Sample records for heating air condi

  1. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  2. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  3. About Nuccio Heating & Air Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Nuccio Heating & Air serves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    a customer say, `you installed my first air conditioner - yourself!'" Nuccio Heating & Air serves commercialAbout Nuccio Heating & Air Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Nuccio Heating & Air serves commercial ­ the majority being highly mobile ­ sell and service heating and air conditioning systems for the company

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M.ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS* K. DAO, M.

  5. Residential Air-Source Heat Pump Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Massachusetts offers rebates of up to $3,750 for the installation of high-efficiency, cold-climate air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) in residential buildings of one to four units. Heat pumps must be ...

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

  7. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  8. air-to-air heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annum. 12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National...

  9. Duct Systems in large commercial buildings: Physical characterization, air leakage, and heat conduction gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fabricators of heating, ventilation, and air conditioningof Building Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K.Driven Absorption Air-Conditioner", K. Dao, M. Simmons, R.SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS* K.

  11. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advancesthe energy efficiency of many heating, ventilating, and air-system, which delivers heating, cooling, and ventilation air

  12. Simulation model air-to-air plate heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple simulation model of an air-to-air plate heat exchanger is presented. The model belongs to a collection of simulation models that allows the eflcient computer simulation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The main emphasis of the models is to shorten computation time and to use only input data that are known in the design process of an HVAC system. The target of the models is to describe the behavior of HVAC components in the part-load operation mode, which is becoming increasingly important in energy eficient HVAC systems. The models are intended to be used for yearly energy calculations or load calculations with time steps of about 10 minutes or larger. Short- time dynamic effects, which are of interest for different aspects of control theory, are neglected. The part-load behavior is expressed in terms of the nominal condition and the dimensionless variation of the heat transfer with change of mass flow and temperature. The effectiveness- NTU relations are used to parametrize the convective heat transfer at nominal conditions and to compute the part-load condition. If the heat transfer coefficients on the two exchanger sides are not equal (i. e. due to partial bypassing of air), their ratio can be easily calculated and set as a parameter. The model is static and uses explicit equations only. The explicit model formulation ensures short computation time and numerical stability, which allows using the model with sophisticated engineering methods like automatic system optimization. This paper fully outlines the algorithm description and its simplifications. It is not tailored for any particular simulation program to ensure easy implementation in any simulation program.

  13. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ENERGY EFFICIENT AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP OPERATING WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    00149 -1- 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ENERGY EFFICIENT AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP OPERATING WITH R-1234yf Sorina Mortada, Ph.D. student, Center for Energy and Processes Abstract: Significant improvements in energy performance of air-to-air heat pumps are the major reason

  14. air heat exchanger: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

  15. air heat exchangers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

  16. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-61870 Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-for Occupant Symptoms in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-

  17. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor building heating, ventilation and air con- ditioning

  18. Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH the temperature of the ground surface and the ambient air. This situation creates areas called urban heat summertime temperatures reduces electricity demand for air conditioning, which lowers air pollution levels

  19. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is little radiative heat transfer and little impact on thereturn air extrac- tion and heat transfer to the plenum. ItUFAD is often used and heat transfer out of the room through

  20. air heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 1320 ? low temperature water...

  1. air source heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 1320 ? low temperature water...

  2. air heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 1320 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit....

  3. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Central Air Condi- tioners Heat Pumps Indiv- idual Air Condi- tioners District Chilled Water Central Chillers Pack- aged Air Condi- tioning Units Swamp Coolers Other All...

  4. A testing and HVAC design methodology for air-to-air heat pipe heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, P.; Ciepliski, D.L.; Besant, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-to-air heat pipe heat exchangers were tested using ASHRAE Standard 84-1991 as a guide. Some changes are introduced for the test facility and methods of calculating effectiveness. ASME PTC 19.1-1985 is used as a guide for uncertainty analysis. Tests were done for a range of mass flux [1.574 to 2.912 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s)], ratios of mass flow rates (0.6 to 1.85), supply air temperatures ({minus}10 C to 40 C), and heat exchanger tilt angles ({minus}8.9{degree} to 11.2{degree}). Because humidity changes in the exhaust and supply air streams were negligible, only the effectiveness of sensible and of total energy was considered. Measured and calculated results show significant variations in the effectiveness of sensible and of total energy, and uncertainties with each independent variable. For balanced exhaust and supply flow rates at {minus}10 C supply air temperature and 1.574 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s) mass flux, the measured effectiveness for sensible and total energy was calculated to be 0.48 and 0.44, respectively, with uncertainties of 0.057 and 0.052. These measurements decreased to 0.42 and 0.37, with uncertainties of 0.016 and 0.018 for a mass flux of 2.912 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s). Because water vapor condensation effects were small or negligible, the difference between the effectiveness for the sensible and total energy was within the overlapping uncertainty range of each. Based on counterflow heat exchanger theory and convective heat transfer equations, expressions are presented to extrapolate the effectiveness data between and beyond the measured data points. These effectiveness equations, which represent the variation in effectiveness with several independent operating variables, are used for HVAC design that is aimed at achieving minimum life-cycle costs.

  5. air heating system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  6. air treatment heating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  7. axially heated air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  8. air heating systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  9. air source heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  10. air conditioning heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  11. air cooled heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: was made against the two datasets recently downloaded from the California Energy Commission (CEC) database (CEC 2012) and the 2012 Air- Conditioning, Heating, and...

  12. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pump 2013 Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program...

  13. Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential air-source heat pumps, which is an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category.

  14. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. DOE EX Parte...

  15. Cold Climate and Retrofit Applications for Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air source heat pumps (ASHP) including air-to-air ASHPs are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere for new construction as well as retrofits or renovations. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low heating efficiency and capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. Retrofitting air-to-air ASHPs to existing buildings is relatively easy if the building already has an air distribution system. For buildings without such systems alternative approaches are necessary. Examples are ductless, minisplit heat pumps or central heat pumps coupled to small diameter, high velocity (SDHV) air distribution systems. This article presents two subjects: 1) a summary of R&D investigations aimed at improving the cold weather performance of ASHPs, and 2) a brief discussion of building retrofit options using air-to-air ASHP systems.

  16. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  17. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  18. air-to-water heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M. Wahlig, E. Wali,are liquid paths. DM: multistage pump driver, driven by highvapor. DW: main circulation pump driven by strong absorbent.

  20. Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

    In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

  1. 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR Génie Industriel...............................................447 16.2.1 Studies in Domestic Refrigerators...................................................................................... 451 16.3 Cold Production System in Domestic Refrigerators

  2. Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

  3. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  4. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  5. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  6. 2 15.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's Optimisation of Air-Water Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    -Water Heat Pumps Ziehl-Abegg SE System boundary Improve Air Flow of Fan Improve System Joachim Dietle.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's System boundary Air Flow in Heat Pumps V q d p st p P P L fan )( 1 Relevant for cooling or heating! Optimise heat pump: reduce pressure drop increase

  7. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  8. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  9. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer region, diffusive transport is the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The resulting thermal bottleneck largely determines the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger. No one has yet devised a practical solution to the boundary layer problem. Another longstanding problem is inevitable fouling of the heat exchanger surface over time by particulate matter and other airborne contaminants. This problem is especially important in residential air conditioner systems where often little or no preventative maintenance is practiced. The heat sink fouling problem also remains unsolved. The third major problem (alluded to earlier) concerns inadequate airflow to heat exchanger resulting from restrictions on fan noise. The air-cooled heat exchanger described here solves all of the above three problems simultaneously. The 'Air Bearing Heat Exchanger' provides a several-fold reduction in boundary layer thickness, intrinsic immunity to heat sink fouling, and drastic reductions in noise. It is also very practical from the standpoint of cost, complexity, ruggedness, etc. Successful development of this technology is also expected to have far reaching impact in the IT sector from the standpointpoint of solving the 'Thermal Brick Wall' problem (which currently limits CPU clocks speeds to {approx}3 GHz), and increasing concern about the the electrical power consumption of our nation's information technology infrastructure.

  10. Self-defrosting recuperative air-to-air heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, R.L.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger is described which includes a stationary spirally or concentrically wound heat exchanger core with rotating baffles on upper and lower ends thereof. The rotating baffles include rotating inlets and outlets which are in communication with respective fixed inlets and outlets via annuli. The rotation of the baffles causes a concurrent rotation of the temperature distribution within the stationary exchanger core, thereby preventing frost build-up in some applications and preventing the formation of hot spots in other applications. 3 figures.

  11. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pump and the desuperheater as the latest developments in energy efficient air conditioning and water heating....

  12. Recirculation of Factory Heat and Air to Reduce Energy Consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiel, G. R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ---- -- - ------ RECIRCULATION OF FACTORY HEAT AND AIR TO REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION Gregory R. Thiel Eltron Mfg. Inc. Fort Thomas, KY. ABSTRACT Two methods for achieving substantial energy savings through recirculation techniques are discussed... challenging conditions: Because they are constructed to op erate "dripping wet", Eltron' s pro prietary "Conductive Precipitate" models can resume normal air clean ing operation immediately after each water washing cycle. They are the only...

  13. A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Ian

    A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support D describes the implementation of a case-based reasoning (CBR) system to support heating ventilation and air. Introduction Western Air is a distributor of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems

  14. The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Brandon DeWayne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mode, the system must remove heat from the cold outdoor air and provide it to the conditioned space. To remove the heat from the outdoor air, the refrigerant entering the outdoor heat exchanger must be colder than the outdoor air. The outdoor air... is pulled across the heat exchanger surface by the outdoor fan Hence, the cold liquid refrigerant passing through the evaporator coil receives heat from the outdoor ambient air passing over the coil, causing the refrigerant to vaporize into a cool gas...

  15. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  16. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy ConservationCentral Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps. Washington DC:Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy Conservation

  17. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Products: Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps EnergyResidential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps.Products: Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy

  18. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 2 the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out without stopping the heat production

  19. STATE OF CALIFORNIA CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS CEC Volume Single Zone Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Systems (Page 1 of 4) Project Name CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS CEC-MECH-3A (Revised 08

  20. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems Michael Wetter available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library development is focused on the develop- ment of models for building heating, ventilation and air

  1. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  2. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Uselton, Robert B. [Lennox Industries, Inc] [Lennox Industries, Inc; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  3. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  4. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  5. State of the Art of Air-source Heat Pump for Cold Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, C.; Liang, N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that the COP of this heat pump system is over 2, the compressor discharge temperature under 120, and the heating capacity can meet the heating load needed when the condensing temperature is 50 and outdoor air temperature is over -18....

  6. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a model with prescribed heat input into the medium, i.e. ,heat and towers. The air inlet temperature is obtained from an inputan input signal. There is also a constant effectiveness heat

  7. Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed that municipal water mains be used as the heat sink or the heat source for air-conditioning or heating, respectively. This paper addresses the extent of thermal contamination associated with the use of municipal water...

  8. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    residential central air condi- tioners, central heat pumps, and furnaces, collectively referred to as heating,

  9. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  11. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 1: Basic concepts and performance verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 1 40 51 ABSTRACT This article presents the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating using a two-phase thermosiphon. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out

  12. Effect of nonuniform inlet air flow on air-cooled heat-exchanger performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soler, A.I.; Singh, K.P.; Ng, T.L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blowers used to propel air across tube bundles generate a non-uniform flow field due to their construction details. A formalism to evaluate heat transfer degradation due to non-uniform airflow has been developed. Certain symmetry relations for cross flowheat exchangers, heretofore unavailable in the open literature, have been derived. The solution presented here was developed to model a 4 tube pass air blast heat exchanger for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project. This case is utilized to show how this method can be used as a design tool to select the most suitable blower construction for a particular application. A numerical example is used to illustrate the salient points of the solution.

  13. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM - Building Americaof42.2Air-Source Heat Pump Basics

  14. Short communication Optimization of hybrid ground coupled and air source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Short communication Optimization of hybrid ­ ground coupled and air source ­ heat pump systems 2008 Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Ground coupled heat pump Air to water heat pump Thermal storage device Hybrid HVAC system Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b

  15. Heat Pipe Impact on Dehumidification, Indoor Air Quality and Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, J. T.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . If a heat-pipe is used to transfer heat from the warm fresh air intake to the cold supply, not only is the reheat obtained free, but the fresh air gets substantial pre-cooling effect from the heat-pipe saving on the cooling energy required...

  16. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In view of the influence of humidity of room air on room heat load, indoor environment and building energy consumption in underground intermittent air-conditioning systems, numerical simulation was used to dynamically analyze the coupling condition...

  17. Efficiency and Air Quality Implications of Distributed Generation and Combined Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficiency and Air Quality Implications of Distributed Generation and Combined Heat and Power potentially increase exposure to air pollutants. When distributed generation is efficiently deployed to determine accurately the efficiencies and emissions of various applications of distributed generation

  18. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump models and 1 air conditioner model that DOE has determined do not comply with...

  19. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps and Central Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Boecker, C. L.; Penson, S. B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes: (1) the performance improvements possible for central air conditioners and heat pumps using conventional design improvements, (2) the development of a methodology for estimating the seasonal performance of variable speed heat...

  20. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  1. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    " and next at proper home insulation, window coverings, etc. The other electrical appliances in the home use relatively minor amounts of electricity compared to the air conditioning and hot water heating system. This paper will describe the geothermal heat...

