Sample records for heating air-conditioning cooking

  1. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  6. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pump and the desuperheater as the latest developments in energy efficient air conditioning and water heating....

  7. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  8. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  9. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  10. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  11. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems Michael Wetter available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library development is focused on the develop- ment of models for building heating, ventilation and air

  12. A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Ian

    A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support D describes the implementation of a case-based reasoning (CBR) system to support heating ventilation and air. Introduction Western Air is a distributor of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems

  13. Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed that municipal water mains be used as the heat sink or the heat source for air-conditioning or heating, respectively. This paper addresses the extent of thermal contamination associated with the use of municipal water...

  14. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    " and next at proper home insulation, window coverings, etc. The other electrical appliances in the home use relatively minor amounts of electricity compared to the air conditioning and hot water heating system. This paper will describe the geothermal heat...

  15. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advancesthe energy efficiency of many heating, ventilating, and air-system, which delivers heating, cooling, and ventilation air

  16. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In view of the influence of humidity of room air on room heat load, indoor environment and building energy consumption in underground intermittent air-conditioning systems, numerical simulation was used to dynamically analyze the coupling condition...

  17. Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Li, D.; Xie, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper introduces some diagnostic methods for the performance failure of heating and air conditioning, analyzes the principle by an example, gives the application characteristics of different methods and supplies the guide for the application...

  18. Adjudication Concerning the Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adjudication Concerning the Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

  19. Adjudication of a Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adjudication of a Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

  20. Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

  1. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. DOE EX Parte...

  2. air conditioning heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  3. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732on Armed Services U.S.Health, Safety, &ofHeating

  4. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  5. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  6. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  7. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  8. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  9. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  10. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burch, Steven D. (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  11. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  12. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

  13. Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

  15. Proposal for the award of two service contracts for the operation, maintenance and other work relating to the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and plumbing facilities at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of two service contracts for the operation, maintenance and other work relating to the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and plumbing facilities at CERN

  16. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Austria, September 2006. Modelica As- sociation and Arsenalsystems. The ?exibility of Modelica has been T room in [° C]lss. AirConditioning - a Modelica li- o brary for dynamic

  17. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  18. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  19. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-61870 Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-for Occupant Symptoms in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-

  20. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor building heating, ventilation and air con- ditioning

  1. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a model with prescribed heat input into the medium, i.e. ,heat and towers. The air inlet temperature is obtained from an inputan input signal. There is also a constant effectiveness heat

  2. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  3. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  4. A New Approach to Industrial Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravenstreter, T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -dryer Systems Division, has marketed industrial drying machinery. These heat reactivated dryers can handle latent loads in industrial air conditioning systems. Through waste heat conservation, air conditioning costs can be reduced 25 to 50%, with applications...

  5. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  6. Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems, we can use the VRV air conditioning system to supply cold loads in the winter for rooms in the construction inner zone where cold loads need to be supplied. The VRV air...

  7. Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

  8. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  9. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  10. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  11. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  12. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  13. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

  15. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  16. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  17. TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery Input file: ducts.in You are a technician for the Air Conditioning Machinery company (ACM). Unfortunately, when you arrive at a customer site to install some air conditioning ducts, you discover that you are running low on supplies. You have only six duct segments

  18. air conditioning desarrollo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abdalla, K. N. 2010-01-01 36 Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Based...

  19. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated with increased headache (OR=1.6). Fair or poor condition of duct liner was associated with increased upper respiratory symptoms (OR=1.4). Most of the many potential risk factors assessed here had not been investigated previously, and associations found with single symptoms may have been by chance, including several associations that were the reverse of expected. Risk factors newly identified in these analyses that deserve attention include outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground, lack of operable windows, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lack of scheduled inspection for HVAC systems. Infrequent cleaning of cooling coils and drain pans were associated with increases in several symptoms in these as well as prior analyses of BASE data. Replication of these findings is needed, using more objective measurements of both exposure and health response. Confirmation of the specific HVAC factors responsible for increased symptoms in buildings, and development of prevention strategies could have major public health and economic benefits worldwide.

  20. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  1. air-conditioning equipment lorentz: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topic Index 1 Smart School Symposium Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Session Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: Smart School Symposium Heating...

  2. Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant...

  3. air-conditioned office buildings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2. Adsorption versus absorptionAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration Amir Sharafian,...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning automatic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exhaust air... conditions. Because of these external demands, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air... monitors include a remote alarm signal andor automatic...

  5. Air Conditioning Cold/Heat Source Analysis of the Inclusion of the Monetary Values of Environmental Damage Based on the LCA Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Duanmu, L.; Shu, H.; Zhu, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , generally measured by standard coal and electricity. The LCA of standard coal and electricity production and heating with standard coal-burning have been finished in our country. The emission inventories are shown in table1-2[5-6]. 2.2 Categories... of different gases to climate change are commonly compared in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents us- ing Global Warming Potentials (GW). Table3 pro- vides the equivalent factors for common impact categories in this LCA studies. 2.3 Monetary Evaluation...

  6. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  7. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy CompletingPresented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE

  8. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE

  9. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  10. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an {open_quotes}upsized{close_quotes} condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  11. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an [open quotes]upsized[close quotes] condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  12. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  13. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  14. Cooking with Cooked Ham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    ? teaspoon ground cinnamon (if you like) ? teaspoon ground cloves (if you like) 3-pound fully cooked whole ham How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Peel and squeeze the orange; keep...

  15. Issues and Factors of Train Air-conditioning System Design and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    satisfy both the coldness supply in summer and the heat supply in winter basically. In fact, this system supplies a more comfortable environment for the passengers. However, compared to the advanced countries, our train air-conditionings still have...

  16. air-conditioning systems based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support...

  17. Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivens, D. B.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a...

  18. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  19. Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Engineering Project Manager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Honolulu Scott Higa Engineering Project Manager Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning, LLC Abstract As a tropical island state, Hawaii has a year-round demand for air conditioning. Conventional air conditioning systems are energy intensive and represent close to 50 percent

  20. Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kessling@transsolar.com Dipl.-Ing. Matthias PELTZER Technical Director L-DCS Technology GmbH Muenchener Str. 101, 85737 Ismaning b. Munich matthias.peltzer@l-dcs.com ABSTRACT Solar air conditioning is an attractive technology to achieve comfortable room... states (4). The room return air (5) is used in a latent heat recovery (6) (psychometric process see Figure 4). To illuminate the excellent system performance a typical cooling load profile for a standard office build- ing in the hot and humid climate...

  1. Alternatives to Electric Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of an engine-driven chiller is very fundamental. The electric motor: which drives the refrigerant compressor, is replaced with an engine. (Each prime mover has a shaft that rotates and transmits power.) Gas engine-driven chillers can capitalize... on the advances in compressor technology that have made electric air conditioning so attractive. The relative prices of natural gas and electricity will determine the best choice. An electric chiller may have a COP of 5.5. The gas engine chiller, because its...

  2. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamos Laboratory NastasiPASTCentral Air Conditioning

  3. "Table HC12.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,17.3,11.3,6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,16.2,10.6,5.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.1,0.8,0.4 "WindowWall...

  4. "Table HC11.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,0.4,"Q" "WindowWall...

  5. "Table HC10.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,1.1,9,1.7 "WindowWall...

  6. "Table HC13.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,32.1,17.6,5.2,9.3 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,23.2,10.9,3.8,8.4 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,9,6.7,1.4,0.9 "WindowWall...

  7. "Table HC14.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,10.5,3.9,6.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,8.7,3.2,5.5 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.7,1 "WindowWall...

  8. "Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,1.1,3.5,5.7,4.9 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,"Q",2.9,0.7,0.5 "WindowWall...

  9. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Not Covered Today Heating Ventilation & Air ConditioningHeating Ventilation & Air Conditioning Process Loads:Process Loads: ­­ Cooking, water heating, refrigeration,Cooking, water heating, refrigeration, computing, sewage

  10. The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining the advantage of measure...

  11. Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berglof, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-conditioning, refrigeration and heat pump equipment is using 15 to 20% of the electrical energy globally. Many times these systems do not operate in an effective way. The paper present a method for and experience from performance testing...

  12. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  13. Off-peak air conditioning; A major energy saver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, C.D.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, the mission given to manufacturers is changing to include saving energy (kWh). Until now, saving energy was ignored because the utilities were happy to fill their night valley to reach a higher load factor. There also was a general feeling that making ice was much less efficient than standard air conditioning, and that anyone saying otherwise was a dreamer. This article discusses the energy savings based on the more prevalent ice storage technology, the similar suction temperatures of the various types of ice storage, and how storage is applied. Included are baseload power generation, partial storage with chiller priority, using air cooled condensers when making ice at night, colder duct air, heat recovery, central rooftop systems, smart controls, electric/gas combinations, supply side transmission and distribution losses, and cooling of air entering gas turbine generators during peak conditions.

  14. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    heaters are examples of TCLs. They use local hysteresis control to maintain either air or water units and water heaters is developed in [7] using detailed physical models. In all the aforementioned for a large fraction of electric demand. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and air conditioning) systems and water

  15. Donald Cook

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dr. Donald L. Cook serves as the Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs at the National Nuclear Security Administration. Appointed to the position by President Barack Obama, Dr. Cook was sworn...

  16. air conditioning technology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology moisture from the...

  17. air conditioning technologies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology moisture from the...

  18. air conditioning equipments: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    introducing or upgrading... analyses using BEMS data, ?) additional actual measurement data analyses and ?) HVAC system simulations using LCEM tool. The detailed air-conditioned...

  19. air conditioning equipment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    introducing or upgrading... analyses using BEMS data, ?) additional actual measurement data analyses and ?) HVAC system simulations using LCEM tool. The detailed air-conditioned...

  20. air conditioning load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.; Deying, L. 2006-01-01 2 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: 1...

  1. air conditioning loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: 1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an...

  2. Duct Systems in large commercial buildings: Physical characterization, air leakage, and heat conduction gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fabricators of heating, ventilation, and air conditioningof Building Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and

  3. Modeling of Heat Transfer in Rooms in the Modelica Buildings Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for building heating, ventilation and air-conditioningfor Building Heating, Ventilation and Air- Conditioning

  4. Lung cancer and indoor pollution from heating and cooking with solid fuels - The IARIC International Multicentre Case-Control study in Eastern/Central Europe and the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lissowska, J.; Bardin-Mikolajczak, A.; Fletcher, T.; Zaridze, D.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Rudnai, P.; Fabianova, E.; Cassidy, A.; Mates, D.; Holcatova, I.; Vitova, V.; Janout, V.; Mannetje, A.; Brennan, P.; Boffetta, P. [Center for Cancer, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Epidemiology & Cancer Prevention

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to fuel from cooking and heating has not been studied in Europe, where lung cancer rates are high and many residents have had a long tradition of burning coal and unprocessed biomass. Study subjects included 2,861 cases and 3,118 controls recruited during 1998-2002 in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. The odds ratio of lung cancer associated with solid fuel use was 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.44) for cooking or heating, 1.37 (95% CI: 0.90, 2.09) for solid fuel only for cooking, and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) for solid fuels used for both cooking and heating. Risk increased relative to the percentage of time that solid fuel was used for cooking (P-trend {lt} 0.0001), while no risk increase was detected for solid fuel used for heating. The odds ratio of lung cancer in whole-life users of solid cooking fuel was 1.80 (95% CI: 1.35, 2.40). Switching to nonsolid fuels resulted in a decrease in risk. The odds ratio for the longest duration of time since switching was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.92). The data suggest a modest increased risk of lung cancer related to solid-fuel use for cooking rather than heating.

  5. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  6. STATE OF CALIFORNIA ICE STORAGE AIR CONDITIONING (ISAC) UNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cooling with the compressor). Yes No #12;STATE OF CALIFORNIA ICE STORAGE AIR CONDITIONING (ISAC) UNITS CEC/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-08 Ice Storage Air Conditioning (ISAC) Units being full of ice. Verify that the system is operates properly in the Idle mode (i.e., the compressor

  7. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  8. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  9. The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

  10. Smart School Symposium Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Session

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    · The presentation will cover the following topic; Typical school Building Load Profiles Typically HVAC Equipment that we can understand the load profiles as well as all the operating characteristics · For this, ASHRAE and secondary) · Schools have a unique building load profile · They are different than other buildings like

  11. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearning andDesign inImage of13-Energy

  12. Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED Jump to:Ohio: Energy ResourcesWeatherford, Texas:

  13. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy Completing

  14. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12 OPAMGeneralGuiding Documents and Links GuidingTank(HARDI) |

  15. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0 ARRA Newsletters 20103-03Energy AdvancedJudge | Departmentof Energy

  16. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s Reply Comments AT&T,FACT S HEET FACTAgenda: TheAof Energy Air

  17. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you're a16-17, 201529,Vulnerabilities |AgreementBurden RFI |

  18. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Ex Parte Memo |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you're a16-17, 201529,Vulnerabilities |AgreementBurden RFI

  19. Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A S Jump to: navigation,FAFCOCommitteeFenpower

  20. Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for a high efficient utilization of solar thermal energy. To show the today's and near future potential innovative solar cooling and air conditioning systems are discussed which are well adapted to the utilization of solar energy. The system performance...

  1. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar radiation through an air conditioned building depends on what is called the building envelope. Building envelope consists of the surfaces that separate the inside from the building outdoors. Area, direction, and specifications of glass...

  2. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar radiation through an air conditioned building depends on what is called the building envelope. Building envelope consists of the surfaces that separate the inside from the building outdoors. Area, direction, and specifications of glass...

  3. air conditioning energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R. Parameshwaran; R. Karunakaran; S. Iniyan; A. Samuel 7 Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  4. air conditioning installations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. 2010-01-01 98 Implementation of Smart Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems for Ministries Complex in the State of Kuwait Texas A&M University -...

  5. Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies estimate that as much as 50% of packaged air conditioning systems operate in faulty conditions that degrade system efficiency. Common faults include: under- and over-charged systems (too much or too little refrigerant), faulty expansions...

  6. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis James Andrew Holley Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1978 Major SubJect: Mechanical Engineering THE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis hy James Andrew Holley Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm nt) Memb e...

  7. Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or More Units... 5.4 0.7 Q 0.5 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  8. Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It used to be that the only alternative to costly electric air conditioning was the double-effect gas-fired absorption chiller/heaters. Beginning in the 1980's, they were the "star" equipment promoted by gas companies throughout the nation. Although...

  9. air conditioning absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditioning absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Gas Powered Air Conditioning...

  10. Outdoor Cooking.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jenoyce; Reasonover, Frances

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ham slices; sirloin, T-bone; rib and ribeye steaks; lamb or pork chops; beef or lamb cubes or patties; Cana. dian bacon; and some varieties of sausage; fryers and fish. Some outdoor cooks prefer a large sirloin steak about 1% inches thick. Allow 1..., sirloin tips and high /-I quality (low choice) chuck and arm roasts are suitable for this 0 .' type of cooking. Lamb, pork and bologna may also be used. / (-)/ Poultry for this method include rock cornish game hen, broiler 1 \\ or fryer, roaster...

