impact of summer heat islands on cooling energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, H.; Huang, J.; Martien, P.; Rainer, L.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H.

    1988-08-01

    It has been well documented that summer heat islands increase the demand for air conditioning. Several studies have suggested developing guidelines to mitigate this negative effect, on both micro- and meso-scales. Reducing summer heat islands saves cooling energy, reduces peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants. This paper summarizes some of the efforts to quantify the effects of techniques to reduce heat islands. In particular, the authors summarize simulations they have made on the effects of plating trees and switching to light colored surfaces in cities. The results indicate that these techniques effectively reduce building cooling loads and peak power in selected US cities, and are the cheapest way to save energy and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper compares the economics of technologies to mitigate summer heat islands with other types of conservation measures. The authors estimate the cost of energy conserved by planting trees and recoating surfaces on a national level and compare it with the cost of energy conserved by increasing efficiencies in electrical appliances and cars. Early results indicate that the cost of energy saved by controlling heat islands is less than 1{cents}/kWh, more attractive than efficient electric appliances ({approximately} 2{cents}/kWh), and far more attractive than new electric supplies ({approximately}10{cents}/kWh). In transportation, the cost of conserving a gallon of gasoline, though far more attractive than buying gasoline at current prices, is again more expensive than controlling heat islands. By accounting for the carbon content of the fuels used for power generation and transportation, the authors restate these comparisons in terms of cents per avoided pound of carbon emitted as CO{sub 2}. The results show that the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} from planting trees/increasing albedo is about 0.3--1.3{cents}/lb. of carbon; for buying efficient electric appliances, 2.5{cents}/lb. of carbon; and for efficient cars, 10{cents}/lb. of carbon.

  8. Membrane-Based Absorption Refrigeration Systems: Nanoengineered Membrane-Based Absorption Cooling for Buildings Using Unconcentrated Solar & Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: UFL is improving a refrigeration system that uses low quality heat to provide the energy needed to drive cooling. This system, known as absorption refrigeration system (ARS), typically consists of large coils that transfer heat. Unfortunately, these large heat exchanger coils are responsible for bulkiness and high cost of ARS. UFL is using new materials as well as system design innovations to develop nanoengineered membranes to allow for enhanced heat exchange that reduces bulkiness. UFL’s design allows for compact, cheaper and more reliable use of ARS that use solar or waste heat.

  9. Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan; Enid J. , Carlson; Bryan J. , Wingo; Robert M. , Robison; Thomas W.

    2012-08-07

    The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

  10. Final draft: IEA Task 1. Report on Subtask D, optimization of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, T.L.

    1981-03-01

    A review of general techniques and specific methods useful in the optimization of solar heating and cooling systems is undertaken. A discussion of the state-of-the-art and the principal problems in both the simplified thermal performance analysis and economic analysis portions of the optimization problem are presented. Sample economic analyses are performed using several widely used economic criteria. The predicted thermal results of one typical, widely used simplified method is compared to detailed simulation results. A methodology for and the results of a sensitivity study of key economic parameters in the life cycle cost method are presented. Finally, a simple graphical optimization technique based on the life cycle cost method is proposed.

  11. Evaluation of a Heat Flux Sensor for Spray Cooling for the Die Casting Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wu, Zhuoxi

    2007-02-01

    During the die casting process, lubricants are sprayed in order to cool the dies and facilitate the ejection of the casting. In this paper, a new technique for measuring the heat flux during lubricant application is evaluated. Data from experiments conducted using water spray are first presented. Water spray experiments were conducted for different initial plate temperatures. Measurements were conducted for the application of two different lubricants, of dilution ratios of 1/15 and 1/50 of lubricant in water. The measurement uncertainties were documented. The results show that the surface temperature decreases initially very fast. Numerical simulation results confirmed that the abrupt temperature drop is not an artifact but illustrates the thermal shock experienced by the dies during the initial stages of lubricant application. The lubricant experiments show that the sensor can be successfully used for testing die lubricants with typical dilution ratios encountered in the die casting process.

  12. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  13. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  14. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  15. Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs Cooling System Basics Home cooling accounts for 6 percent of the average household's energy use. To help you save money by saving energy, ...

  16. CONNECTING STAR FORMATION QUENCHING WITH GALAXY STRUCTURE AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES THROUGH GRAVITATIONAL HEATING OF COOLING FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Fulai

    2014-12-20

    Recent observations suggested that star formation quenching in galaxies is related to galaxy structure. Here we propose a new mechanism to explain the physical origin of this correlation. We assume that while quenching is maintained in quiescent galaxies by a feedback mechanism, cooling flows in the hot halo gas can still develop intermittently. We study cooling flows in a large suite of around 90 hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated galaxy group, and find that the flow development depends significantly on the gravitational potential well in the central galaxy. If the galaxy's gravity is not strong enough, cooling flows result in a central cooling catastrophe, supplying cold gas and feeding star formation to galactic bulges. When the bulge grows prominent enough, compressional heating starts to offset radiative cooling and maintains cooling flows in a long-term hot mode without producing a cooling catastrophe. Our model thus describes a self-limited growth channel for galaxy bulges and naturally explains the connection between quenching and bulge prominence. In particular, we explicitly demonstrate that M{sub ?}/R{sub eff}{sup 1.5} is a good structural predictor of quenching. We further find that the gravity from the central supermassive black hole also affects the bimodal fate of cooling flows, and we predict a more general quenching predictor to be M{sub bh}{sup 1.6}M{sub ?}/R{sub eff}{sup 1.5}, which may be tested in future observational studies.

  17. Mine roof supporting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curry, P.F.

    1981-06-23

    A stabilizing arrangement for mine roof support systems of the type in which a series of support units, each including a transverse beam supported at opposite ends by extensible props, are interconnected by extensible struts in a manner to be selfadvancing by alternate retraction of support units from a roof supporting condition and extension of the struts to advance such retracted units relative to others of such units which are in an extended roof engaging condition. The connection of each prop to the beam in a given unit is pivotal to allow deflection of the beam and props of a supporting unit from a normal perpendicular relationship under load. The stabilizing means restores the props and beam to a normal perpendicular relationship for advancing movement of each support unit. The supporting units are further stabilized relative to the struts by prop supporting brackets permitting canting movement of the props from a perpendicular relationship with respect to the struts but maintaining the props in a generally upright position for unit advance.

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Commercial Equipment Efficiencies Equipment Type Chiller Screw COP(full-load / IPLV) 2.80 / 3.05 2.80 / 3.05 3.02 / 4.45 Scroll COP 2.80 / 3.06 2.96 / 4.40 N.A. Reciprocating COP(full-load / IPLV) 2.80 / 3.05 2.80 / 3.05 3.52 / 4.40 Centrifugal COP(full-load / IPLV) 5.0 / 5.2 6.1 / 6.4 7.3 / 9.0 Gas-Fired Absorption COP 1.0 1.1 N.A. Gas-Fired Engine Driven COP 1.5 1.8 N.A. Rooftop A/C EER 10.1 11.2 13.9 Rooftop Heat Pump EER (cooling) 9.8 11.0 12.0 COP (heating) 3.2 3.3 3.4 Boilers Gas-Fired

  19. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

  20. TRITIUM IN-BED ACCOUNTABILITY FOR A PASSIVELY COOLED, ELECTRICALLY HEATED HYDRIDE BED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Foster, P.

    2011-01-21

    A PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been deployed into tritium service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. The bed design, absorption and desorption performance, and cold (non-radioactive) in-bed accountability (IBA) results have been reported previously. Six PACE Beds were fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory method. An IBA inventory calibration curve, flowing gas temperature rise ({Delta}T) versus simulated or actual tritium loading, was generated for each bed. Results for non-radioactive ('cold') tests using the internal electric heaters and tritium calibration results are presented. Changes in vacuum jacket pressure significantly impact measured IBA {Delta}T values. Higher jacket pressures produce lower IBA {Delta}T values which underestimate bed tritium inventories. The exhaust pressure of the IBA gas flow through the bed's U-tube has little influence on measured IBA {Delta}T values, but larger gas flows reduce the time to reach steady-state conditions and produce smaller tritium measurement uncertainties.

  1. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  2. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steblay, Bernard J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

  3. Solar Roofing Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Place: Aurora, Ontario, Canada Zip: L4G 3S8 Product: Manufactures and develops photovoltaic roofing and portable products. References: Solar Roofing Systems Inc1 This...

  4. OCR Solar Roofing Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OCR Solar Roofing Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: OCR Solar & Roofing Inc Place: Vacaville, California Product: US installer of turnkey PV rooftops, focussing on the Northern...

  5. High strength and heat resistant chromium steels for sodium-cooled fast reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamal, S.; Grandy, C.; Farmer, M.; Brunsvold, A.

    2004-12-22

    This report provides the results of a preliminary phase of a project supporting the Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Initiative at ANL. The project targets the Generation IV nuclear energy systems, particularly the area of reducing the cost of sodium-cooled fast-reactors by utilizing innovative materials. The main goal of the project is to provide the nuclear heat exchanger designers a simplified means to quantify the cost advantages of the recently developed high strength and heat resistant ferritic steels with 9 to 13% chromium content. The emphasis in the preliminary phase is on two steels that show distinctive advantages and have been proposed as candidate materials for heat exchangers and also for reactor vessels and near-core components of Gen IV reactors. These steels are the 12Cr-2W (HCM12A) and 9Cr-1MoVNb (modified 9Cr-1Mo). When these steels are in tube form, they are referred to in ASTM Standards as T122 and T91, respectively. A simple thermal-hydraulics analytical model of a counter-flow, shell-and-tube, once-through type superheated steam generator is developed to determine the required tube length and tube wall temperature profile. The single-tube model calculations are then extended to cover the following design criteria: (i) ratio of the tube stress due to water/steam pressure to the ASME B&PV Code allowable stress, (ii) ratio of the strain due to through-tube-wall temperature differences to the material fatigue limit, (iii) overall differential thermal expansion between the tube and shell, and (iv) total amount of tube material required for the specified heat exchanger thermal power. Calculations were done for a 292 MW steam generator design with 2200 tubes and a steam exit condition of 457 C and 16 MPa. The calculations were performed with the tubes made of the two advanced ferritic steels, 12Cr-2W and 9Cr-1MoVNb, and of the most commonly used steel, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo. Compared to the 2 1/4Cr-1Mo results, the 12Cr-2W tubes required 29% less material and the 9Cr-1MoVNb tubes required 25% less material. Also, with the advanced steels, the thermal strains in the tubes and differential thermal expansion between tubes and shell were significantly better. For steam generators with higher steam exit temperatures, the benefits of the advanced steels become much larger. A thorough search for the thermal and mechanical properties of the two advanced steels was conducted. A summary of the search results is provided. It shows what is presently known about these two advanced steels and what still needs to be determined so that they can be used in nuclear heat exchanger designs. Possible follow up steps are outlined.