  2. Kosciusko REMC- Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kosciusko REMC offers rebates (as bill credits) to residential members for the purchase and installation of high efficiency air-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, and electric water heaters....

  3. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  4. Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokoi, S.; Miura, H.; Huang, Y.; Nakahara, N.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the specified performance was realized at the heat-pump, e) whether the pipes for fan-coil units are suitably insulated. Output Heat loss from piping Upward and downward heat flow from hot-water mat Heat loss from piping (boiler - header) Heat loss from...Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment S. Hokoi*, H. Miura*, Y. Huang*, N. Nakahara** and A. Iwamae*** * Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan ** Nakahara Laboratory, Environmental Syst...

  5. Heat Pipe Impact on Dehumidification, Indoor Air Quality and Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, J. T.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT PIPE IMPACT ON DEHUMIDIFICATION, INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY SAVINGS by J. Thomas Cooper Heat Pipe Technology, Inc Alachua, Florida, USA TENTH SYMPOSIUM ON IMPROVING BUILDING SYSTEMS IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES MAY 13-14, 1996 FT....WORTH, TEXAS ABSTRACT Heat pipe impact on our ability to dehumidify, protect, and improve our indoor air quality and save energy in our building systems is tremendous. Projects all over the world in hot and humid climates are using heat pipes in both...

  6. User's manual for steady-state computer simulation for air-to-air heat pumps with selected examples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady-state computer simulation model has been developed for conventional, vapor compression cycle, electrically driven air-to-air heat pumps. Comparison between the heat pump simulation model predictions and available data from three heat pump experiments indicate that the predictions generally are within accepted tolerances. A sensitivity analysis was made to assess the effect of possible variations in some of the input parameters on the system's thermal performance. The computer simulation model is briefly described for heating and cooling modes, and simulation model input data and output are given. (LEW)

  7. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  8. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

    1981-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  9. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  10. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  11. Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    11 Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design H. Boyer applications are finally discussed. One concerns the modeling of a flat plate air collector and the second focuses on the modeling of Trombe solar walls. In each case, detailed modeling of heat transfer allows

  12. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Farouk Fardoun, Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH). The mathematical model consists of submodels of the basic countries such as Lebanon, electric water heaters are often used to generate hot water. Electric water

  13. Framework for Coupling Room Air Models to Heat Balance Model Load and Energy Calculations (RP-1222)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Framework for Coupling Room Air Models to Heat Balance Model Load and Energy Calculations (RP in a program for hourly load calculations of a single thermal zone. The heat balance model for load and energy to heat balance model load and energy calculations," HVAC&R Research, 10(2), 91-111. #12;2 · Mixed

  14. State of the Art of Air-source Heat Pump for Cold Regions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, C.; Liang, N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, research on air source heat pump systems for cold regions in recent years is first summarized and compared. These systems can be divided into three kinds: a single-stage compression heat pump, liquid/vapor injection heat pump, and a...

  15. Accepted Manuscript A wall heat transfer correlation for the baffled-rotary kilns with secondary air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Accepted Manuscript A wall heat transfer correlation for the baffled-rotary kilns with secondary Date: 22 January 2014 Please cite this article as: L.G. Lauredan, H. Florian, D. Jean, A wall heat;1 A wall heat transfer correlation for the baffled- rotary kilns with secondary air flow and recycled

  16. Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a, , Chia September 2011 Keywords: Microtube Heat transfer Liquid Crystal Thermography a b s t r a c t Several researches dealing with the single-phase forced convection heat transfer inside microchannels have been

  17. Adjudication Concerning the Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adjudication Concerning the Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

  18. Adjudication of a Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adjudication of a Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

  19. Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

  20. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO); Anderson, Ren (Broomfield, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  1. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    room cooling load, room air setpoint, and supply air temper-distribution of room cooling load into the supply plenum orof room cooling load between the underfloor supply plenum

  2. Recirculation of Factory Heat and Air to Reduce Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiel, G. R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the energy cost of make-up air, without sacrificing in-plant air quality. Source-capture Ventilation employs engineered sys tems that confine airborne contaminants at their point of origin, before they can escape into plant air (Figures 3, 4... the workers' breathing zones or the general plant air, they can achieve virtually 100% elimination of airborne pollutants. But they entail the expense of enclosure and/or hooding and duct systems. General ventilation, though simpler and often less costly...

  3. Air flow in a high aspect ratio heat sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing heat output of modern electronics requires concomitant advances in heat sinking technology: reductions in thermal resistance and required pumping power are necessary. This research covers the development of ...

  4. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  5. Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Li, D.; Xie, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper introduces some diagnostic methods for the performance failure of heating and air conditioning, analyzes the principle by an example, gives the application characteristics of different methods and supplies the guide for the application...

  6. An Investigation of Alternative Methods for Measuring Static Pressure of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Grant Benson

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was created to address an important issue currently faced by test facilities measuring static pressure for air-conditioning and heat pumps. Specifically, ASHRAE Standard 37, the industry standard for test setup, requires an outlet duct...

  7. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  8. air-to-air heat exchangers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Exchangers, Heat Transfer, Energy, Phase Change and multiphase process, Renewable energy (Solan, Tidal), Energy Storage, Conversion Cessi, Paola 62 Dealing with...

  9. air-to-air heat exchanger: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Exchangers, Heat Transfer, Energy, Phase Change and multiphase process, Renewable energy (Solan, Tidal), Energy Storage, Conversion Cessi, Paola 62 Dealing with...

  10. Analysis of heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, S.A.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to conduct a postconstruction evaluation of the air-source heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field (AAF). The objective of this project was to investigate and resolve concerns about an increase in energy costs at Hunter AAF following the installation of heat pumps in November 1992. After completing several analyses and a field inspection of the heat pumps in family housing at Hunter AAF, the following conclusions were made: the installation of air-source heat pumps reduced the annual energy cost in family housing by $46,672 in 1993; the heat pump thermostat controls in Hunter AAF family housing appear to be incorrectly installed; and the Hunter AAF electric utility bill increased 10% during the first 6 months of 1993 compared to the first 6 months of 1992.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy study of carbon nanotubes heated at high temperatures in air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . INTRODUCTION Because of their remarkable physical and electronic properties, carbon nanotubes are promising nanotubes in air,3,4 in an oxygen stream,5 or under a flow of carbon dioxide gas.6 Thinning of nanotubesScanning electron microscopy study of carbon nanotubes heated at high temperatures in air Xuekun Lu

  12. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation, convection of heat from hot surfaces, and man-made heat (exhaust from cars, buildings, etc.). Air is fairly transparent to light--the direct absorption of solar radiation in atmospheric air only raises the air temperature by a small amount. Typically about 90% of solar radiation reaches the Earth's surface and then is either absorbed or reflected. The absorbed radiation on the surface increases the surface temperature. And in turn the hot surfaces heat the air. This convective heating is responsible for the majority of the diurnal temperature range. The contribution of man-made heat (e.g., air conditioning, cars) is very small, compared to the heating of air by hot surfaces, except for the downtown high-rise areas.

  13. PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS: TEST METHODS AND RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A CROSSFLOW HEAT EXCHANGER. H RMED Rthe same direction. In a crossflow exchanger, (Fig- ure 2)Heat Exchanger (Figure 11) has a crossflow and core, two two

  14. A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump SMARTER EUROPE E-world energy & water 2014 Proceedings page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Jan Treur VU University Amsterdam, Agent Systems be most efficient to use this energy in these periods. For air to water heat pumps a similar issue occurs

  15. Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang [Solar Thermal and Geothermal Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Lim, Hyug [Research and Development Center, LHE Co., Ltd., Gimhae 621-874 (Korea)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

  16. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  17. Method and apparatus for operating a self-starting air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heinrich, Charles E. (Mentor, OH)

    1983-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-starting, fuel fired, air heating system including a fuel burner fired vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser and heating the air. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with a method and apparatus which on start-up prevents the vapor generator's vapor output from being conducted to the turbine until a predetermined pressure differential has been achieved. However, after the vapor flow is once permitted, it cannot again be prevented until after the fuel burner has been shut off and restarted.

  18. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  19. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  20. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  1. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  2. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS: TEST METHODS AND RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature °C for the cold supply air is OF to 40 OF)flow rate. °C to For the cold supply airstream, the humiditytures for the hot and cold supply airstreams are 26.7 °C and

  4. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1A Potential PathAddingAhorreLeaksAir-Source

  5. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s Reply Comments AT&T,FACT S HEET FACTAgenda: TheAof Energy Air

  6. Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram Sankararaman, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Petros Maniatis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram. In this paper we address routing-table poisoning attacks against structured overlays, in which adversaries to redi- rect an outgoing link to her, thereby poisoning its routing table. All lookups routed via

  7. Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram Sankararaman, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Petros Maniatis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram. In this paper we address routing-table poisoning attacks against structured overlays, in which adversaries an outgoing link to her, thereby poisoning its routing table. All lookups routed via that link will end up

  8. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732on Armed Services U.S.Health, Safety, &ofHeating

  9. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartmentDepartment ofBenchmarkControlWaste Heat

  10. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP characterization provided data to assess the CHP potential of the Nexa and validate the model used ambient temperature. #12;iv To improve performance as a CHP heat engine, the Nexa and other air-cooled PEM

  11. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  12. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  13. Development of a High Performance Air Source Heat Pump for the US Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Iu, Ipseng [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pumps present a significant advantage over conventional residential heating technologies due to higher energy efficiencies and less dependence on imported oil. The US development of heat pumps dates back to the 1930 s with pilot units being commercially available in the 1950 s. Reliable and cost competitive units were available in the US market by the 1960 s. The 1973 oil embargo led to increased interest in heat pumps prompting significant research to improve performance, particularly for cold climate locations. Recent increasing concerns on building energy efficiency and environmental emissions have prompted a new wave of research in heat pump technology with special emphasis on reducing performance degradation at colder outdoor air temperatures. A summary of the advantages and limitations of several performance improvement options sought for the development of high performance air source heat pump systems for cold climate applications is the primary focus of this paper. Some recommendations for a high performance cold climate heat pump system design most suitable for the US market are presented.

  14. Determination of the Transient Response Characteristics of the Air-Source Heat Pump During the Reverse Cycle Defrost 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Anand, N. K.; Peterson, K. T.; Schleising, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) characterize the reverse cycle defrost of the air-to-air heat pump and (2) examine the effect of different expansion devices on the performance of the heat pump during the defrost cycle....

  15. 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-42 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined. Assumptions The heat engine and the refrigerator operate steadily. Analysis (a) The highest

  16. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  17. An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric-resistance water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    -resistance water heater and a desuperheater water heater was tested under field conditions at a site near Knoxville. One way : . '-~~ .~ Is to use a desuperheater. or heat recovery water heater, with air conditioners are offering . .. .. · ~'*desuperheaier water heaters (DSWI | as options for their central air conditioners

  18. Dry/wet performance of a plate-fin air-cooled heat exchanger with continuous corrugated fins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger in dry/wet or deluge operations was experimentally determined. Development of the deluge heat/mass transfer model continued. The experiments were conducted in a specially-designed wind tunnel at the PNL. Air that was first heated and humidified to specified conditions was circulated at a controlled rate through a 2 ft x 6 ft heat exchanger module. The heat exchanger used in the tests was a wavy surface, plate fin on tube configuration. Hot water was circulated through the tubes at high flow rates to maintain an essentially isothermal condition on the tube side. Deionized water sprayed on the top of the vertically oriented plate fins was collected at the bottom of the core and recirculated. Instrumentation was provided for measurement of flow rates and thermodynamic conditions in the air, in the core circulation water, and in the deluge water. Measurements of the air side pressure drop and heat rejection rate were made as a function of air flow rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, deluge water flow rate, and the core inclination from the vertical. An overall heat transfer coefficient and an effective deluge film convective coefficient was determined. The deluge model, for predicting heat transfer from a wet finned heat exchanger was further developed and refined, and a major extension of the model was formulated that permits simultaneous calculation of both the heat transfer and evaporation rates from the wetted surface. The experiments showed an increase in the heat rejection rate due to wetting, accompanied by a proportional increase in the air side pressure drop. For operation at the same air side pressure drop, the enhancement ratio Q/sub w//Q/sub d/ varied between 2 and 5 for the conditions tested. Thus, the potential enhancement of heat transfer due to wetting can be substantial.

  19. ISSUANCE 2015-06-08: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Final Rule

  20. 13 SEER Standard for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In January 2004, after years of litigation in a case that pitted environmental groups and Attorneys General from 10 states against the U.S. Secretary of Energy, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reestablished the central air conditioner and heat pump standard originally set in January 200. The Courts ruling, which struck down a May 2002 rollback of the 2001 standard to a 12 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) mandates that all new central air conditioners and heat pumps meet a 13 SEER standard by January 2006, requiring a 30% increase in efficiency relative to current law. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case incorporates the 13 SEER standard as mandated by the Courts ruling.