  11. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  12. Solution of Air Conditioning Cooling Load Temperature for New Energy-Saving Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X.; Hong, J.; Deying, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Enve lope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Vol.II-3-5 Solution of Air Conditioning Cooling Load Temperature for New Energy-Saving Walls Xuejin Wang Jing Hong Deying Li School of Building.... The formula used to calculate the heat transfer ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Enve lope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Vol.II-3-5 thermal response factors are as follows: 0j = ? ? ? = ??+= 1 i )e1(BK)0(Y i ? ? Tab.1 New energy...

  13. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    domestic automobiles and trucks because of its proven success. This system requires approximately 4 hp (2. 983 kW)[3] for operation snd employs a pressurized fluorinated hydrocarbon (R-12), hereafter fluorocarbon, as a refrigerant. Most of the research... extraction and avoid the use of a fluorocarbon refrigerant. The maJority of work involved with the new units has associated itself in the area of utilizing an absorption cycle or air cycle. The absorption air conditioning unit differs significantly from...

  14. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  15. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According to control method and water...

  17. Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed model is supposed...

  18. Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed model is supposed...

  19. Vegetables: Selection, Care, Cooking.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Louise; Tribble, Marie; Cox, Maeona

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Pour into a well greased casserole. Set in a pan of hot water. Bake at 350" F. about 45 minutes or until firm. Serves six. Spinach, Swiss chard, artichoke hearts or aspara- gus may be substituted for broccoli. CASSEROLE OF BRUSSELS SPROUTS Heat... ring mold. .. -. Bake in pan of hot water at 350" F. 30 minutes, or until knife comes out clean. Unmold on warm plat- ter. Serves six. 2 packages frozen 2 tablespoons tarragon chopped spinach vinegar 1/2 teaspoon salt 2 hard-cooked eggs, 2...

  20. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  1. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial air conditioning and distribution transformers.

  2. air conditioning fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 2. Adsorption versus absorptionAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven...

  3. What's Cooking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - 2 Student Objective Key Words: The student: radiation * understands how the Sun's radiation, solar collector as heat, can be captured and used solar thermal * will be able...

  4. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  5. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Leonard J. (Richland, WA); Diaz, Aaron A. (W. Richland, WA); Judd, Kayte M. (Richland, WA); Pappas, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Cliff, William C. (Richland, WA); Pfund, David M. (Richland, WA); Morgen, Gerald P. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  6. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  7. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  8. air-conditioning units part: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a...

  9. automotive air-conditioning system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a...

  10. air conditioning applications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chillers use the most environmentally friendly refrigerant - water... the Absorption. chiller. If a million Btulshr of hot water can be used from the heat of the engine, at...

  11. air conditioning devices: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  12. air conditioning conference: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  13. air conditioning problemas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  14. Beef -- Selection, Care, Cooking.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Maeona; Mason, Louise; Tribble, Marie; Reasonover, Frances

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Some people prefer rare meat cooked only to 140 degrees F. Others think well-done meat should have a slight pink? color, which can be obtained by cooking only to 170 degrees F. *This method of cooking was developed in the Department of Home...

  15. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  16. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  17. Cooking with Ground Pork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    to thaw. Even when cooked, pork that has been thawed at room temperature can make you sick. Cooking ground pork safely For dishes that contain ground pork, cook the pork before mixing it with other ingredients. How to store cooked ground pork Leftover... dishes made with ground pork should be stored in a covered dish in the refrigerator right away to prevent spoilage. Use it within 3 days. Reheat foods with ground pork until they are steaming hot, bubbling, or at 165 degrees. Other uses Use cooked...

  18. Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality Auswin George residential air-conditioning (A/C) system controller that has smart grid functionality. The qualifier, conditional on anticipated retail energy prices. The term "smart- grid functionality" means that retail energy

  19. Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large share of energy consumption is taken by an air-conditioning system. It worsens the electricity load of the power network. Therefore, more and more scholars are paying attention to research on new types of air-conditioning systems...

  20. Investigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -thermal collectors We investigated 3 types of solar cooling technologies: · Air conditioning consumes 10% of all collector size is a critical limiting factor of solar air conditioners · High driving temperatureInvestigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings Two Building

  1. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are conventional air conditioning and heat pump, given thein heat pump alternative Dummy for oil forced air choiceair choice Dummy for electric baseboard choice Dummy for heat pump

  2. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air choice elec forced air choice heat pump choice elecwith ac elecforced air, with ac heat pump elec baseboard,central air conditioning (including heat pumps), and eight

  3. Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cold seasons, the closed middle air layer absorbs the solar energy, and becomes the buffer layer of space between the inside and outside because of the glasshouse effect. In this case, the indoor heat loss can be reduced. While during the hot... and natural climatic microenvironment for the people indoor. Considering the energy conservation and the ecological environmental protection, this system not only satisfies the aesthetic need of the architecture, but also is the need of developing...

  4. Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

  5. Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 0.6 0.5 Q 0.2 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  6. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure is described to measure approximate real-world air conditioning fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  7. Energy-Saving Design for Pressure Difference Control in Variable Flow Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes energy-saving design for pressure-difference control in a variable flow air conditioning system, including the application of a pressure-difference control valve and the installation position of a pressure-difference transducer...

  8. Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning systems has met with mixed results since the publication of the Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. This paper analyzes the characteristics...

  9. Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective regulation strategies. To avoid...

  10. Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective ...

  11. CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption analysis of the building is carried out using the energy consumption code. Velocity and temperature distribution in the air-conditioned zone is computed using CFD. According to the results, the energy consumption and indoor human thermal comfort...

  12. Air-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Air-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption Tunisian electricity consumption (the residential sector represents 68% of this class of consumers). Nevertheless, with the Tunisian electricity consumption context, models elaborating which take account weather

  13. air-conditioning applications final: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surroundings by the reflection, is used... Liu, P.; Li, D. 2006-01-01 23 Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices Texas A&M University -...

  14. automative air-conditioning systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and try to identify the important trends. Thorsten Ohl 2002-11-05 63 Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices Texas A&M University -...

  15. The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been made the further study about the water quality issue of the central air-conditioning circulation cooling water. Based on the comparison of the existing common adopted disposal ways, put forward the new ways of combination...

  16. air-conditioning direct-fired double-effect: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the basis... Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X. 2006-01-01 30 Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  17. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  18. Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abernethy, D.

    of evaroration, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are rroviding low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly rlants with little or no internal 10iids. . The eva[lorative roof cooling...

  19. Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To design an optimum HVAC airside system that provides comfort and air quality in the air-conditioned spaces with efficient energy consumption is a great challenge. This paper evaluates recent progresses of HVAC airside design for the air...

  20. Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To design an optimum HVAC airside system that provides comfort and air quality in the air-conditioned spaces with efficient energy consumption is a great challenge. This paper evaluates recent progresses of HVAC airside ...

  1. Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor...

  2. Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introducing several kinds of air-conditioning systems energy conservation measures, and according to the climate of the hot-summer and cold-winter region in China, this paper puts forward an overall conception for air-conditioning energy...

  3. Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-3 Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency Huawei Zhu Zhejiang Urban and Rural Planning Design Institute... conditioning system has led to extensive criticism. 2. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VARIABLE REFRIGERANT VOLUME AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND ITS PRESENT APPLICATION ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-3 2...

  4. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  5. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Food Service ... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Health Care ... 11 6 2 Q 2 5.6 3.3 0.8 Q 1.3 Inpatient...

  7. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased: September,

  8. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  12. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  14. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  15. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  16. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09 0.01

  17. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09634

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09634636

  20. Cooking for One or Two.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggard, Marilyn A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for one or two servings and reduce waste and cleanup time, For oven dishes, try this idea. Line serving-size oven dishes with foil, fill with food and freeze. Once frozen , remove the item from the dish , seal the foil , label and return to the freezer.... Later, simply return the item to the original dish, heat and serve. Main Dishes Main dishes take a large share of the food dollar, so plan their purchase and use wisely. Instead of cooking a whole roast or steak, divide each into serving...

  1. Assessment of Supply Chain Energy Efficiency Potentials: A U.S. Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as lighting and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (Heating Cooling Ventilation Water Heating Lighting CookingVentilation Elec: Industrial machine drive Elec: Commercial Refrigeration NG: Industrial process heating

  2. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  3. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – howhigher growth in Indian air conditioner saturation duringand A.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation

  4. Mass and Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building...

  5. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  6. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to a strati?ed thermal energy storage Figure 5: Model ofsystem with thermal energy storage. (to model ventilation

  7. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    upper respiratory symptoms, cough, eye symptoms, fatigue orof breath, or chest tightness); cough; upper respiratory (atrespiratory symptoms, cough, and eye symptoms. Calibration

  8. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for building ventilation systems." Retrieved December 15,of moisture and ventilation system contamination in U.S.installed in office ventilation systems on workers' health

  9. R and D opportunities for commercial HVAC (heating, air conditioning, and ventilation) equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, S.A.; Zaloudek, F.R.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to identify and characterize generic HVAC equipment research that will provide the best investment opportunities for DOE R and D funds. The prerequisites of a DOE research program include research efforts that are potentially significant in energy conservation impact and that are cost-effective, long-term, and high risk. These prerequisites form the basic guidelines for the R and D opportunities assessed. The assessment excludes the R and D areas that have potential or current private sector sponsors. Finally, R and D areas which are included in DOE programs generally are not addressed.

  10. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical...

  11. Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, G.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this study is to put forward a novel nonlinear feedback control strategy on controlling indoor air temperature by variable air volume. A dynamic model of a typical room for a VAV air-conditioning system is established...

  12. Evaluation of a Local Air Conditioning Duty Cycling Device as a Load Management Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.; Thedford, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer of 1984, a test was performed to evaluate a local air conditioning duty cycling device as a tool to reduce TUEC's system summer peak demand. In addition to the local duty cycling device, a direct load control device using a power...

  13. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an increasingly impor- tant role in the efficient loads is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness of various demand response strategies

  14. Test and Reconstruction of Air Conditioning System in a Hotel Lobby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Hu, Y.; Hu, S.; Chen, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two air conditioning systems are equipped in a hotel lobby. It is found from the field test that the actual air rate is 40% and 16% of the nominal value, respectively, of the two systems, which is far lower than the design requirement. The air rate...

  15. Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc, Microfridges Doors and Hardware Door repair/replace Lock, latch or hinge repair, key stuck; Lost or stolen key, repair or replace Shades/Blinds Window treatment - repair or replace Washer/Dryer Washer/Dryer repair

  16. RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. Mylène have promising application in refrigeration thanks to their large cooling capacity and their storage Because it is nowadays necessary to phase out CFCs or HCFCs fluids from the refrigeration industry

  17. Research on Thermal Properties in a Phase Change Wallboard Room Based on Air Conditioning Cold Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, G.; Li, W.; Chen, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room to a phase change wall (PCW) room, we learn that phase change wallboard affects the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in the summer. We built a PCW room...

  18. Start-Up of Air Conditioning Systems After Periods of Shutdown (Humidity Considerations)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, T. R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    after the system is restarted. Moe t simply, condensation takes place when moist air flows past surfaces which have been cooled below its dewpoint. In air conditioning this occurs when the cold supply air being deli- vered into the space induces...

  19. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Model Based Sensor System for Temperature Measurement in R744 Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitz, Sven; Schneider, Peter

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal is the development of a novel principle for the temperature acquisition of refrigerants in CO2 air conditioning systems. The new approach is based on measuring the temperature inside a pressure sensor, which is also needed in the system. On the basis of simulative investigations of different mounting conditions functional relations between measured and medium temperature will be derived.

  1. air cooled heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: was made against the two datasets recently downloaded from the California Energy Commission (CEC) database (CEC 2012) and the 2012 Air- Conditioning, Heating, and...

  2. Cooking with Macaroni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    with a tomato, meat or cheese sauce. You can also use it in soups, salads and casseroles. How to prepare it To cook macaroni, bring a large pot of water to a boil. Add the dry macaroni and stir it. Bring the water back to a boil and cook it for about 8... tomatoes 15- or 16-ounce can pinto or red beans, drained 1 cup uncooked macaroni 1 1 /2 cups water 2 to 3 teaspoons chili powder (if you like) 1 /4 teaspoon garlic powder (if you like) 1...

  3. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  4. Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature field, small supply air temperature difference, large airflow, but no reheater. As the design airflow rate of air conditioning system for cleaning mainly considered to meet the need of the cleanliness class, its air exchange rate was much... above, we had chosen a representative air-handling unit for the testing renovation of 2nd return air system. Cleaning area for this AHU was a capsule clean room with a hundred thousand cleanliness classes. Indoor controlled dry-bulb temperature...

  5. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  6. Comparison of global warming impacts of automobile air-conditioning concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The global warming impacts of conventional vapor compression automobile air conditioning using HFC-134a are compared with the potential impacts of four alternative concepts. Comparisons are made on the basis of total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) which accounts for the effects of refrigerant emissions, energy use to provide comfort cooling, and fuel consumed to transport the weight of the air conditioning system. Under the most favorable assumptions on efficiency and weight, transcritical compression using CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant and adsorption cooling with water and zeolite beds could reduce TEWI by up to 18%rlative to HFC-134a compression air conditioning. Other assumptions on weight and efficiency lead to significant increases in TEWI relative to HFC-134a, and it is impossible to determine which set of assumptios is valid from existing data, Neither Stirling cycle or thermoelectric cooling will reduce TEWI relative to EFC-134a. Brief comments are also made concerning technical barriers that must be overcome for succesful development of the new technologies.

  7. Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) [3] Yayun FAN. Experimental study on a heat pump technology in solar thermal utilization[J]. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica, Oct.,2002; Vol.23,No.5 ? 581-585.(In Chinese) [4] Nengxi JIANG. Air-conditioning Heat Pump Technology and Its Applications...

  8. Cooking with Canned Pork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    vegetable oil 1 large onion, chopped 2 cups canned pork ? cup prepared barbecue sauce 5 hamburger buns How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Using a... the bottom half of an opened hamburger bun. Adapted from Commodity Fact Sheet for USDA Household Programs: Canned Pork by Jenna Anding, Associate Professor and Extension Nutrition Specialist, The Texas A&M System. Fried Rice With Pork (makes 6 to 8...

  9. Data:3f6be60b-c212-4bdd-8b94-aee11f1855de | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heating,water heating,air conditioning,lighting,refrigeration,cooking,and clothes drying. Subject to Power Charge, Ohio Excise Tax, and Transition Cost Riders. Source or...

  10. Data:Ff0b5f1b-d22d-44d0-8818-5e87d5263546 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heating,water heating,air conditioning,lighting,refrigeration,cooking,and clothes drying. Subject to Power Charge, Ohio Excise Tax, and Transition Cost Riders. Source or...

