National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for heaters refrigerators freezers

  1. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  2. General Guidelines for the Disposal of Refrigerators, Freezers, and other Refrigeration Abandon or dispose of refrigerators, freezers, or window air conditioning units in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cina, Jeff

    not Abandon or dispose of refrigerators, freezers, or window air conditioning units in dumpsters or in common working and nonworking household refrigeration units (refrigerators, freezers, window air conditioning

  3. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential refrigerators and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014.

  4. Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 through 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy-efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The EA presents the associated environmental impacts from four energy conservation standards for this type of household appliance. For purposes of this EA, each standard is an alternative action and is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for this type of product were finalized, i.e., the no action alternative. Of the four energy conservation standard levels considered, standard level 4 has the highest level of energy efficiency and the largest environmental impact. The proposed action implementing Standard Level 1 would have the least environmental impacts, through emission reductions, of the four alternatives. The description of the standards results from the appliance energy-efficiency analyses conducted for the rulemaking. The presentation of environmental impacts for each of the alternatives appears at Section 3 of the EA.

  5. 2014-07-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on July 10, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  6. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    assumptions: Assumes 24-ft3 capacity, vertical, solid-door refrigerators operated year round. The performance of the less efficient model just meets the U.S. Department of...

  7. Removing Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers after Food has Spoiled 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

    2005-09-30

    into the freezer?s insulation, contact the manufacturer for sug- gestions on solving the problem. However, sometimes nothing can be done to eliminate the odor. This information was excerpted and adapted from Food Safety in Hurricanes and Floods, by P. H. Schmutz...

  8. FIELD TEST OF A HIGH-EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC-DEFROST REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;FIELD TEST OF A HIGH-EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC- DEFROST REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER By Richard F. Topping and manufacture pre-production units for home usage tests. The purpose of the field test and the associated market been promising. The first five months of field test data have shown an average 57% decrease in energy

  9. Product Refrigerator Freezer Fresh, in shell 4 to 5 weeks Don't freeze

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Peter

    with USDA seal, unopened 2 weeks Don't freeze well Raw Hamburger, Ground & Stew Meat Hamburger & stew meats just before using. · If freezing meat and poultry in its original package longer than 2 monthsProduct Refrigerator Freezer Eggs Fresh, in shell 4 to 5 weeks Don't freeze Raw yolks, whites 2

  10. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    and W. David Lee Arthur D. Little, Inc. Abstract This paper describes the development of an energy in the design phase, a computer model was developed by Arthur D. Little, Inc. to simulate the cabinet Refrigeration, Inc., and Arthur D. Little, Inc. In combination, these seven design options were estimated

  12. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  13. Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011) |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial Opportunities »Refrigerator Standards

  14. Advanced insulations for refrigerator/freezers: The potential for new shell designs incorporating polymer barrier construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.

    1992-11-01

    The impending phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used to expand foam insulation, combined with requirements for increased energy efficiency, make the use of non-CFC-based high performance insulation technologies increasingly attractive. The majority of current efforts are directed at using advanced insulations in the form of thin, flat low-conductivity gas-filled or evacuated orthogonal panels, which we refer to as Advanced Insulation Panels (AIPs). AIPs can be used in composite with blown polymer foams to improve insulation performance in refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) of conventional design and manufacture. This AIP/foam composite approach is appealing because it appears to be a feasible, near-term method for incorporating advanced insulations into R/Fs without substantial redesign or retooling. However, the requirements for adequate flow of foam during the foam-in-place operation impose limitations on the allowable thickness and coverage area of AIPs. This report examines design alternatives which may offer a greater increase in overall thermal resistance than is possible with the use of AIP/foam composites in current R/F design. These design alternatives generally involve a basic redesign of the R/F taking into account the unique requirements of advanced insulations and the importance of minimizing thermal bridging with high thermal resistance insulations. The focus here is on R/F doors because they are relatively simple and independent R/F components and are therefore good candidates for development of alterative designs. R/F doors have significant thermal bridging problems due to the steel outer shell construction. A three dimensional finite difference computer modeling exercise of a R/F door geometry was used to compare the overall levels of thermal resistance (R-value) for various design configurations.

  15. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  16. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  17. Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a low cost, high efficiency heat transfer system; c) producing low cost, strong magnets. This project will mainly focus on item a and b. Target Market and Audience:...