  1. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  2. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy ConservationW.R. Coleman. 1990. “Heat Pump Life and Compressor LongevityC.C.. 1990. “Predicting Future Heat Pump Production Volume

  3. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercial-package air-conditioning and heating equipment, packaged terminal air condi- tioners and heat pumps, warm-air furnaces, packaged boilers, storage water heaters,

  4. The effect of respiration heat of sorghum grain on the design of conditioned-air storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Danel Gene

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF RESPIRATION HEAT OF SORGHUM GRAIN ON THE DESIGN OF CONDITIONED-AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS A Thesis by DANEL GENE HAILE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1967 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering THE EFFECT OF RESPIRATION HEAT OF SORGHUM GRAIN ON THE DESIGN OF CONDITIONED-AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS A Thesis by DANEL GENE HAILE Approved as to style and content by: C airman...

  5. A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, C.; Zeig, M.; Claridge, D. E.; Wei, G.; Bruner, H.; Turner, W. D.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure Chenggang Liu Research Associate Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Marvin..., TX W. Dan Turner, Ph.D., P.E. Professor & Director Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Abstract A method for simulating heat recovery systems using AirModel in implementations of the ASHRAE simplified...

  6. Experimental evaluation of dry/wet air-cooled heat exchangers. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Gruel, R.L.; Huenefeld, J.C.; Eschbach, E.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Kreid, D.K.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate goal of this project was to contribute to the development of improved cooling facilities for power plants. Specifically, the objective during FY-81 was to experimentally determine the thermal performance and operating characteristics of an air-cooled heat exchanger surface manufactured by the Unifin Company. The performance of the spiral-wound finned tube surface (Unifin) was compared with two inherently different platefin surfaces (one developed by the Trane Co. and the other developed by the HOETERV Institute) which were previously tested as a part of the same continuing program. Under dry operation the heat transfer per unit frontal area per unit inlet temperature difference (ITD) of the Unifin surface was 10% to 20% below that of the other two surfaces at low fan power levels. At high fan power levels, the performances of the Unifin and Trane surfaces were essentially the same, and 25% higher than the HOETERV surface. The design of the Unifin surface caused a significantly larger air-side pressure drop through the heat exchanger both in dry and deluge operation. Generally higher overall heat transfer coefficients were calculated for the Unifin surface under deluged operation. They ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F as compared to less than 2.0 Btu hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F for the Trane and HOETERV surfaces under similar conditions. The heat transfer enhancement due to the evaporative cooling effect was also measureably higher with the Unifin surface as compared to the Trane surface. This can be primarily attributed to the better wetting characteristics of the Unifin surface. If the thermal performance of the surfaces are compared at equal face velocities, the Unifin surface is as much as 35% better. This method of comparison accounts for the wetting characteristics while neglecting the effect of pressure drop. Alternatively the surfaces when compared at equal pressure drop essentially the same thermal performance.

  7. PROCEEDINGS OF 1976 SUMMER WORKSHOP ON AN ENERGY EXTENSION SERVICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industrial plants with large service or domestic hot water requirements,coupled with large air condi- tioning or heat pump

  8. Air Source Heat Pumps for Cold Climate Applications: Recent U. S. R&D Results from IEA HPP Annex 41

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Groll, Dr. Eckhard A. [Purdue University, Ray W. Herrick Laboratories; Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air source heat pumps are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low efficiency and heating capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. This article describes selected R&D activities aimed at improving their cold weather performance.

  9. Determination of the Transient Response Characteristics of the Air-Source Heat Pump During the Reverse Cycle Defrost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Anand, N. K.; Peterson, K. T.; Schleising, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .1 Description of Test Points 3.9 Fi?. 3.4 Heat Pump System Schematic 3.10 Fig. 3.5 Refrigerant Line Temperature Probe 3.11 for leak testing, equipment replacement, and system break- down. The valves proved to be extremely useful because when a specific section... Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering Texas A&M University ESL-TR-88/06-04 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AMCA Air Movement and Control Association ARI Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air...

  10. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  11. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  12. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  13. Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE), Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESL-TR-93/09-01 Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE) Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227 i Dr. Mingsheng Liu Dr. David E. Claridge... Method 3 Co-heating Method 4 STAM Method 8 Conclusions 10 Reference 12 Appendix A 14 Appendix B 15 Appendix C 21 Guidelines for Measuring IHEE, P. 1 Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE) Introduction The rate of air...

  14. Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Matthew

    We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

  15. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  16. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

  17. Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

  18. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

  19. Proposal for the award of two service contracts for the operation, maintenance and other work relating to the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and plumbing facilities at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of two service contracts for the operation, maintenance and other work relating to the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and plumbing facilities at CERN

  20. Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    temperature and decreased combustion gas mass flow rate. The method for calculating savings from preheating flow include minimizing combustion air, preheating combustion air, minimizing ventilation air from minimizing combustion air accounts for improvement in efficiency from increased combustion

  1. Research and design work on heat emission and aerodynamic resistance of tube bundles in air cooling equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuntysh, V.B.; Fedotova, L.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of studies of heat emission using methods of local and global thermal simulation of crossflow small-array bundles of tubes finned with wound aluminum strip, and flared into the load-bearing wall, are reported. Correction factors applicable to the method of simulating convective heat transfer over the range Re = (2.5-25).10/sup 3/ are given, with variation in the number of rows over the air course from one to four.

  2. The effect of alternate defrost strategies on the reverse-cycle defrost of an air-source heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schliesing, John Steven

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with and understanding of my questions and ideas. Thanks also to my family and friends for their support and help svhile I svorked on this project. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the American Society oi' Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers... . . 21 Psychrometric Room Temperature Control Characteristics during a Frosting, 'Defrosting Test 3. 3 4. 3 4. 10 4. 11 Refrigerant Circuit Arrangement of the Outdoor Coil Heat Pump System Schematic Refrigerant Line Temperature Probe . Indoor...

  3. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  4. The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Brandon DeWayne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to tests that utilized coated aluminum outdoor heat exchangers. The overall performance of each test was analyzed. These tests were carried out for cooling and heating mode conditions. The adhesion strength of water droplets to a bare aluminum...

  5. EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to adopt energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential air conditioners and heat pumps, as required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.)

  6. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  7. Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Process Heating, Process Heating Tip Sheet #2c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This English/Chinese international tip sheet provides information for optimizing efficiency of industrial process heating systems and includes measurements in metric units.

  8. air-cooled heat exchangers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Exchangers, Heat Transfer, Energy, Phase Change and multiphase process, Renewable energy (Solan, Tidal), Energy Storage, Conversion Cessi, Paola 66 Dealing with...

  9. Simulations of sizing and comfort improvements for residential forced-air heating and cooling systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, I.S.; Degenetais, G.; Siegel, J.A.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the effect of heating and cooling system inefficiencies onwith inefficient heating and cooling systems in CaliforniaOperation of Residential Cooling Systems. Proceedings of the

  10. International Lige Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics, GAS TRANSFER AT WATER SURFACES, May 2 -6 2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and surface wave measurements and much higher heat fluxes. In addition, the infrared imagery analysis reveals potentially significant the infrared images. It is also shown that the difference in the surface boundary conditions for heat and gas

  11. A surface renewal model to analyze infrared image sequences of the ocean surface for the study of air-sea heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    A surface renewal model to analyze infrared image sequences of the ocean surface for the study of air-sea heat and gas exchange C. S. Garbe Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing renewal, the net heat flux, and the heat transfer velocity during nighttime. The techniques are based

  12. Heat Transfer -2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed outside on a day when air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Heat Transfer - 2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed outside on a day when air temperature T = 10o C. The heat transfer coefficient at the wire's surface h equation that includes all heat transfer mechanisms involved in this problem. Write this energy balance

  13. Hybrid intelligent control scheme for air heating system using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thyagarajan, T.; Shanmugam, J.; Ponnavaikko, M.; Panda, R.C.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuzzy logic provides a means for converting a linguistic control strategy, based on expert knowledge, into an automatic control strategy. Its performance depends on membership function and rule sets. In the traditional Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) approach, the optimal membership is formed by trial-and-error method. In this paper, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied to generate the optimal membership function of FLC. The membership function thus obtained is utilized in the design of the Hybrid Intelligent Control (HIC) scheme. The investigation is carried out for an Air Heat System (AHS), an important component of drying process. The knowledge of the optimum PID controller designed, is used to develop the traditional FLC scheme. The computational difficulties in finding optimal membership function of traditional FLC is alleviated using GA In the design of HIC scheme. The qualitative performance indices are evaluated for the three control strategies, namely, PID, FLC and HIC. The comparison reveals that the HIC scheme designed based on the hybridization of FLC with GA performs better. Moreover, GA is found to be an effective tool for designing the FLC, eliminating the human interface required to generate the membership functions.

  14. A model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data.

  15. Model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data. 38 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  16. Winter Heating or Clean Air? Unintended Impacts of China's Huai River Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almond, Douglas

    Air quality in China is notoriously poor. Ambient concentrations of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) 1981-1993 were more than double China’s National Annual Mean Ambient Air Quality Standard of 200 mg/m-3 (Xiaohui Bi et ...

  17. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  18. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  19. air-side heat transfer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    space to satisfy the space cooling load (free cooling... Shami, U. F. 1996-01-01 12 HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF A PULSE DETONATION Engineering Websites Summary: HEAT TRANSFER...

  20. Development of an air-cooled, loop-type heat pipe with multiple condensers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kariya, H. Arthur (Harumichi Arthur)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal management challenges are prevalent in various applications ranging from consumer electronics to high performance computing systems. Heat pipes are capillary-pumped devices that take advantage of the latent heat ...

  1. Design optimization of residential-sized air-source heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boecker, Curtis Layne

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    larger heat exchangers and increased fan motor efficiency. Variable-speed heat pumps offer the greatest potential for efficiency increases as improvements in the variable-speed compressors progress. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Dennis O... for your support throughout. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION THE HEAT PUMP THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE Page Compressor Heat Exchanger Expansion Device Additional Equipment COMPUTER MODEL SELECTION AND VALIDATION . . 13 General Model...

  2. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  3. 2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary on March 6, 2014.

  4. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER.

  5. Modeled and measured effects of compressor downsizing in an existing air conditioner/heat pump in the cooling mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.; Rice, C.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is not uncommon to find oversized central air conditioners in residences. HVAC contractors sometimes oversize central air conditioners for one reason or another--some to the point that they may be 100% larger than needed to meet the load. Retrofit measures done to improve house envelope and distribution system efficiency also contribute to HVAC oversizing, as they reduce house heating and cooling loads. Proper sizing of an air conditioner or heat pump allows more efficient operation and provides a more comfortable environment than a highly oversized unit. Another factor that lowers operating efficiency is an improper refrigerant charge. Field inspections have revealed that about half of the units checked were not properly charged. An option available to homeowners with oversized air conditioners is to replace the existing compressor with a smaller, more efficient compressor, rather than purchasing a new, smaller unit. Such a retrofit may be economically justified, especially during a compressor failure, provided the oversizing of the existing unit is not too great. A used, 15-year old, single-package heat pump with a capillary tube expansion device on the indoor coil was purchased and tested in a set of environmental chambers to determine its cooling performance at various conditions. The system was also modeled to estimate its existing performance, and that with two different types of retrofitted state-of-the-art (SOA) efficient compressors with about 30% less capacity than the original compressor. This reduced the overall system cooling capacity by about 25%. Modeling estimated that the retrofit would increase system EER at 95 F by 30%, SEER by 34%, and reduce power demand by 39% compared to the existing unit. Reduced cycling losses account for the higher increase in SEER.

  6. Duct Systems in large commercial buildings: Physical characterization, air leakage, and heat conduction gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decreases between cooling coils and supply registers andoutlet of the cooling coils and the supply registers causeddecreased the cooling capacity of the supply air exiting

  7. The effects of expansion devices on the transient response characteristics of the air-source heat pump during the reverse cycle defrost 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kurt T.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF EXPANSION DEVICES ON THE TRANSIENT RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AIR-SOURCE HEAT PUMP DURING THE REVERSE CYCLE DEFROST A Thesis by KURT T. PETERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE EFFECTS OF EXPANSION DEVICES ON THE TRANSIENT RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AIR-SOURCE HEAT PUMP DURING THE REVERSE CYCLE DEFROST...

  8. air-source heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    market, the need of the course will cover adult education principles, and program and lesson planning. During the remaining days 328 Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating...

  9. air-source heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    market, the need of the course will cover adult education principles, and program and lesson planning. During the remaining days 328 Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating...

  10. Modeling Improvements for Air Source Heat Pumps using Different Expansion Devices at Varied Charge Levels Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes steady-state performance simulations performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. In total, 150 steady-state points were simulated, which covers refrigerant charge levels from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value, the outdoor temperatures at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C), indoor air flow rates from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate, and two types of expansion devices (fixed orifice and thermostatic expansion valve). A charge tuning method, which is to calibrate the charge inventory model based on measurements at two operation conditions, was applied and shown to improve the system simulation accuracy significantly in an extensive range of charge levels. In addition, we discuss the effects of suction line accumulator in modeling a heat pump system using either a fixed orifice or thermal expansion valve. Last, we identify the issue of refrigerant mass flow mal-distribution at low charge levels and propose an improved modeling approach.