  11. Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of healthservices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, Mark J.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this issue of the journal, Preziosi et al. [2004] report the first study to assess differences in the utilization of health care related to the presence of air-conditioning in office workplaces. Although the study was simple and cross-sectional, the data variables from questionnaires, and the findings subject to a variety of questions, the findings are striking enough to deserve clarification. The study used a large random national sample of French women assembled for another purpose (to study antioxidant nutrients and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease). Participants reported health services and health events in monthly questionnaires over 1 year, and in one questionnaire in the middle of that period also reported whether air-conditioning was in use at their workplace. Fifteen percent of participants reported air-conditioning at work. Analyses adjusting for age and smoking status of participants found increases in most outcomes assessed: use of specific kinds of physicians, sickness absence, and hospital stays. While the increases in odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were statistically significant for only otorhinolaryngology [OR (95% CI) = 2.33 (1.35-4.04)] and sickness absence [1.70 (1.13-2.58)], other increases were notable--dermatology [1.6 (0.98-2.65)]; hospital stay [1.51 (0.92-2.45)], and pneumonology [2.10 (0.65-6.82)]. The least elevated outcomes were for general practice medicine [0.99 (0.65-1.48)] and global medical visits [1.18 (0.67-2.07)]. [Preziosi et al., 2004 ,(Table 2)] Odds ratios for relatively common health outcomes often lie farther from the null than the risk ratios most useful for quantifying the increase in risk. Risk ratios, or prevalence ratios (PRs, the equivalent measure of effect for cross-sectional data), have seldom been used because of the convenience and availability of logistic regression models that estimate odds ratios. With baseline prevalences ranging up to 85.7% in the data from Preziosi et al. [2004], PRs allow a more appropriate estimate of the increase in each outcome associated with the risk factor of air-conditioning. The increase in prevalence was roughly estimated as [100* (crude PR * adjusted OR/crude OR)-100] %. Based on the data in Table 2 of Preziosi et al. [ 2004], estimates for the increased prevalence associated with air-conditioned offices include increases of 120% in otorhinolaryngology visits, and 40% in sickness absence. If these associated increases represented valid causal relationships, it would indicate enormous costs for employers and for society associated with air-conditioning systems, from increased health care and for reduced workplace productivity from sickness absence, in addition to a large burden of disease on workers.

  12. Mass and Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - 1 - MASS AND HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM SALAH MAHMOUD HINDAWI DIRECTOR HINDAWI FOR ENGINEERING SERVICES & CONTRACTING NEW DAMIETTA , EGYPT ABSTRACT : In the last few years heat recovery was under spot . and in air conditioning fields... ) as a heat recovery . and I use the water as a mass recovery . The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines . THE BENEFIT OF THIS SYSTEM ARE : 1) Using the heat energy from...

  13. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response andits Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR) is an effective tool which resolves inconsistencies between electric power supply and demand. It further provides a reliable and credible resource that ensures stable and economical operation of the power grid. This paper introduces systematic definitions for DR and demand side management, along with operational differences between these two methods. A classification is provided for DR programs, and various DR strategies are provided for application in air conditioning and refrigerating systems. The reliability of DR is demonstrated through discussion of successful overseas examples. Finally, suggestions as to the implementation of demand response in China are provided.

  14. Capital Cooking: Order (2014-CE-23008)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Capital Cooking Equipment, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Capital Cooking had failed to certify that certain models of cooking products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  15. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in a Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the achievements of implementing smart operations strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems in Justice Palace Complex (JPC), Kuwait during the summer 2007. The peak load of this building was 3700 k...

  16. The effect of hardware configuration on the performance of residential air conditioning systems at high outdoor ambient temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bain, Joel Alan

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed which investigated the effect of hardware configuration on air conditioning cooling system performance at high outdoor temperatures. The initial phase of the investigation involved the testing of ten residential air...

  17. Experimental Research and Performance Analysis of a Solar-Powered Air-conditioning System in a Green Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, X.; Wang, R.; Dai, Y.; Wu, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a typical operating mode in summer was studied, which includes...

  18. Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F. Raymond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F to investigate changes in precipitation and snowfall over the Patagonia ice- fields during 1960-99. Apparently

  19. Advances in the development of energy efficient technologies: Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coony, J.E. [Boston Pacific Co., Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sea water air conditioning (SWAC) is a cost effective and environmentally friendly alternative to and/or enhancement of air conditioning from mechanical chillers. SWAC pumps cold sea water from the appropriate ocean depths (50 to 3,000 feet depending on the climate and local characteristics) to the shore where it replaces (by direct cooling) or enhances (through use as condenser water) large mechanical chillers found in coastal facilities. SWAC direct cooling uses less than twenty per cent of the electricity of a mechanical chiller and uses no refrigerants whatsoever. Indirect cooling also offers substantial energy savings. Both systems dispense with the need for a cooling tower. Technical advances over the last twenty years in corrosion resistant alloys (titanium or aluminum), bio-fouling deterrence, and deep ocean pipeline deployment allow SWAC installations to use reliable, off-the-shelf technology. SWAC works in a variety of climates (existing installations are in Hawaii and Halifax, Nova Scotia), giving it significant domestic and international potential. Economy-of-scale advantages make it attractive to district cooling schemes.

  20. Cooking with Cornmeal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    and onion in a skillet until the ground beef is crumbly; drain off any excess fat. 3. In a bowl, mix the corn, tomato sauce, chili powder, cornmeal and water. Add the cooked ground beef and onion. 4. Place mixture in a casserole dish and bake at 350... degrees F for 45 minutes. 5. Remove the dish from the oven. Sprinkle the cheese on the top. 6. Bake the casserole for 10 minutes or until the cheese is melted. Cornmeal Mix (makes about 5? cups of mix) Cornbread (makes 12 servings, each 2 by 2? inches...

  1. Cooking with Dried Potatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    make a tasty vegetable dish. For added flavor, you can add salt and pepper along with small amounts of grated cheese, margarine or butter. Be careful: Adding large amounts of cheese, butter or margarine can turn a low-fat vegetable, such as potatoes..., into a high-fat dish. How to store them Store packages of dried potatoes in a cool, dry, place. After the package is opened, store the potatoes in an airtight container. Store cooked potatoes in a covered dish in the refrigerator. Use within 3 days...

  2. Vegetables: Selection, Care, Cooking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Louise; Tribble, Marie; Cox, Maeona

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    them well on absorbent paper; salt and serve them hot. How to Steam Vegetables A steamer is a pan with a rack and a tight cover. Place enough water in the steamer to form sufficient steam, but do not let the water touch the rack. Place... the vegetable on the rack, time is somewhat longer than for boiling. cover the steamer and let the water boil vigor- Steaming is more satisfactory for white, yel- ously. Since the vegetables are cooked entirely low and red vegetables than for green vege...

  3. Capital Cooking: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-23008)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Capital Cooking Equipment, Inc. failed to certify cooking products as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings Sunday 19 heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES

  5. Robust optimization of a 2D air conditioning duct using kriging Deliverable WP.2.2.2.B of the ANR / OMD2 project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Robust optimization of a 2D air conditioning duct using kriging Deliverable WP.2.2.2.B of the ANR optimization of a 2D air conditioning duct. For comparison purposes, deterministic designs were first obtained air conditioning duct. The uncertainties affect the pipe shape. The mean response, expressed in terms

  6. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Olesen, B. (2012). "surface heating and cooling systems: . Brussels, Europeanperformance in radiant cooling systems (Babiak, Olesen et

  7. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  8. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  9. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Optimal Design of Central Air-Conditioning Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, X.; Zou, Y.; Long, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .25 150 121.86 0.1182 1.92 200 131.55 0.0218 376.9729 1.0864 19 19 20 4.5 150 99.58 0.1013 1.57 150 107.18 0.1013 1163.561 1.6857 20 20 21 1.8 80 22.29 0.965 1.17 65 24.28 2.3884 1408.019 1.8046 21 22 23 1 80 22.29 0.5361 1.17 80 24.24 0.5361 315.0493... Wuxi, P. R. China, 214122 Shanghai? P. R. China, 200070 fxp_99@126.com Zouyun_22@126.com WeidingLong@163.com Abstract: The optimal design of air-conditioning water system is an optimization problem of functions that depend on a series...

  10. Application of industrial heat pumps Proven applications in 2012 for Megawatt+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Application of industrial heat pumps Proven applications in 2012 for Megawatt+ Heatpumps within a technical, commercial and sustainable framework Application of industrial heat pumps Proven applications Emerson Climate Technologies Core Offerings & Key Brands Residential Heating & Air Conditioning Commercial

  11. Cook stove assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFoort, Morgan W; Willson, Bryan D; Lorenz, Nathan; Brady, Michael P; Marchese, Anthony; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel D

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion chamber, having an upper part and a lower part, may include an annular constriction, in combination with the combustion chamber, to aid in directing partially combusted gases such as carbon monoxide away from the periphery of the combustion chamber back toward its center, and into the flame front. The annular constriction may also impede the flow of partially combusted gases located at the periphery, thus increasing the time these gases spend within the combustion chamber and increasing the likelihood that any products of incomplete combustion will undergo combustion. The combustion chamber may further comprise a dual burner cooktop for directing combustion gases and exhaust to multiple cooking vessels. In further embodiments, the combustion chamber may be made of, lined, or clad with a metal alloy comprising iron, chromium, and aluminum.

  12. Heat pipe dehumidification for supermarket energy savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Eric M. (Eric Michael)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the possibility of using a heat pipe installed in the air conditioning unit of a supermarket to increase the level of dehumidification of the inside air. This dehumidification is expected to reduce the ...

  13. Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump Systems and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump use of buildings Gas Heat Pump Solution #12;Gas Heat Pump - deserves special attention due to its source in addition to the outside air ·A further essential component of Gas Heat Pump air conditioning

  14. Airflow Simulation and Energy Analysis in Ventilated Room with a New Type of Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Airflow simulation in one ventilated room with radiant heating and natural ventilation has been carried out. Three cases are compared: the closed room, the room with full openings, and the room with small openings. The radiator heating room...

  15. 2416, Page 1 International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 12-15, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    evaporators defrost more often than fin-and-tube heat pump units, operating under similar conditions understanding of the heat and mass transfer characteristics of coils during frosting and defrosting transient-15, 2010 Experimental Investigation of Frost Growth on Microchannel Heat Exchangers Ehsan Moallem1

  16. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Doh-Won [Texas Transportation Institute; Zietsman, Josias [Texas Transportation Institute; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza [Texas Transportation Institute; Li, Wen-Whai [University of Texas, El Paso; Olvera, Hector [University of Texas, El Paso; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Kranendonk, Laura [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  17. Genetic Lateral and Amplitude Tuning with Rule Selection for Fuzzy Control of Heating,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granada, Universidad de

    and Air Conditioning Systems R. Alcal´a1 , J. Alcal´a-Fdez1 , F.J. Berlanga2 , M.J. Gacto1 , and F fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning sys- tems concerning energy performance and indoor comfort requirements. 1 Introduction Heating, Ventilating and Air

  18. A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    ®cance for the design and control of the transcritical carbon dioxide air- conditioning and heat pump systems 7 2000A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles S.M. Liaoa) of transcritical carbon dioxide air-conditioning cycles. The analysis shows that the COP of the transcritical

  19. Implementation of Smart Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems for Ministries Complex in the State of Kuwait

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Ishaqali, H.

    The smart operation strategies were implemented for Air-Conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems to reduce the national load at Ministries Complex (MC) in the state of Kuwait. The A/C system in MC is a district cooling system that comprises of 8...

  20. ENSC 461 PROJECT: Next generation air conditioning systems for vehicles Assigned date: Feb. 21, 2011 Due date: April 11, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    1 ENSC 461 PROJECT: Next generation air conditioning systems for vehicles Assigned date: Feb. 21's engine, or battery pack in case of HEVs and EVs. This power draw is equivalent to a 1200-kg sedan driving both systems under various driving and climate conditions. #12;2 The project report should also

  1. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  2. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  3. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  4. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationheat gain and building thermal mass, which is particularly important in cooling load calculation,

  5. About Nuccio Heating & Air Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Nuccio Heating & Air serves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    a customer say, `you installed my first air conditioner - yourself!'" Nuccio Heating & Air serves commercialAbout Nuccio Heating & Air Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Nuccio Heating & Air serves commercial ­ the majority being highly mobile ­ sell and service heating and air conditioning systems for the company

  6. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

  7. "Table HC3.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,51.7,43.9,2.5,0.7,1.6,3.1 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,41.1,34.8,2.1,0.5,1.2,2.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,10.6,9.1,0.4,"Q",0.3,0.6...

  8. "Table HC4.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,14.1,3.6,1.5,2.1,6.4,0.6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,12.4,3.1,1.3,1.8,5.7,0.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.6,"Q",0.3,0.6,"Q"...

  9. Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style With Every Heartbeat Is Life #12;#12;Heart Recipe Substitutions for Heart Healthy Cooking at the heart of African American family life and special celebrations. This recipe book brings together many

  10. Cooking When the Power Goes Off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    After a storm has knocked out utility services, cooking can be a problem or even hazardous if basic safety measures are not taken. This publication explains how to cook safely using charcoal or gas grills, camp stoves or wood fires....

  11. Size distribution measurement of fine and ultrafine particle emission from cooking Evelyne Ghina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) for particle with diameter between d and (d+dd) including emission rate of the source, nucleation, re-suspension meat or fish lead to a total mean equivalent emission rate of (9±6)×1010 s-1 while cooking meat or fish in an oven lead to total mean equivalent emission rate of (9±4)×1010 s-1 . Cooking pasta or heat the stove

  12. The Application of Frequency-Conversion Technology in Groundwater Source Heat Pump System Reconstruction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, X.; Song, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep well pump power is relatively ubiquitous in the groundwater heat pump air-conditioning system in some hotels in Hunan, and the heat pump usually meets the change of the load by throttling. Therefore, frequency conversion technology is proposed...

  13. The Application of Frequency-Conversion Technology in Groundwater Source Heat Pump System Reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, X.; Song, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep well pump power is relatively ubiquitous in the groundwater heat pump air-conditioning system in some hotels in Hunan, and the heat pump usually meets the change of the load by throttling. Therefore, frequency conversion technology is proposed...

  14. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in designing a ventilation system is determining theto shut down the ventilation system for a period of timeperiod with the ventilation system off (e.g. , at least 6

  15. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  16. Memorandum To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19, 2004MWMemo of Intent MemoFrom: LeoTo:

  17. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Construct a ground sourced heat pump, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system for the new Oakland University Human Health Sciences Building utilizing variable refrigerant flow (VRF) heat pumps. A pair of dedicated outdoor air supply units will utilize a thermally regenerated desiccant dehumidification section. A large solar thermal system along with a natural gas backup boiler will provide the thermal regeneration energy.