  6. The absorption chiller in large scale solar pond cooling design with condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsilingiris, P.T. )

    1992-07-01

    The possibility of using solar ponds as low-cost solar collectors combined with commercial absorption chillers in large scale solar cooling design is investigated. The analysis is based on the combination of a steady-state solar pond mathematical model with the operational characteristics of a commercial absorption chiller, assuming condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone (U.C.Z.). The numerical solution of the nonlinear equations involved leads to results which relate the chiller capacity with pond design and environmental parameters, which are also employed for the investigation of the optimum pond size for a minimum capital cost. The derived cost per cooling kW for a 350 kW chiller ranges from about 300 to 500 $/kW cooling. This is almost an order of magnitude lower than using a solar collector field of evacuated tube type.

  7. Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

  8. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system specifications is observed. Case study data for various micro-CHP system configurations have been discussed and compared. Comparisons are made of the different prime mover/fuel combinations. Also, micro- CHP monthly energy cost results are compared for each system configuration to conventional monthly utility costs for equivalent monthly building power, heating, and cooling requirements.

  9. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    2005-07-15

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains on internal 'U-tube' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds.IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95% confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory.Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM.Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  10. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KLEIN, JAMES

    2004-10-12

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains an internal ''U-tube'' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds. IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95 percent confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory. Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM. Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  11. Design Report for the Scale Air-Cooled RCCS Tests in the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisowski, D. D.; Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Bremer, N.; Aeschlimann, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) is a large scale thermal hydraulics test facility that has been built at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The facility was constructed in order to carry out highly instrumented experiments that can be used to validate the performance of passive safety systems for advanced reactor designs. The facility has principally been designed for testing of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concepts that rely on natural convection cooling for either air or water-based systems. Standing 25-m in height, the facility is able to supply up to 220 kW at 21 kW/m2 to accurately simulate the heat fluxes at the walls of a reactor pressure vessel. A suite of nearly 400 data acquisition channels, including a sophisticated fiber optic system for high density temperature measurements, guides test operations and provides data to support scaling analysis and modeling efforts. Measurements of system mass flow rate, air and surface temperatures, heat flux, humidity, and pressure differentials, among others; are part of this total generated data set. The following report provides an introduction to the top level-objectives of the program related to passively safe decay heat removal, a detailed description of the engineering specifications, design features, and dimensions of the test facility at Argonne. Specifications of the sensors and their placement on the test facility will be provided, along with a complete channel listing of the data acquisition system.

  12. Unvented Roofs - Air Permeable Insulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of roof sheathing remaining below 20 percent over the service life of the assembly. ... to be informed of its significance with respect to reducing the risks of dense pack ...

  13. Roof Separation Highlights Bolting Priority

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WIPP UPDATE: January 21, 2015 Roof Separation Highlights Bolting Priority On January 15, Mining and Ground Control Engineers at WIPP discovered that a portion of the ceiling in the Panel 3 access drift had fallen in a restricted access area. The roof fall was discovered during routine ground control and bulkhead inspections conducted by WIPP geotechnical staff, and the section that fell was estimated to be approximately 8' long by 8'wide and 24" thick. Access to this area has been

  14. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatiblemore » with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-ε turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.« less

  15. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatible with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-? turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.

  16. A validated methodology for the prediction of heating and cooling energy demand for buildings within the Urban Heat Island: Case-study of London

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolokotroni, Maria; Bhuiyan, Saiful; Davies, Michael; Croxford, Ben; Mavrogianni, Anna

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes a method for predicting air temperatures within the Urban Heat Island at discreet locations based on input data from one meteorological station for the time the prediction is required and historic measured air temperatures within the city. It uses London as a case-study to describe the method and its applications. The prediction model is based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modelling and it is termed the London Site Specific Air Temperature (LSSAT) predictor. The temporal and spatial validity of the model was tested using data measured 8 years later from the original dataset; it was found that site specific hourly air temperature prediction provides acceptable accuracy and improves considerably for average monthly values. It thus is a very reliable tool for use as part of the process of predicting heating and cooling loads for urban buildings. This is illustrated by the computation of Heating Degree Days (HDD) and Cooling Degree Hours (CDH) for a West-East Transect within London. The described method could be used for any city for which historic hourly air temperatures are available for a number of locations; for example air pollution measuring sites, common in many cities, typically measure air temperature on an hourly basis. (author)

  17. SCE Roof Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SCE Roof Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SCE Roof Project Solar Power Plant Facility SCE Roof Project Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer...

  18. Roof screening for underground coal mines: recent developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, C.S.; Gallagher, S.; Molinda, G.M.; Mark, C.; Wilson, G.

    2008-06-15

    The use of screens to control falls of the immediate roof or roof skin (that is between the installed primary and secondary roof supports) is described. 5 figs.

  19. Incorporate Minimum Efficiency Requirements for Heating and Cooling Products into Federal Acquisition Documents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) organized information about FEMP-designated and ENERGY STAR-qualified heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) and water heating products into tables that mirror American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1-2013 minimum efficiency requirement tables. Federal buyers can use these tables as a reference and to incorporate the proper purchasing requirements set by FEMP and ENERGY STAR into federal acquisition documents.

  20. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  1. U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-04-01

    FEMP case study overview of the geothermal/ground source heat pump project at the U.S. Army Fort Knox Disney Barracks.

  2. U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-01

    FEMP case study overview of the geothermal/ground source heat pump project at the U.S. Army Fort Knox Disney Barracks.

  3. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  4. Impact of urban heat island on cooling and environment: A demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Landscaping has been shown in simulation and field studies to reduce building cooling loads by affecting microclimatic factors such as solar radiation, wind speed and air temperature. A demonstration project was undertaken to determine the magnitude of landscape induced changes in microclimate on building cooling loads and water use on four typical residences in Phoenix, Arizona. The energy use and microclimate of three unlandscaped (bare soil, rock mulch) and one landscaped (turf) home were monitored during summer 1990. In the fall, turf was placed around one of the unlandscaped houses, and shade trees planted on the west and south sides of another. Measurements continued during the summer of 1991. Total house air conditioning and selected appliance electrical data were collected, as well as inside and outside air temperatures. Detailed microclimate measurements were obtained for one to two week periods during both summers. Maximum reductions of hourly outside air temperatures of 1 to 1.5{degrees}C, and of daily average air temperatures of up to 1{degrees}C, resulted from the addition of turf landscaping. Addition of small trees to the south and west sides of another treatment did not have a noticeable effect on air temperature. Cooling load reductions of 10% to 17% were observed between years when well-watered turf landscaping was added to a house previously surrounded by bare soil. Addition of small trees to another bare landscape did not produce a detectable change in cooling load. The results of the study are used as input to a standard building energy use simulation model to predict landscape effects on cooling load and water usage for three typical houses, and to develop guidelines for use of energy efficient residential landscapes in Phoenix, Arizona.

  5. Rehab guide: Roofs. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    Nine volumes will eventually make up The Rehab Guide in its entirety, and they are listed on the back cover of this volume. Each one is devoted to distinct elements of the house, and within each volume is a range of issues that are common to that element of home rehabilitation work. This volume, Roofs, for example, covers the major roofing systems including framing and sheathing; protective strategies such as underlayments and flashing; energy and air infiltration issues; roofing materials; and gutters and down-spouts. Each volume addresses a wide range techniques, materials, and tools, and recommendations based on regional differences around the country. Throughout The Rehab Guide, special attention is given to issues related to energy efficiency, sustainability, and accessibility.

  6. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  7. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  8. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Results are presented from a 5-year study to develop aquatic methods which beneficially use condenser cooling water from electric generating power plants. A method is proposed which uses a system for aquatic farming. Livestock waste is used to fertilize planktonic algae production and filter-feeding fish are used to biologically harvest the algae, condenser cooling water (simulated) is used to add waste heat to the system, and emergent aquatic plants are used in a flow through series as a bio-filter to improve the water quality and produce an acceptable discharge. Two modes of operation were tested; one uses untreated swine manure as the source of aquatic fertilizer and the other uses anaerobic digester waste as a means of pretreating the manure to produce an organic fertilizer. A set of operating conditions (temperature, retention time, fish stocking rate, fertilizer rates, land and water requirements, suggested fish and plant species, and facility design) were developed from these results. The integrated system allows continual use of power plant condenser cooling water from plants in the southeastern United States.

  9. Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop Study for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. H. Oh; C. Davis; S. Sherman

    2008-08-01

    A number of possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermal-hydraulic and cycleefficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermal-hydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. This paper also includes a portion of stress analyses performed on pipe configurations.

  10. Self advancing mine roof supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seddon, J.; Jones, F.

    1985-03-19

    A self-advancing mine-roof-support for use in or aligned with a main roadway or gate has a floor-engaging part and a roof engaging part spaced apart by extensible load-bearing prop or jack means, and engagement means for a face-conveyor and a transversely acting transfer conveyor whereby their relative positions are constrained to facilitate discharge of mineral from one conveyor to the other. The engagement means for the face conveyor comprises sliding anchor beams that assure maintenance of the relative attitudes of the support and the face conveyor and the transfer conveyor is held fore and aft of the support.

  11. Water Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Water Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an...

  12. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    U.S. Heating and Air-Conditioning System Manufacturer Shipments, by Type (Including Exports) 2005 Value of 2000 2005 2007 2009 2010 Shipments Equipment Type (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) ($million) (7) Air-Conditioners (1) 5,346 6,472 4,508 3,516 3419 5,837 Heat Pumps 1,539 2,336 1,899 1,642 1,748 2,226 Air-to-Air Heat Pumps 1,339 2,114 1,899 1,642 1748 1,869 Water-Source Heat Pumps (2) 200 222 N.A. N.A. N.A. 357 Chillers 38 37 37 25 29 1,093 Reciprocating 25 24 30 20 24 462

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 2008 Unitary Air-Conditioner/Heat Pump Manufacturer Market Shares (Percent of Products Produced) Company Market Share (%) Total Units Shipped: (1) UTC/Carrier 27% Goodman (Amana) 14% American Standard (Trane) 14% York 12% Nordyne 12% Rheem 9% Lennox 9% Others 3% Total 100% Note(s): Source(s): 5,833,354 1) Does not include water-source or ground-source heat pumps.