  11. Analysis of an open-air swimming pool solar heating system by using an experimentally validated TRNSYS model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, Elisa; Martinez, Pedro J. [Universidad Miguel Hernandez - Edificio Torreblanca, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the case of private outdoor swimming pools, seldom larger than 100 m{sup 2}, conventional auxiliary heating systems are being installed less and less. Solar heating is an option to extend the swimming season. The temperature evolution of an open-air swimming pool highly depends on the wind speed directly on the water surface, which at the same time is influenced by the surroundings of the pool. In this paper, the TRNSYS model of a private open-air pool with a 50-m{sup 2} surface was validated by registering the water temperature evolution and the meteorological data at the pool site. Evaporation is the main component of energy loss in swimming pools. Six different sets of constants found in literature were considered to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient with the purpose of finding the most suitable one for the TRNSYS pool model. In order to do that, the evolution of the pool water temperature predicted by the TRNSYS pool model was compared with the experimentally registered one. The simulation with TRNSYS of the total system, including the swimming pool and the absorber circuit integrated into the existing filter circuit, provided information regarding the increase of the pool temperature for different collector areas during the swimming season. This knowledge, together with the economic costs, support the decision about the absorber field size. (author)

  12. Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a rib grit roughened surface solar air heater using CFD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karmare, S.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government College Engineering, Karad 415 124, Maharashtra (India); Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra (India); Tikekar, A.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli (India); Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the study of fluid flow and heat transfer in a solar air heater by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) which reduces time and cost. Lower side of collector plate is made rough with metal ribs of circular, square and triangular cross-section, having 60 inclinations to the air flow. The grit rib elements are fixed on the surface in staggered manner to form defined grid. The system and operating parameters studied are: e/D{sub h} = 0.044, p/e = 17.5 and l/s = 1.72, for the Reynolds number range 3600-17,000. To validate CFD results, experimental investigations were carried out in the laboratory. It is found that experimental and CFD analysis results give the good agreement. The optimization of rib geometry and its angle of attack is also done. The square cross-section ribs with 58 angle of attack give maximum heat transfer. The percentage enhancement in the heat transfer for square plate over smooth surface is 30%. (author)

  13. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics for a New Type of Air Heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, H.; Fan, X.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is found that the integrated characteristics of heat transfer and flow friction increase with the hole's diameter at the same hole density (which is equal to the ratio of the hole's total area to the baffle's area), and the heat transfer rate increases...

  14. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics for a New Type of Air Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, H.; Fan, X.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is found that the integrated characteristics of heat transfer and flow friction increase with the hole's diameter at the same hole density (which is equal to the ratio of the hole's total area to the baffle's area), and the heat transfer rate increases...

  15. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Austria, September 2006. Modelica As- sociation and Arsenalsystems. The ?exibility of Modelica has been T room in [° C]lss. AirConditioning - a Modelica li- o brary for dynamic

  16. Evaluation of a heated-air airship for the environment of Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Richard, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future exploration of Saturn's moon Titan can be carried out by airships, which have the capability to study the atmosphere as well as the capability to land and study the surface at multiple locations. Several lighter-than-air ...

  17. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps and Central Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Boecker, C. L.; Penson, S. B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) Increased tube rows 3.1 1C) Increased fin density 3.2 ID) Increased heat transfer coefficient 3.2 IE) Increased parallel circuits 3.2 2) Decreased Compressor Size 3.2 3) Increased Combined Fan and Motor Efficiency 3.2 4) Demand Defrost Control Systems (Heat... Pumps Only) 3.3 5) High Efficiency Compressors 3.3 6) Two Speed Compressors 3.3 References 3.4 iii CHAPTER PAGE 4 CONVENTIONAL DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS: RESULTS 4.1 Heat Pumps 4.1 Baseline Units 4.2 Final Conventional Designs 4.7 3 Ton Split Systems 4.7 3 Ton...

  18. Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shendell, Derek Garth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposures and heating, ventilation, and air conditioningexposures and heating, ventilation, and air conditioningexposures and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

  19. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast-Type Air Conditioners and Heat Pump. The correspondingair/air air conditioners and heat pumps. Some improvementsconnected air- conditioner (heat pump) units, household

  20. Preheated Combustion Air; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Process Heating Tip Sheet #1 (Fact Sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1DepartmentPreheated Combustion Air Preheated Combustion Air

  1. Comparison of heating and cooling energy consumption by HVAC system with mixing and displacement air distribution for a restaurant dining area in different climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhivov, A.M. [International Air Technologies, Inc., Savoy, IL (United States); Rymkevich, A.A. [St. Petersburg Academy of Refrigeration and Food Technology (Russian Federation). Dept. of Refrigeration Machines and Air-Conditioning Systems

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Different ventilation strategies to improve indoor air quality and to reduce HVAC system operating costs in a restaurant with nonsmoking and smoking areas and a bar are discussed in this paper. A generic sitting-type restaurant is used for the analysis. Prototype designs for the restaurant chain with more than 200 restaurants in different US climates were analyzed to collect the information on building envelope, dining area size, heat and contaminant sources and loads, occupancy rates, and current design practices. Four constant air volume HVAC systems wit h a constant and variable (demand-based) outdoor airflow rate, with a mixing and displacement air distribution, were compared in five representative US climates: cold (Minneapolis, MN); Maritime (Seattle, WA); moderate (Albuquerque, NM); hot-dry (Phoenix, AZ); and hot-humid (Miami, FL). For all four compared cases and climatic conditions, heating and cooling consumption by the HVAC system throughout the year-round operation was calculated and operation costs were compared. The analysis shows: Displacement air distribution allows for better indoor air quality in the breathing zone at the same outdoor air supply airflow rate due to contaminant stratification along the room height. The increase in outdoor air supply during the peak hours in Miami and Albuquerque results in an increase of both heating and cooling energy consumption. In other climates, the increase in outdoor air supply results in reduced cooling energy consumption. For the Phoenix, Minneapolis, and Seattle locations, the HVAC system operation with a variable outdoor air supply allows for a decrease in cooling consumption up to 50% and, in some cases, eliminates the use of refrigeration machines. The effect of temperature stratification on HVAC system parameters is the same for all locations; displacement ventilation systems result in decreased cooling energy consumption but increased heating consumption.

  2. Modeling of Heat Transfer in Rooms in the Modelica Buildings Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for building heating, ventilation and air-conditioningfor Building Heating, Ventilation and Air- Conditioning

  3. Systematic method for the condition assessment of central heating plants in Air Force Logistics Command. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starmack, G.J.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC), facing decreasing funds and aging utility systems, needed a method to objectively rate its central heating plants. Such a rating system would be used to compare heating plants throughout the command to identify potential problem areas and prioritize major repair projects. This thesis used a Delphi questionnaire to gather opinions from heating plant experts in order to identify and prioritize components considered most critical to overall plant operation. In addition, the experts suggested measurements which could be used to evaluate component conditions. By combining expert opinions and reading from technical literature, component model rating schemes were developed for AFLC's steam and high temperature hot water plants. Based on measurements and observations of critical components in the plant, a score between 0 and 100 is assigned to each component (for example, condensate piping, deaerator, etc.), each plant subsystem (distribution system, water treatment system, etc.), and to the plant as a whole. These component model rating schemes and the resultant overall condition index scores will enable AFLC to focus their management attention and allocate needed resources to the plants in greatest need of repair.

  4. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  5. Description and preliminary validation of a model for natural convection heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have proposed a transient, quasi-two-dimensional, numerical model for interzone heat flow and airflow in passive solar buildings. The paths for heat flow and airflow are through connecting apertures such as doorways, hallways, and stairways. The model includes the major features that influence interzone convection as determined from the results of our flow visualization tests and temperature and airflow measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes laminar and turbulent quasi-steady boundary-layer equations at vertical heated or cooled walls which are coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange air and energy through the aperture which is modelled by a Bernoulli equation. Preliminary results from the model are in general agreement with data obtained in full-scale buildings and laboratory experiments. The model predicts room-core temperature stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/ F/ft) and maximum aperture velocities of 0.08 m/s (15 ft/min.) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 1/sup 0/F.

  6. Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

  7. Direct Gas Fired Air Heating For 40 to 50% Fuel Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Searcy, J. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between direct and indirect gas fired unit heaters show why there is a minimum of 40% fuel savings. The application of direct gas-fired make-up heaters for industrial space heating as well as the safety of the direct gas fired systems, a simple...

  8. IEEETRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. MAG-20, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER1984 2001 A GENERAL MIXED BOUNDARY CONDI'IIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : currents are generated by a magnetic flux variation. ExamplescanbefoundinNDTSyStemS, induction heating or in conduction ovens (glass ovens). Thegoverningequationsofallthese problems are obtained using well known theory

  9. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air choice elec forced air choice heat pump choice elecwith ac elecforced air, with ac heat pump elec baseboard,central air conditioning (including heat pumps), and eight

  10. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  11. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Vowles, Mira

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses several control strategies that can significantly reduce energy consumption associated with packaged rooftop units RTUs). Although all of the considered strategies are widely used in built-up air-handing units, they are not commonly used in existing RTUs. Both simulation and field evaluations show that adding these control strategies to existing RTUs can reduce their energy consumption by between 30% and 60%.

  12. air temperature air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  13. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  14. The effects of airflow modulation and multi-stage defrost on the performance of an air source heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, William Vance

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This transfer of heat energy from a low temperature ambient to the high temperature conditioned space is accomplished by the input of electrical energy to the compressor. During the heating season, the heat pump transfers heat energy from the low temperature... pump refrigeration circuit includes a compressor, an indoor heat exchanger, an outdoor heat exchanger, an expansion device, and fans to transfer heat energy from a low temperature heat energy source to a higher temperature heat energy sink...

  15. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  16. The design, construction, and instrumentation of a chamber to study heat, mass, and momentum transfer from humid air to metal under conditions of frosting and free convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, James P

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DESIGN? CONSTRUCTION? AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A CEAMSER TO STUDY HEAT, MASS? AND MOSNTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Submitted to the Graduate School... temperatures a cryogenic pump wss necessary. The sire of the pump was computed on the basis of maintaining a one degree Fahrenheit drop of the coolant temperature through the supply systms. The greatest heat load on the supply system being 3718 BTU per hour...

  17. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven Unitary  Air?Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment”.  Air Conditioning &  Air?source Heat Pump Equipment.  Air?apply to the air handlers of heat pumps and electric 

  18. Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokoi, S.; Miura, H.; Huang, Y.; Nakahara, N.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are 100 mm (GW 10 K) and 145 mm (85 mm GW and 60 mm styrol-sponge), respectively. Figure 2 shows the structure of the floor. Low-E pair glasses, whose overall heat transfer coefficient is 2.7 W/m2K, glaze all windows and the solar transmittance is 0... of the water temperature is easy while water flow rate is difficult. 5.5 Usage of Resident 1) design intent and commissioned items: solar shading is controlled by suitably operating the electrically driven blind installed on the outside, which also serves...

  19. Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    across the hot water control valve is 5 psi and 2 psi for the coil and pipeline. The flow coefficient of the control valves are 9 GPIW~S~~,~ for hot water valve and 13 GPIW~S~~.~ for the chilled water control valve. The designed loop pressure is 7... 14: Using dry coil model will introduce certain error for the cooling coil simulation since the heat transfer coefficient is higher when the coil is wet. Thermostat Model: The thermostat generates a pneumatic pressure signal from 3 to 15 psig...

  20. Problem Set 1 GFD1 Winter 2011 P. Rhines, A.Gray out: Friday 7 Jan 2011 back: Friday 14 Jan 1. Suppose we heat a small sample of dry air confined in a cylinder.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Suppose we heat a small sample of dry air confined in a cylinder. o Calculate the change in thermal energy the same volume as the rigid cylinder. Calculate the change in thermal energy E if the heat addition smaller for ocean water than for air at the same temperature. o the potential energy is 1/2 mass x g x h

  1. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas furnace Air-to-air heat pump Gas fireplace (primarywith their air-to-air heat pumps, such as nighttimeSystem Type None Air-to-air heat pump Night ventilative

  2. Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.

  3. Mass and Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building...

  4. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  5. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occupants. The heating, ventilation and air conditioning (third of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (see Fig. 1) Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

  6. Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

  7. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  8. Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging...

  9. A new correlation of the convective heat transfer coefficient between an air flow and a phase change material plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of phase change material (PCM). This correlation was built for the simulation of heat storage units: Convective heat transfer coefficient, correlation, phase change material, heat storage system, transient is the use of phase change materials (PCM). The latent heat which is needed for the material melting

  10. Combustion Air Preheat and Radiant Heat Transfer in Fired Heaters - A Graphical Method for Design and Operating Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grantom, R. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The installation of combustion air preheat is a widely used technique for improving the fuel efficiency of existing fired heaters and fired tubular reactors. By increasing adiabatic flame temperature, combustion air preheat increases radiant section...

  11. Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems, we can use the VRV air conditioning system to supply cold loads in the winter for rooms in the construction inner zone where cold loads need to be supplied. The VRV air...

  12. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  13. Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

  14. Air-Con International: Noncompliance Determination and Proposed...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Air-Con International finding that a variety of central air conditioners and air conditioning heat pumps distributed under the Air-Con...

  15. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  16. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

  17. Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bingyi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, ASHRAE, 1791of Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Simulation Modelsfor Rating Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment,

  18. Heat Controller: Noncompliance Determination (2014-SE-15004)...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Heat Controller, Inc. finding that the room air conditioner distributed in commerce by Heat Controller as Comfort Aire brand models...