  18. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Sharma, Vishaldeep

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  19. ISSUANCE 2015-07-31: Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Intent to Establish a Working Group for Certain Equipment Classes of Refrigeration Systems of Walk-in Coolers and Freezers to Negotiate a Notice of Proposed Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Intent to Establish a Working Group for Certain Equipment Classes of Refrigeration Systems of Walk-in Coolers and Freezers to Negotiate a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR) for Energy Conservation Standards

  20. Adapted from FDA refrigerator and freezer guidelines: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/HealthEducators/UCM109315.pdf Have you ever wondered how long you should keep things in the refrigerator or freezer? If so, then the chart below can he

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    freezer times are for quality purposes only. If you are freezing meat and poultry in its original package, chicken, tuna, ham, 3-5 days Don't freeze well or macaroni salad Fresh Meat (Beef, Veal, Lamb, & Pork and mixed greens) after the sell-by date. Store raw meat and poultry in a pan on the lowest shelf

  1. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartmentEnergy Air-CooledEnergy

  2. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  3. Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  4. Thermoacoustic refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, S.L.; Hofler, T.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Shortly after their introduction, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used as working fluids in a vapor compression (Rankine) refrigeration cycle became dominant in almost all small and medium-scale food refrigerator/freezer and building/residential air-conditioning applications. That situation is about to change dramatically and, at this moment, unpredictably. Two recent events are responsible for the new era in refrigeration that will dawn before the beginning of the 21st Century. The most significant of these is the international ban on the production of CFCs which were found to be destroying the Earth's protective ozone layer. The second event was the discovery of high temperature superconductors and the development of high speed and high density electronic circuits that require active cooling. It is the purpose of this article to introduce an entirely new approach to refrigeration that was first discovered in the early 1980s. This new approach-thermoacoustic refrigeration-uses high intensity sound waves to pump heat, with inert gases as the working fluid.

  5. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  6. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01

    have a domestic heat-pump water heater industry, there is apump manufacturing in South Africa’s refrigerator industry.

  7. Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant...

  8. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  9. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    been discontinued. Eligibility: Residential, Integrators Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps,...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heater Energy Optimization (Electric)- Commercial Efficiency Program Energy Optimization Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: RefrigeratorsFreezers,...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercial Efficiency Program Energy Optimization Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting,...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program (CIP) qua... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Residential, Agricultural Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting,...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Income Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, Building...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal, Daylighting, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Caulking...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Federal Government, Tribal Government, Agricultural, Institutional Savings Category: Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program" to encourage... Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters,...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    must receive its... Eligibility: Commercial Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    light... Eligibility: Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    appliances,... Eligibility: Industrial Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting,...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    efficient... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters,...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Institutional Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential, Institutional Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily Residential, Low Income Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Industrial, Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Government, InstallersContractors, Retail Supplier Savings Category: Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Boilers, Air conditioners,...

  11. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  12. Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    work like refrigerators in reverse. Solar water heaters Solar water heaters use the sun's heat to heat the water. They include a collector and a storage tank and are typically classified as passive or active

  13. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting This document is a report...

  14. The Effects of External Temperature on the Energy Consumption of Household Refrigerator-Freezers and Freezers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgess, Tiffany

    2015-06-30

    to improve efficiency and reduce consumption, it is important to understand how a unit behaves outside the design conditions. The forecasted annual energy consumption as published on the EnergyGuide sticker is determined by testing the unit at a specified...

  15. 6 Energy Saving Tips for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    consume up to 38,000 kilowatt-hours, resulting in high energy bills. To help businesses save energy and money, the Energy Department today announced new standards aimed at making...

  16. Ex Parte Communication_Kitable Refrigerator/Freezer Guidance | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLfor InnovativeProcessing22, 2014 TheMonday March 3,4,of Energy the

  17. Refrigerator-Freezers (multiple defrost waiver) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7,DOERTI |Service ofConditioning1:

  18. Residential Refrigerators-Freezers (Appendix A1) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale PowerNatural Gas

  19. 6 Energy Saving Tips for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment| Department ofApplianceU.S.Department of Energy supposeDepartmentof

  20. DOE Resolves Avanti Refrigerator and Freezer Civil Penalty Case |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominateEnergy U.S.Safety,of Energy|Department

  1. Demonstration Assessment of LED Freezer Case Lighting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting Host Site: Albertsons Grocery, Eugene, Oregon Final Report prepared in support of the U.S. DOE Solid...