  18. HOW TO COOK OCEAN PERCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , is an excellent food fish with firm fle h. When cooked, the meat is white and flaky, with a delicate flavor. Ocean to the consumer until 1935. At that time, the indlu;try began experimenting with filleting and freezing ocean pel

  19. A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma,R.J.; Yu,N.Y.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system Rong-Jiang Ma Nan-Yang Yu PhD candidate Professor School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong... in buildings is to save energy without compromising comfort, health and productivity levels. In other words, the idea is to consume less energy while providing equal or improved building services, that is, being more energy efficient (Pérez-Lombard et al...

  20. Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, R.; Shiochi, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-2 Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus Yanping Zhou Jingyi..., especially for those who ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-2 show some interest about high-efficiency systems like VRF, it becomes of interest to compare the VRF to other systems and evaluate VRF?s performance...

  1. Optimal Design for a Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Z.; Yuan, X.; Wang, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the advantages of ground-source heat pumps over their conventional alternatives make these systems a very attractive choice for air conditioning, not only for residential buildings but increasingly also for institutional and commercial...

  2. Analysis of Air Conditioning Effectiveness vs. Outdoor Conditions: Traditional Bins or Joint Frequency Bins?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, B. M.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are fairly high. Offices that have a lot of sensible heat generation due to lighting and office equipment tend to be high, maybe greater than 0.9. (Other applications, like ice rinks that have internal cooling, can be low or even negative, and do... ratio ranges on the second axis. This form of binning is easily accomplished if a utility like ~in~aker~~ is used to generate the binned data set. INTRODUCTION The factors which should be considered in the specification of heating and air...

  3. Influence of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems on Air Conditioning Demand in an Utility Pilot Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the summer of 2000. Data analysis on the pre and post cooling and heating consumption was used to determine impacts on energy use and peak demand for the utility. The average cooling energy savings from the RBS retrofit was 3.6 kWh/day, or about 9...

  4. Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Air-conditioning Component Models Using Limited Sensor Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hariharan, Natarajkumar

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    .1). ?? , is the area of orifice opening and ?? is the coefficient of discharge of the expansion valve at that specific condition. Coefficient of discharge is a dependent on the EEV geometry and the thermal?fluid properties of the refrigerant flowing through... Area of application of bulb pressure ?2 Area of application of evaporator pressure ?? External surface area of the TEV bulb ??? Area of heat conduction between the refrigerant and the bulb ?? Area of opening for refrigerant flow in expansion...

  5. Applying Learnable Evolution Model to Heat Exchanger Design Kenneth A. Kaufman and Ryszard S. Michalski*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalski, Ryszard S.

    of the evaporator tubes in the heat exchanger of an air conditioner. This is a very difficult problem because conditioner, refrigerant flows through a loop. It is superheated and placed in contact with cooler outside air conditions, manufacturers of air conditioning systems currently assume in their models average operating

  6. "Table HC3.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home7 Air-Conditioning Usage

  7. "Table HC11.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal4362

  8. "Table HC12.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal436278032456

  9. Michigan Nuclear Profile - Donald C Cook

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Donald C Cook" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  10. The Technical and Economical Analysis of a Centralized Air-Conditioning System with Cold Storage Refrigeration in High-Rise Residential Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, C.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the application of a centralized air-conditioning system (CACS) with cold storage refrigeration in high-rise residential buildings has gradually increased. Due to the large difference between civil residential buildings...

  11. Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production from cooking oil generation of biodiesel using waste cooking oil and algae oil. We consider 5 different technologies is to simultaneously optimize and heat integrate the production of biodiesel from each of the different oil sources

  12. Experimental Study in Energy Performance of Temperature and Humidity Independent Control System with Multiple Split Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawano,M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to realizing Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB). 61% ?F ?F The amount of solar power Performance improvement of a building ? 30% reduction Efficiency of the air conditioning system ? 60? reduction 60% over reduction E le ct ri c P o w e r C o n su m p ti o n (K W h...-09-16 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 80 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1? 4? 1? 11 ? 1? 16 ? 1? 17 ? 1? 18 ? 1? 21 ? 1? 22 ? 1? 30 ? 1? 31 ? 2? 1? 2? 4? 2? 5? 2? 6? 2? 7? 2? 8? 2? 12...

  13. Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

  14. High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lowenstein

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

  15. An Investigation of Alternative Methods for Measuring Static Pressure of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Grant Benson

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was created to address an important issue currently faced by test facilities measuring static pressure for air-conditioning and heat pumps. Specifically, ASHRAE Standard 37, the industry standard for test setup, requires an outlet duct...

  16. Keep Food Safe When Cooking Outdoors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Choose meat, poultry, or seafood that is fresh and of high quality. Once bought, take meat home and refrigerate it right away. If the trip home takes more than 30 minutes, use a cooler. Cook or freeze fresh poultry, fish, seafood, or ground beef within... 1 to 2 days; other meats such steak and pork chops should be cooked or frozen within 4 or 5 days. Thaw foods safely. The best way to thaw frozen meat, fish, poultry, or seafood is in the refrigerator. This lets the food to thaw completely and cook...

  17. Cooking with Canned Tuna (packed in water)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    E-75 12/08 Cooking with Canned Tuna (packed in water) Tuna is a nutritious source of protein, iron, and niacin. Because it is already cooked, it can be eaten right out of the can or used to make your favorite tuna dishes. A serving of tuna is 2...- by 13-inch baking dish. 4. Bake it at 350 degrees F for 30 to 35 minutes. Let it stand for about 10 minutes before serving. Note: You can also use 2 cups of cooked rice instead of macaroni. Quick Tuna Spread (makes 4 servings, ? cup each) Tuna...

  18. Rethinking energy conservation via an evaluation of the heating system: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellekoop, Michel

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3.1 HeatRethinking energy conservation via an evaluation of the heating system: A Case Study of Zilverling Intan Permatasari The purpose of this research is to study the heating system in Zilverling building

  19. Cook County- LEED Requirements for County Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2002, Cook County enacted an ordinance requiring all new county buildings and all retrofitted county buildings to be built to LEED standards. Specifically, all newly constructed buildings and...

  20. Field Demonstration of a High-Efficiency Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioning Unit at Fort Gordon, Augusta, GA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Peter R.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a larger program targeting the market transformation of packaged rooftop air conditioning, five high-efficiency rooftop air conditioning products were selected in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Unitary Air Conditioner (UAC) Technology Procurement (http://www.pnl.gov/uac). In February 2003, Fort Gordon in Augusta, Georgia was chosen as the demonstration site. With the goal of validating the field performance and operation of one of the awarded products, a 10-ton high-efficiency packaged rooftop unit (RTU) manufactured by Global Energy Group (GEG) was installed at Fort Gordon in October 2003. Following equipment installation, power metering, air- and refrigerant-side instrumentation was installed on the GEG RTU and a 4-year old typical-efficiency 20-ton RTU manufactured by AAON . The GEG and AAON units were instrumented identically and operated May through July, 2005, to observe performance under a range of conditions. Based on the data collected as part of this demonstration, the GEG equipment performed at least 8% better in stage-1 (single compressor running) cooling and at least 16% better in stage-2 (both compressors running) than the baseline AAON equipment. Performance comparisons are based on what we call application EER normalized to equivalent specific fan power. The full-load, specific-fan-power-normalized application EERs at ARI design conditions were 10.48 Btu/Wh for the GEG and 9.00 Btu/Wh for the baseline machine. With a cost premium of nearly 50%, and slightly higher maintenance costs, the life-cycle cost analysis shows that the GEG technology pays for itself--a positive net-present value (NPV)--only in climates and buildings with long cooling seasons. Manufacture of this equipment on a larger scale can be expected to reduce costs to the point where it is more broadly cost-effective. The assumed 10-ton baseline and new-technology unit costs are $3824.00 and $5525.00 respectively. If the new technology cost is assumed to drop as sales increase to $4674.50 for a 10-ton unit (i.e. the original cost difference is halved), the life-cycle costs improve. A grid of first cost, annual maintenance cost and electricity price is enumerated and the results presented in the report show the sensitivity of life cycle cost to these three financial parameters in each of eight different climates.

  1. Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berglof, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -28, 2010 Figure 4, Pressure ? enthalpy graph of ?standard? refrigeration process. Cooling Capacity = Mass flow * (h2 ? h3) (2) Heating Capacity = Mass flow * (h1 ? h3) (3) Isentropic Effic = (hs ? h2) * (1 ? rel. heat loss) (4...

  2. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  3. The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    low grade energy, for example, solar energy and surplus or waste heat energy in the industrial process....

  4. Investigation and Analysis of Energy Consumption and Cost of Electric Air Conditioning Systems in Civil Buildings in Changsha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, D.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cold and heat sources and the HVAC area of the buildings. Meanwhile the economical and feasible types of cold and heat sources are pointed out, i.e., oil boilers and gas boilers for heat source, and centrifugal and screw water chillers for cold source...

  5. An experimental study of heating performance and seasonal modeling of vertical U-tube ground coupled heat pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margo, Randal E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    configurations of heat pumps: air source heat pumps (ASHP) and ground coupled heat pumps (GCHP). Air source heat pumps extract energy from the outdoor air in the heating mode and reject excess heat in the cooling mode. One significant drawback to ASHP... season. Ground coupled heat pumps use the ground as a heat source or heat sink through The format of this proposal follows that of the Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. the use of a ground...

  6. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  7. 23.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    23.11.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 2/36 7.1 Humid air #12;23.11.2014 Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow

  8. Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH the temperature of the ground surface and the ambient air. This situation creates areas called urban heat summertime temperatures reduces electricity demand for air conditioning, which lowers air pollution levels

  9. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  10. A study of the factors influencing the cooking of cottonseed meats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are oonveyed fran the orushex' through a stean heated rotor lift to th? top ooolcor. The stosxL heated rotox lift is a vertioal sore?oonveyor into ?hioh live steaa is ingested. Tho puryose of the live stean in the xotor lift ie to begin tho seeking...~to suyorinyosed oas upon the other The temperature of each ee@yartnsnt is in4ioated by a reoording thersLcsseter, The heat for the seeking is taken frcsa stean gaskets, an4, by oontroliing the onount of stean in cash gasket, tho mal cook oan cxaintain tho...

  11. Efficiency improvement of a ground coupled heat pump system from energy management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Efficiency improvement of a ground coupled heat pump system from energy management N. Pardo a,*, Á coupled heat pump Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b s t r a c t The installed capacity of an air to improve the efficiency of a ground coupled heat pump air conditioning system by adapting its produced

  12. Solar cooking : the development of a thermal battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutting, Alexander Chatfield

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many rural area in the world where cooking fuel is very scarce. One solution to this problem is to use solar energy to cook food. However most people around the world like to cook large meals at night, when the ...

  13. Experimental Research and Performance Analysis of a Solar-Powered Air-conditioning System in a Green Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, X.; Wang, R.; Dai, Y.; Wu, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature variations of solar collector arrays, heat storage tank and adsorption chillers as well as refrigerating output variations of the system. Experimental results show that adsorption chillers have the advantages of low driving temperature, stability...

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre for a total amount of 2 375 280 euros (3 654 277 Swiss francs) not subject to revision, with options for additional chillers, chilled water coils and sound attenuation, for an additional amount of 539 053 euros (829 312 Swiss francs), bringing the total amount to 2 914 333 euros (4 483 589 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  15. Keep Food Safe When Cooking Outdoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    (medium rare) 160 degrees F (medium) Hamburgers (made from ground beef) 160 degrees F Poultry (whole, ground, parts) 165 degrees F Pork (all cuts) 160 degrees F Hot dogs (already cooked) 165 degrees F and platters with hot, soapy water before reusing...

  16. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  17. Policy-Based Authorization William R. Cook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, William R.

    Page 1 Policy-Based Authorization William R. Cook Department of Computer Sciences University of Texas at Austin Abstract This paper discusses policy-based authorization, an effective intermediate point between MAC and DAC that promises to combine the best features of both models. Policy

  18. Cooking and Using Dried Beans and Peas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooking and Using Dried Beans and Peas Beans and peas are good for you Beans and peas beans with rice or corn to provide high quality complete protein. If you are on a special diet, remember that beans and peas are low in sodium and fat. How to store dried beans and peas Store beans and peas

  19. Terminator: Beyond Safety Byron Cook1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    Terminator: Beyond Safety Byron Cook1 , Andreas Podelski2,3 , and Andrey Rybalchenko2,4 1 Microsoft.) are restricted to safety properties. Terminator is the first software model checker for termination. It is now counterexamples if they if they fail to terminate). Introduction Terminator is a program analysis and verification

  20. Solid fuel cooking stoves: International directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal design and promotion of the use of fuel efficient cooking stoves demand continued interaction and exchange of information between researchers, extension workers, policy makers and others concerned with stove projects. The directory is aimed at listing all the known organisations in this area.

  1. STATIA LUSZCZ-COOK Department of Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    STATIA LUSZCZ-COOK Department of Astronomy University of California, Berkeley B-20 Hearst Field.C. Berkeley Spring 2007 Graduate Student Instructor, Undergraduate Solar System Physics, U.C. Berkeley Fall Solar Observatory, as part of the REU program RESEARCH INTERESTS Planetary atmospheres, extrasolar

  2. Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In northern China, there are a large number of space buildings divided in inner zone and exterior zone based on usage requirements. The exterior zone needs to be heated in winter and cooled in summer, while the inner zone needs to be cooled both...

  3. Ameren Illinois (Gas)- Cooking and Heating Business Efficiency Incentives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ameren Illinois offers several incentive programs that include efficient natural gas technologies. The programs are available only to non-residential customers that receive natural gas service from...

  4. Commercial high efficiency dehumidification systems using heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved heat pipe design using separately connected two-section one-way flow heat pipes with internal microgrooves instead of wicks is described. This design is now commercially available for use to increase the dehumidification capacity of air conditioning systems. The design also includes a method of introducing fresh air into buildings while recovering heat and controlling the humidity of the incoming air. Included are applications and case studies, load calculations and technical data, and installation, operation, and maintenance information.

  5. Air Conditioning Cold/Heat Source Analysis of the Inclusion of the Monetary Values of Environmental Damage Based on the LCA Theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Duanmu, L.; Shu, H.; Zhu, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the cost of reduc- ing the emission of CO2 will be $80 per ton [9]. Ac- cording to Clean Development Mechanism in China, the price of CO2 is about 33-50yuan/ton. Recently the study on how carbon tax influences China?s Economic Growth has been done..., the weight- ing factor of solid waste is 0.25yuan/kg. 3.6 Monetary Values of Coal and Electricity?s Envi- ronment Impact The functional units of standard coal and elec- tricity are per ton and per MWh. According to ta- ble3-7, table8 illustrates monetary...