  14. Radiant Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Systems » Radiant Cooling Radiant Cooling Radiant cooling cools a floor or ceiling by absorbing the heat radiated from the rest of the room. When the floor is cooled, it is often referred to as radiant floor cooling; cooling the ceiling is usually done in homes with radiant panels. Although potentially suitable for arid climates, radiant cooling is problematic for homes in more humid climates. Most radiant cooling home applications in North America have been based on aluminum panels

  15. IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-22

    Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

  16. Assessment of technologies for constructing self-drying low-slope roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, D.M.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1994-05-01

    Issues associated with removing excessive moisture from low-slope roofs have been assessed. The economic costs associated with moisture trapped in existing roofs have been estimated. The evidence suggests that existing moisture levels cause approximately a 40% overall reduction in the R-value of installed roofing insulation in the United States. Excess operating costs are further increased by a summertime heat transfer mode unique to wet insulation, caused by the daily migration of water within the roof. By itself, this effect can increase peak electrical demand for air conditioning by roughly 15 W/m{sup 2} of roofing, depending on the type of insulation. This effect will increase peak demand capacity required of utilities in any geographic region (e.g., 900 MW in the South). A simple formula has been derived for predicting the effect that self-drying roofs can have upon time-averaged construction costs. It is presumed that time-averaged costs depend predominantly upon (1) actual service life and (2) the likelihood that the less expensive recover membranes can be installed safely over old roofs. For example, an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years should reduce the current cost of roofing ($12 billion/year) by 21%. Another simple formula for predicting the reroofing waste volume indicates that an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years might reduce the current estimated 0.4 billion ft{sup 3}/year of waste by 25%. A finite-difference computer program has been used to study the flow of heat and moisture within typical existing roofs for a variety of US climates. Nearly all publicly available experimental drying data have been consulted. The drying times for most existing low-slope roofs in the United States are controlled largely climate and the permeability of the structural deck to water vapor.

  17. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    among the most effcient and comfortable heating and cooling technologies available because they use the earth's natural heat to provide heating, cooling, and often, water heating. ...

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    0 Main Residential Heating Fuel, by Vintage, as of 2005 (Percent of Total Households) 1949 or 1950 to 1960 to 1970 to 1980 to 1990 to 2000 to Heating Fuel Before 1959 1969 1979 1989 1999 2005 Natural Gas 56% 57% 55% 46% 45% 45% 45% Electricity 8% 18% 26% 36% 42% 42% 43% Fuel Oil 14% 10% 7% 5% 2% 2% 2% LPG 5% 3% 2% 5% 6% 8% 8% Other (1) 17% 12% 10% 8% 4% 3% 2% Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Other includes wood and kerosene. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Main Residential Heating Equipment as of 1987, 1993, 1997, 2001, and 2005 (Percent of Total Households) Equipment Type 1987 1993 1997 2001 2005 Natural Gas 55% 53% 53% 55% 52% Central Warm-Air Furnace 35% 36% 38% 42% 40% Steam or Hot-Water System 10% 9% 7% 7% 7% Floor/Wall/Pipeless Furnace 6% 4% 4% 3% 2% Room Heater/Other 4% 3% 4% 3% 3% Electricity 20% 26% 29% 29% 30% Central Warm-Air Furnace 8% 10% 11% 12% 14% Heat Pump 5% 8% 10% 10% 8% Built-In Electric Units 6% 7% 7% 6% 5% Other 1% 1% 2% 2%

  20. Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B

    1980-04-11

    The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.

  1. Analysis of DOE s Roof Savings Calculator with Comparison to other Simulation Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen; Mellot, Joe; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Childs, Kenneth W

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on national averages and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance surfaces, HVAC duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation levels, and other parameters. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA. However, RSC gives different energy savings estimates than previous cool roof simulation tools so more thorough software and empirical validation proved necessary. This report consolidates much of the preliminary analysis for comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to that from other simulation engines.

  2. Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) for Power and Process Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles; Hu, Lin-wen; Peterson, Per; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-01-21

    In 2011 the U.S. Department of Energy through its Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) awarded a 3- year integrated research project (IRP) to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its partners at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW). The IRP included Westinghouse Electric Company and an advisory panel chaired by Regis Matzie that provided advice as the project progressed. The first sentence of the proposal stated the goals: The objective of this Integrated Research Project (IRP) is to develop a path forward to a commercially viable salt-cooled solid-fuel high-temperature reactor with superior economic, safety, waste, nonproliferation, and physical security characteristics compared to light-water reactors. This report summarizes major results of this research.

  3. Novel Controls for Time-Dependent Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling Heating and Power (CCHP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuelsen, Scott; Brouwer, Jack

    2013-08-31

    The research and development effort detailed in this report directly addresses the challenge of reducing U.S. industrial energy and carbon intensity by contributing to an increased understanding of potential CCHP technology, the CCHP market and the challenges of widespread adoption. This study developed a number of new tools, models, and approaches for the design, control, and optimal dispatch of various CCHP technologies. The UC Irvine campus served as a ‘living laboratory’ of new CCHP technologies and enabled the design and demonstration of several novel control methods. In particular, the integration of large scale thermal energy storage capable of shifting an entire day of cooling demand required a novel approach to the CCHP dispatch optimization. The thermal energy storage proved an economically viable resource which reduced both costs and emissions by enabling generators and chillers to operate under steady high efficiency conditions at all times of the day.

  4. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  5. High Efficiency Adsorption Chillers: High Efficiency Adsorption Cooling Using Metal Organic Heat Carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: PNNL is incorporating significant improvements in materials that adsorb liquids or gases to design more efficient adsorption chillers. An adsorption chiller is a type of air conditioner that is powered by heat, solar or waste heat, or combustion of natural gas. Unlike typical chillers, this type has few moving parts and uses almost no electricity to operate. PNNL is designing adsorbent materials at the molecular level with at least 3 times higher refrigerant capacity and up to 20 times faster kinetics than adsorbents used in current chillers. By using the new adsorbent, PNNL is able to create a chiller that is significantly smaller, has twice the energy efficiency, and lower costs for materials and assembly time compared to conventional adsorption chillers.

  6. Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S.

    1984-02-01

    During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model.

  7. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    8 Major Residential HVAC Equipment Lifetimes, Ages, and Replacement Picture Equipment Type Central Air Conditioners 8 - 14 11 8 5,354 Heat Pumps 9 - 15 12 8 1,260 Furnaces Electric 10 - 20 15 11 N.A. Gas-Fired 12 - 17 15 11 2,601 Oil-Fired 15 - 19 17 N.A. 149 Gas-Fired Boilers (1) 17 - 24 20 17 204 Note(s): Source(s): Lifetimes based on use by the first owner of the product, and do not necessarily indicate that the product stops working after this period. A replaced unit may be discarded or used

  9. Passive containment cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  10. Combining nanocalorimetry and dynamic transmission electron microscopy for in situ characterization of materials processes under rapid heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grapes, Michael D.; LaGrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan W.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; LaVan, David A.; Weihs, Timothy P.

    2014-08-15

    Nanocalorimetry is a chip-based thermal analysis technique capable of analyzing endothermic and exothermic reactions at very high heating and cooling rates. Here, we couple a nanocalorimeter with an extremely fast in situ microstructural characterization tool to identify the physical origin of rapid enthalpic signals. More specifically, we describe the development of a system to enable in situ nanocalorimetry experiments in the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM), a time-resolved TEM capable of generating images and electron diffraction patterns with exposure times of 30 ns500 ns. The full experimental system consists of a modified nanocalorimeter sensor, a custom-built in situ nanocalorimetry holder, a data acquisition system, and the DTEM itself, and is capable of thermodynamic and microstructural characterization of reactions over a range of heating rates (10{sup 2} K/s10{sup 5} K/s) accessible by conventional (DC) nanocalorimetry. To establish its ability to capture synchronized calorimetric and microstructural data during rapid transformations, this work describes measurements on the melting of an aluminum thin film. We were able to identify the phase transformation in both the nanocalorimetry traces and in electron diffraction patterns taken by the DTEM. Potential applications for the newly developed system are described and future system improvements are discussed.

  11. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2001-10-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. The retrofitting works for a dedicated roof bolter for this research has been completed. The laboratory tests performed using this machine on simulated roof blocks have been conducted. The analysis performed on the testing data showed promising signs to detect the rock interface, fractures, as well as the rock types. The other tasks were progressing as planned.

  12. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: A Guide to Developing Air-Cooled LiBr Absorption for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide to Developing Air- Cooled LiBr Absorption for Combined Heat and Power Applications April 2005 By Robert A. Zogg Michael Y. Feng Detlef Westphalen TIAX LLC Re: D0281 Table of Contents 1.0 INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND .................................................................................................1 2.0 LIBR ABSORPTION OVERVIEW...................................................................................................3 3.0 KEY TECHNOLOGY BARRIERS

  13. Mississippi State University Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mago, Pedro; Newell, LeLe

    2014-01-31

    Between 2008 and 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy funded the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center located at Mississippi State University. The overall objective of this project was to enable micro-CHP (micro-combined heat and power) utilization, to facilitate and promote the use of CHP systems and to educate architects, engineers, and agricultural producers and scientists on the benefits of CHP systems. Therefore, the work of the Center focused on the three areas: CHP system modeling and optimization, outreach, and research. In general, the results obtained from this project demonstrated that CHP systems are attractive because they can provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits. Some of these benefits include the potential to reduce operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions, primary energy consumption, and power reliability during electric grid disruptions. The knowledge disseminated in numerous journal and conference papers from the outcomes of this project is beneficial to engineers, architects, agricultural producers, scientists and the public in general who are interested in CHP technology and applications. In addition, more than 48 graduate students and 23 undergraduate students, benefited from the training and research performed in the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center.

  14. Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions of Over 300 Power Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    India, Mexico, and the United States have signed up to join the Cool Roofs Working Group, which was announced yesterday in Abu Dhabi at the second Clean Energy Ministerial -- a high-level global forum to promote policies and programs that advance clean energy technology, to share lessons learned and best practices and to encourage the transition to a global clean energy economy.