  2. Integrated heat pump water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, G.P.; Blackshaw, A.L.

    1986-07-08

    An integrated heat pump water heater system is described for providing either heating or cooling of an interior space, and heating water in conjunction with either the heating or cooling cycle or independently, by means of a refrigerant flowing through the system. The system consists of: a compressor; a first heat exchanger means for providing heat to the interior space in the heating cycle and for removing heat during the cooling cycle by heat transfer with a refrigerant therein; a second heat exchanger means for transferring heat to or from a refrigerant therein by heat exchanger with an exterior medium; a third heat exchanger means for transferring heat from a refrigerant therein to water circulated therethrough; a first expansion device; a second expansion device; a third expansion device; refrigerant flow connection means connected between the compressor, the heat exchanger means, and the expansion devices which may be controllably connected in alternate configurations whereby. In a first configuration the refrigerant flow is sequentially from the compressor, through the third heat exchanger means, through the second heat exchanger means, through the first expansion device, through the first heat exchanger means, and back to the compressor. In a second configuration the refrigerant flow is sequentially from the compressor, through the third heat exchanger means, through the first heat exchanger means, through the second expansion device, through the second heat exchanger means, and back to the compressor. In a third configuration the refrigerant flow is sequentially from the compressor, through the third heat exchanger means, through the third expansion device, through the second heat exchanger means, and back to the compressor.

  3. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  4. ETME 422 -REFRIGERATION & HVAC SYSTEMS FALL 2011 LEC -10:00 -10:50am M W F RH 312

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    , fans, compressors, heat exchangers, heaters, refrigerators, etc.) of heating, ventilation, air Load - Introduction HVAC Systems Comfort and Health Solar Radiation Radiant Time Series Method Moist

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Motors, Motor VFDs, Yes; specific technologies not...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Custom...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Other EE PSEG Long Island- Residential...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Roofs, Other...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Air conditioners, Motor VFDs, Other EE, Pool Pumps Pacific Power- FinAnswer Express Pacific Power's FinAnswer...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Combined Heat & Power, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combined Heat & Power, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Heat recovery,...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Boilers, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Other EE Gross Receipts...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Boilers, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Other EE TVA- Mid-Sized...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Pool Heating, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Heat...

  19. New Appliance Tax Credits, Rebates, and Incentives for Consumers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    air conditioners Clothes washers Dishwashers Freezers Furnaces (oil and gas) Heat pumps (air source and geothermal) Refrigerators Room air conditioners Water heaters State...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    l... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Local Government, Schools, State Government Savings Category: RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors,...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Windows, Doors, Siding,...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing,...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, DuctAir sealing, Windows, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Heat recovery, Windows, Processing and Manufacturing...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothermal Heat Pumps, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Other EE PSEG Long Island- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters,...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    as follows: Eligibility: Low Income Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers,...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Daylighting, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    programs, residents... Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or measures. Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Heat...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    InstallersContractors, Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Savings Category: Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air...

  14. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It's potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  15. Refrigerator: Refrigerators and freezers are not typically constructed to assure that there is no

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Robert E.

    The Industrial Hygiene Program (IHP) provides several services to limit employee exposure to noise which could plugs are available for inspection in the Industrial Hygiene Program and may be purchased through

  16. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G W

    1992-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical point, without evaporation, as working fluid in a refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling cycle. We discuss relevant properties of appropriate liquids, and describe two Malone refrigerators. The first completed several years ago, established the basic principles of use of liquids in such cycles. The second, now under construction, is a linear, free-piston machine.

  17. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-06-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It`s potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  18. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  19. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  20. Portable solar heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilar, L.J.

    1981-08-18

    A portable solar heater combines a self-contained hot air and heat storage system having a collector area with adjustable reflectors in a unit that can be moved from room to room as needed. The heater has fans for circulation of the solar heater air and provides both direct and indirect heat transfer to the ambient room air.

  1. Refrigerated Warehouses Introduction Page 8-1 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Manual August 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    heating in freezers, evaporator fan controls, compressor part load efficiency in specific applications than 3,000 ft² in floor area. Additionally, areas within refrigerated warehouses designed solely Btu/hr-ft² of floor space, which is equivalent to 2 tons per 100ft² of floor space, at conditions

  2. Packaged die heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  3. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    also want to consider some less conventional storage water heaters -- heat pump water heaters and solar water heaters. These water heaters are usually more expensive but they...

  4. Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heater, Tankless Electric - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water Heaters Water Heaters (Storage...

  5. Water Heaters (Storage Oil) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil) Water Heaters (Storage Oil) Water Heater, Storage Oil - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Storage Electric)...

  6. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  7. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  8. Portable solar heater structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holley, D.; Holley, D.E.