  6. US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015 -Helicopter AccidentSeptember 2009July 200816, 2008ofUSDepartment

  7. "Table HC10.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal436 Air

  8. "Table HC10.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal436 Air7

  9. "Table HC11.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal43627

  10. "Table HC12.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal4362780324567

  11. Performance Assessment of U.S. Residential Cooking Exhaust Hoods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gas cooking burners emit air pollutants1-3 at rates that can lead to indoor curves relating airflow to duct static pressure, sound levels, and exhaust gas

  12. Cook Composites and Polymers Company Achieves Superior Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    case study highlights a Cook Composites and Polymers Co. (CCP) plant in Houston, Texas, as one of the first participants in the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) plant...

  13. AQUIFER BIOTHERMOREMEDIATION USING HEAT PUMPS: SOUND THEORETICAL BASIS AND RESULTS ON THERMAL, GEOCHEMICAL AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    example, the long-term use of groundwater heat pumps for air conditioning of homes or buildings can induce and hydrogeological background. The presence of organic pollutants in the aquifer can amplify these phenomena/or the well productivity, (ii) an inappropriate temperature for the use of groundwater heat pumps for air

  14. Identification of boundary heat fluxes in a falling film experiment using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , regularization, conjugate gradient method, falling film, heat flux estimation, anisotropic finite elements, model problems must be solved. We apply a one step -method and piecewise linear finite elements on a tetrahedral of Process Systems Engineering, RWTH Aachen University c Chair of Heat Transfer and Air Conditioning, RWTH

  15. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  16. Pearl millet: parboiling methods and factors affecting the process and cooked product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clegg, Chally Joel

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) required to extrude the cooked millet through the extrusion grids. Color was evaluated for cooked nonparboiled and parboiled (BSB air, SB air) pearl millet at 22 min cooking time using a Hunterlab Tristimulus Color Meter. Minimum Cook Time (MCT). MCT... was determined by the method described by Ranghino (1966). Ranghino defined MCT as 9 out of 10 (90%) cooked kernels without an opaque center in the endosperm. A portion of decorticated parboiled and nonparboiled pearl millet was cooked in excess water. Ten...

  17. Cook, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew| Exploration Technique:Illinois: Energy ResourcesCook,

  18. Commercial Cooking Equipment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina:Cooking Equipment Incentives

  19. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klug, Victoria

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to pollutants emitted from natural gas cooking burners.AB, Klepeis NE. Natural Gas Variability in California:to Pollutants from Natural Gas Cooking Burners. California

  20. aceria lantanae cook: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phillip S. Johnson,1 Peter L. Cook,2 Ioannis Zegkinoglou,1,3 J. M. Garc-a-Lastra,4,5 Angel Rubio,4 Himpsel, Franz J. 237 Publications Busby, J.W., K.H. Cook, E.K. Vizy,...

  1. Potential Savings for Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal from BUENAS modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. , 2007. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption inCommercial Industry Air Conditioning Cooking Fans Lighting90% of the country air conditioning (AC) consumption 4 . We

  2. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station. Final report (revised October 21, 1996)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Katipamula, S.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance was evaluated of a new US cooling technology that has been installed for the first time at a federal facility. The technology is a 15-ton natural gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning unit made by Thermo King. Two units were installed to serve the Navy Exchange at Willow Grove. The savings potential at Willow Grove is described and that in the federal sector estimated. Conditions for implementation are discussed. In summary, the new technology is generally cost-effective at sites where marginal electricity cost (per MBtu at the meter) is more than 4 times the marginal gas cost (per MBtu at the meter) and annual full-load-equivalent cooling hours exceed 2,000.

  3. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Pump Centralized AC by NG Electric water heater Gasheater gas boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump conditioner Air conditioning Lighting Cooking and waterWater heating Technologies Electric heater Gas boiler Boiler Small cogen Stove District heating Heat pump

  4. Energy Efficiency Supporting Policy and Heat Pumping Technology in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    % improvement energy consumption per real GDP of Japan> Ref: METI/ Energy Data Modeling Centre, comprehensive energy statistics *Total consumption of primary energy (tons in crude oil equivalent) / real GDP heating , 25% Cooling, 2% Water heating, 29% Power, etc., 36% cooking , 8% Energy consumption by end- use

  5. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  6. Co-simulation for performance prediction of integrated building and HVAC systems - An analysis of solution characteristics using a two-body system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trcka, Marija

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    buildings and heating, ventilation and air- conditioning (building type, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (

  7. The Importance of the Global Health Sector in California: An Evaluation of the Economic Impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nandi, Arindam

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacturing  Ventilation, Heating, Air-Conditioning, andManufacturing Ventilation, Heating, Air-Conditioning, and

  8. Anderson-Cook named American Society for Quality Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anderson-Cook has worked at LANL since 2004. She also is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and in 2011 was one of 20 women in New Mexico who received a Governor's...

  9. Lawrence B. Flanagan Craig S. Cook James R. Ehleringer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehleringer, Jim

    Lawrence B. Flanagan á Craig S. Cook James R. Ehleringer Unusually low carbon isotope ratios limited overlap in species distributions inside and out- side these gardens. Solar exposure in hanging

  10. .......Agnew Hall .......Air Conditioning Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    /Burleson Tennis Center .......Burruss Hall .......Campbell Hall .......Cassell Coliseum .......Central Stores .......Dietrick Hall .......Durham Hall .......Eggleston Hall .......Engel Hall D.....English Field .......Femoyer .......Golf Course Clubhouse .......Graduate Life Center at ........Donaldson Brown .......Greenhouses

  11. Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Swarooph

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    on a 3-ton residential air conditioner are then presented to intuitively understand the effect of expansion valve and evaporator fan cycling in a real system. A real time optimization method is explored and the feasibility, recommendations for a...

  12. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1A Potential PathAddingAhorre

  13. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISO 50001EnergyNewsletterAdvocateInnovations inEnergyAir

  14. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT HEATER SETTINGS TO PROVIDE SPATIALLY UNIFORM HEATING IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, David

    in foundries, baking ovens that cook food, infrared heating systems that cure painted surfaces, and rapidOPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT HEATER SETTINGS TO PROVIDE SPATIALLY UNIFORM HEATING IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES INVOLVING RADIANT HEATING K. J. Daun, J. R. Howell, and D. P. Morton Department of Mechanical

  16. Two well storage systems for combined heating and airconditioning by groundwater heatpumps in shallow aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelka, W.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of soil and ground water as an energy source and heat storage systems for heat pumps in order to conserve energy in heating and air conditioning buildings is discussed. Information is included on heat pump operation and performance, aquifer characteristics, soil and ground water temperatures, and cooling and heating demands. Mathematical models are used to calculate flow and temperature fields in the aquifer. It is concluded that two well storage systems with ground water heat pumps are desirable, particularly in northern climates. (LCL)

  17. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  18. Energy-Efficient Cooking for Winter | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome |Cooking for Winter Energy-Efficient Cooking

  19. McCook, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio: Energy ResourcesMavi InnovationsEnergyMcCook Public PowerMcCook,

  20. Dimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be made from any carbonaceous feedstock, including natural gas, coal, or biomass, using establishedDimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China Eric D. Larson Princeton gas (LPG) as a household cooking fuel. As such, DME is an attractive fuel for clean cooking. DME can

  1. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    iPage | i Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking. LBNL4885E #12;Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model

  2. A logic model for cook-off phenomenology in high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenhawer, S. W. (Stephen W.); Bott, T. F. (Terrence F.); Luck, L. B.; Kingson, J.; Key, B. P. (Brian P.)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Logic models are valuable tools in the development of predictive models for complex physical processes. The use of deductive logic in the form of a possibility tree makes it straightforward to develop a comprehensive set of unique, alternative paths that describe the system. We demonstrate the power of this approach for the complex process of cook-off of high explosives (HE). The possibility tree describes the causal paths from heating HE to the alternative end states. One of these end states is a violent reaction. Conversion of the tree to the equivalent digraph yields a valuable visualization tool for examining the relationships between sub-processes and provides a sound framework for the development of analytical models.

  3. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

  4. 3-50 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units. The cooling load is due to people, lights, and heat transfer through the walls and the windows. The number of 5-kW window air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    to a total of 9u365 = 3285 off hours per year. Disregarding the ballast factor, the annual energy and cost) = (4730 kWh/year)($0.08/kWh) = $378/year The implementation cost of this measure is the sum lamps)(60 W/lamp )(3285 hours/year) = 4730 kWh/year Cost Savings = (Energy Savings)(Unit cost of energy

  5. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES--DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES--DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY Victoria L. Klug, Agnes B. Lobscheid, and Brett C. Singer Environmental Energy Technologies Division August 2011 LBNL-5028 FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY Victoria L. Klug, Agnes B. Lobscheid, and Brett C. Singer Indoor Environment

  6. A global clean cooking fuel initiative Jos Goldemberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544-1003, USA E-mail: rwilliam@princeton.edu This article calls for engaging, for which demand is very inelastic (cooking and boil- ing water are essential for survival). There is wide recognition of the importance of electric- ity in development and the fact that 1.6 billion people do not have

  7. Healthy Foods, Healthy Lives: Cooking on a Student's Budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Healthy Foods, Healthy Lives: Cooking on a Student's Budget FScN 2002 ­ Fall & Spring Semesters/monthly menus within a realistic food budget and a modest supply list Gain valuable information and connect to a variety of resources on nutrition, food safety, budgeting and meal planning Develop a social network

  8. Automotive Powertrain Control: A Survey Jeffrey A. Cook, Jing Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    Automotive Powertrain Control: A Survey Jeffrey A. Cook, Jing Sun Julia H. Buckland, Ilya V recent and historical publications on automotive powertrain control. Control- oriented models of gasoline, hybrid electric powertrains and automotive fuel cells. In each case, fundamental models are discussed

  9. Engine Control J.A. Cook, J.W. Grizzley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    , spark ignition, internal combustion gasoline engine. Mechanically, this powerplant has remained a ect emissions, performance and fuel economy in the spark ignition engine: Air-fuel ratio controlEngine Control J.A. Cook, J.W. Grizzley , and J. Sun January 18, 1995 1 Introduction Automotive

  10. Page 1 of 4 STATIA HONORA LUSZCZ-COOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Page 1 of 4 STATIA HONORA LUSZCZ-COOK Department of Astronomy University of California, Berkeley B ­ present UC Berkeley Graduate Student Instructor, Undergraduate Solar System Physics, 2007 UC Berkeley National Solar Observatory RESEARCH INTERESTS Planetary atmospheres, extrasolar planets, near

  11. Smart Homes Diane J. Cook and Michael Youngblood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    Smart Homes Diane J. Cook and Michael Youngblood Department of Computer Science and Engineering personal environment: the home. There are several characteristics that are commonly found in smart homes the inhabitants of this burden. Interaction with smart homes is in a form that is comfortable to people: speech

  12. Mining the Home Environment Diane J. Cook and Narayanan Krishnan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    is a smart home. In a smart home, computer software plays the role of an intelligent agent that perceives mining smart home data and offer ideas for continued research. 2. Smart Home Data One reason whyMining the Home Environment Diane J. Cook and Narayanan Krishnan Washington State University

  13. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  14. Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    , of all four walls, respectively. Simulated results using California climate data indicated that PCFWs would reduce peak heat transfer rates by 8% and 19% at 10% PCM concentration and 12.2% and 27% at 20% PCM concentration for the coastal and transitional...

  15. Analysis of radial fin assembly heat transfer with dehumidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosario, L.; Rahman, M.M. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is the analysis of heat transfer in a radial fin assembly during the process of dehumidification. An individual finned tube geometry is a reasonable representation of heat exchangers used in air conditioning. The condensation process involves both heat and mass transfer and the cooling takes place by the removal of sensible as well as latent heat. The ratio of sensible to total heat is an important quantity that defines the heat transfer process during a dehumidifier operation. A one-dimensional model for heat transfer in the fin and the heat exchanger block is developed to study the effects of condensation on the fin surface. The combined heat and mass transfer process is modeled by incorporating the ratio of sensible to total heat in the formulation. The augmentation of heat transfer due to fin was established by comparing heat transfer rate with and without fins under the same operating conditions. Numerical calculations were carried out to study the effects of relative humidity and dry bulb temperature of the incoming air, and cold fluid temperature inside the coil on the performance of the heat exchanger. Results were compared to those published for rectangular fin under humid condition showed excellent agreement when the present model was used to compute that limiting condition. It was found that the heat transfer rate increased with increment in both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of the air. The augmentation factor, however, decreased with increment in relative humidity and the dry bulb temperature.

  16. The effect of alternate defrost strategies on the reverse-cycle defrost of an air-source heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schliesing, John Steven

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with and understanding of my questions and ideas. Thanks also to my family and friends for their support and help svhile I svorked on this project. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the American Society oi' Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers... . . 21 Psychrometric Room Temperature Control Characteristics during a Frosting, 'Defrosting Test 3. 3 4. 3 4. 10 4. 11 Refrigerant Circuit Arrangement of the Outdoor Coil Heat Pump System Schematic Refrigerant Line Temperature Probe . Indoor...

  17. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  18. Implications of Cost Effectiveness Screening Practices in a Low Natural Gas Price Environment: Case Study of a Midwestern Residential Energy Upgrade Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Ian M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    higher efficiency heating and air conditioning systems andor combined heating and air conditioning systems because theor combined heating and air conditioning systems. Gas- only

  19. International Comparison of Energy Efficiency Awards for Appliance Manufacturers and Retailers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. , Hwong, H. (Air Conditioning, Heating, and RefrigerationSplit?System Air?Conditioning and Heating Equipment VerySplit?System Air?Conditioning and Heating Equipment

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Baking Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning Commission andHeating, ventilation, and air conditioning Energy monitoringventilation, and air conditioning Heat recovery systems

  1. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudley, June Han

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    15  Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Institute  Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning the  majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lighting and heating, ventilation and air conditioning.lighting and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (Horsepower Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    18 5.2 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)plant. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) islighting Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

  4. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occupants. The heating, ventilation and air conditioning (third of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (see Fig. 1) Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

  5. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermal comfort", Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning,environment", Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning,Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (

  6. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonderegger, R. C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occupants. The heating, ventilation and air conditioning (third of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (see Fig. I). Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

  7. Calendar Year 2008 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homan, GregoryK

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lamp, HVAC = heating ventilation and air conditioning, VCR=light commercial heating, ventilation and air conditioning (consumer electronics, heating/ventilation/air conditioning (

  8. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    factor heating, ventilation, and air conditioning kilowatt-electronics; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (on a building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (

  9. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Institute  Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning primarily for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning lights and b) heating, ventilation, and air conditioning  (

  10. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mares, K.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.affect heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)per second heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

  11. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    loop controls. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (with varying heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (text protocol heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

  12. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    multi-split air conditioning (heat pump) system, waterchillers Multi-split air condition (heat pump) system Motorsmulti-split air conditioning (heat pump) systems, and

  13. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in multi-split air conditioning (heat pump) systems inmulti- split air conditioning (heat pump) systems had showedMulti-split air condition (heat pump) unit Industrial Small

  14. Production of cooking briquettes from Maissade (Haiti) lignite. Feasibility study and preliminary plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauserman, W.B.; Johnson, M.D.