  19. Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bingyi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps,and Validation of Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat PumpC.W. (1994). Room Air Conditioner System Modeling, Air

  20. A Novel, Low-Cost, Reduced-Sensor Approach for Providing Smart Renote Monitoring and Diagnostics for Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brambley, Michael R.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes conceptually an approach to providing automated remote performance and conditioning monitoring and fault detection for air conditioners and heat pumps that shows great promise to reduce the capital and installation costs of such systems from over $1000 per unit to $200 to $400 per unit. The approach relies on non-intrusive electric load monitoring (NIELM) to enable separation of the power use signals of compressors and fans in the air conditioner or heat pump. Then combining information on the power uses and one or two air temperature measurements, changes in energy efficiency and occurrence of major faults would be detected. By decreasing the number of sensors used from between ten and twenty in current diagnostic monitoring systems to three for the envisaged system, the capital cost of the monitoring system hardware and the cost of labor for installation would be decreased significantly. After describing the problem being addressed and the concept for performance monitoring and fault detection in more detail, the report identifies specific conditions and faults that the proposed method would detect, discusses specific needs for successful use of the NIELM approach, and identifies the major elements in the path from concept to a commercialized monitoring and diagnostic system.

  1. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  2. Long Term Thermal Stability In Air Of Ionic Liquid Based Alternative Heat Transfer Fluids For Clean Energy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Elise B; Kendrick, Sarah E.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term aging on the thermal stability and chemical structure of seven different ILs so as to explore their suitability for use as a heat transfer fluid. This was accomplished by heating the ILs for 15 weeks at 200?C in an oxidizing environment and performing subsequent analyses on the aged chemicals.

  3. Laser Sheet Light Flow Visualization For Evaluating Room Air Flows From

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Introduction Forced air heating and cooling systems and whole house ventilation systems deliver air

  4. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  5. Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    A first-of-its-kind Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP™) was installed by Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc. in partnership with Energy Concepts Co. at Ultramar Diamond Shamrock's 30,000 barrel per day refinery in Denver...

  6. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  7. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  8. advanced heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  9. advanced heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  10. agency heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  11. automotive heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  12. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -expanding variety of industrial processes. One notable application in recent years has been for combustion airs preheat of fired heaters in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. Another recent development has been a waste heat recovery boiler using heat...

  13. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    of burner temperature and the aspects of implementing advanced modeling based control approaches using], auxiliary and uninterruptible power systems [13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19]. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuelDesign and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air

  14. The Impact of CO2-Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation on Energy Consumptions for Air Source Heat Pumps in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AlRaees, N.; Nassif, N.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been increasingly growing concerns for many years over the quality of the air inside buildings and the associated energy use. The CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC...

  15. IEA HPP Annex 41 Cold Climate Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    of Air-Source Heat Pumps Van D. Baxter Oak Ridge National Laboratory European Heat Pump Summit Nuremberg ­ Cold Climate Heat Pumps Improving low ambient temperature performance of air-source heat pumps as having large number of hours with OD temperature -7 °C (19 °F). Air-source heat pumps (ASHP

  16. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Including. May,pump technology to extract heat from the surrounding air (air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs. Introduction A heat pump

  17. High vacuum indirectly-heated rotary kiln for the removal and recovery of mercury from air pollution control scrubber waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawk, G.G.; Aulbaugh, R.A. [Scientific Consulting Labs., Inc., Farmers Branch, TX (United States)] [Scientific Consulting Labs., Inc., Farmers Branch, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    SepraDyne corporation (Denton, TX, US) has conducted pilot-scale treatability studies of dewatered acid plant blowdown sludge generated by a copper smelter using its recently patented high temperature and high vacuum indirectly-heated rotary retort technology. This unique rotary kiln is capable of operating at internal temperatures up to 850 C with an internal pressure of 50 torr and eliminates the use of sweep gas to transport volatile substances out of the retort. By removing non-condensables such as oxygen and nitrogen at relatively low temperatures and coupling the process with a temperature ramp-up program and low temperature condensation, virtually all of the retort off-gases produced during processing can be condensed for recovery. The combination of rotation, heat and vacuum produce the ideal environment for the rapid volatilization of virtually all organic compounds, water and low-to-moderate boiling point metals such as arsenic, cadmium and mercury.

  18. Effect of heat recirculation on the self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane/air mixtures in a quartz reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Pirone, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione-CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Russo, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Vlachos, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane is experimentally studied in a two-pass, quartz heat-recirculation reactor (HRR) and compared to that in a no (heat) recirculation reactor (NRR). Structured monolithic reactors with Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Pt doped perovskite catalysts have been compared in the HRR and NRR configurations. Heat recirculation enhances combustion stability, by widening the operating window of self-sustained operation, and changes the mode of stability loss from blowout to extinction. It is found that thermal shields (upstream and downstream of the monolith) play no role in the stability of a HRR but increase the stability of a NRR. The stability of a HRR follows this trend: Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > doped perovskite > LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Finally, a higher cell density monolith enlarges the operating window of self-sustained combustion, and allows further increase of the power density of the process. (author)

  19. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are conventional air conditioning and heat pump, given thein heat pump alternative Dummy for oil forced air choiceair choice Dummy for electric baseboard choice Dummy for heat pump

  20. air ingress conditions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  1. air bag parameter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  2. air conditioning devices: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  3. air conditioning conference: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  4. air conditioning problemas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  5. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Products: Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energyof Improved Central Air Conditioner Efficiencies Authorsresidential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency

  6. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  7. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P. (San Ramon, CA)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  8. Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat

  9. An experimental study of heating performance and seasonal modeling of vertical U-tube ground coupled heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margo, Randal E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 1985; Mei & Emerson, 1985; Couvillion, 1985; Edwards & Vitta, 1985; Mei & Baxter, 1986; Cane & Forgas, 1991, Deerman, 1991; Dobson, 1991]. Ground coupled heat pumps have the potential to perform more efficiently than air source heat pumps (ASHP... configurations of heat pumps: air source heat pumps (ASHP) and ground coupled heat pumps (GCHP). Air source heat pumps extract energy from the outdoor air in the heating mode and reject excess heat in the cooling mode. One significant drawback to ASHP...

  10. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  11. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  12. A New Approach to Industrial Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravenstreter, T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -dryer Systems Division, has marketed industrial drying machinery. These heat reactivated dryers can handle latent loads in industrial air conditioning systems. Through waste heat conservation, air conditioning costs can be reduced 25 to 50%, with applications...

  13. Visual Simulation of Heat Shimmering and Mirage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Klaus

    and the surrounding air. We introduce a heat transfer model between the heat source objects and the ambient flow the heat sources to the ambient flow. Although heat transfer modeling has been used before in computer

  14. air suspension system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Based on the heating and air-conditioning system...

  15. air suspension systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Based on the heating and air-conditioning system...

  16. Demonstration and Performance Monitoring of Foundation Heat Exchangers...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for New and Existing Homes: Foundation Heat Exchanger, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options...

  17. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  18. Field Measurements of Efficiency and Duct Effectiveness in Residential Forced Air Distributions Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jump, D.A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power for air conditioning, heat pumps and electricwith 13 air conditioners, eight heat pumps (one house hadPre Post * A C : air conditioning, HP : heat pump, GF : gas

  19. absorption-type heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  20. absorption-sorption heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  1. Mass and Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - 1 - MASS AND HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM SALAH MAHMOUD HINDAWI DIRECTOR HINDAWI FOR ENGINEERING SERVICES & CONTRACTING NEW DAMIETTA , EGYPT ABSTRACT : In the last few years heat recovery was under spot . and in air conditioning fields... ) as a heat recovery . and I use the water as a mass recovery . The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines . THE BENEFIT OF THIS SYSTEM ARE : 1) Using the heat energy from...

  2. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated with increased headache (OR=1.6). Fair or poor condition of duct liner was associated with increased upper respiratory symptoms (OR=1.4). Most of the many potential risk factors assessed here had not been investigated previously, and associations found with single symptoms may have been by chance, including several associations that were the reverse of expected. Risk factors newly identified in these analyses that deserve attention include outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground, lack of operable windows, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lack of scheduled inspection for HVAC systems. Infrequent cleaning of cooling coils and drain pans were associated with increases in several symptoms in these as well as prior analyses of BASE data. Replication of these findings is needed, using more objective measurements of both exposure and health response. Confirmation of the specific HVAC factors responsible for increased symptoms in buildings, and development of prevention strategies could have major public health and economic benefits worldwide.

  3. Performance of Horizontal Field Earth-Coupled Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbott, C. A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative to traditional methods of residential heating and cooling is the heat pump. However, heat pumps which use the outside air as a heat source/sink become inefficient during the periods of highest demand. Another possible heat source...

  4. Performance of Horizontal Field Earth-Coupled Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbott, C. A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative to traditional methods of residential heating and cooling is the heat pump. However, heat pumps which use the outside air as a heat source/sink become inefficient during the periods of highest demand. Another possible heat source...

  5. Industrial heat pumps in Germany -potentials, technological development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    jet nozzle Closed Cycles: Absorption/Adsorption heat pump thermal compressor driven by waste heat, waste heat, waste water/air (heat recovery) Refrigerant R134a, R407C, R410A, R717 Heating capacity [k

  6. AGU Press Conference, December 13, The influence of air-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , while cooling the inside of buildings, releases waste heat in the atmosphere. · In Tokyo, a study showed previous DRY waste heat DRY-AC If all AC systems release DRY waste heat REAL-AC Current AC systems co waste heat to air · units discharging WET waste heat to air · units discharging waste heat to the Seine

  7. Numerical Simulation Study on Transpired Solar Air Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, C.; Guan, Z.; Zhao, X.; Wang, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unglazed transpired solar air collector is now a well-recognized solar air heater for heating outside air directly. In this article, researchers introduced numerical simulation tools into the solar air collector research area, analyzed...

  8. Numerical Simulation Study on Transpired Solar Air Collector 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, C.; Guan, Z.; Zhao, X.; Wang, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unglazed transpired solar air collector is now a well-recognized solar air heater for heating outside air directly. In this article, researchers introduced numerical simulation tools into the solar air collector research area, analyzed...

  9. Open-loop heat-recovery dryer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

  10. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    multiple water-to-air heat pump units, which are connectedeach of the water-to-air heat pump units can run in eitheras other types of air source heat pumps, VRF systems need

  11. Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump Systems and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump use of buildings Gas Heat Pump Solution #12;Gas Heat Pump - deserves special attention due to its source in addition to the outside air ·A further essential component of Gas Heat Pump air conditioning

  12. 1622 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 Skin-Effect Self-Heating in Air-Suspended RF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

    1622 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 Skin-Effect Self-Heating

  13. Effect of Return Air Leakage on Air Conditioner Performance in Hot/Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Rodriguez, A.; Davis, M.; Kondepudi, S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    provided rebates to residential customers for purchasing high efficiency air conditioners and heat pumps. The rebates have helped increase the demand for higher efficiency air conditioning units. However, even the most efficient system will not perform... quanm the effect of air leakage in the return air duct from a hot attic space on the high-temperature performance of air conditioners and heat pump systems. Air conditioner performance is quantified in terms of capacity, Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER...

  14. Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculation 8th Edition, Air Conditioning Contractors ofArlington, VA, Air-Conditioning, Heating and RefrigerationRefrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. Standard 136.

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - airs requirements definition Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and HVAC Summary: requires some processes called air-conditioning; including: Simple heating: raising the air temperature... air normally contains some water vapor (moisture)....

  16. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final Summary Report by Air Conditioner Evaluation Standardreversible residential air conditioners and heat pumps usingJFS, 2007: “New Air Conditioners with Infrared Sensors

  17. Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) [3] Yayun FAN. Experimental study on a heat pump technology in solar thermal utilization[J]. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica, Oct.,2002; Vol.23,No.5 ? 581-585.(In Chinese) [4] Nengxi JIANG. Air-conditioning Heat Pump Technology and Its Applications...

  18. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 53, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2005 335 On the Capacity Limits of HVAC Duct Channel for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    and experimental channel-capacity estimates of heating, ventilation, and air condi- tioning (HVAC) ducts based in indoor wireless networks. Index Terms--Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems building is already equipped with a microwave distribution system: the heating, ventilation, and air

  20. An experimental study of heating performance and seasonal modeling of vertical U-tube ground coupled heat pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margo, Randal E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    configurations of heat pumps: air source heat pumps (ASHP) and ground coupled heat pumps (GCHP). Air source heat pumps extract energy from the outdoor air in the heating mode and reject excess heat in the cooling mode. One significant drawback to ASHP... season. Ground coupled heat pumps use the ground as a heat source or heat sink through The format of this proposal follows that of the Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. the use of a ground...

  1. air emissions control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the ground surface and the ambient air. This situation creates areas called urban heat 18 Advanced Controls for Industrial Compressed Air Systems Texas A&M University -...

  2. air emissions notice: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the ground surface and the ambient air. This situation creates areas called urban heat 8 The effects of secondary air injection on particulate matter emissions MIT -...

  3. air fresheners emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the ground surface and the ambient air. This situation creates areas called urban heat 11 The effects of secondary air injection on particulate matter emissions MIT -...