  15. Lafarge Roofing Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: RH4 1TG Product: Distributes and installs roofing tiles, including photovoltaic ones. Coordinates: 48.231575, -101.134114 Show Map Loading map......

  16. Experience with thermal storage in tanks of stratified water for solar heating and load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildin, M.W.; Witkofsky, M.P.; Noble, J.M.; Hopper, R.E.; Stromberg, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results have been obtained for performance of stratified tanks of water used to store heating and cooling capacity in a 5574 m/sup 2/ university building. The major sources of energy used to charge the heated tanks were solar energy, obtained via collectors on the roof of the building, and excess heat recovered from the interior of the building via thermal storage and electric-driven heat pump/chillers. Through stratification of the water in the storage tanks and an appropriate system operating strategy, 40 percent of the building's total heating needs were supplied by solar energy during the first four months of 1981. Month-long thermal efficiencies of the storage array ranging from 70 percent during the heating season to nearly 90 percent during the cooling season, were measured. Work is underway to improve the performance of thermal storage.

  17. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost

  18. Comparison of heating and cooling energy consumption by HVAC system with mixing and displacement air distribution for a restaurant dining area in different climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhivov, A.M.; Rymkevich, A.A.

    1998-12-31

    Different ventilation strategies to improve indoor air quality and to reduce HVAC system operating costs in a restaurant with nonsmoking and smoking areas and a bar are discussed in this paper. A generic sitting-type restaurant is used for the analysis. Prototype designs for the restaurant chain with more than 200 restaurants in different US climates were analyzed to collect the information on building envelope, dining area size, heat and contaminant sources and loads, occupancy rates, and current design practices. Four constant air volume HVAC systems wit h a constant and variable (demand-based) outdoor airflow rate, with a mixing and displacement air distribution, were compared in five representative US climates: cold (Minneapolis, MN); Maritime (Seattle, WA); moderate (Albuquerque, NM); hot-dry (Phoenix, AZ); and hot-humid (Miami, FL). For all four compared cases and climatic conditions, heating and cooling consumption by the HVAC system throughout the year-round operation was calculated and operation costs were compared. The analysis shows: Displacement air distribution allows for better indoor air quality in the breathing zone at the same outdoor air supply airflow rate due to contaminant stratification along the room height. The increase in outdoor air supply during the peak hours in Miami and Albuquerque results in an increase of both heating and cooling energy consumption. In other climates, the increase in outdoor air supply results in reduced cooling energy consumption. For the Phoenix, Minneapolis, and Seattle locations, the HVAC system operation with a variable outdoor air supply allows for a decrease in cooling consumption up to 50% and, in some cases, eliminates the use of refrigeration machines. The effect of temperature stratification on HVAC system parameters is the same for all locations; displacement ventilation systems result in decreased cooling energy consumption but increased heating consumption.

  19. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2006-02-28

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the pre-formed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  20. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  1. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, T.L.

    1998-05-05

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  2. Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Jump to: navigation, search Name: Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Address: 1991 Crocker Road, Suite 600 Place: Cleveland, Ohio Zip: 44145...

  3. NNSA Commitment to Energy Efficiency: Promoting Cool Roof Technologies...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    This Site Budget IG Web Policy Privacy No Fear Act Accessibility FOIA Sitemap Federal Government The White House DOE.gov USA.gov Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA...

  4. Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: PPG Industries - Pittsburgh, PA Partner: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Berkeley, CA

  5. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  6. Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment is an action issued by the Department of Energy. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  7. Home Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Home Cooling Energy Saver 101 Energy Saver 101 We're covering everything you need to know about home cooling to help you save energy and money. Read more Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read

  8. Next Generation Attics and Roof Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Attics and Roof Systems William (Bill) Miller, Ph.D. ORNL WML@ORNL.GOV____ (865) 574-2013 April 4, 2013 Goals: Develop New Roof and Attic Designs  Reduce Space Conditioning Due to Attic  Convince Industry to Adopt Designs Building Envelope Program  Dr. William Miller  Dr. Som Shrestha  Kaushik Biswas, Ken Childs, Jerald Atchley, Phil Childs Andre Desjarlais (Group Leader) 32% Primary Energy 28% Primary Energy 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose

  9. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability

  10. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability

  11. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability

  12. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability

  13. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability

  14. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability

  15. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  16. An experimental study of external reactor vessel cooling strategy on the critical heat flux using the graphene oxide nano-fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S. D.; Lee, S. W.; Kang, S.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) for in-vessel retention (IVR) of corium as a key severe accident management strategy can be achieved by flooding the reactor cavity during a severe accident. In this accident mitigation strategy, the decay heat removal capability depends on whether the imposed heat flux exceeds critical heat flux (CHF). To provide sufficient cooling for high-power reactors such as APR1400, there have been some R and D efforts to use the reactor vessel with micro-porous coating and nano-fluids boiling-induced coating. The dispersion stability of graphene-oxide nano-fluid in the chemical conditions of flooding water that includes boric acid, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was checked in terms of surface charge or zeta potential before the CHF experiments. Results showed that graphene-oxide nano-fluids were very stable under ERVC environment. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel external wall was measured using the small scale two-dimensional slide test section. The radius of the curvature is 0.1 m. The dimension of each part in the facility simulated the APR-1400. The heater was designed to produce the different heat flux. The magnitude of heat flux follows the one of the APR-1400 when the severe accident occurred. All tests were conducted under inlet subcooling 10 K. Graphene-oxide nano-fluids (concentration: 10 -4 V%) enhanced CHF limits up to about 20% at mass flux 50 kg/m{sup 2}s and 100 kg/m{sup 2}s in comparison with the results of the distilled water at same test condition. (authors)

  17. Data center cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Dang, Hien P; Parida, Pritish R; Schultz, Mark D; Sharma, Arun

    2015-03-17

    A data center cooling system may include heat transfer equipment to cool a liquid coolant without vapor compression refrigeration, and the liquid coolant is used on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack housed in the data center. The system may also include a controller-apparatus to regulate the liquid coolant flow to the liquid cooled information technology equipment rack through a range of liquid coolant flow values based upon information technology equipment temperature thresholds.

  18. Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating & Cooling » Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp

  19. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L.

    2011-01-19

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  20. Heat rejection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  1. Gas turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  2. Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, Helcio; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-05-14

    We investigate the existence of the principal-agent (PA) problem in non-government, non-mall commercial buildings in the U.S. in 2003. The analysis concentrates on space heating and cooling energy consumed by centrally installed equipment in order to verify whether a market failure caused by the PA problem might have prevented the installation of energy-efficient devices in non-owner-occupied buildings (efficiency problem) and/or the efficient operation of space-conditioning equipment in these buildings (usage problem). Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2003 data for single-owner, single-tenant and multi-tenant occupied buildings were used for conducting this evaluation. These are the building subsets with the appropriate conditions for assessing both the efficiency and the usage problems. Together, these three building types represent 51.9percent of the total floor space of all buildings with space heating and 59.4percent of the total end-use energy consumption of such buildings; similarly, for space cooling, they represent 52.7percent of floor space and 51.6percent of energy consumption. Our statistical analysis shows that there is a usage PA problem. In space heating it applies only to buildings with a small floor area (<_50,000 sq. ft.). We estimate that in 2003 it accounts for additional site energy consumption of 12.3 (+ 10.5 ) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 14.6 [+- 12.4] TBtu), corresponding to 24.0percent (+- 20.5percent) of space heating and 10.2percent (+- 8.7percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings. In space cooling, however, the analysis shows that the PA market failure affects the complete set of studied buildings. We estimate that it accounts for a higher site energy consumption of 8.3 (+-4.0) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 25.5 [+- 12.2]TBtu), which corresponds to 26.5percent (+- 12.7percent) of space cooling and 2.7percent (+- 1.3percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings.

  3. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  4. Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three

  5. Weathering of Roofing Materials-An Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William A.

    2006-03-30

    An overview of several aspects of the weathering of roofing materials is presented. Degradation of materials initiated by ultraviolet radiation is discussed for plastics used in roofing, as well as wood and asphalt. Elevated temperatures accelerate many deleterious chemical reactions and hasten diffusion of material components. Effects of moisture include decay of wood, acceleration of corrosion of metals, staining of clay, and freeze-thaw damage. Soiling of roofing materials causes objectionable stains and reduces the solar reflectance of reflective materials. (Soiling of non-reflective materials can also increase solar reflectance.) Soiling can be attributed to biological growth (e.g., cyanobacteria, fungi, algae), deposits of organic and mineral particles, and to the accumulation of flyash, hydrocarbons and soot from combustion.

  6. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles, Orlando, Florida (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles Orlando, Florida PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: New construction Partners: Building Science Corporation, buildingscience.com David Weekley Homes, davidweekleyhomes.com Climate Zone: Hot-humid (2A) A measure that has an established presence in Florida markets is the use of unvented roofs (also known as "cathedralized" attics), which include poly- urethane spray foam at the underside of the roof deck. This method moves the heating, ventilating,

  7. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

    1998-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

  8. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

    1998-05-26

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

  9. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  10. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  11. MSR Innovations Modular Solar Roofing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: MSR Innovations (Modular Solar Roofing) Place: Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada Zip: V5J 5H8 Product: British Columbia-based PV roofing systems maker. Coordinates:...

  12. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  13. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  14. Thrust bolting: roof bolt support apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadolini, Stephen C. (Lakewood, CO); Dolinar, Dennis R. (Golden, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A method of installing a tensioned roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads by applying thrust to the bolt (19) as the bonding material (7') is curing to compress the strata (3) surrounding the borehole (1), and then relieving the thrust when the bonding material (7') has cured.

  15. Hybrid Radiator Cooling System | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiator Cooling System Technology available for licensing: Hybrid radiator cooling system uses conventional finned air cooling under most driving conditions that would be sufficient to remove all of the required engine heat, but adds active evaporate cooling under extreme conditions. Enables an existing engine to function with a smaller radiator and cooling system Increases heat removal by 46%, over conventional radiator PDF icon hybrid_radiator-cooling_system

  16. Data center cooling method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  17. Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cooling towers dissipate heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air conditioners, or other process equipment to the ambient air. Heat is rejected to the environment from cooling towers through the process of evaporation. Therefore, by design, cooling towers use significant amounts of water.

  18. cooling | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer...

  19. HMX Cooling Core Optimization Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-08-31

    The Software consists of code which is used to determine the optimal configuration of an HMX cooling core in a heat exchanger.