    1986-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study was done to establish the technical feasibility of producing domestic cooking briquettes to be marketed in Haiti, from the Maissade lignite reserves of that country, which are high in both ash and sulfur and not yet mined. It was found that acceptable briquettes could be made from Maissade char, pyrolized and compacted with a molasses-lime binder and the addition of bagasse to improve strength and burning rate. Molasses, lime and bagasse are all produced in Haiti. Sodium nitrate was added to enhance ignition, and borax as a wetting and release agent. Standard, ''pillow-shaped'' briquettes were successfully produced on a standard, double roll briquetting machine. The recommended process sequence and equipment selection are virtually identical to that used to produce standard US barbecue briquettes from North Dakota lignite. The heating value of the Maissade briquettes is lower due to their high ash level, which may be acceptable if they can be produced at a cost per heating value comparable to wood charcoal, currently used in Haiti. The high sulfur content, mostly in organic form, presents no problem, since it is tied up after combustion as CaSO/sub 4/ by the unusually high calcium content of this lignite. Detailed analyses of Maissade lignite and its mineral components are included, as well as a preliminary plant design and capital cost estimate, for capacities of 10,000 and 50,000 metric tons per year, and for a smaller pilot plant.

  15. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Sullivan (2009). Natural Gas Variability in California:Singer (2012). Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on PollutantPollutant Exposures in Natural Gas Cooking Burners, LBNL

  16. Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effect from CO2 emission resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels in utility power plants and the use of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, which is currently thought to affect depletion of the ozone layer. The ban on fluorocarbon fluids has been...LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF WASTE HEAT OPERATED ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEMS FOR BUILDING HVAC APPLICATIONS V. Murugavel and R. Saravanan Refrigeration and Air conditioning Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University...

  17. Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands: A Global View

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, Alan

    2006-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An important milestone was passed this year when the fraction of the world's population living in cities exceeded 50%. This shift from the countryside to urban areas is certain to continue and, for many, the destination will be large cities. Already there are over 400 cities with populations greater than one million inhabitants and twenty cities with populations greater than ten million inhabitants. With a growing fraction of the population living in an urban environment, the unique aspects of an urban climate also rise in importance. These include features like air pollution and increased humidity. Another unique feature of the urban climate is the phenomenon of the urban heat island. The urban heat island phenomenon was first observed over one hundred years ago in northern latitude cities, where the city centers were slightly warmer than the suburbs. (Instantaneous communications probably played a role in its identification, much as it did for other weather-related events.) For these cities, a heat island was generally a positive effect because it resulted in reduced heating requirements during the winters. It was only in the 1960s, as air conditioning and heavy reliance on automobiles grew, that the negative impacts of heat islands became apparent. The heat islands made summer conditions much less comfortable and increased air conditioning energy use. Since then the summer heat island has become the dominant environmental concern. Measurements in thousands of sites, plus the development of sophisticated dynamic simulations of urban air basins, has enabled us to better understand the relationships between urban temperatures, sunlight, and rates of formation of air pollutants. These models have also given us insights into the roles of vegetation and other characteristics of the land surface. More recently-roughly the last fifteen years-it has become possible to quantify the roles of the major features influencing the formation and persistence of urban heat islands. These developments also allowed us to answer 'what if' questions, such as, 'what if surfaces were changed to be covered with more vegetation or if the albedo of the streets or the roofs was increased'? These simulations, plus measurements of the impact of actual changes, made it possible to imagine that countermeasures to urban heat islands would result in a cooler city requiring less air conditioning and other benefits. In the past five years we have seen the first generation of countermeasures to urban heat islands appear. 'Cool' roofing materials, are now available and, in California, help comply with energy efficiency requirements for buildings. In Japan, cities are giving special incentives to buildings that provide vegetation on their roofs.

  18. Christine Anderson-Cook: An outstanding New Mexico woman

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization ofChemistry andChristine Anderson-Cook:

  19. Pantex firefighters cook it up | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved: 5-13-14 FEDERALAmerica TreatyWaste PolicyWind Farmfirefighters cook it

  20. McCook Public Power District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio: Energy ResourcesMavi InnovationsEnergyMcCook Public Power

  1. Anderson-Cook wins William G. Hunter Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta3 Table 3. SummaryAncient ProteinsAnderson-Cook

  2. Distribution of Clay Minerals in Lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak Shelf Sediment, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distribution of Clay Minerals in Lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak Shelf Sediment, Alaska James R. llein-five surface samples from lower Cook Inlet and forty-three from Kodiak shelf, Alaska, were analyzed for clay percentages of clay minerals. This is because modern ocean currents vigorously rework surficial sediment

  3. Modifications in the AA5083 Johnson-Cook Material Model for Use in Friction Stir Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Modifications in the AA5083 Johnson-Cook Material Model for Use in Friction Stir Welding, material microstructure and properties in friction stir welding welds of AA5083 (a non welding, Johnson-Cook material model 1. Introduction In this study, an attempt is made to modify

  4. Plant-Based Tannins as Antioxidants in Pre-Cooked Ground Beef Patties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruzen, Shannon Michelle

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    percent), RM (0.2percent), or 0.25percent or 0.5percent powders of Chardonnay grapeseed (CG), Norton grapeseed (NG), CitruSmart (CS), or dried cherry (CP). Raw and cooked patties were aerobically stored for 0 to 5 days at 4 degrees C. Cooked patties were...

  5. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices Brett C. Singer, William W. Delp, Michael G. Apte, Philip N. Price

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Implications Natural gas cooking burners and many cooking activities emit pollutants that can reach hazardous values and that less than half of the pollutants emitted by gas cooking burners are removed during many gas burners; Nitrogen dioxide; Range hood; Task ventilation; Unvented combustion. Practical

  6. Energy Efficiency & Environmental News: Duct Cleaning and Indoor Air Quality 1 Florida Energy Extension Service and Gary Cook 2 DUCT CLEANING AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With concern about secondary smoke, dust mites, formaldehyde emissions and bioaerosols, the public has become more aware of indoor air quality problems. Heating, air conditioning and ventilation units as well as associated ductwork can be the sources of mold, fungi and other microbial pollutants as well as particulates of dust, secondary smoke and pieces of dead dust mites. Along with the public’s concern has been the development of businesses directly associated with indoor air quality. Some of these businesses are reputable and supply effective indoor air quality services; others, on the other hand, offer little more than technical jargon and will take advantage of the unwary consumer. Duct cleaning has been an area that has been attracted by both reputable and unscrupulous businesses.

  7. A U.S. and China Regional Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources in Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers combined heatSolar thermal air conditioning and heating technologies are2011). However, solar air conditioning can be attractive

  8. Design and Control of Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta(European Heating and Air-Conditioning Associations. Bauman,HEATING REFRIGERATING AND AIR CONDITIONING ENGINEERS 106(1):

  9. Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated Bibliography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, J. Chris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arlington, VA: Air- Conditioning, Heating, and RefrigerationRefrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers. Bowser, D.Technical Standards for the Air Conditioning and Heat Pump

  10. Building operating systems services: An architecture for programmable buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson-Haggerty, Stephen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning 2.1.2 LightingVentilation, and Air Conditioning Heating, ventilation, andRefrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. ASHRAE

  11. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation, convection of heat from hot surfaces, and man-made heat (exhaust from cars, buildings, etc.). Air is fairly transparent to light--the direct absorption of solar radiation in atmospheric air only raises the air temperature by a small amount. Typically about 90% of solar radiation reaches the Earth's surface and then is either absorbed or reflected. The absorbed radiation on the surface increases the surface temperature. And in turn the hot surfaces heat the air. This convective heating is responsible for the majority of the diurnal temperature range. The contribution of man-made heat (e.g., air conditioning, cars) is very small, compared to the heating of air by hot surfaces, except for the downtown high-rise areas.

  12. Verifying energy savings with minimal metered data: The Hunter heat pump analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, S.A.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In November 1992, Hunter Army Air Field (AAF) completed the installation of 489 air-source heat pumps -- a new heat pump and air-handling unit for each residence. The air-source heat pumps replaced older, less efficient, air-conditioning systems, fuel oil-fired furnaces, and fan coil units. Hunter AAF originally contacted to upgrade the old family housing heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with high efficiency air-conditioning systems and natural gas furnaces, but an alternative proposal and following energy studies indicated that heat pumps were a more life-cycle cost-effective alternative. Six months after the heat pumps were installed, Hunter`s energy bills appeared to be increasing, not decreasing as expected. In early 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory` (PNL) began an analysis to determine if there were any energy savings resulting from the heat pump installation as predicted by previous energy studies. The problem is that the HVAC systems are not specifically submetered to support verifying the resulting energy savings and, as is the case with most federal facilities, even the homes are not individually metered. Savings verification needed to be accomplished with die existing and available metered data. This data consisted primarily of monthly electric submeter readings from the two housing subdivision meters, historical fuel oil delivery records for family housing, and monthly base-wide electric bills. The objective of the study is to verify the change in energy consumption in family housing and, to the extent possible, identify how much of the change in consumption is attributable to the new HVAC system and how much is probably attributable to other factors, such as the weather.

  13. Experimental Research of an Active Solar Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, X.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Re newable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-1-5 REFERENCES: [1]. Rao KUANG, Yongyun Zhou, Shaoyu Shao. The relation between PV modules? gesture in BIPV and absorbed solar irradiation [J]. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica, 2004, 25... ventilation and air conditioning, 2000, 30(4): 30-32. [4]. Hong Ye, Jun WANG, Shuangyong ZHUANG. Experimental Study on the Radiant Floor Heating System Utilizing Form-stable PCM As the Thermal Mass [J]. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica, 2004, 25(5): 651...

  14. Simplifying the assessment of building vulnerability to chemical, biological and radiological releases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thatcher, T.L.; Wood, E.E.; Edelson, E.C.; Sextro, R.G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning system (C B R agents, the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning

  15. Electronics Come of Age: A Taxonomy for Miscellaneous and Low Power Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordman, Bruce; Sanchez, Marla C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, point of use tank Traditional End Uses HVAC Lighting, residential Air conditioning, central Air conditioning, heat pump

  16. Detecting fractal power-law long-range dependence in pre-sliced cooked pork ham surface intensity patterns using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drakakis, Konstantinos

    and processing conditions, which includes injection of brine, tumbling and cooking. The brine injection level

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range systems that do not cover the front burners.

  18. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  19. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  20. Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivens, D. B.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and HFC-245ca. HCFC-22 is also scheduled for phase-out, and three alternatives for HCFC-22 have been identified: HFC-134a, a near-azeotropic mixture of R32/Rl25, and a zeotropic mixture of R32/R125/R134a. Performance test results, future potential energy...

  1. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding RemovalCSS LetterStateDepartmentAnnounce Results ofCentral Air

  2. Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1A Potential PathAddingAhorreLeaks

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces lipid oxidation in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chae, Sung Hee

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted to examine the antioxidative effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties. The hypothesis was that CLA would be retained during irradiation and would reduce ...

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces lipid oxidation in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chae, Sung Hee

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted to examine the antioxidative effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties. The hypothesis was that CLA would be retained during irradiation and would reduce lipid oxidation...

  5. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunden, Melissa M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water, and cooking, as well as particle CEs for stir-frying of green beanscooking utensils used in preparing the beans and burgers were filled approximately halfway with water and

  6. 2014-02-06 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Cooking Products; Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information and notice of document availability regarding energy conservation standards for residential conventional cooking products, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 6, 2014.

  7. Viability of waste-based cooking fuels for Developing countries : combustion emissions and field feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banzaert, Amy, 1976-

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass-derived cooking fuels are used by three billion people worldwide. The drawbacks of such fuels, typically wood or wood-derived charcoal, include health hazards, negative environmental effects, and perpetuation of ...

  8. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lask, Kathleen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a covered pot, the beans and water were brought to a boil.to separate the beans and the water, both of which were keptbeans ? 1400 g strained water from cooked bean dish (if the

  9. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lask, Kathleen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2 A ppendix C: Emissionsfrom cooking practices in Haiti (see Section 2.4 for theof Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2 Appendix B: Stove

  10. Orange Sweet Potato Brie Tartlet 2.5 # cooked diced Sweet potato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    Orange Sweet Potato Brie Tartlet 2.5 # cooked diced Sweet potato 2 cups orange marmalade 1 cup potato. Spoon into phyllo tart shells. Top with Brie cheese and bake in oven for 10 min at 350 deg oven

  11. Ground-source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground-source heat pump technology.

  12. Development and evaluation of corn cooking procedures for the production of tortillas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Des Rosiers, Mary Candace

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    each cooking treatment. The texture of the tortillas was then measured by the Instron. Extent of gelatinization via enzyme susceptibility was negatively correlated with the Instron grain shear values. Amylograph peaks and particle size determination... Samples of Corn. Chemical Analysis. Preparation of Nixtamal Preparation of Masa. Preparation of Tortillas Evaluation of Particle Size Measurement of Gelatinization. Evaluation of Optimum Cook Time. Color Measurement and Subjective Tests Evaluation...

  13. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  14. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality-controlled stove and emissions equipment at levels scalable to meet global demand; and 3) global distribution through a variety of channels and partners. ARC has been instrumental in designing and improving more than 100 stove designs over the past thirty years. In the last four years, ASAT and ARC have played a key role in the production and sales of over 200,000 improved stoves in the developed and developing world. The ARC-designed emissions equipment is currently used by researchers in laboratories and field studies on five continents. During Phase I of the DOE STTR grant, ASAT and ARC worked together to apply their wealth of product development experience towards creating the next generation of improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment. Highlights of Phase I for the biomass cookstove project include 1) the development of several new stove technologies that reached the DOE 50/90 benchmark; 2) fabrication of new stove prototypes by ASAT’s manufacturing partner, Shengzhou Stove Manufacturing (SSM); 3) field testing of prototype stoves with consumers in Puerto Rico and the US; and 4) the selection of three stove prototypes for further development and commercialization during Phase II. Highlights of Phase I for the emissions monitoring equipment project include: 1) creation of a new emissions monitoring equipment product, the Laboratory Emissions Monitoring System (LEMS 2) the addition of gravimetric PM measurements to the stove testing systems to meet International Standards Organization criteria; 3) the addition of a CO{sub 2} sensor and wireless 3G capability to the IAP Meter; and 4) and the improvement of sensors and signal quality on all systems. Twelve Regional Testing and Knowledge Centers purchased this equipment during the Phase I project period.