    1981-09-08

    Portable solar heater structure is described. A substantially rectangular frame has a back with openings therethrough for permitting air to be drawn into the solar heater. A layer of insulating materials is in contact with the back. A plurality of cupshaped solar collectors open toward the front of the solar heater structure are positioned adjacent the insulating material. A cover is over the front of the solar heater having openings therein adjacent the top thereof through which air heated by the solar heater is passed. A passage is between the openings in the back and cover of the solar heater through which relatively cool air is drawn through the openings in the back over the collectors to be heated for subsequent withdrawal through the openings in the cover.

  9. Helium-Based Soundwave Chiller: Trillium: A Helium-Based Sonic Chiller- Tons of Freezing with 0 GWP Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Penn State is designing a freezer that substitutes the use of sound waves and environmentally benign refrigerant for synthetic refrigerants found in conventional freezers. Called a thermoacoustic chiller, the technology is based on the fact that the pressure oscillations in a sound wave result in temperature changes. Areas of higher pressure raise temperatures and areas of low pressure decrease temperatures. By carefully arranging a series of heat exchangers in a sound field, the chiller is able to isolate the hot and cold regions of the sound waves. Penn State’s chiller uses helium gas to replace synthetic refrigerants. Because helium does not burn, explode or combine with other chemicals, it is an environmentally-friendly alternative to other polluting refrigerants. Penn State is working to apply this technology on a large scale.

  10. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, ML); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  11. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  12. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

  13. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    forty gallon residential gas-fired storage water heater wasthat could replace a gas-fired storage water heater with adefined a baseline gas-fired storage water heater that meets

  14. Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    (Hvaporisation >> Hmelting), for example: water The Carnot power cycle can be executed in a reverse within the 8.11.2012Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering - Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 3/64 The Carnot power cycle can be executed in a reverse within the saturation dome of a refrigerant fluid Reversed Carnot

  15. Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    - compression cycle Sources for "cheap heat" could be waste heat from power generation or steamp g plants, a refrigeration cycle can be driven by heat (preferably 100-200°C) The replaces the compressor in a vapour to the surroundings in a d i th ttl d tcondenser, is throttled to low pressure and takes up heat in the evaporator

  16. U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Young, Scott J.; Yang, Hung-Chia; Long, Timothy; Beraki, Bereket; Price, Sarah K.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2013-11-14

    Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various “miscellaneous” refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,981 clean survey responses were obtained from five distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3±1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(–3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 4.4(–2.7,+2.3) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated that there were 3.6±1.0 million hybrid refrigerator-wine/beverage coolers and 0.9±0.5 million hybrid freezer-wine/beverage coolers in U.S. households. We also obtained estimates of miscellaneous refrigeration product capacities, lifetimes, purchase and installation costs, repair frequencies and costs, and maintenance costs. For wine/beverage coolers, we also obtained information on the penetration of built-in units, AC/DC operating capability, the use of internal lights, and distributions of door opening frequencies. This information is essential to develop detailed estimates of national energy usage and life-cycle costs, and would be helpful in obtaining information on other plug-load appliances. Additional information not highlighted in the main report was presented in Appendices.

  17. Portable kerosene heater controversy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, M.O.

    1982-04-01

    The National Kerosene Heater Association reports sales of slightly fewer than two million heaters in the United States between 1975 and 1979. More than one million were sold in 1980 and they project sales of eight to ten million by 1985. Kerosene heater dealers are urged to post warnings to customers specifying the grade of kerosene to be used. 1-K kerosene has a maximum sulfur content of .04% and is generally suitable for use in nonflue-connected burners. 2-K kerosene, with a sulfur content of as much as .30% should be used only in flue-connected burner applications. (JMT)

  18. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I. (Santa Fe, NM); Edwards, Bradley C. (Los Alamos, NM); Buchwald, Melvin I. (Santa Fe, NM); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  19. Explosives tester with heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  20. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  1. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2009-01-01

    improvements to baseline gas storage water heaters over theminor. Currently, the gas storage water heater market isimprovements to baseline gas storage water heaters over the

  2. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1995-09-05

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters May 4, 2012 - 5:21pm Addthis A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for...

  4. Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Small space heaters, also called portable heaters, are typically used when the main heating...

  5. Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 6:03pm Addthis An example of a solar pool heater. An example of a solar pool heater. You can significantly...

  6. Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters An example of a solar pool heater. An example of a solar pool heater. You can significantly reduce swimming pool heating costs by...

  7. Oil and Gas Air Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01

    Most conventional air heaters adopt indirect heat transfer, which uses combustion gases to indirectly heat fresh air by heating surfaces to generate hot air used for material drying and dehumidification. We call them indirect air heaters. However...