  20. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  1. COMBINED ACTIVE/PASSIVE DECAY HEAT REMOVAL APPROACH FOR THE 24 MWt GAS-COOLED FAST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHENG,L.Y.; LUDEWIG, H.

    2007-06-01

    Decay heat removal at depressurized shutdown conditions has been regarded as one of the key areas where significant improvement in passive response was targeted for the GEN IV GFR over the GCFR designs of thirty years ago. It has been recognized that the poor heat transfer characteristics of gas coolant at lower pressures needed to be accommodated in the GEN IV design. The design envelope has therefore been extended to include a station blackout sequence simultaneous with a small break/leak. After an exploratory phase of scoping analysis in this project, together with CEA of France, it was decided that natural convection would be selected as the passive decay heat removal approach of preference. Furthermore, a double vessel/containment option, similar to the double vessel/guard vessel approach of the SFR, was selected as the means of design implementation to reduce the PRA risks of the depressurization accident. However additional calculations in conjunction with CEA showed that there was an economic penalty in terms of decay heat removal system heat exchanger size, elevation heights for thermal centers, and most of all in guard containment back pressure for complete reliance on natural convection only. The back pressure ranges complicated the design requirements for the guard containment. Recognizing that the definition of a loss-of-coolant-accident in the GFR is a misnomer, since gas coolant will always be present, and the availability of some driven blower would reduce fuel temperature transients significantly; it was decided instead to aim for a hybrid active/passive combination approach to the selected BDBA. Complete natural convection only would still be relied on for decay heat removal but only after the first twenty four hours after the initiation of the accident. During the first twenty four hour period an actively powered blower would be relied on to provide the emergency decay power removal. However the power requirements of the active blower/circulators would be kept low by maintaining a pressurized system coolant back pressure of {approx}7-8 bars through the design of the guard containment for such a design pressure. This approach is termed the medium pressure approach by both CEA and the US. Such a containment design pressure is in the range of the LWR experience, both PWRs and BWRs. Both metal containments and concrete guard containments are possible in this pressure range. This approach is then a time-at-risk approach as the power requirements should be low enough that battery/fuel cell banks without diesel generator start-up failure rate issues should be capable of providing the necessary power. Compressed gas sources are another possibility. A companion PRA study is being conducted to survey the reliability of such systems.

  2. District cooling gets hot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, R.S.

    1996-07-01

    Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

  3. Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-03-15

    We have developed summary tables (sorted by heating- and cooling-degree-days) to estimate the potential of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., solar-reflective roofs, shade trees, reflective pavements, and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings. The tables provide estimates of savings for both direct effect (reducing heat gain through the building shell) and indirect effect (reducing the ambient air temperature). In this analysis, we considered three building types that offer the most savings potential : residences, offices, and retail stores. Each building type was characterized in detail by Pre-1980 (old) or 1980+ (new) construction vintage and with natural gas or electricity as heating fuel. We defined prototypical-building characteristics for each building type and simulated the effects of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model and weather data for about 240 locations in the U.S. A statistical analysis of previously completed simulations for five cities was used to estimate the indirect savings. Our simulations included the effect of (1) solar-reflective roofing material on building [direct effect], (2) placement of deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], and (3) ambient cooling achieved by urban reforestation and reflective building surfaces and pavements [indirect effect]. Upon completion of estimating the direct and indirect energy savings for all the selected locations, we integrated the results in tables arranged by heating- and cooling-degree-days. We considered 15 bins for heating-degree-days, and 11 bins for cooling-degree-days. Energy use and savings are presented per 1000 ft2 of roof area. In residences heated with gas and in climates with greater than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the annual electricity savings in Pre-1980 stock ranged from 650 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2; for 1980+ stock savings ranged 300 to 600 kWh/1000 ft2. For residences heated with electricity, the savings ranged from 350 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2 for Pre-1980 stock and 190-600 kWh/1000ft2 for 1980+ stocks. In climates with less than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the electricity savings were not significantly higher than winter heating penalties. For gas-heated office buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 1100-1500 kWh/1000ft2 and 360-700 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. For electrically heated office buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 700-1400 kWh/1000ft2 and 100-700 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. Similarly, for gas-heated retail store buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 1300-1700 kWh/1000ft2 and 370-750 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. For electrically heated retail store buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 1200-1700 kWh/1000ft2 and 250-750 kW h/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980 + stocks, respectively.

  4. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1 -Story Homes in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team analyzed five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. These homes were chosen for testing as they are common in Minnesota and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled the team to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  5. Project Overcoat An Exploration of Exterior Insulation Strategies for 1- Story Roof Applications in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, Cindy; Mosiman, Garrett; Huelman, Pat; Schirber, Tom; Yost, Peter; Murry, Tessa

    2013-04-01

    The development of an alternative method to interior-applied insulation strategies or exterior applied band-aids such as heat tapes and ice belts may help reduce energy needs of millions of 1-1/2 story homes while reducing the risk of ice dam formation. A potential strategy for energy improvement of the roof is borrowed from new construction best practices: Here an overcoat of a continuous air, moisture, and thermal barrier is applied on the outside of the roof structure for improved overall performance. The continuous insulation of this approach facilitates a reduction in thermal bridging which could further reduce energy consumption and bring existing homes closer to meeting the Building America goals for energy reduction. Research favors an exterior approach to deep energy retrofits and ice dam prevention in existing homes. The greatest amount of research focuses on whole house deep energy retrofits leaving a void in roof-only applications. The research is also void of data supporting the hygrothermal performance, durability, constructability, and cost of roof-only exterior overcoat strategies. Yet, contractors interviewed for this report indicate an understanding that exterior approaches are most promising for mitigating ice dams and energy loss and are able to sell these strategies to homeowners.

  6. Conceptual design phase of a district heating and cooling plant with cogeneration to serve James Madison University and the Harrisonburg Electric Commission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belcher, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    A unique opportunity for cooperation and community development exists in Harrisonburg, Virginia. James Madison University, located in Harrisonburg, is undergoing an aggressive growth plan of its academic base which also includes the physical expansion of its campus. The City of Harrisonburg is presently supplying steam to meet a portion of the heating needs of the existing James Madison campus from a city owned and operated waste-to-energy plant. In an effort of cooperation, Harrisonburg and James Madison University have now negotiated an agreement for the city to provide all of the heating and cooling requirements of the new campus expansion. In another unique turn of events, the local electrical power distributor, Harrisonburg Electric Commission, approached the city concerning the inclusion of cogeneration in the project in order to reduce and maintain existing electric rates thus further benefiting the community. Through the cooperation of these three entities, the conceptual design phase of the project has been completed. The plant design developed through this process includes 3,000 tons of chilled water capacity, an additional 64,000 lb/hr of steam capacity and 2.5 MW of cogeneration capacity. This paper describes the conceptual design process for this interesting project.

  7. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water. Final report May 75-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr

    1982-05-01

    The report summarizes a 5-year study of the beneficial uses of waste heat from condenser cooling water from steam-electric generating plants. The major effort addressed the recovery of plant nutrients in swine manure by aquatic farming of selected fish and Chinese waterchestnuts. Another effort included biogas production from swine manure in an anaerobic digester and the use of the digester waste to fertilize the aquatic farming system. Optimum recovery of plant nutrients resulted from operation of an integrated fish and waterchestnut system. Flowing water systems were 30-50% more productive than static systems. Annual fish yields of 5000-7000 lb/acre are projected for a properly stocked system over a 150-180 day growing period. Similarly, waterchestnut yields of nearly 17.8 tons/acre and dry hay yields of 6.7 tons/acre from sand-bed filters would be expected when fed wastewater from the fish system. The quality of the water leaving the sand beds would meet tertiary wastewater treatment standards during the growing season. An estimated 2000-head swine facility with a $400,000 investment would annually produce a 20% rate of return, save 360,000 bbl of oil through waste heat utilization, and produce biogas equivalent to 3000 bbl of oil.

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  11. Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Known by a variety of names, green roofs – which are built on top of a conventional roof and are partially or completely covered by vegetation – have been around for thousands of years and are popular in many European countries. Scientists at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory are using green roofs as laboratories to investigate alternative growth media for plants that make use of waste materials generated by the fossil fuel industry.

  12. Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

  13. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a decision on the PV installation, the Department of Energy Tiger Team has investigated potential indirect benefits of installing a solar PV system on the Convention Center roof. ...

  14. Self advancing mine roof supports (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self advancing mine roof supports Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self advancing mine roof supports A self-advancing mine-roof-support for use in or aligned with a main roadway or gate has a floor-engaging part and a roof engaging part spaced apart by extensible load-bearing prop or jack means, and engagement means for a face-conveyor and a transversely acting transfer conveyor whereby their relative positions are constrained to facilitate discharge of mineral from one conveyor to the

  15. Developing Energy Efficient Roof Systems DEERS | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (DEERS) Place: Ripon, California Zip: 95366 Sector: Solar Product: Developer of roof top solar PV projects. Coordinates: 43.84582, -88.837054 Show Map Loading map......

  16. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  17. Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 0: Cooling Tower Management Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management Cooling towers dissipate heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air conditioners, or other process equipment to the ambient air. Heat is rejected to the environment from cooling towers through the process of evaporation. Therefore, by design, cooling towers use significant amounts of water. Overview The thermal efficiency and longevity of the cooling tower and equipment depend on the

  18. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  19. Turbine blade cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  20. Turbine blade cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  1. Turbine blade cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  2. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  3. Promising Technology: Cool Paints for Exterior Walls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cool Paints increase the solar reflectance of exterior walls. By reflecting more sunlight, the wall surface maintains a cooler temperature. This decrease in temperature leads to less heat transfer through the walls into the building. During the cooling season, the addition of cool paints can decrease the cooling load of the building.

  4. Parametric study of a silica gel-water adsorption refrigeration cycle -- The influence of thermal capacitance and heat exchanger UA-values on cooling capacity, power density, and COP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boelman, E.C.; Saha, B.B.; Kashiwagi, Takao

    1997-12-31

    The influence of heat exchanger UA-values (adsorber/desorber, evaporator, and condenser) is investigated for an adsorption chiller, with consideration given to the thermal capacitance of the adsorber/desorber by means of a lumped-parameter cycle simulation model developed by the authors and co-workers for the single-stage silica gel-water adsorption chiller. The closed-cycle-type chiller, for use in air conditioning, is driven by low-grade waste heat (85 C [185 F]) and cooled by water at 31 C (88 F) and operates on relatively short cycle times (420 seconds adsorption/desorption; 30 second adsorber/desorber sensible cooling and heating). The results showed cycle performance to be considerably affected by the thermal capacitance and UA-value of the adsorber/desorber, which is attributed to the severe sensible cooling/heating requirements resulting from batched cycle operation. The model is also sensitive to the evaporator UA-value--but to a lesser extent. The condenser UA-value is the least sensitive parameter due to the working pair adsorption behavior in the temperature range defined for desorption and condensation.