  4. air emission notice: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the ground surface and the ambient air. This situation creates areas called urban heat 8 The effects of secondary air injection on particulate matter emissions MIT -...

  5. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiant heating and cooling systems, in: Proceedings ofof radiant heating and cooling systems versus air systems,Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design, in: Proceedings

  6. air force basic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de 218 A Study of Cross-Flow Air Heating via a Multiport Serpentine Microchannel Heat Exchanger. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??An experimental...

  7. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 2012.EER for the base case air conditioning unit is taken as the

  8. PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF AIR VELOCITY PROFILES IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF AIR VELOCITY PROFILES IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP By NATHAN ANDREW WEBER PROFILES IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP Thesis Approved: _______________________________________ Thesis Advisor the air speed transducer mount and the Plexiglas model of the heat pump. Ipseng Iu and myself worked side

  9. High efficiency solar air heaters with novel built-in heat storage for use in a humidification-dehumidification desalination cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, Edward K

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared to solar water heaters, solar air heaters have received relatively little investigation and have resulted in few commercial products. However, in the context of a Humidification-Dehumidification (HD) Desalination ...

  10. Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE), Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is presented to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board as a deliverable under the Energy Research and Applications Program Project #227, which targeted reducing the design size of HVAC systems in houses since the actual air...

  11. An Index for Evaluation of Air Quality Improvement in Rooms with Personalized Ventilation Based on Occupied Density and Normalized Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Cermak, Radim; De Carli, Michele; Li, Xianting

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration Research,on Cold Climate, Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning,

  12. Etude thorique et exprimentale d'un capteur solaire plan air en rgime T. Letz and M. Lallemand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of a solar flat-plate air collector. A time-dependent heat transfer model has been developed. The heat

  13. air force systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a piece of equipment that provides the heating energy (the furnace, boiler or heat pump) and the method used 10 U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer...

  14. Indirect Heat Transfer Technology For Waste Heat Recovery Can Save You Money

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beyrau, J. A.; Bogel, N. G.; Seifert, W. F.; Wuelpern, L. E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    constraints of an existing installation makes the conventional flue gas to air energy recovery technology impractical to employ. A successful alternative is the transfer of waste heat to an intermediate heat transfer fluid (i.e., DOWTHERM Heat Transfer Fluid...

  15. Applied heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)

  16. SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR HEAT PUMP By ARUN SHENOY Bachelor December, 2004 #12;SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR HEAT PUMP Thesis Approved................................................................3 2.1. Equation fit water to air heat pump and chiller models...............................3 2

  17. air toxics sources: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arlene Rosenbaum 1998-01-01 10 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING Physics Websites...

  18. FEBRUARY 2007AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | 155 GENCHI, H. KONDO, Y. KIKEGAWA,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    , AND Y. HIRANO. "Influence of Air-Conditioning Waste Heat on Air Temperature in Tokyo during Summer strength remains constant heat-island phenomenon in Tokyo on weekdays. Thus, our findings show that the energy consumption process (mainly with air condi- tioning) in buildings should be included

  19. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Construct a ground sourced heat pump, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system for the new Oakland University Human Health Sciences Building utilizing variable refrigerant flow (VRF) heat pumps. A pair of dedicated outdoor air supply units will utilize a thermally regenerated desiccant dehumidification section. A large solar thermal system along with a natural gas backup boiler will provide the thermal regeneration energy.

  20. Fouling of HVAC fin and tube heat exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Carey, Van P.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air ? air ? part ? part FPI HVAC REFERENCES Anonymous, 1987,LBNL-47668 Fouling of HVAC Fin and Tube Heat ExchangersCIEE SPONSOR. FOULING OF HVAC FIN AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

  1. TWO WELL STORAGE SYSTEMS FOR COMBINED HEATING AND AIRCONDITIONING BY GROUNDWATER HEATPUMPS IN SHALLOW AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelka, Walter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In warmer climates air source heat pumps have gained widestadvantages over air source heat pumps. For example, theair conditioning is required, water is pumped from the cold water well to the heat pump.

  2. Heat pipe dehumidification for supermarket energy savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Eric M. (Eric Michael)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the possibility of using a heat pipe installed in the air conditioning unit of a supermarket to increase the level of dehumidification of the inside air. This dehumidification is expected to reduce the ...

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  4. Vertical Concentric Tube Ground Couoled Heat Exchangers V. C. Mei and S. K. Fischer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    to extract heat from or reject heat to the environment. The majority of heat pumps use ambient air of the air. Ground water is a better heat source/sink for heat pump application (due to its superior thermal exchangers for use in heat-pump applications is described. The experimental apparatus consists

  5. Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation Rate per Floor Area on Perceived Air Quality, Sick Building Symptoms and Decision Making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddalena, Randy

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFRIGERATING AND AIR CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, 103, 244-255.Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.REFRIGERATING AND AIR CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, 113(2), 466.

  6. Air Conditioning Cold/Heat Source Analysis of the Inclusion of the Monetary Values of Environmental Damage Based on the LCA Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Duanmu, L.; Shu, H.; Zhu, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , generally measured by standard coal and electricity. The LCA of standard coal and electricity production and heating with standard coal-burning have been finished in our country. The emission inventories are shown in table1-2[5-6]. 2.2 Categories... of different gases to climate change are commonly compared in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents us- ing Global Warming Potentials (GW). Table3 pro- vides the equivalent factors for common impact categories in this LCA studies. 2.3 Monetary Evaluation...

  7. Heat pump with freeze-up prevention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

  8. INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and AirFOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS Paul W. Sullivan,FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS* Paul W. Sullivan,t

  9. White County REMC- Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    White County REMC offers incentives for the purchase and installation of energy efficient heat pumps. Air-source heat pumps are eligible for a rebate of $300, while geothermal heat pumps are...

  10. adsorption heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Condensator 12;12 Low-temperature heat sources Geothermal source Ambient air Solar adsorption heat pump, but the use of the source for hot water or direct heating can be...

  11. aging heat treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The effects of outdoor heat exchanger...

  12. alloys heat treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The effects of outdoor heat exchanger...

  13. anisothermal heat treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The effects of outdoor heat exchanger...

  14. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Action Against AeroSys, Inc. for Failure to Certify Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning automatic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exhaust air... conditions. Because of these external demands, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air... monitors include a remote alarm signal andor automatic...

  16. MODELING PACKAGED HEAT PUMPS IN A QUASI-STEADY STATE ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the experimental data for water-to-air heat pumps. Last but not least, financial support from the U.S Department ........................................................ 6 2.1. Steady State Air-to-Air Heat Pump Models........................................................ 13 2.2. Steady State Water-to-Air Heat Pump Models

  17. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  18. air-conditioning equipment lorentz: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topic Index 1 Smart School Symposium Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Session Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: Smart School Symposium Heating...

  19. The effect of fan and heat sink design on heat removal from microprocessor chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltrip, Kedra G

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air flow and heat removal characteristics for fan/heat sink designs used to cool Pentium class processors were analyzed. Five designs were tested for fan speed, differential and static nozzle pressure, static fan pressure, fan input current...

  20. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - apheis project air Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to supply rooms with air that is "conditioned"--that is, heated or cooled... by the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment--and to recirculate or return...

  2. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia’s air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinia’s improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous heat conduction Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    parallel studies of the upper ocean heat budget have been conducted... of the anomalous heat ... Source: Kelly, Kathryn A. - Air-Sea Interaction and Remote Sensing Department,...

  4. air force space: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  5. air treatment system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  6. air systems metodologia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  7. aire acondicionado solar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  8. air flotation system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  9. air foil system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  10. air contaminants combining: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  11. air sampling system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  12. The effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grisham, Phillip Ryan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of air conditioner outdoor heat exchangers (condensers) poses a significant problem for consumers living in coastal regions. This research sought to experimentally determine effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner condenser coils...

  13. SIMULATION OF THE THERMAL INTERACTION BETWEEN A BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC COLLECTOR AND AN AIR-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    AND AN AIR- SOURCE HEAT PUMP B. Filliard1 ; A. Guiavarch1 ; M. Jabbour1 . 1: MINES ParisTech ­ CEP ­ Centre simultaneously equipped with air-source heat pumps and photovoltaic collectors is constantly increasing of the heat pump is installed in the attic just beneath the PV collector, which preheats the incoming air

  14. AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo, Manager, Heat Exchange Systems Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo S. E. Veyo, Manager, Heat 15235 KEYWORDS: heat pump, air conditioner, electric, residential, energy, compressor, fan, blower, heat exchanger, comfort. #12;AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo* ABSTRACT A two

  15. Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

  16. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  17. air cooled htpem: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absorptionAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n...

  18. air cooled reactors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absorptionAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n...

  19. air flow fields: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    escape and Joule heating of electrons in the constant electric field Fominov, Yakov 122 Overheat Instability in an Ascending Moist Air Flow as a Mechanism of Hurricane Formation...

  20. atomizer air flow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    layer, all the conducted heat is consumed by evaporation. gg Pr Helluy, Philippe 89 Overheat Instability in an Ascending Moist Air Flow as a Mechanism of Hurricane Formation...

  1. air circulation wall: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manuscript A wall heat transfer correlation for the baffled-rotary kilns with secondary air Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Accepted...

  2. air exchange effectiveness: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - TxSpace Summary: not same as Qactual because of the interaction of heat conduction, solar radiation, and air infiltration in the building components Liu and Guidelines for...

  3. air resources branch: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    334 Continuous measurements of atmospheric argonnitrogen as a tracer of air-sea heat flux : models, methods, and data University of California eScholarship Repository...

  4. air analysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR HEAT PUMP By ARUN SHENOY Bachelor December, 2004 12;SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF...

  5. The Impact of Energy Recovery on Window Air-conditioner Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Q.; Tang, C.; Liao, K.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental energy recovering air-conditioner can produce fresh air exchange heat with exhaust air in the heat exchanger, which has no additional moving parts. The EER of the experimental air-conditioner (EAC) is increased by 17.4~37.3 percent...

  6. Fact Sheet: Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (October...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SustainX will demonstrate an isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAES) system. The system captures the heat from compression in water and stores the captured heat until it...

  7. ambient air concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transfer fluid that uses air as the heat transfer fluid is proposed for a novel solar trough concentrator design. A numerical heat transfer model is developed to determine the...

  8. air concentrations arising: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transfer fluid that uses air as the heat transfer fluid is proposed for a novel solar trough concentrator design. A numerical heat transfer model is developed to determine the...

  9. air samplers based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump SMARTER EUROPE E-world energy & water 2014 Proceedings page 1 Computer...

  10. air conditioning desarrollo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abdalla, K. N. 2010-01-01 36 Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Based...

  11. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    49 Figure 26. Comparison of roof heat flux for East and West49 Figure 27. Roof heat flux vs. outside air temperature for8-19. 50 Figure 28. Roof heat flux vs. outside air

  12. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  13. Air leakage of Insulated Concrete Form houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durschlag, Hannah (Hanna Rebekah)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air leakage has been shown to increase building energy use due to additional heating and cooling loads. Although many construction types have been examined for leakage, an exploration of a large number of Insulated Concrete ...

  14. Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenney, W. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several...

  15. Total Building Air Management: When Dehumidification Counts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chilton, R. L.; White, C. L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , total air management of sensible and latent heat, filtration and zone pressure was brought about through the implementation of non-integrated, composite systems. Composite systems typically are built up of multi-vendor equipment each of which perform...

  16. Sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to elevated and non-elevated heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuang, Zhiming

    for the South Asian monsoon via a ``sensible-heat-driven air-pump''. In their proposed mech- anism, sensible from cold and dry extratropical air or by providing a source of elevated heating. Here we show heat fluxes from mountain slopes produce rising motion that draws surrounding air toward the mountains

  17. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Mowery, Kenneth D. (Noblesville, IN); Ripley, Eugene V. (Russiaville, IN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  18. Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Thermolift - Stony Brook, NY Partners: -- New York State Energy Research & Development Authority - Albany, NY -- Stony Brook University - Stony Brook, NY -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- National Grid - Washington, DC -- Applied Thermodynamic Apparatus (ATA) - Ann Arbor, MI -- Fala Technologies - Kingston, NY -- LoDolce - Saugerties, NY

  19. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy CompletingPresented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE

  20. Sabdia's Radial Flow Air Bearing Heat Exchanger

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG - ORDERSTATE0-1 CHAPTER1the Dynamics of

  1. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE

  2. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLE OF CONTENTSTogether with the National6,Miniaturized

  3. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLE OF CONTENTSTogether with the

  4. atmospheric solar heating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  5. active solar heating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  6. additional heating systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  7. Commercial high efficiency dehumidification systems using heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved heat pipe design using separately connected two-section one-way flow heat pipes with internal microgrooves instead of wicks is described. This design is now commercially available for use to increase the dehumidification capacity of air conditioning systems. The design also includes a method of introducing fresh air into buildings while recovering heat and controlling the humidity of the incoming air. Included are applications and case studies, load calculations and technical data, and installation, operation, and maintenance information.

  8. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  9. auxiliary heating system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute...

  10. 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or deductions for solar energy systems. Solar heating systems reduce the amount of air pollution and greenhouse gases that generally come from the use of fossil fuels for...