  8. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  9. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  10. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  11. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  12. Optimal refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armen E. Allahverdyan; Karen Hovhannisyan; Guenter Mahler

    2010-07-25

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two $n$-level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures $T_h$ and $T_c$, respectively ($\\theta\\equiv T_c/T_hisolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and {\\it vice versa}. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two system. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by $\\zeta_{\\rm CA}=\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{1-\\theta}}-1$ (an analogue of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency $\\zeta_{\\rm C} = \\frac{1}{1-\\theta}-1$. The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit $\\theta\\to 1$. The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for $\\ln n\\gg 1$. If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by $\\zeta_{\\rm CA}$ and converges to it for $n\\gg 1$.

  13. SYMPOSIUM PAPER TC7.1 -DOMESTIC REFRIGERATORS AND FOOD FREEZERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . Arthur D. Little, Inc. was the prime contractor for the project, with Amana serving as a sub using a computer program developed by Arthur D. Little, Inc. for Phase I of this project.2

  14. Energy use of US residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivation based on household and climate characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    of RECS annual energy consumption data with a UAF functionGather as much field energy consumption data as possible 2.field energy consumption from RECS data Standard-size

  15. Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographiclighbulbs - high-resolution JPG20,1LLC | Department

  16. Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographiclighbulbs - high-resolution JPG20,1LLC | DepartmentIssued:

  17. Heat pump water heater and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

  18. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  19. Plant Site Refrigeration Upgrade 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdrojewski, R.; Healy, M.; Ramsey, J.

    1999-01-01

    Bayer Corporation operates a multi-division manufacturing facility in Bushy Park, South Carolina. Low temperature refrigeration (-4°F) is required by many of the chemical manufacturing areas and is provided by a Plant Site Refrigeration System...

  20. Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by Jerone Gagliano, director of Energy Engineering Performance Systems Development, about residential water heating technology and how to choose the right water heater.

  1. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rculperformance of solar thermos i phon water heaters with heatSolar Jubilee, Phoenix, AZ, June 2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS

  2. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01

    PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M.PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M.The Performance of Solar Water Heaters with Natu)""al

  3. Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

  4. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient...

  5. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01

    I For the compact heater, the solar absorption rate equalsPERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M.PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M.

  6. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15, 2012 - 6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over...

  7. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    8 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water HeaterAssess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heater Marketassess California’s small gas storage water heater market.

  8. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  9. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  10. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  11. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  12. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC)...

  13. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  14. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  15. A REDUCED OBSERVER DESIGN FOR A FREEZING PROCESS IN PLATE FREEZERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    A REDUCED OBSERVER DESIGN FOR A FREEZING PROCESS IN PLATE FREEZERS Christoph Josef Backi, Jan Tommy, Norway christoph.backi@itk.ntnu.no jan.tommy.gravdahl@itk.ntnu.no INTRODUCTION The process of freezing fish to a block in a vertical plate freezer (Figure 1) is studied. The aim is to monitor freezing time

  16. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    1998-04-28

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

  17. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

    1998-04-28

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

  18. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  19. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  20. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  1. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  2. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  3. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  4. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  5. Promising Technology: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A heat pump water heater uses electricity to transfer heat from the ambient air to stored water, as opposed to an electric resistance water heater, which uses electricity to generate the heat directly. This enables the heat pump water heater to be 2 to 3 times as efficient as an electric resistance water heater.

  6. Promising Technology: Tankless Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tankless gas water heater does not have a storage tank, as a conventional water heater does. Instead, a tankless water heater instantaneously heats water flowing over the heat exchanger coils when there is hot water demand. Because there is no tank, tankless water heaters have no standby energy losses that are associated with storage units. Another non-energy saving benefit is that a tankless water heater is much more compact.

  7. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    B: Input Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1.no baffle present SCREEN G: WATER SUPPLY AND DRAW PIPEfor EIDs (sec) 0.0 9. Supply Water Temperature (F) 58.00 10.

  8. Portable Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of air in a room), some rely on radiant heating. Radiant heaters emit infrared radiation that directly heats objects and people within their line of sight, and are a more...

  9. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (R.D. #2, Box 101 E, North Troy, NY 12182)

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  10. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  11. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC (180�ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  12. NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

    2012-04-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

  13. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater...

  14. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) Development2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiencyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  15. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) DevelopmentKelso, J. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiency

  16. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01

    M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  17. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  18. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology combined with occupancy sensors in a set of upright grocery store freezer cases.

  19. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  20. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters May 2, 2012 - 6:47pm Addthis Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. How...

  1. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater November 6, 2014 - 7:30pm Addthis Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing...