  15. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  16. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  17. One-Pot Methamphetamine Cooks Pose New Danger Law enforcement in Southern Illinois are reporting that they are finding full blown methamphetamine cooks taking place in Coleman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    One-Pot Methamphetamine Cooks Pose New Danger Law enforcement in Southern Illinois are reporting. Inexperienced officers have picked these items up and moved them around without knowing the dangers involved. The idea is to reduce the amount of time needed for the overall process. The danger to subjects and to law

  18. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  19. Performance studies of a solar energy storing heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.L. (Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb (USA))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, construction, and performance of a solar energy storing heat exchanger is presented as a step toward a solar cooking concept. The solid-solid transition of pentaerythritol is the principal mechanism for energy storage. The methods for describing the system performance are explained and applied to a test system containing a controllable replacement for the solar input power. This first stage of the project will be followed by another in which the heat exchanger is connected to a concentrating array of CPC cylindrical troughs. Although a size appropriate to commercial cooking may prove easier to design from the point of view of economics in the US, the system discussed herein is sized for domestic use and addresses the question of what solar collector area and PCM mass are needed in order to provide adequate energy for several family-size meals with sufficient storage to cook at night and one or two days later. The performance is described from efficiency measurements and the determination of a figure of merit.

  20. Geothermal heating from Pinkerton Hot Springs at Colorado Timberline Academy, Durango, Colorado. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, C.C.; Allen, R.W.; Beldock, J.

    1981-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The efforts to establish a greater pool of knowledge in the field of low temperature heat transfer for the application of geothermal spring waters to space heating are described. A comprehensive set of heat loss experiments involving passive radiant heating panels is conducted and the results presented in an easily interpretable form. Among the conclusions are the facts that heating a 65 to 70 F/sup 0/ space with 90 to 100 F/sup 0/ liquids is a practical aim. The results are compared with the much lower rates published in the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers SYSTEMS, 1976. A heat exchange chamber consisting of a 1000 gallon three compartment, insulated and buried tank is constructed and a control and pumping building erected over the tank. The tank is intended to handle the flow of geothermal waters from Pinkerton Hot Springs at 50 GPM prior to the wasting of the spring water at a disposal location. Approximately 375,000 Btu per hour should be available for heating assuming a 15 F/sup 0/ drop in water temperature. A combination of the panel heat loss experiments, construction of the heat exchange devices and ongoing collection of heat loss numbers adds to the knowledge available to engineers in sizing low temperature heat systems, useful in both solar and geothermal applications where source temperature may be often below 110 F/sup 0/.

  1. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Ventilation and Air- conditioning, Shanghai, 2011.48.8, 40% Decentralized Air Conditioning, 1.2, 1% Figure 2:Lighting Decentralized Air Conditioning AHUs Primary/

  2. Data and Analytics to Inform Energy Retrofit of High Performance Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong Ph.D., Tianzhen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ventilating and Air Conditioning, 2008; 38: 106-111. [38].ventilation, and air-conditioning Ideal COP InformationHeating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, Lecture Notes in

  3. Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A Prospective Study in California Elementary Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, Mark J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc.CO 2 concentrations AC air-conditioning ADA Actual DailyRefrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers BA Bay Area CI

  4. Comparative Policy Study for Green Buildings in U.S. and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khanna, Nina

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)least 75% of homes use air-conditioning equipment except inthird of homes use air conditioning. The main space heating

  5. Natural Ventilation for Energy Savings in California Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, ventilating and air conditioning survey of small2004) Workplace air-conditioning and health servicesventilating, and air-conditioning applications. Bauman, F. ,

  6. Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculation 8th Edition, Air Conditioning Contractors ofArlington, VA, Air-Conditioning, Heating and RefrigerationRefrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. Standard 136.

  7. Fact Sheet: Improving Energy Efficiency for Server Rooms and Closets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Power Distributionlike a packaged air conditioning unit) for your server room(Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers’ (ASHRAE)

  8. Energy Implications of In-Line Filtration in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Flow in Residential Air Conditioning Systems. ASHRAERefrigeration and Air- conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.Heat Exchanger Coils. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration

  9. Demand Response Opportunities and Enabling Technologies for Data Centers: Findings From Field Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghatikar, Girish

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC). The studyas the computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units commonlypumps, computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units, computer

  10. Distributed scheduling for efficient HVAC precooling operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Su

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, ventilating and air conditioning. Springer, J. W.ventilation and air conditioning in buildings. Wiley, 2012.Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems’ in-building

  11. Incorporating Energy Efficiency into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fan Dish Washer Central Air-Conditioning Clothes Washer HeatCooling Television Room Air-Conditioning Lighting Waste Heatresidential central air conditioning) could result in a

  12. Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation Rate per Floor Area on Perceived Air Quality, Sick Building Symptoms and Decision Making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddalena, Randy

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFRIGERATING AND AIR CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, 103, 244-255.Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.REFRIGERATING AND AIR CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, 113(2), 466.

  13. Performance of Gas-Engine Driven Heat Pump Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdi Zaltash; Randy Linkous; Randall Wetherington; Patrick Geoghegan; Ed Vineyard; Isaac Mahderekal; Robert Gaylord

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-conditioning (cooling) for buildings is the single largest use of electricity in the United States (U.S.). This drives summer peak electric demand in much of the U.S. Improved air-conditioning technology thus has the greatest potential impact on the electric grid compared to other technologies that use electricity. Thermally-activated technologies (TAT), such as natural gas engine-driven heat pumps (GHP), can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. GHP offers an attractive opportunity for commercial building owners to reduce electric demand charges and operating expenses. Engine-driven systems have several potential advantages over conventional single-speed or single-capacity electric motor-driven units. Among them are variable speed operation, high part load efficiency, high temperature waste heat recovery from the engine, and reduced annual operating costs (SCGC 1998). Although gas engine-driven systems have been in use since the 1960s, current research is resulting in better performance, lower maintenance requirements, and longer operating lifetimes. Gas engine-driven systems are typically more expensive to purchase than comparable electric motor-driven systems, but they typically cost less to operate, especially for commercial building applications. Operating cost savings for commercial applications are primarily driven by electric demand charges. GHP operating costs are dominated by fuel costs, but also include maintenance costs. The reliability of gas cooling equipment has improved in the last few years and maintenance requirements have decreased (SCGC 1998, Yahagi et al. 2006). Another advantage of the GHP over electric motor-driven is the ability to use the heat rejected from the engine during heating operation. The recovered heat can be used to supplement the vapor compression cycle during heating or to supply other process loads, such as water heating. The use of the engine waste heat results in greater operating efficiency compared to conventional electric motor-driven units (SCGC 1998). In Japan, many hundreds of thousands of natural gas-driven heat pumps have been sold (typically 40,000 systems annually) (Yahagi et al. 2006). The goal of this program is to develop dependable and energy efficient GHPs suitable for U.S. commercial rooftop applications (the single largest commercial product segment). This study describes the laboratory performance evaluation of an integrated 10-ton GHP rooftop unit (a 900cc Daihatsu-Aisin natural gas engine) which uses R410A as the refrigerant (GEDAC No.23). ORNL Thermally-Activated Heat Pump (TAHP) Environmental Chambers were used to evaluate this unit in a controlled laboratory environment.

  14. Determination of the Transient Response Characteristics of the Air-Source Heat Pump During the Reverse Cycle Defrost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Anand, N. K.; Peterson, K. T.; Schleising, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .1 Description of Test Points 3.9 Fi?. 3.4 Heat Pump System Schematic 3.10 Fig. 3.5 Refrigerant Line Temperature Probe 3.11 for leak testing, equipment replacement, and system break- down. The valves proved to be extremely useful because when a specific section... Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering Texas A&M University ESL-TR-88/06-04 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AMCA Air Movement and Control Association ARI Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air...

  15. Heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishman, P.J.

    1983-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system utilizing solar panels and buried ground conduits to collect and store heat which is delivered to a heatpump heat exchanger. A heat-distribution fluid continuously circulates through a ground circuit to transfer heat from the ground to the heat exchanger. The ground circuit includes a length of buried ground conduit, a pump, a check valve and the heat exchanger. A solar circuit, including a solar panel and a second pump, is connected in parallel with the check valve so that the distribution fluid transfers solar heat to the heat exchanger for utilization and to the ground conduit for storage when the second pump is energized. A thermostatically instrumented control system energizes the second pump only when the temperature differential between the solar panel inlet and outlet temperatures exceeds a predetermined value and the ground temperature is less than a predetermined value. Consequently, the distribution fluid flows through the solar panel only when the panel is capable of supplying significant heat to the remainder of the system without causing excessive drying of the ground.

  16. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

  17. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 2012.EER for the base case air conditioning unit is taken as the

  18. New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black; accepted 8 June 2004; published 30 July 2004. [1] The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy

  19. The effect of cooking preparations on the residual sulfite concentrations in shrimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lally, Audrey Ann

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of various types of cook- ing preparations on the residual sulfite in shrimp. The specific obgectives were: 1. To determine the residual sulfite when shrimp were boiled in water shell-on and shell-off. 2.... (1978). This may be due to the difference in brine concentrations and a possible increase of diffusion rate in shrimp versus beans. The Effect of Processing Procedures on Residual Sulfites in ~Shrim The different cooking procedures affected the rate...

  20. Effect of genotype on cooking and texture of corn for tortilla production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedolla, Santiago

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cell to measure n1xtamal texture . . . Plunger (A) and Ottawa cell (C) to measure tortilla texture Page 13 17 Effect of cook1ng time on n1xtamal texture of corneous, 1ntermediate and floury hybrids (Linear model) Effect of cooking time... composition of corn on the average is: water, 13. 5K; protein, 10K; oil, 4%; carbohydrates 70. 7X; and ash, 1. 4X. The germ contains about 35% oil, 20K protein and 10% ash (Hopkins et al. , 1903; Katz et al. , 1974). Nixtamal Preparation Nethods...

  1. L-sodium lactate in cooked beef top rounds: differing levels of incorporation and cookery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Lori Leigh

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L-SODIUM LACTATE IN COOKED BEEF TOP ROUNDS; DIFFERING LEVELS OF INCORPORATION AND COOKERY A Thesis by LORI LEIGH EVANS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Animal Science L-SODIUM LACTATE IN COOKED BEEF TOP ROUNDS; DIFFERING LEVELS OF INCORPORATION AND COOKERY A Thesis by LORI LEIGH EVANS Approved as to style and content by: R. K. Miller (Chair...

  2. Saturday: Lasagna and potato wedges prep time: 30mins Cooking time: 1 hr Items: 1 ice-cream container and 1 yoghurt container of white sauce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sainudiin, Raazesh

    of bean mixture (vegetarian option) 1 supermarket bag of potato wedges, pre-seasoned and cooked 3 boxes To cook: Put rice on to boil. Remember, 2cm of water above the level of the rice is a good ratio. FrySaturday: Lasagna and potato wedges prep time: 30mins Cooking time: 1 hr Items: 1 ice

  3. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  4. Hybrid Heat Pumps Using Selective Water Sorbents (SWS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, M. R.

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of the ground-coupled and air-coupled Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system is essential in meeting the goals of Zero Energy Houses (ZEH), a viable concept vigorously pursued under DOE sponsorship. ORNL has a large Habitat for Humanity complex in Lenoir City where modem buildings technology is incorporated on a continual basis. This house of the future is planned for lower and middle income families in the 21st century. The work undertaken in this CRADA is an integral part of meeting DOE's objectives in the Building America program. SWS technology is a prime candidate for reducing the footprint, cost and improve the performance of ground-coupled heat pumps. The efficacy of this technique to exchange energy with the ground is a topic of immense interest to DOE, builders and HVAC equipment manufacturers. If successful, the SWS concept will become part of a packaged ZEH kit for affordable and high-end houses. Lennox Industries entered into a CRADA with Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 2004. Lennox, Inc. agreed to explore ways of using Selective Water Sorbent materials to boost the efficiency of air-coupled heat pumps whereas ORNL concentrated on ground-coupled applications. Lennox supplied ORNL with heat exchangers and heat pump equipment for use at ORNL's Habitat for Humanity site in Lenoir City, Tennessee. Lennox is focused upon air-coupled applications of SWS materials at the Product Development and Research Center in Carrollton, TX.

  5. Intelligibility-enhancing speech modifications: the Hurricane Challenge Martin Cooke1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Intelligibility-enhancing speech modifications: the Hurricane Challenge Martin Cooke1,2 , Catherine to enhance speech intelligibility. Eighteen systems operating on a common data set were subjected to ex interest in tackling what has been termed the `near-end' speech enhancement problem [7­15]. Consequently

  6. A Family-Centric Genealogy Visualization Paradigm Robert Ball and David Cook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, Robert

    A Family-Centric Genealogy Visualization Paradigm Robert Ball and David Cook Stephen F. Austin State University Department of Computer Science {ballrg | cookda}@sfasu.edu ABSTRACT Genealogy is a way for future behavior. Genealogical visualizations are used to help understand and share the story of the past

  7. Keeping the Intelligent Environment Resident in the Loop Parisa Rashidi and Diane J. Cook*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    Keeping the Intelligent Environment Resident in the Loop Parisa Rashidi and Diane J. Cook* *School will become part of our everyday environments. However, many of these technologies are brittle and do and requests. 1 Introduction Recently there has been extensive research to develop smart environments

  8. Simulating consumer practices to evaluate the cooking and chemical characteristics of low fat ground beef patties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Jeanette Marie

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to fresh hand-made. Cooking methods had little impact on fat or caloric content at the 57o level; however, at the 10 and 157o levels, microwaved and reheated patties contained the lowest relative amount of fat. Despite the statistical differences in fat...

  9. AUTOMOTIVE POWERTRAIN CONTROL A SURVEY Jeffrey A. Cook, Jing Sun, Julia H. Buckland, Ilya V. Kolmanovsky,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    AUTOMOTIVE POWERTRAIN CONTROL A SURVEY Jeffrey A. Cook, Jing Sun, Julia H. Buckland, Ilya V, Michigan, 48109, U.S.A. (e-mail: jingsun@umich.edu). AUTOMOTIVE POWERTRAIN CONTROL A SURVEY Jeffrey A This paper surveys recent and historical publications on automotive powertrain control. Control

  10. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells Peter L. Cook,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himpsel, Franz J.

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells Peter L. Cook,1 Xiaosong November 2009 Dye-sensitized solar cells are potentially inexpensive alternatives to traditional semiconductor solar cells. In order to optimize dyes for solar cells we systematically investigate

  11. Behaviometrics for Identifying Smart Home Aaron S. Crandall and Diane J. Cook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    Chapter 4 Behaviometrics for Identifying Smart Home Residents Aaron S. Crandall and Diane J. Cook Smart homes and ambient intelligence show great promise in the fields of medical monitoring, energy protecting and easy to use smart home technologies often lack any kind of unique tracking technologies

  12. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  13. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  14. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Anindita, E-mail: anidu14@gmail.com [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China) [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India); Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban [Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India)] [Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 ?m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ? Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on cardiovascular health was investigated. ? Serum markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress were studied. ? Biomass using women had increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. ? Indoor air pollution and observed changes were positively associated.