  11. Red River Valley REA- Heat Pump Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Red River Valley Rural Electric Association (RRVREA) offers a loan program to its members for air-source and geothermal heat pumps. Loans are available for geothermal heat pumps at a 5% fixed...

  12. Alabama Power - Residential Heat Pump and Weatherization Loan...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    no money down and can be used to finance an air source, geothermal or dual-fuel heat pump. The loans can also be used to cover associated water heating costs and wiring...

  13. Clark Public Utilities- Residential Heat Pump Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clark Public Utilities offers loans of up to $20,000 for air-source heat pumps and $30,000 for geothermal heat pumps. Loans will help customers cover the up-front cost of installing a highly...

  14. Development of a Computer Heating Monitoring System and Its Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Shen, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a computer heating monitoring system, introduces the components and principles of the monitoring system, and provides a study on its application to residential building heating including analysis of indoor and outdoor air...

  15. Waste Heat Recovery in the Metal Working Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMann, F. C.; Thurman, J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE METAL WORKING INDUSTRY Fred C. McMann Jimmy Thurman North American Manufacturing Co. Combustion Services Company Woodlands, Texas Houston, Texas The use of exhaust gas heat exchangers to preheat combustion air...

  16. Error Analysis of Heat Transfer for Finned-Tube Heat-Exchanger Text-Board 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce the measurement error of heat transfer in water and air side for finned-tube heat-exchanger as little as possible, and design a heat-exchanger test-board measurement system economically, based on the principle of test-board system...

  17. Development of a compensation chamber for use in a multiple condenser loop heat pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Nicholas Albert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of many electronic devices is presently limited by heat dissipation rates. One potential solution lies in high-performance air-cooled heat exchangers like PHUMP, the multiple condenser loop heat pipe presented ...

  18. Application of industrial heat pumps Proven applications in 2012 for Megawatt+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Application of industrial heat pumps Proven applications in 2012 for Megawatt+ Heatpumps within a technical, commercial and sustainable framework Application of industrial heat pumps Proven applications Emerson Climate Technologies Core Offerings & Key Brands Residential Heating & Air Conditioning Commercial

  19. Heat transfer model of large shipping containers 1Chemical Engineering Department -Carnegie Mellon University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Heat transfer model of large shipping containers 1Chemical Engineering Department - Carnegie Mellon to the inside air 3. Heat transfer at the cargo on the pallets I. The heat transfer model Outline: II. Case

  20. Original article Heat balance of a multistage spray-dryer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    into account. From these data, the heat balance showed a dif- ference between inputs and outputs of 2.9% which may be interpreted as heat losses and probable errors. The specific heat consumption was close to 4 of the small flow rates of air used in both fluid beds. This specific heat consumption corresponds to 2.1 times

  1. Edmond Electric- Residential Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Edmond Electric offers rebates to residential customers who install energy-efficient heat pumps. This program applies to installations in both new and existing residential homes and complexes. Air...

  2. The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surveyed 492 large HVAC dealers to compile information on heat pump service life [5]. He discovered that refrigerant leaks were the major cause for failure, totaling 19% of failed units. Compressor motor circuits and mechanical part failures were 16... Lewis, J. E.; 1987. "Survey of residential air-to-air heat pump service life and maintenance issues", ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 93, Part 2, p. p. I II I - 1127. [6J Silver, T.; 1989. "Training for the Future", Contracting Business, December 1989, p...

  3. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes ABSTRACT Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important

  4. Air temperature regulation by urban trees and green infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air temperature regulation by urban trees and green infrastructure Kieron Doick and Tony Hutchings to a UHI include the thermal properties, height and spacing of buildings, the production of waste heat, air years. An estimated 8­11 extra deaths occur each day for each degree increase in air temperature during

  5. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  6. Optimized Control Of Steam Heating Coils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Mir Muddassir

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling. II. Flooding of coils with condensate and its subsequent freezing when outside air temperature falls below 32?F. III. Increased maintenance cost due to water hammer, corrosion of coils in the presence of non-condensable gases and leaking steam... monotonically as the steam pressure increases, a higher steam pressure may lead to overheating of the air and result in simultaneous heating and cooling. In addition to energy waste due to simultaneous heating and cooling, an improper operating strategy can...

  7. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  8. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  12. Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, Mohsen

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a small refrigerant charge. A new heat exchanger model based on tube-by-tube simulation was developed and integrated into the ORNL heat pump model. The model was capable of simulating the steady state response of a vapor compression air-to-air heat...

  13. An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with Capillary Tube Expansion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ] conducted a laboratory test to determine the performance of a 3-ton air-to-air heat pump as a function of R-22 refrigerant charge in the heating mode. The tests were conducted with 50?F outdoor air and 70?F indoor air temperatures. The test unit did....8) 11 Figure 2.5 - Coefficient of Performance as a Function of Refrigerant Charge (adopted from ref.8) 12 A. A. Domingorena and S. J. Ball [9] studied the performance of a selected three-ton air-to-air heat pump in the heating mode at Oak Ridge...

  14. Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 All manager or operator must submit the completed form to the air quality program manager before the project

  15. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  16. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  17. Heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishman, P.J.

    1983-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system utilizing solar panels and buried ground conduits to collect and store heat which is delivered to a heatpump heat exchanger. A heat-distribution fluid continuously circulates through a ground circuit to transfer heat from the ground to the heat exchanger. The ground circuit includes a length of buried ground conduit, a pump, a check valve and the heat exchanger. A solar circuit, including a solar panel and a second pump, is connected in parallel with the check valve so that the distribution fluid transfers solar heat to the heat exchanger for utilization and to the ground conduit for storage when the second pump is energized. A thermostatically instrumented control system energizes the second pump only when the temperature differential between the solar panel inlet and outlet temperatures exceeds a predetermined value and the ground temperature is less than a predetermined value. Consequently, the distribution fluid flows through the solar panel only when the panel is capable of supplying significant heat to the remainder of the system without causing excessive drying of the ground.

  18. Making Use of Low-Level Heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaster, W. E.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the atmosphere through cooling towers and air fin coolers. We will designate this as "low-level heat". Between 20 to 30% of all the energy that enters a plant is lost as low-level heat. In a 100,000 BPD refinery, this is the equivalent of about 2,500 BPD of oil...

  19. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William R. (Zionsville, PA); Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA); Dunbobbin, Brian R. (Allentown, PA); Rao, Pradip (Allentown, PA); Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis, MD)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

  20. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  1. Physics 1114: Unit 7 Homework Use the table in your text for specific heat capacity values.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansell, Edward "Ted"

    at 20 C? [Specific heat capacity of air = 703 J/(kg C ) at constant volume.] 7. What is the specific of a heat engine and a heat pump. Include QH, QC, TH, TC, and W. What is the major difference in your two not the same? 6. Determine the maximum coefficient of performance of a heat pump used to heat the inside

  2. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill, PA); Lackey, Robert S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fagan, Jr., Thomas J. (Penn HIlls, PA); Veyo, Stephen E. (Murrysville, PA); Humphrey, Joseph R. (Grand Rapids, MI)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module 10, an air mover module 12, and a resistance heat package module 14, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor 36 in a space adjacent the heat exchanger 28, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown in FIGS. 4-7 to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations.

  3. Genetic Lateral and Amplitude Tuning with Rule Selection for Fuzzy Control of Heating,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granada, Universidad de

    and Air Conditioning Systems R. Alcal´a1 , J. Alcal´a-Fdez1 , F.J. Berlanga2 , M.J. Gacto1 , and F fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning sys- tems concerning energy performance and indoor comfort requirements. 1 Introduction Heating, Ventilating and Air

  4. Dehumidification heat transfer on copper surfaces Abhay Varghese Thomas, Nikhil Koratkar, Yoav Peles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    and Background When a cooled surface is placed in an air-steam mixture, liquid water droplets or film form Heat transfer Condensation Humid air a b s t r a c t Heat transfer during dehumidification on the surface if its temperature is sufficiently low. In this dehumidification process, the ambient air­steam

  5. Air Pollution (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states regulations for monitoring air pollution, methods for permit applications, emission limitations for pollutants and air quality standards.

  6. Mixed Layer Lateral Eddy Fluxes Mediated by Air-Sea Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuckburgh, Emily

    The modulation of air–sea heat fluxes by geostrophic eddies due to the stirring of temperature at the sea surface is discussed and quantified. It is argued that the damping of eddy temperature variance by such air–sea ...

  7. Geothermal heating for Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallis, F.; Schaper, J.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of geothermal resources in the town of Caliente, Nevada (population 600) has been the objective of two grants. The first grant was awarded to Ferg Wallis, part-owner and operator of the Agua Caliente Trailer Park, to assess the potential of hot geothermal water for heating the 53 trailers in his park. The results from test wells indicate sustainable temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/F. Three wells were drilled to supply all 53 trailers with domestic hot water heating, 11 trailers with space heating and hot water for the laundry from the geothermal resource. System payback in terms of energy cost-savings is estimated at less than two years. The second grant was awarded to Grover C. Dils Medical Center in Caliente to drill a geothermal well and pipe the hot water through a heat exchanger to preheat air for space heating. This geothermal preheater served to convert the existing forced air electric furnace to a booster system. It is estimated that the hospital will save an average of $5300 in electric bills per year, at the current rate of $.0275/KWH. This represents a payback of approximately two years. Subsequent studies on the geothermal resource base in Caliente and on the economics of district heating indicate that geothermal may represent the most effective supply of energy for Caliente. Two of these studies are included as appendices.

  8. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  9. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  10. UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings Sunday 19 heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES

  11. Efficiency improvement of a ground coupled heat pump system from energy management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Efficiency improvement of a ground coupled heat pump system from energy management N. Pardo a,*, Á coupled heat pump Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b s t r a c t The installed capacity of an air to improve the efficiency of a ground coupled heat pump air conditioning system by adapting its produced

  12. A Numerical Estimate of Flexible Short-tube Flow and Deformation with R-134a and R-410a 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bassiouny, R.; O'Neal, D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -tubes as an expansion device in air condi- tioners and heat pumps. The main function of the short-tube is to control refrigerant mass flow into the evaporator. When the condenser pressure increases due to an increase in the ambient temperature above the system...

  13. The Air or Brayton Cycle Solvent Recovery System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, B. J.

    compressor wheeland a turbi ne wheel are mounted on opposite ends of a common shaft. A counter flow heat exchanger serves to precool the turbine inlet air by heat exchange with the colder turbine exhaust air. This also reheats the cold exhaust air before... it is returned to the oven. Drive energy may be supplied with a gear drive to the shaft or by furnishing the compressor with solvent laden air precompressed to about 10-12 psig. The ai r is compressed to about 2 atmospheres (15-20 psig) before expansion...

  14. An Evaluation of Steady-State Dehumidification Characteristics of Residential Central Air Conditioners, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Chan, N.; Somasundaram, S.; Katipamula, S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conditioners, Air Source HeatPumps, and Sound-Rated Outdoor Unitary Equipment that ARI publishes twice a yearCl], In addition to the ARI certification, many manufacturerspublish detailed performance (capacity, efficiency, and dehumidification) data....2 - Performance and hardware data collectedfor this survey. 3.2 References 1. "Directory of Certified Unitary Air Conditioners, Air Source HeatPumps, and Sound-Rated Outdoor Unitary Equipment", Semi-Annual Issues, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute...

  15. Ambient Operation of Li/Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Deyu; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Williford, Ralph E.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, Li/air batteries based on nonaqueous electrolytes were investigated in ambient conditions (with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and relative humidity of ~20%). A heat-sealable polymer membrane was used as both an oxygen-diffusion membrane and as a moisture barrier for Li/air batteries. The membrane also can minimize the evaporation of the electrolyte from the batteries. Li/air batteries with this membrane can operate in ambient conditions for more than one month with a specific energy of 362 Wh kg-1, based on the total weight of the battery including its packaging. Among various carbon sources used in this work, Li/air batteries using Ketjenblack (KB) carbon-based air electrodes exhibited the highest specific energy. However, KB-based air electrodes expanded significantly and absorbed much more electrolyte than electrodes made from other carbon sources. The weight distribution of a typical Li/air battery using the KB-based air electrode was dominated by the electrolyte (~70%). Lithium-metal anodes and KB-carbon anodes account for only 5.12% and 5.78% of the battery weight, respectively. We also found that only ~ 20% of the mesopore volume of the air electrode was occupied by reaction products after discharge. To further improve the specific energy of the Li/air batteries, the microstructure of the carbon electrode needs to be further improved to absorb much less electrolyte while still holding significant amounts of reaction products

  16. Marketing Ground Source Heat Pump Advanced Applications that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marketing Ground Source Heat Pump Advanced Applications that Deliver Competitive Advantage Al is the fastest growing market with the available capital and need for the benefits of ground source heat pumps Heating ... and Cooling n Comfort & Indoor Air Quality n Homes have domestic hot water - DHW n Less

  17. Heat Recovery and Indirect Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckley, C. C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two thirds of the waste heat sources in the U.S. are in the low temperature range of less than 200 deg F. A primary contributor of this heat is building exhaust. Heat pipe exchangers are ideally suited for recovering this waste. Plant comfort air...