  2. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and pool use, they may not be the most energy-efficient option when compared to heat pump and solar pool heaters. How They Work Gas pool heaters use either natural gas or...

  3. Powering Your Water Heater Using Solar Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Daniel

    2013-02-13

    This report is a detailed overview of my research on solar water heating. Solar water heaters may be used to either supplement or even replace a standard water heater. In addition to being environmentally friendly, solar ...

  4. A New Approach to Optimizing Fired Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2010-01-01

    Fired heaters are the largest consumers of energy in refineries and petrochemical plants. Most heaters in the industry are not operating at their peak efficiency. There could be several reasons for that. One of the common reasons is the fluctuation...

  5. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  6. Energy Conservation in Process Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagge, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    for the first case are given while the second concept is examined in more detail. Upgrading of heater efficiency should primarily aim at transferring as much energy as feasible to the actual process. When this is not possible the secondary target should...

  7. Pilot Testing of Commercial Refrigeration-Based Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Deru, Michael; Trenbath, Kim; Doebber, Ian; Studer, Daniel

    2015-10-08

    Supermarkets potentially offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns. This report describes a pilot project conducted to better estimate supermarket DR potential. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and anti-condensate heaters. This project was concerned with evaluating DR using the refrigeration system and quantifying the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems. Ancillary aims of the project were to identify practical barriers to the implementation of DR programs in supermarkets and to determine which high-level control strategies were most appropriate for achieving certain DR objectives. The scope of this project does not include detailed control strategy development for DR or development of a strategy for regional implementation of DR in supermarkets.

  8. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cain, J.M. , Great Falls, VA )

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  9. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  10. Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; Dhooge, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    refrigerants have become expensive or unavailable. A safe, environmentally friendly, high performance refrigerant mixture for replacement of R-12 and R-134a has been developed. The mixture, designated Ikon B, is nonflammable, has zero ozone depletion potential...

  11. Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, H. Z.

    1982-01-01

    heat recovery from refrigeration machines is a concept which has great potential for implementation in many businesses. If a parallel requirement for refrigeration and hot water exists, the installation of a system to provide hot water as a by...

  12. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  13. Refrigeration monitor and alarm system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branz, M.A.; Renaud, P.F.

    1986-09-23

    A monitor is described for a refrigeration system including a heat reclaiming system coupled therewith, comprising: a sensor positioned to detect the level of liquid state refrigerant in the system and provide an electrical output signal therefrom; a digital display for displaying the refrigerant level; first circuit means coupling the digital display to the sensor for actuating the digital display; and lockout means coupled with the sensor for deactivating the heat reclaiming system when a preselected refrigerant level is reached.

  14. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2011-01-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  15. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2013-03-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  16. Variable Refrigerant Flow HVAC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, S.

    2013-01-01

    Variable refrigerant flow technology HVAC CATEE 2013 San Antonio, TX ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 What is the acronym VRF? ? Variable Refrigerant Flow Operates like a... heat pump utilizing VFD Inverter Compressors and LEV’s Unlike conventional commercial and residential HVAC systems in the USA The predominate method of cooling and heating in the world ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

  17. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well asmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  18. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  19. Exergy analysis of magnetic refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    One of the main challenges of the industry today is to face its impact on global warming considering that the greenhouse effect problem is not be solved completely yet. Magnetic refrigeration represents an environment-safe refrigeration technology. The magnetic refrigeration is analysed using the second law analysis and introducing exergy in order to obtain a model for engineering application.

  20. Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady; Michael Patrick (Oak Ridge, TN), Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno (Oak Ridge, TN), Vitek; John Michael (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-03-23

    Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

  1. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menotti, James Louis (Dickinson, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  2. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit...

  3. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01

    households with water heaters, solar water heaters areMODELING THE IMPACT OF SOLAR WATER HEATERS ON THE REDUCTIONinsurance industry as a solar water heater driver in South

  4. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renewabletankless combined space/water heaterds, solar water heaters,combined solar space/water heater, electric water heaters

  5. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01

    households with water heaters, solar water heaters areMODELING THE IMPACT OF SOLAR WATER HEATERS ON THE REDUCTIONconditions than solar water heaters, and therefore provide

  6. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    condensing tankless com- bined space/water heaters, solarmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ablewater heaters, combined solar space/water heater, electric

  7. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  8. Conserving Energy in Blast Freezers Using Variable Frequency Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolbe, E.; Ling, Q.; Wheeler, G.