  5. Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

    2012-09-25

    A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

  6. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  7. Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

  8. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. Most homeowners who...

  9. Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Learn more about how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Several types of heat pumps are available, including

  10. Flexible shaft and roof drilling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

  11. Information technology equipment cooling method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  12. Non-intrusive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

    2001-05-22

    A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

  13. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  14. Repairing Roofs and Ceilings: How To's for the Handy Homeowner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    This brochure provides handy homeowners with tips on how to properly repair roofs and ceilings in their homes that sustained damage during a hurricane. This publications is a part of the How To's for the Handy Homeowner Series.

  15. Project Overcoat - An Exploration of Exterior Insulation Strategies for 1-1/2-Story Roof Applications in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, Cindy; Mosiman, Garrett; Huelman, Pat; Schirber, Tom; Yost, Peter; Murry, Tessa

    2013-04-01

    The development of an alternative method to interior-applied insulation strategies or exterior applied 'band-aids' such as heat tapes and ice belts may help reduce energy needs of millions of 1-1/2 story homes while reducing the risk of ice dam formation. A potential strategy for energy improvement of the roof is borrowed from new construction best practices: Here an 'overcoat' of a continuous air, moisture, and thermal barrier is applied on the outside of the roof structure for improved overall performance. The continuous insulation of this approach facilitates a reduction in thermal bridging which could further reduce energy consumption and bring existing homes closer to meeting the Building America goals for energy reduction. Research favors an exterior approach to deep energy retrofits and ice dam prevention in existing homes. The greatest amount of research focuses on whole house deep energy retrofits leaving a void in roof-only applications. The research is also void of data supporting the hygrothermal performance, durability, constructability, and cost of roof-only exterior overcoat strategies. Yet, contractors interviewed for this report indicate an understanding that exterior approaches are most promising for mitigating ice dams and energy loss and are able to sell these strategies to homeowners.

  16. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1-1/2 Story Homes in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates were analyzed for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. The reason for choosing this house type was they are very common in our area and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR Building America industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled us to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  17. Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as...

  18. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  19. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2004-11-02

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  20. Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

  1. Cooling using complimentary tapered plenums

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Shawn Anthony (Pleasantville, NY)

    2006-08-01

    Where a fluid cooling medium cools a plurality of heat-producing devices arranged in a row along a generalized coordinate direction, with a space between each adjacent pair of devices, each space may have a partition that defines a boundary between a first plenum and a second plenum. The first plenum carries cooling medium across an entrance and thence into a first heat-producing device located on a first side of the partition facing the first plenum. The second plenum carries cooling medium away from a second heat-producing device located on a second side of the partition facing the second plenum and thence across an exit. The partition is disposed so that the first plenum becomes smaller in cross-sectional area as distance increases from the entrance, and the second plenum becomes larger in cross sectional area as distance decreases toward the exit.

  2. Cooling season performance of an earth-sheltered office/dormitory building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.

    1984-07-01

    Detailed hourly measurements taken in and around an underground office-dormitory building for two summers document energy savings; whole building-component interface problems; and specific cooling contributions from earth contact, interior thermal mass, and an economizer. The Joint Institute Dormitory (JID) saves about 30% compared with well-built above-grade buildings in a climate typical of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and has the potential to save as much as 50%. The detailed measurements, which include extensive thermal comfort data, indicate that at least 90% of the occupants are comfortable all of the time. The thermal performance measurements and analysis determine that the peak cooling requirement of this building is 50% less than that of well-built above-grade structures, permitting a cost savings on installed cooling capacity. The dominant building components contributing to the good thermal performance are the structural thermal mass, the earth-covered roof, and the earth contact provided by the bermed walls and slab floor. The 372-m/sup 2/ (4000 gross ft/sup 2/) building used about $300 (at 5.7 cents/kWh) to cool and ventilate from May through September. Eliminating a number of building design and construction anomalies could improve the whole-building performance and reduce the seasonal cooling cost another $85. Close examination of the thermal performance of this building revealed that a very efficient heat pump and thermally sound envelope do not necessarily produce otpimum performance without careful attention given to component interface details. 8 references, 24 figures, 12 tables.

  3. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    12 1 18 (*) 2 1 Q 6 Buildings without Cooling ... 30 1 (*) 4 (*) 14 (*) 4 (*) 1 6 Water-Heating Energy Source Electricity ... 402 21 57 42...

  4. Cooled railplug

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

    1996-01-01

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

  5. Personal cooling apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siman-Tov, Moshe (Knoxville, TN); Crabtree, Jerry Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A portable lightweight cooling apparatus for cooling a human body is disclosed, having a channeled sheet which absorbs sweat and/or evaporative liquid, a layer of highly conductive fibers adjacent the channeled sheet; and, an air-moving device for moving air through the channeled sheet, wherein the layer of fibers redistributes heat uniformly across the object being cooled, while the air moving within the channeled sheet evaporates sweat and/or other evaporative liquid, absorbs evaporated moisture and the uniformly distributed heat generated by the human body, and discharges them into the environment. Also disclosed is a method for removing heat generated by the human body, comprising the steps of providing a garment to be placed in thermal communication with the body; placing a layer of highly conductive fibers within the garment adjacent the body for uniformly distributing the heat generated by the body; attaching an air-moving device in communication with the garment for forcing air into the garment; removably positioning an exchangeable heat sink in communication with the air-moving device for cooling the air prior to the air entering the garment; and, equipping the garment with a channeled sheet in communication with the air-moving device so that air can be directed into the channeled sheet and adjacent the layer of fibers to expell heat and moisture from the body by the air being directed out of the channeled sheet and into the environment. The cooling system may be configured to operate in both sealed and unsealed garments.

  6. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  7. Three-dimensional analysis of AP600 standard plant shield building roof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greimann, L.; Fanous, F.; Safar, S.; Khalil, A.; Bluhm, D.

    1999-06-01

    The AP600 passive containment vessel is surrounded by a concrete cylindrical shell covered with a truncated conical roof. This roof supports the passive containment cooling system (PCS) annular tank, shield plate and other nonstructural attachments. When the shield building is subjected to different loading combinations as defined in the Standard Review Plan (SRP), some of the sections in the shield building could experience forces in excess of their design values. This report summarized the three-dimensional finite element analysis that was conducted to review the adequacy of the proposed Westinghouse shield building design. The ANSYS finite element software was utilized to analyze the Shield Building Roof (SBR) under dead, snow, wind, thermal and seismic loadings. A three-dimensional model that included a portion of the shield building cylindrical shell, the conical roof and its attachments, the eccentricities at the cone-cylinder connection and at the compression ring and the PCS tank was developed. Mesh sensitivity studies were conducted to select appropriate element size in the cylinder, cone, near air intakes and in the vicinity of the eccentricities. Also, a study was carried out to correctly idealize the water-structure interaction in the PCS tank. Response spectrum analysis was used to calculate the internal forces at different sections in the SBR under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Forty-nine structural modes and twenty sloshing modes were used. Two horizontal components of the SSE together with a vertical component were used. Modal stress resultants were combined taking into account the effects of closely spaced modes. The three earthquake directions were combined by the Square Root of the Sum Squares method. Two load combinations were studied. The load combination that included dead, snow, fluid, thermal and seismic loads was selected to be the most critical. Interaction diagrams for critical sections were developed and used to check the design adequacy. The results demonstrated that provided area of steal on each face of several sections of the AP600 SBR was inadequate. This was also noticed when comparing the total provided area of steel per section, i.e., the area of steel on both faces. The discrepancy between Westinghouse results and these reported herein could have resulted from the different finite element mesh sizes and the assumption used in Westinghouse design.

  8. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-01

    Cooling towers are an integral component of many refrigeration systems, providing comfort or process cooling across a broad range of applications. Cooling towers represent the point in a cooling system where heat is dissipated to the atmosphere through evaporation. Cooling towers are commonly used in industrial applications and in large commercial buildings to release waste heat extracted from a process or building system through evaporation of water.

  9. General Motors LLC Final Project Report: Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozeman, Jeffrey; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    2014-12-09

    On November 3, 2009, General Motors (GM) accepted U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement award number DE-EE0000014 from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). GM was selected to execute a three-year cost shared research and development project on Solid State Energy Conversion for Vehicular Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) and for Waste Heat Recovery.

  10. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  11. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  12. Empirically Derived Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Sanchez, Alfred; Campos, Ivan A.; Gerstle, Walter H.

    2014-12-01

    Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet structural design codes. This work is intended to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong given the conservatism in codes, documented allowable strengths, roof structure system effects, and beam composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction. This report provides results from a testing program to provide actual load carrying capacity of residential rooftops. The results reveal that the actual load carrying capacity of structural members and systems tested are significantly stronger than allowable loads provided by the International Residential Code (IRC 2009) and the national structural code found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Engineering analysis of residential rooftops typically ignores the system affects and beam composite action in determining rooftop stresses given a potential PV installation. This extreme conservatism combined with conservatism in codes and published allowable stress values for roof building materials (NDS 2012) lead to the perception that well built homes may not have adequate load bearing capacity to enable a rooftop PV installation. However, based on the test results presented in this report of residential rooftop structural systems, the actual load bearing capacity is several times higher than published values (NDS 2012).

  13. Dynamically limiting energy consumed by cooling apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J.; David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-05-26

    Cooling apparatuses and methods are provided which include one or more coolant-cooled structures associated with an electronics rack, a coolant loop coupled in fluid communication with one or more passages of the coolant-cooled structure(s), one or more heat exchange units coupled to facilitate heat transfer from coolant within the coolant loop, and N controllable components associated with the coolant loop or the heat exchange unit(s), wherein N.gtoreq.1. The N controllable components facilitate circulation of coolant through the coolant loop or transfer of heat from the coolant via the heat exchange unit(s). A controller is coupled to the N controllable components, and dynamically adjusts operation of the N controllable components, based on Z input parameters and one or more specified constraints, to provide a specified cooling to the coolant-cooled structure(s), while limiting energy consumed by the N controllable components, wherein Z.gtoreq.1.