  18. Combined Flue Gas Heat Recovery and Pollution Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zbikowski, T.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the field of heat recovery now make it possible to recover a portion of the wasted heat and improve the working conditions of the air purification equipment. Proper design and selection of heat recovery and pollution control equipment as a combination...

  19. 2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for...

  20. air-conditioned office buildings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2. Adsorption versus absorptionAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration Amir Sharafian,...

  1. Thermal decay in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems: Fundamentals and influence on system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a comparison of room cooling load and supply air to roomtemperatures, cooling load profiles, supply airflow rate,water cooling coil, hot water heating coil and supply fan.

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - air force personnel Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NCI-FREDERICK Summary: of service by FME Utility Alarms: Examples include air handlers, heat pumps, exhaust fans, and CO2 tanks... of laboratory personnel to identify critical...

  3. An Air-Based Cavity-Receiver for Solar Trough Concentrators Roman Bader

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A numerical heat transfer model is developed to determine the receiver's absorption efficiency and pumping penalties. In this paper, a numerical heat transfer model of an air-based cylindrical cavity

  4. Analysis of radial fin assembly heat transfer with dehumidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosario, L.; Rahman, M.M. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is the analysis of heat transfer in a radial fin assembly during the process of dehumidification. An individual finned tube geometry is a reasonable representation of heat exchangers used in air conditioning. The condensation process involves both heat and mass transfer and the cooling takes place by the removal of sensible as well as latent heat. The ratio of sensible to total heat is an important quantity that defines the heat transfer process during a dehumidifier operation. A one-dimensional model for heat transfer in the fin and the heat exchanger block is developed to study the effects of condensation on the fin surface. The combined heat and mass transfer process is modeled by incorporating the ratio of sensible to total heat in the formulation. The augmentation of heat transfer due to fin was established by comparing heat transfer rate with and without fins under the same operating conditions. Numerical calculations were carried out to study the effects of relative humidity and dry bulb temperature of the incoming air, and cold fluid temperature inside the coil on the performance of the heat exchanger. Results were compared to those published for rectangular fin under humid condition showed excellent agreement when the present model was used to compute that limiting condition. It was found that the heat transfer rate increased with increment in both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of the air. The augmentation factor, however, decreased with increment in relative humidity and the dry bulb temperature.

  5. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  6. Stirling engine with air working fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, J. A.

    1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

  7. Study of Air Infiltration Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mingsheng

    SYSTEMATIC ERROR DUE TO THE STEADY-STATE COMBINED MODELS 127 SIMULATION AND NUMERICAL RESULTS 141 APPLICATION 150 SUMMARy 157 METHODOLOGy 158 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION 159 DISCRETIZATION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION 161 EXTERNAL NODE EQUATIONS 164... temperature. Clearly, the room heater does not need to heat the air from the outside temperature to the room temperature because it has already captured part of the conduction heat flowing through the wall. To properly estimate house energy consumption...

  8. Stirling engine with air working fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

  9. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  10. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  11. Dirty Air Conditioners: Energy Implications of Coil Fouling Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/ UC Berkeley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    . For typical residential heat pump and air conditioning Residential Buildings: Technologies, Design heat pump condenser coil will foul sufficiently to cause a 20 % reduction in performance over a 4 to 7 is based on a model of heat exchanger fouling that we developed specifically for residential heat

  12. Dirty Air Conditioners: Energy Implications of Coil Fouling Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/ UC Berkeley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . For typical residential heat pump and air conditioning #12;systems, they predict a 10 ­ 25 % average energy heat pump condenser coil will foul sufficiently to cause a 20 % reduction in performance over a 4 to 7 is based on a model of heat exchanger fouling that we developed specifically for residential heat

  13. Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants By Fluidized Beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraley, L. D.; Ksiao, H. K.; Thunem, C. B.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the alkali bypass gas stream with a specially designed fluidized bed cooler. The heat recovery tubes are kept clean by the scrubbing action of the fluidized bed. A circulating fluidized bed combustor utilizes hot air from the clinker cooler as preheated... combustion air. Air from the clinker cooler which is in excess of the combustion air required for the circulating fluidized bed, is used for preheating of boiler feedwater. A conventional economizer located in the gas stream is used for this service...

  14. Design Method for the Heating/Cooling Coil in the AHU Based on Fuzzy Logic - Part Two: Design of the Minimum Heat-Exchanging Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Liang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering a heating/cooling coil with adjustable heat-exchange area, an unequal type is put forward in this paper. Aiming at the application of such heat exchanger in an air-handling unit, restriction conditions are given for the minimum heat...

  15. air control system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a b s t r a c t This paper Li, Perry Y. 38 Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration...

  16. air toxics formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: on at least the folloving faotors& (a), fuel-air ratio& (b)& volatility and latent heat of the fuel; (c), humidity& pressure, and...

  17. air flow models: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tube represents one of the many in a honeycomb geometry inserted in a liquid piston air compressor to minimize temperature rise. A dimensionless number for the heat flow rate...

  18. atmospheric pressure air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and power for a given heat transfer capability and ambient temperature in an air motorcompressor to achieve a given pressure ratio. It is shown that the optimal frontier is...

  19. air velocity temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tube represents one of the many in a honeycomb geometry inserted in a liquid piston air compressor to minimize temperature rise. A dimensionless number for the heat flow rate...

  20. air handling unit: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    case of fans, or indirectly, in the case of heat exchangers, which impose loads on the chiller and boiler plant. Air-handling units can comprise a myriad of subsystems (fans,...

  1. air dispersion modeling: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    case of fans, or indirectly, in the case of heat exchangers, which impose loads on the chiller and boiler plant. Air-handling units can comprise a myriad of subsystems (fans,...

  2. air handling units: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    case of fans, or indirectly, in the case of heat exchangers, which impose loads on the chiller and boiler plant. Air-handling units can comprise a myriad of subsystems (fans,...

  3. Effect of Combustion Air Preheat on a Forged Furnace Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, M. E.; Bohn, J.; Davis, S. R.; Knowles, D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to determine are the effects of combustion air preheat on four additional furnace operating characteristics. These characteristics are: (1) fuel utilization of a furnace operating cycle; (2) time to heat the furnace load; (3) scale production; and (4) furnace...

  4. air water interfaces: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B 1999-01-01 198 Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China Texas A&M University...

  5. air defense system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system. Much is now known about the post-September Wang, Hai 377 Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems Texas A&M University -...

  6. air defense systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system. Much is now known about the post-September Wang, Hai 377 Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems Texas A&M University -...

  7. Air Flow Distribution in the Sales Area of a Supermarket

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, X.; Song, C.; Zhao, J.; Wang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many kinds of goods are displayed in a supermarket, which have their own particularities. The consumer flow rate is great and the type of shelved goods varies significantly, thereby influencing the objects that generate heat, and the demands of air...

  8. an-04-07 absorption-sorption heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  9. Research on Convective Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer of the Evaporator in Micro/Mini-Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, J.; Li, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the reviewers on the present household air conditioners, the potential requirements for new heat transfer enhancement used for household air conditioners are discussed. Investigations on condensation and boiling of refrigerants in mini/micro channels have...

  10. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  11. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air 2008, August 17-perception of indoor air quality during immediate and longeraddressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting

  12. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  13. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  14. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

  15. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space temperature, occupant thermal comfort, cooling and heating loads, HVAC equipment sizes, energy consumption, utility cost, air emissions, water usage, renewable

  16. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space temperature, occupant thermal comfort, cooling and heating loads, HVAC equipment sizes, energy consumption, utility cost, air emissions, water usage, renewable

  17. Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

  18. The Application of Frequency-Conversion Technology in Groundwater Source Heat Pump System Reconstruction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, X.; Song, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep well pump power is relatively ubiquitous in the groundwater heat pump air-conditioning system in some hotels in Hunan, and the heat pump usually meets the change of the load by throttling. Therefore, frequency conversion technology is proposed...

  19. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  20. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  1. The Application of Frequency-Conversion Technology in Groundwater Source Heat Pump System Reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, X.; Song, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep well pump power is relatively ubiquitous in the groundwater heat pump air-conditioning system in some hotels in Hunan, and the heat pump usually meets the change of the load by throttling. Therefore, frequency conversion technology is proposed...

  2. Feasibility of air capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjan, Manya

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

  3. Moving air for comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brager, L. Zagreus. 2007, “Air movement preferences observed709-731. 9. Toftum, J. 2004. “Air movement – good or bad? ”Indoor Air 14, pp 40-45. 10. Gong, N. , K. Tham, A. Melikov,

  4. Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenney, W. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aspects of the technology employed have been patented in the U.S. and elsewhere. This paper discusses the use of process heat and gas turbine exhaust for air preheat to provide plant fuel savings of about 8% over and above a modern, fuel efficient...

  5. Automatic Continuous Commissioning of Measurement Instruments in Air Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, F.; Wang, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    component analysis (PCA), is adopted and modified to monitor the air handling process. Two PCA models are built corresponding to the heat balance and pressure-flow balance of the air-handling process. Sensor faults can be detected and isolated using the Q...

  6. The citation for this paper is: Spitler, J.D., X. Liu, S.J. Rees, C. Yavuzturk. 2005. Simulation and Optimization of Ground Source Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are potentially more efficient than conventional air-to-air systems. In practice, ground-source heat pump systems and Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. 8th International Energy Agency Heat Pump Conference. Las Vegas. May 30-June 2. 1 #12;SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS J.D. Spitler

  7. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  8. Air Pollution Control (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter enumerates primary and secondary ambient air quality standards and the significant deterioration increments. Significant deterioration refers to an increase in ambient air pollution...

  9. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  10. ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN DAY PERFORMANCE FOR A RESIDENTIAL MODEL IN SIX CLIMATES: A COMPARISON OF NBSLD, BLAST 2, AND DOE-2.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, William L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lf.20 i 2.4E (1) Cumulative heating and cooling loads only.at the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and AirDecember 3-5, 1979 ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS

  11. MULTI-SCALE MODELING AND APPROXIMATION ASSISTED OPTIMIZATION OF BARE TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacellar, Daniel [University of Maryland, College Park; Ling, Jiazhen [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers are very common in air-conditioning, heat pump and refrigeration applications. In these heat exchangers, there is a great benefit in terms of size, weight, refrigerant charge and heat transfer coefficient, by moving from conventional channel sizes (~ 9mm) to smaller channel sizes (< 5mm). This work investigates new designs for air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers with tube outer diameter ranging from 0.5 to 2.0mm. The goal of this research is to develop and optimize the design of these heat exchangers and compare their performance with existing state of the art designs. The air-side performance of various tube bundle configurations are analyzed using a Parallel Parameterized CFD (PPCFD) technique. PPCFD allows for fast-parametric CFD analyses of various geometries with topology change. Approximation techniques drastically reduce the number of CFD evaluations required during optimization. Maximum Entropy Design method is used for sampling and Kriging method is used for metamodeling. Metamodels are developed for the air-side heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop as a function of tube-bundle dimensions and air velocity. The metamodels are then integrated with an air-to-refrigerant heat exchanger design code. This integration allows a multi-scale analysis of air-side performance heat exchangers including air-to-refrigerant heat transfer and phase change. Overall optimization is carried out using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The optimal designs found can exhibit 50 percent size reduction, 75 percent decrease in air side pressure drop and doubled air heat transfer coefficients compared to a high performance compact micro channel heat exchanger with same capacity and flow rates.

  12. Heat pumps: Industrial applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, and applications of heat pumps for industrial processes. Included are thermal energy exchanges based on air-to-air, ground-coupled, air-to-water, and water-to-water systems. Specific applications include industrial process heat, drying, district heating, and waste processing plants. Other Published Searches in this series cover heat pump technology and economics, and heat pumps for residential and commercial applications. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Rethinking energy conservation via an evaluation of the heating system: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellekoop, Michel

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3.1 HeatRethinking energy conservation via an evaluation of the heating system: A Case Study of Zilverling Intan Permatasari The purpose of this research is to study the heating system in Zilverling building

  14. Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

  15. Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of equipment that provides the heating energy (the furnace, boiler or heat pump) and the method usedLBNL 40587 Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution systems Vol. 104 Part 1 Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution

  16. The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining the advantage of measure...

  17. AiR surface: AiR surface 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

  18. Thermally Activated Desiccant Technology for Heat Recovery and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh, A. A.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desiccant cooling is an important part of the diverse portfolio of Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) designed for conversion of heat for the purpose of indoor air quality control. Thermally activated desiccant cooling incorporates a desiccant material that undergoes a cyclic process involving direct dehumidification of moist air and thermal regeneration. Desiccants fall into two categories: liquid and solid desiccants. Regardless of the type, solid or liquid, the governing principles of desiccant dehumidification systems are the same. In the dehumidification process, the vapor pressure of the moist air is higher than that of the desiccant, leading to transfer of moisture from the air to the desiccant material. By heating the desiccant, the vapor pressure differential is reversed in the regeneration process that drives the moisture from the desiccant. Figure 1 illustrates a rotary solid-desiccant dehumidifier. A burner or a thermally compatible source of waste heat can provide the required heat for regeneration.

  19. FACT SHEET: Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    reuses excess heat to warm Frito-Lay's chip fryer oil - cutting costs and reduce harmful air pollution. The Department is also supporting new CHP technologies that are cleaner,...

  20. Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...