    2004-01-01

    ,280 cfm. This might fall by 25% in a fully loaded room. Fan motors were nominal 7-1/2 HP inverter-duty models manufactured by Baldor. Refrigeration System An engine roo m dedicated to freezing operations had a total capacity intended to meet... Baldor Model ID15H430-EO, rated for a 40 HP variable torque load. Other significant components were: - The enclosure; - A ?choke? or line reactor on the incoming line to the VFD. This serves two purposes: it protects the VFD electronics from...

  9. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-07-01

    We ordinarily think of a sound wave in a gas as consisting of coupled pressure and displacement oscillations. However, temperature oscillations always accompany the pressure changes. The combination of all these oscillations, and their interaction with solid boundaries, produces a rich variety of `thermoacoustic` effects. Although these effects as they occur in every-day life are too small to be noticed, one can harness extremely loud sound waves in acoustically sealed chambers to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators. Whereas typical engines and refrigerators have crankshaft-coupled pistons or rotating turbines, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators have at most a single flexing moving part (as in a loudspeaker) with no sliding seals. Thermoacoustic devices may be of practical use where simplicity, reliability or low cost is more important than the highest efficiency (although one cannot say much more about their cost-competitiveness at this early stage). This paper discusses the fundamentals of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, research in this field, and their commercial development. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Joint used for coupling long heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menottie, James Louis

    2013-02-26

    Systems for coupling ends of elongated heaters and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include two elongated heaters with an end portion of one heater abutted or near to an end portion of the other heater and a core coupling material. The core coupling material may extend between the two elongated heaters. The elongated heaters may include cores and at least one conductor substantially concentrically surrounds the cores. The cores may have a lower melting point than the conductors. At least one end portion of the conductor may have a beveled edge. The gap formed by the beveled edge may be filled with a coupling material for coupling the one or more conductors. One end portion of at least one core may have a recessed opening and the core coupling material may be partially inside the recessed opening.

  11. Water Heaters (Storage Electric) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. waterheaterstorageelectricv1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Water Heaters (Storage...

  12. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-23

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  13. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  14. Process Heater for Stoichiometric Combustion Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To heat liquids and induce chemical reactions during production processing, the refining and chemicals industries rely on process heaters and boilers that consume large amounts of fuel. Bambeck...

  15. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

  16. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  17. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-11

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  18. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01

    flow from low-mass collectors to the solar preheat tank isANALYSIS [Collectors I For the compact heater, the solar

  19. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  20. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  1. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  2. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  3. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  4. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  5. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  6. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's space heating system to heat water. They're part of what's called...

  7. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. How does it work? Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use your home's heating system to heat water. Tankless coil and...

  8. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between multiple organizations performing their part in the test.

  9. Regenerative Boiler Feedwater Heater Economics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    heater stage. INTRODUCTION The evolution of power plant cycles has been characterized by advancements in materials of cunstruction, and constrained by economics of the times. Our understanding of the physical laws (e.g., first and second laws... 11 ion. For an es:t imated installed cost of $350,000, the NROI will ~pproach 130 percent. Somewhere. be tween these two ;points. the real investment probably lies. CASE STUDY 2 In this eva luat iq'n, the high-pressure feed preheater...

  10. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  11. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  12. Refrigerants in Transition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stouppe, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    . 27-30. 7. Hayes, Floyd C., "Centrifugal\\~ater Chillers," CFCs: Today's Options Tomorrow's Solutions, ASHRAE Publication, Atlanta, GA, 1990, pp. 71-73. 8. Lorenz, Michael R., "CFCs: The Designer's Dilemma," Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning, April 1990... IN TRANSITION DAVID E. STOUPPE, P.E. Senior Engineer The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company Hartford,. Connecticut ABSTRACT The massive growth of air conditioning and refrigeration has been a direct result of the development of a...

  13. Fort Meade demonstration test LEDS in freezer rooms, fiber optics in display cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Steven; Parker, Graham B.

    2008-10-25

    Demonstration projects at Fort George G. Meade, MD, substituted LED lighting for incandescent bulbs in commisary wal-in freezers and fiber optic lighting in reach-in display cases. The goal was to reduce energy consumption and the results were positive. Journal article published in Public Works Digest

  14. MODELING OF THE FREEZING PROCESS FOR FISH IN VERTICAL PLATE FREEZERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    MODELING OF THE FREEZING PROCESS FOR FISH IN VERTICAL PLATE FREEZERS Christoph Backi, Jan Tommy at the freezing system on board. Aims of this study: Find a model to estimate the temperature distribution in a fish block during freezing in vertical platefreezers. For a known temperature distribution the energy

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ROOMS & WALK-IN FREEZERS SAFE WORK PRACTICES Uses: Environmental rooms are designed to control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    ENVIRONMENTAL ROOMS & WALK-IN FREEZERS ­ SAFE WORK PRACTICES Uses: Environmental rooms are designed chemistry and biology. Ventilation: Environmental rooms typically have a closed circulation system, which. Therefore, the contained atmosphere of an environmental room poses considerable safety concerns. A hazardous

  16. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems --...