  15. Summer is almost upon us. The mercury is going through the roof, and the air-conditioning and gasoline bills are following right behind. What to do, what to do?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Generation Plant This onsite, 12.5-MW natural-gas power plant cogenerates heat and steam that are then utilized Atwater; and, in the center, chemist Nate lewis. --DS 13 Power Players SpEcial SEction 14 18 e. Co Whittlesey (mS '09) and Sebastian liska (mS '09), to run a simple simulation of this arrangement as a class

  16. Heat transfers in a double-skin roof ventilated by natural convection in summer time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biwole, Pascal; Pompeo, C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The double-skin roofs investigated in this paper are formed by adding a metallic screen on an existing sheet metal roof. The system enhances passive cooling of dwellings and can help diminishing power costs for air conditioning in summer or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers are investigated. Depending on its surface properties, the screen reflects a large amount of oncoming solar radiation. Natural convection in the channel underneath drives off the residual heat. The bi-dimensional numerical simulation of the heat transfers through the double skin reveals the most important parameters for the system's efficiency. They are, by order of importance, the sheet metal surface emissivity, the screen internal and external surface emissivity, the insulation thickness and the inclination angle for a channel width over 6 cm. The influence of those parameters on Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers is also investigated. Temperature and air velocity profiles on seve...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lighting and heating, ventilation, and air  conditioning (potential  Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning Refrigeration Space Heating Ventilation ENERGY STAR PCs and

  18. Advanced Integrated Systems Technology Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperatures and heating, ventilation and air conditioninglow-energy heating, ventilation and air conditioning systemof European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning

  19. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to prelude higher ventilation heating or cooling. InRequirements: --The ventilation, heating, air conditioning,and comfort. --The ventilation, heating, air conditioning,

  20. Managing Your Energy: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Identifying Energy Savings in Manufacturing Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lighting, refrigeration, and heating, ventilation, and airLighting Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC);

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ford, 2001). The ventilation and heating controls werelighting and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (34 5.6. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (

  2. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

  3. Discrete Element Modeling Results of Proppant Rearrangement in the Cooke Conductivity Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl Mattson; Hai Huang; Michael Conway; Lisa O'Connell

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of propped fracture conductivity began in earnest with the development of the Cooke cell which later became part of the initial API standard. Subsequent developments included a patented multicell design to conduct 4 tests in a press at the same time. Other modifications have been used by various investigators. Recent studies by the Stim-Lab proppant consortium have indicated that the flow field across a Cooke proppant conductivity testing cell may not be uniform as initially believed which resulted is significantly different conductivity results. Post test analysis of low temperature metal alloy injections at the termination of proppant testing prior to the release of the applied stress suggest that higher flow is to be expected along the sides and top of the proppant pack than compared to the middle of the pack. To evaluate these experimental findings, a physics-based two-dimensional (2-D) discrete element model (DEM) was developed and applied to simulate proppant rearrangement during stress loading in the Cooke conductivity cell and the resulting porosity field. Analysis of these simulations are critical to understanding the impact of modification to the testing cell as well as understanding key proppant conductivity issues such as how these effects are manifested in proppant concentration testing results. The 2-D DEM model was constructed to represent a realistic cross section of the Cooke cell with a distribution of four material properties, three that represented the Cooke cell (steel, sandstone,square rings), and one representing the proppant. In principle, Cooke cell materials can be approximated as assemblies of independent discrete elements (particles) of various sizes and material properties that interact via cohesive interactions, repulsive forces, and frictional forces. The macroscopic behavior can then be modeled as the collective behavior of many interacting discrete elements. This DEM model is particularly suitable for modeling proppant mechanical interactions subjected to an applied stress, where the experimental cell is represented as a cohesive body composed of a large number of discrete elements, and proppants can be modeled as the individual discrete particles with various sizes (following the proppant size distribution-density function used in the test) that exhibit no cohesive strength between the particles. Initial 2-D DEM modeling results suggest that proppant rearrangement and non-uniform stress distribution across the proppant pack results in significant non-uniform porosity distribution across the Cooke cell. Larger porosities develop along the edge of the proppant pack beneath the square ring seal and would result in a disproportionate higher flow field along these edges as compared to the middle of the proppant pack. These results suggest that reported conductivity values determined by the Cooke cell may be biased to overestimate the actual conductivity of the proppant at high stresses and that modifications to the standard Cooke cell will affect the magnitude of this bias.

  4. Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worthington, Monty [Project Director - AK] [Project Director - AK

    2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Cook Inlet, Alaska is home to some of the greatest tidal energy resources in the U.S., as well as an endangered population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Successfully permitting and operating a tidal power project in Cook Inlet requires a biological assessment of the potential and realized effects of the physical presence and sound footprint of tidal turbines on the distribution, relative abundance, and behavior of Cook Inlet beluga whales. ORPC Alaska, working with the Project Team—LGL Alaska Research Associates, University of Alaska Anchorage, TerraSond, and Greeneridge Science—undertook the following U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) study to characterize beluga whales in Cook Inlet – Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with the Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project (Project). ORPC Alaska, LLC, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC, (collectively, ORPC). ORPC is a global leader in the development of hydrokinetic power systems and eco-conscious projects that harness the power of ocean and river currents to create clean, predictable renewable energy. ORPC is developing a tidal energy demonstration project in Cook Inlet at East Foreland where ORPC has a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) preliminary permit (P-13821). The Project collected baseline data to characterize pre-deployment patterns of marine mammal distribution, relative abundance, and behavior in ORPC’s proposed deployment area at East Foreland. ORPC also completed work near Fire Island where ORPC held a FERC preliminary permit (P-12679) until March 6, 2013. Passive hydroacoustic devices (previously utilized with bowhead whales in the Beaufort Sea) were adapted for study of beluga whales to determine the relative abundance of beluga whale vocalizations within the proposed deployment areas. Hydroacoustic data collected during the Project were used to characterize the ambient acoustic environment of the project site pre-deployment to inform the FERC pilot project process. The Project compared results obtained from this method to results obtained from other passive hydrophone technologies and to visual observation techniques performed simultaneously. This Final Report makes recommendations on the best practice for future data collection, for ORPC’s work in Cook Inlet specifically, and for tidal power projects in general. This Project developed a marine mammal study design and compared technologies for hydroacoustic and visual data collection with potential for broad application to future tidal and hydrokinetic projects in other geographic areas. The data collected for this Project will support the environmental assessment of future Cook Inlet tidal energy projects, including ORPC’s East Foreland Tidal Energy Project and any tidal energy developments at Fire Island. The Project’s rigorous assessment of technology and methodologies will be invaluable to the hydrokinetic industry for developing projects in an environmentally sound and sustainable way for areas with high marine mammal activity or endangered populations. By combining several different sampling methods this Project will also contribute to the future preparation of a comprehensive biological assessment of ORPC’s projects in Cook Inlet.

  5. The effects of cooking, storage, and ionizing irradiation on carotenoids, antioxidant activity, and phenolics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blessington, Tyann

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on these levels. Therefore, the changes in carotenoid content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic content were investigated using combinations of cultivars, cooking methods, storage treatments, and low-dose ionizing irradiation. Carotenoid content was measured via...

  6. Methanol-based heat pump for solar heating, cooling, and storage. Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Offenhartz, P O'D; Rye, T V; Malsberger, R E; Schwartz, D

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of CH/sub 3/OH vapor with solid (pellet) CaCl/sub 2/ to form the solid phase compound CaCll/sub 2/ . 2CH/sub 3/OH can be used as the basis of a combined solar heat pump/thermal energy storage system. Such a system is capable of storing heat indefinitely at ambient temperature, and can be used for space and domestic hot water heating, and for air conditioning with forced air (dry) heat rejection. It combines all features required of a residential or commercial space conditioning system except for solar collection. A detailed thermal analysis shows that the coefficient of performance for heating is greater than 1.5, and for cooling, greater than 0.5. This has been confirmed by direct experimental measurement on an engineering development test unit (EDTU). The experimental rate of CH/sub 3/OH absorption is a strong function of the absorber-evaporator temperature difference. The minimum practical hourly rate, 0.10 moles CH/sub 3/OH per mole CaCl/sub 2/, was observed with the salt-bed heat transfer fluid at 40/sup 0/C and the CH/sub 3/OH evaporator at -15/sup 0/C. a detailed performance and economic analysis was carried out for a system operated in Washington, DC. With 25 square meters of evacuated tube solar collectors, the CaCl/sub 2/-CH/sub 3/OH chemical heat pump should be capable of meeting over 90% of the cooling load, 80% of the heating load, and 70% of the domestic hot water load with nonpurchased energy in a typical well-insulated single family residence, thus saving about $600 per year. In small-scale production, the installed cost of the system, including solar collectors and backup, is estimated to be about $10,000 greater than a conventional heating and cooling system, and a much lower cost should be possible in the longer term.

  7. Distribution, Natural History, and Parasites of Mammals of Cook County, Minnesota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timm, Robert M.

    1975-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    - lished in Cook, Lake, and St. Louis counties by proclamation of President Theodore Roosevelt on February 13, 1909. Numerous tracts of land have been added to the na- tional forest since 1909. Under the Wilder- ness Act of 1964, 1,062,000 acres... fahrenholzi), and various non-parasitic mites. Whitaker and Pascal (1971) noted two species of mites (Labidophorus soricis and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi) and one species of tick (Ixodes muris) from Sorex cinereus in Pine County, Minnesota. In St. Louis...

  8. 2014-11-24 Issuance: Test Procedures for Conventional Cooking Products; Supplementary Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Supplementary Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding test procedures for conventional cooking products, as issued by the Deputy Asisstant Secretary for Energy Efficiency. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  9. Factors affecting the cooking and extrusion properties of sorghum for noodle production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekalake, Rosemary Ikalafeng

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trash, glumes, and small kernels before milling. The grain was cleaned 3 times. To produce fine flour, the grain was decorticated in 3kg batches in the PRL mini dehuller for 2 min (Nutana Machine Co. , Saskatoon, Canada). Decorticated grain... during cooking, had dry matter losses comparable to rice, and were not sticky. Stronger, smoother, and lighter colored noodles with lower dry matter losses were produced from sorghum milled to yield a fine versas coarse flour. Some of the 100...

  10. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Durell, G.S.; Koczwara, G.; Spellacy, A.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Ocean Sciences performed a study to determine the effect of cooking on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1991. The evaluation involved estimating the change in PCB concentrations using a mass-balance approach that factored the change in fillet weight resulting from cooking with the changes in PCB concentration expressed on a precooked wet-weight basis. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue. Additionally, deep frying caused a 40% reduction in fillet mass. Pan frying and broiling resulted in statistically in insignificant increases in total PCB levels of 15% and 17%, respectively. Fillet mass reductions resulting from pan frying and broiling were 7% and 15%, respectively. The effects of cooking on 18 individual congeners generally paralleled the results observed for total PCB. All 18 congeners were significantly reduced by deep frying. Congener Cl{sub 2}(08) also was significantly reduced by either pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105) and Cl{sub 5}(118) showed apparent significant increases in concentrations following pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105), Cl{sub 5}(118), and C1{sub 6}(138) showed significant increases in concentration following broiling.

  11. International Energy Agency Implementing Agreements and Annexes: A Guide for Building Technologies Program Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Meredydd

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12 3.1.1. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (3.2. 3.1.1. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC Heating, ventilation and air conditioning IA

  12. Electronics Come of Age: A Taxonomy for Miscellaneous and Low Power Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordman, Bruce; Sanchez, Marla C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    central Air conditioning, heat pump Air conditioning, room/unit — any fuel type), central air conditioning, heat pumpair conditioner (room or wall unit) Tank units (electric, gas, heat pump,

  13. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  14. Geothermal heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aureille, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the viability of geothermal heating projects in energy and economic terms and to provide nomograms from which an initial estimate may be made without having to use data-processing facilities. The effect of flow rate and temperature of the geothermal water on drilling and on the network, and the effect of climate on the type of housing are considered.

  15. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  16. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  17. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

  18. MULTI-SCALE MODELING AND APPROXIMATION ASSISTED OPTIMIZATION OF BARE TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacellar, Daniel [University of Maryland, College Park; Ling, Jiazhen [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers are very common in air-conditioning, heat pump and refrigeration applications. In these heat exchangers, there is a great benefit in terms of size, weight, refrigerant charge and heat transfer coefficient, by moving from conventional channel sizes (~ 9mm) to smaller channel sizes (< 5mm). This work investigates new designs for air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers with tube outer diameter ranging from 0.5 to 2.0mm. The goal of this research is to develop and optimize the design of these heat exchangers and compare their performance with existing state of the art designs. The air-side performance of various tube bundle configurations are analyzed using a Parallel Parameterized CFD (PPCFD) technique. PPCFD allows for fast-parametric CFD analyses of various geometries with topology change. Approximation techniques drastically reduce the number of CFD evaluations required during optimization. Maximum Entropy Design method is used for sampling and Kriging method is used for metamodeling. Metamodels are developed for the air-side heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop as a function of tube-bundle dimensions and air velocity. The metamodels are then integrated with an air-to-refrigerant heat exchanger design code. This integration allows a multi-scale analysis of air-side performance heat exchangers including air-to-refrigerant heat transfer and phase change. Overall optimization is carried out using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The optimal designs found can exhibit 50 percent size reduction, 75 percent decrease in air side pressure drop and doubled air heat transfer coefficients compared to a high performance compact micro channel heat exchanger with same capacity and flow rates.

  19. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory automobile heat pump model: User`s guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, D.M.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer program has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of vapor compression automobile air conditioners and heat pumps. The code is based on the residential heat pump model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Most calculations are based on fundamental physical principles, in conjunction with generalized correlations available in the research literature. Automobile air conditioning components that can be specified as inputs to the program include open and hermetic compressors; finned tube condensers; finned tube and plate-fin style evaporators; thermal expansion valve, capillary tube and short tube expansion devices; refrigerant mass; evaporator pressure regulator; and all interconnecting tubing. The program can be used with a variety of refrigerants, including R134a. Methodologies are discussed for using the model as a tool for designing all new systems or, alternatively, as a tool for simulating a known system for a variety of operating conditions.

  20. Design predictions and diagnostic test methods for hydronic heating systems in ASHRAE standard 152P

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of test for residential thermal distribution efficiency is currently being developed under the auspices of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The initial version of this test method is expected to have two main approaches, or ``pathways,`` designated Design and Diagnostic. The Design Pathway will use builder`s information to predict thermal distribution efficiency in new construction. The Diagnostic Pathway will use simple tests to evaluate thermal distribution efficiency in a completed house. Both forced-air and hydronic systems are included in the test method. This report describes an approach to predicting and measuring thermal distribution efficiency for residential hydronic heating systems for use in the Design and Diagnostic Pathways of the test method. As written, it is designed for single-loop systems with any type of passive radiation/convection (baseboard or radiators). Multiloop capability may be added later.