  14. Dynamically limiting energy consumed by cooling apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J.; David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-06-09

    Cooling methods are provided which include providing: one or more coolant-cooled structures associated with an electronics rack, a coolant loop coupled in fluid communication with one or more passages of the coolant-cooled structure(s), one or more heat exchange units coupled to facilitate heat transfer from coolant within the coolant loop, and N controllable components associated with the coolant loop or the heat exchange unit(s), wherein N.gtoreq.1. The N controllable components facilitate circulation of coolant through the coolant loop or transfer of heat from the coolant via the heat exchange unit(s). A controller is also provided to dynamically adjust operation of the N controllable components, based on Z input parameters and one or more specified constraints, and provide a specified cooling to the coolant-cooled structure(s), while limiting energy consumed by the N controllable components, wherein Z.gtoreq.1.

  15. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  16. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  17. Cooling apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayes, James C. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2009-05-05

    A device and method provide for cooling of a system having an energy source, one or more devices that actively consume energy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The device may include one or more thermoelectric coolers ("TECs") in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices, and an energy diverter for diverting at least a portion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumed by the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs.

  18. Fans for Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger Circulating fans include ceiling fans, table fans, floor fans, and fans mounted to poles or walls. These fans create a wind chill effect that will make you more comfortable in your home, even if it's

  19. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  20. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  1. ARM - Heat Index Calculations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsHeat Index Calculations Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Heat Index Calculations Heat Index is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to estimate how hot it actually feels. The human body cools off through perspiration, which removes heat from

  2. Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Real, Markus (Oberberg, CH)

    1999-11-16

    A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

  3. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe ...

  4. Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Drain-Water Heat Recovery Drain-Water Heat Recovery Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system....

  5. Oklahoma Tribe to Install Solar Roof | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE What does this project do? The new fully functioning roof and solar energy production plant will save the tribe about $20,000 a year. The Delaware Nation, a federally-recognized tribe of about 1,400 people in Anadarko, Okla., will install solar panel roofs on two tribal government buildings as part of a larger effort to become more sustainable and bring new jobs to an area struggling with high unemployment. "It's the start

  6. Cooled railplug

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weldon, W.F.

    1996-05-07

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

  7. Acoustic cooling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

  8. You Don't Need to Raise the Roof: Cutting Solar Permitting Costs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    You Don't Need to Raise the Roof: Cutting Solar Permitting Costs for Wooden Rooftops You Don't Need to Raise the Roof: Cutting Solar Permitting Costs for Wooden Rooftops June 17, ...

  9. Field Testing Unvented Roofs with Asphalt Shingles in Cold and Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Kohta; Lstiburek, Joseph W.

    2015-09-01

    Test houses with unvented roof assemblies were built to measure long-term moisture performance, in the Chicago area (5A) and the Houston area (2A). The Chicago-area test bed had seven experimental rafter bays, including a control vented compact roof, and six unvented roof variants with cellulose or fiberglass insulation. The interior was run at 50% RH. The Houston-area roof was an unvented attic insulated with spray-applied fiberglass. Most ridges and hips were built with a diffusion vent detail, capped with vapor permeable roof membrane. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions at the roof peak in wintertime, but during the summer, RHs and MCs were higher than the unvented roof (albeit in the safe range).

  10. Load test of the 272W Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-09-28

    This reports the results of the Load Test of the 272W Building High Bay Roof Deck and Support Structure.

  11. Idaho Falls Power - Energy Efficient Heat Pump Loan Program ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    customers for the purchase and installation of energy efficient heat pumps. The Heat Pump Program applies to heating or cooling in existing buildings. Ducted, ductless, and...

  12. Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

    2014-03-01

    This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

  13. Lamination cooling system formation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

    2012-06-19

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  14. Lamination cooling system formation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

    2009-05-12

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  15. Lamination cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  16. Cooling system for superconducting magnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

    1998-12-15

    A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

  17. Cooling system for superconducting magnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

  18. Field Testing Unvented Roofs with Asphalt Shingles in Cold and Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Kohta; Lstiburek, Joseph W.

    2015-09-01

    Insulating roofs with dense-pack cellulose (instead of spray foam) has moisture risks, but is a lower cost approach. If moisture risks could be addressed, buildings could benefit from retrofit options, and the ability to bring HVAC systems within the conditioned space. Test houses with unvented roof assemblies were built to measure long-term moisture performance, in the Chicago area (5A) and the Houston area (2A). The Chicago-area test bed had seven experimental rafter bays, including a control vented compact roof, and six unvented roof variants with cellulose or fiberglass insulation. The interior was run at 50% RH. All roofs except the vented cathedral assembly experienced wood moisture contents and RH levels high enough to constitute failure. Disassembly at the end of the experiment showed that the unvented fiberglass roofs had wet sheathing and mold growth. In contrast, the cellulose roofs only had slight issues, such as rusted fasteners and sheathing grain raise. The Houston-area roof was an unvented attic insulated with spray-applied fiberglass. Most ridges and hips were built with a diffusion vent detail, capped with vapor permeable roof membrane. Some ridge sections were built as a conventional unvented roof, as a control. In the control unvented roofs, roof peak RHs reached high levels in the first winter; as exterior conditions warmed, RHs quickly fell. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions at the roof peak in wintertime, but during the summer, RHs and MCs were higher than the unvented roof (albeit in the safe range).

  19. Dark Colored Cool Pigments for Materials Exposed to the Sun - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Dark Colored Cool Pigments for Materials Exposed to the Sun Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Zalich, M., Berdahl, P., "Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing," 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable

  20. Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-08-01

    Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks Geothermal heat pumps, one of the clean energy technology stars Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are one of the most cost-effective heating, cooling, and water heating systems available for both residential and commercial buildings. GHPs extract heat from the ground during the heating season and discharge waste heat to the ground during the cooling season. The U.S. Environmental Protecti

  1. High temperature cooling system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loewen, Eric P.

    2006-12-12

    A method for cooling a heat source, a method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition therein, and a cooling system. The method for cooling employs a containment vessel with an oxidizable interior wall. The interior wall is oxidized to form an oxide barrier layer thereon, the cooling composition is monitored for excess oxidizing agent, and a reducing agent is provided to eliminate excess oxidation. The method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition involves introducing a sufficient quantity of a reactant which is reactive with the vessel in order to produce a barrier layer therein that is non-reactive with the cooling composition. The cooling system includes a containment vessel with oxidizing agent and reducing agent delivery conveyances and a monitor of oxidation and reduction states so that proper maintenance of a vessel wall oxidation layer occurs.

  2. Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/jdhancock/3802136698/">JD Hancock</a>. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to

  3. Cooling with a Whole House Fan | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in hot weather. In addition to whole house fans, the ducts of your central heating and cooling system can be modified to provide whole house cooling. How Whole House Fans Work...

  4. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  5. Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating & Cooling » Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless

  6. Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

  7. Design of an Online Fission Gas Monitoring System for Post-irradiation Examination Heating Tests of Coated Fuel Particles for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn Scates

    2010-10-01

    A new Fission Gas Monitoring System (FGMS) has been designed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for use of monitoring online fission gas-released during fuel heating tests. The FGMS will be used with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) at the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) within the INL campus. Preselected Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) TRISO (Tri-isotropic) fuel compacts will undergo testing to assess the fission product retention characteristics under high temperature accident conditions. The FACS furnace will heat the fuel to temperatures up to 2,000C in a helium atmosphere. Released fission products such as Kr and Xe isotopes will be transported downstream to the FGMS where they will accumulate in cryogenically cooledcollection traps and monitored with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors during the heating process. Special INL developed software will be used to monitor the accumulated fission products and will report data in near real-time. These data will then be reported in a form that can be readily available to the INL reporting database. This paper describes the details of the FGMS design, the control and acqusition software, system calibration, and the expected performance of the FGMS. Preliminary online data may be available for presentation at the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) conference.

  8. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  9. 2010.06.01 S-1 memo, Installation of Cool Roofs on DOE Buildings.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  10. Cool Roofs Through Time and Space (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Save Share this Record Citation Formats MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My ...

  11. Load test of the 277W Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-12-02

    The 277W Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure, WHC-SD-GN-TP-30015, Revision 1. The 277W Building is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; roof membrane -- tar and gravel; roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 227W Building was visited in March 1994 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ``No Roof Access`` signs can be changed to ``Roof Access Restricted`` signs.

  12. Load test of the 3701U Building roof deck and support structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-09-14

    The 3701U Building roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure. The 3701U Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck--metal decking supported by steel purlins; Roof membrane--tar and gravel; Roof slope--flat (<10 deg); and Roof elevation--height of about 12.5 ft. The 3701U Building was visited in August 1992 for a visual inspection, but because of insulation an inspection could not be performed. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof could not be inspected, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof for personnel access. The test procedure called for the use of a remotely-controlled robot. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ``No Roof Access`` signs can be changed to ``Roof Access Restricted`` signs.

  13. Gas cooled traction drive inverter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

  14. Structural testing of corrugated asbestos-cement roof panels at the Hanford Facilities, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moustafa, S.E.; Rodehaver, S.M.; Frier, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes a roof testing program that was carried out at the 105KE/KW Spent Fuel Storage Basins and their surrounding facilities at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The roof panels were constructed in the mid 1950`s of corrugated asbestos-cement (A/C), which showed common signs of aging. Based on the construction specifications, the panels capacity to meet current design standards was questioned. Both laboratory and in-situ load testing of the corrugated A/C panels was conducted. The objective of the complete test program was to determine the structural integrity of the existing A/C roof panels installed in the 105KE and 105KW facilities. The data from these tests indicated that the roofs are capable of resisting the design loads and are considered safe. A second phase test to address the roof resistance to personnel and roof removal/roofing system installation equipment was recommended and is underway.

  15. Load test of the 283W Clearwell Roof Deck and Support Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-09-12

    The 283W Clearwell roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure, WHC-SD-GN-TP-30015, Revision 0, as modified below. The 283W Clearwell is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck - concrete slab supported by columns and walls; Roof membrane - tar and gravel; Roof slope - flat (< 10 deg); and Roof elevation - approximately 6 in. above ground level. The 283W Clearwell was visited in April 1993 for a visual inspection, but could not be inspected because of the confined space requirements. It was revisited in February 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof could not be inspected, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof for personnel access.

  16. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  17. Mechanically-reattachable liquid-cooled cooling apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arney, Susanne; Cheng, Jen-Hau; Kolodner, Paul R; Kota-Venkata, Krishna-Murty; Scofield, William; Salamon, Todd R; Simon, Maria E

    2013-09-24

    An apparatus comprising a rack having a row of shelves, each shelf supporting an electronics circuit board, each one of the circuit boards being manually removable from the shelve supporting the one of the circuit boards and having a local heat source thereon. The apparatus also comprises a cooler attached to the rack and being able to circulate a cooling fluid around a channel forming a closed loop. The apparatus further comprises a plurality of heat conduits, each heat conduit being located over a corresponding one of the circuit boards and forming a path to transport heat from the local heat source of the corresponding one of the circuit boards to the cooler. Each heat conduit is configured to be manually detachable from the cooler or the circuit board, without breaking a circulation pathway of the fluid through the cooler.

  18. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

  19. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  20. Polymer-based electrocaloric cooling devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qiming; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Li, Xinyu; Gorny, Lee; Cheng, Jiping; Neese, Bret P; Chu, Baojin

    2014-10-28

    Cooling devices (i.e., refrigerators or heat pumps) based on polymers which exhibit a temperature change upon application or removal of an electrical field or voltage, (e.g., fluoropolymers or crosslinked fluoropolymers that exhibit electrocaloric effect).

  1. Vehicle Cooling Systems - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Patent Applications ID Number Title and Abstract Primary Lab Date Patent 6,186,886 Patent 6,186,886 Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary...

  2. A Former "Most Wanted" Building Gets a Reprieve | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    has gone toward a variety of improvements for City Hall, including: automatic light switches, window tinting, new heating and cooling units and most-importantly, a "cool roof"...

  3. Stay-Clean and Durable White Elastomeric Roof Coatings (ERCs)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stay-Clean and Durable White 2014 Building Technologies Office Elastomeric Roof Coatings (ERCs) Peer Review CRADA with Dow Chemical aged Challenge: speed the development of high performance white coatings that resist soiling, last longer, and save more energy new Mohamad Sleiman MSleiman@LBL.gov Hugo Destaillats HDestaillats@LBL.gov Ronnen Levinson RMLevinson@LBL.gov Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 10/2011 Planned end date: 9/2014 Key Milestones *

  4. heating | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer...

  5. Emergency cooling system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

    1994-01-04

    An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

  6. Planning Ahead for a Cool House | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    can reduce heating and cooling costs and improve comfort in your home. Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory How can I participate? Energy...

  7. Cooling with a Whole House Fan | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    circulating fans provide acceptable summer comfort for many families, even in hot weather. In addition to whole house fans, the ducts of your central heating and cooling...

  8. Advanced Refrigerant-Based Cooling Technologies for Information...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data Center Heat Exchanger with Increased Cooling Efficiency Reduces Energy Usage Between 2005 and 2010 electricity consumption in the information and communication technology ...

  9. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  10. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles, Orlando, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    This research is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, FL; Zone 2A), insulated with air permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass). Given the localized moisture accumulation and failures seen in previous unvented roof field work, it was theorized that a 'diffusion vent' (water vapor open, but air barrier 'closed') at the highest points in the roof assembly might allow for the wintertime release of moisture, to safe levels. The 'diffusion vent' is an open slot at the ridge and hips, covered with a water-resistant but vapor open (500+ perm) air barrier membrane. As a control comparison, one portion of the roof was constructed as a typical unvented roof (self-adhered membrane at ridge). The data collected to date indicate that the diffusion vent roof shows greater moisture safety than the conventional, unvented roof design. The unvented roof had extended winter periods of 95-100% RH, and wafer (wood surrogate RH sensor) measurements indicating possible condensation; high moisture levels were concentrated at the roof ridge. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions, with most peak MCs (sheathing) below 20%. In the spring, as outdoor temperatures warmed, all roofs dried well into the safe range (10% MC or less). Some roof-wall interfaces showed moderately high MCs; this might be due to moisture accumulation at the highest point in the lower attic, and/or shading of the roof by the adjacent second story. Monitoring will be continued at least through spring 2016 (another winter and spring).

  11. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  12. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  13. Emergency core cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenewerk, William E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

  14. Thermoelectric-enhanced, liquid-based cooling of a multi-component electronic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2015-05-12

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled structure, a thermal conduction path coupling the electronic component and the liquid-cooled structure, a coolant loop in fluid communication with a coolant-carrying channel of the liquid-cooled structure, and an outdoor-air-cooled heat exchange unit coupled to facilitate heat transfer from the liquid-cooled structure via, at least in part, the coolant loop. The thermoelectric array facilitates transfer of heat from the electronic component to the liquid-cooled structure, and the heat exchange unit cools coolant passing through the coolant loop by dissipating heat from the coolant to outdoor ambient air. In one implementation, temperature of coolant entering the liquid-cooled structure is greater than temperature of the outdoor ambient air to which heat is dissipated.

  15. Thermoelectric-enhanced, liquid-based cooling of a multi-component electronic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2015-11-10

    Methods are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The methods include providing: a liquid-cooled structure, a thermal conduction path coupling the electronic component and the liquid-cooled structure, a coolant loop in fluid communication with a coolant-carrying channel of the liquid-cooled structure, and an outdoor-air-cooled heat exchange unit coupled to facilitate heat transfer from the liquid-cooled structure via, at least in part, the coolant loop. The thermoelectric array facilitates transfer of heat from the electronic component to the liquid-cooled structure, and the heat exchange unit cools coolant passing through the coolant loop by dissipating heat from the coolant to outdoor ambient air. In one implementation, temperature of coolant entering the liquid-cooled structure is greater than temperature of the outdoor ambient air to which heat is dissipated.

  16. Gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Asphalt Shingles in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Ueno and J. Lstiburek

    2015-09-01

    Test houses with unvented roof assemblies were built to measure long-term moisture performance, in the Chicago area (5A) and the Houston area (2A). The Chicago-area test bed had seven experimental rafter bays, including a "control" vented compact roof, and six unvented roof variants with cellulose or fiberglass insulation. The interior was run at 50% RH. All roofs except the vented cathedral assembly experienced wood moisture contents and RH levels high enough to constitute failure. Disassembly at the end of the experiment showed that the unvented fiberglass roofs had wet sheathing and mold growth. In contrast, the cellulose roofs only had slight issues, such as rusted fasteners and sheathing grain raise.

  18. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show that in Chicago, potential annual energy savings of $30M could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Additionally, peak power avoidance is estimated at 400 MW and the reduction in annual carbon emissions at 58 ktC. In Houston, the potential annual energy savings are estimated at $82M, with an avoidance of 730 MW in peak power and a reduction in annual carbon emissions of 170 ktC.

  19. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  20. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  1. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-01

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat, wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls, using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat, wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  2. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-29

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  3. Field Evaluation of Four Novel Roof Designs for Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.; Barker, G.; Rath, P.; Dadia, D.

    2015-12-01

    A five-bay roof test structure was built, instrumented and monitored in an effort to determine through field testing and analysis the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use in new manufactured homes. The roof structure in Jamestown, California was designed to examine how differences in roof construction impact space conditioning loads, wood moisture content and attic humidity levels. Conclusions are drawn from the data on the relative energy and moisture performance of various configurations of vented and sealed attics.

  4. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  5. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System at the San José Convention Center | Department of Energy Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San José Convention Center Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San José Convention Center The City of San José is considering the installation of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system on the roof of the San José Convention Center. The installation would be on a lower section of the roof

  6. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Smegal, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  7. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  8. Vehicle Component Heat Dissipation Improvements - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    operating. In order to do this, heat sinks and other heat exchangers are often used to draw heat away from these objects and into the surrounding air. Insufficient cooling can...

  9. Computer simulation of heat transfer from earth sheltered structures: A comparison of varying levels of earth sheltering in five different climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meixel, G.D.

    1980-12-01

    Computer predictions of the HVAC energy consumption for single story office buildings with varying levels of earth-sheltering indicate that significant energy savings are possible with fully-bermed and bermed-and-covered configurations. As shown by the computer analysis, increased earth-sheltering reduced uncontrolled infiltration; improved the thermal performance of the walls, roof, and floor; and located the windows for more favorable passive solar gain. For example, 50% reductions in winter heating energy for Boston occurred with the fully-bermed and the bermed-and-covered configuration. Earth-sheltering also significantly reduced the predicted peak heating and cooling loads. The Boston heating season showed the most favorable response with the fully-covered office building having a peak heating load only 35% of that for the above-grade configuration. In Manila the predicted peak cooling load for the fully-covered building is 63% of that for the slab-on-grade configuration. Details of the impact of earth-sheltering on the single story office building model are presented for each of the five locations.

  10. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  11. Attic or Roof? An Evaluation of Two Advanced Weatherization Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2012-06-01

    This project examines implementation of advanced retrofit measures in the context of a large-scale weatherization program and the archetypal Chicago brick bungalow. One strategy applies best practice air sealing methods and a standard insulation method to the attic floor. The other strategy creates an unvented roof assembly using materials and methods typically available to weatherization contractors. Through implementations of the retrofit strategies in a total of eight (8) test homes, the research found that the two different strategies achieve similar reductions in air leakage measurement (55%) and predicted energy performance (18%) relative to the pre-retrofit conditions.

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    are available for lighting, heating and cooling equipment, reflective roofing, food service equipment, refrigeration equipment, water heating measures and others. Custom...

  13. Energy Department Recognizes Cities of Beaverton and Hillsboro...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    its departments, the Beaverton School District and privately-owned buildings to ... and heating controls, the heating and cooling monitoring system and added a new roof ...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Incentives are available for lighting, heating and cooling equipment, reflective roofing, food service equipment, refrigeration equipment, water heating measures and others. Custom...

  15. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  16. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  17. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  18. Cooling devices and methods for use with electric submersible pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Todd A; Hill, Dallas D

    2014-12-02

    Cooling devices for use with electric submersible pump motors include a refrigerator attached to the end of the electric submersible pump motor with the evaporator heat exchanger accepting all or a portion of the heat load from the motor. The cooling device can be a self-contained bolt-on unit, so that minimal design changes to existing motors are required.

  19. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, also known as ground source heat pumps, geoexchange, water-source, earth-coupled, and earth energy heat pumps, take advantage of this resource and represent one of the most efficient and durable options on the market to heat and cool your home.

  20. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.