  17. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for gas storage...

  18. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal...

  19. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States...

  20. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Water Heaters Appliance Gas storage water heaters Definitionto use for rating gas-fired storage and instantaneous waterefficiency for all gas-fired storage and instantaneous water

  1. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  2. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  3. Measured impacts of supermarket humidity level on defrost performance and refrigerating system energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, H.I.; Khattar, M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents field-monitor data from two supermarkets where the impact of space humidity on refrigerating system energy use was evaluated. Direct digital control (DDC) systems were used at both stores to collect 15-minute monitored data. At Store A in Minneapolis, the DDC system was used to monitor system performance as well as to implement temperature-terminated control in place of time-terminated control on 16 refrigerated zones using hot gas defrost. At Store B in Indianapolis, the DDC system was used to quantify the performance trends for the single compressor rack system with electric defrost. The results at Store B showed that refrigerating system energy use decreases by nearly 10 kWh/day for each 1% drop in space relative humidity, or about 0.4% of average annual system energy use. This value includes the impact of reduced latent loads, the reduction in direct energy use and imposed load from reduced electric defrost heater operation, and the smaller imposed load from reduced anti-sweat heater energy use. The measured reductions agree well with the impact predicted using the calculation methods developed by Howell (1933b) in ASHRAE Research Project 596. At Store A, the measured data show that implementing temperature-terminated defrost reduced refrigerating system energy use by nearly 70 kWh/day over the winter period when the average space humidity was 22% RH. The savings from temperature-terminated defrost increase by 4 kWh/day per each 1% drop in relative humidity. At both stores, the same type of mechanical controls were used to duty cycle the anti-sweat heaters based on store dew point. Anti-sweat heater electricity use was observed to decrease by 4.6 kWh/day at Store B and 3.4 kWh/day at Store A for each 1% drop in relative humidity. At Store A, a more aggressive control scheme was implemented with the DDC system that reduced anti-sweat heater energy use by 7.8 kWh/day per % RH. The more aggressive control approach was reported to properly control fogging and condensation on display case surfaces. The overall energy reduction factor at the two stores was 12 kWh/day per % RH at Store A and 15 kWh/day per % RH at Store B. With more aggressive anti-sweat heater control, reduction factors as high as 20 kWh/day per % RH appear to be possible.

  4. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and it will become hotter. Move it away (demagnetization) and the food cools down. GE researchers predict the cooling refrigerators could reduce energy consumption by 20%, in...

  5. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-28

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  6. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Study on Eco-Design of Water Heaters, Van Holstein en Kemnaand Assessment” in Water Heating Rulemaking TechnicalG. Smith, Tankless Gas Water Heaters: Oregon Market Status,

  7. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-Emission Refrigeration System Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for...

  8. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut Businesses' Energy Bills and Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut...

  9. New Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Reduce Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Traditional supermarket refrigeration systems found in most grocery stores across the country are vulnerable to issues which can cause significant refrigerant leakage – especially with older...

  10. New Advanced Refrigeration Technology Provides Clean Energy,...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Refrigeration Technology Provides Clean Energy, Low Utility Bills for Supermarkets New Advanced Refrigeration Technology Provides Clean Energy, Low Utility Bills for...

  11. The New York Power Authority`s energy-efficient refrigerator program for the New York City Housing Authority -- 1997 savings evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Miller, J.D.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the estimation of the annual energy savings achieved from the replacement of 20,000 refrigerators in New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) public housing with new, highly energy-efficient models in 1997. The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) pays NYCHA`s electricity bills, and agreed to reimburse NYCHA for the cost of the refrigerator installations. Energy savings over the lifetime of the refrigerators accrue to HUD. Savings were demonstrated by a metering project and are the subject of the analysis reported here. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) identified the refrigerator with the lowest life-cycle cost, including energy consumption over its expected lifetime, through a request for proposals (RFP) issued to manufacturers for a bulk purchase of 20,000 units in 1997. The procurement was won by Maytag with a 15-ft{sup 3} top-freezer automatic-defrost refrigerator rated at 437 kilowatt-hours/year (kWh/yr). NYCHA then contracted with NYPA to purchase, finance, and install the new refrigerators, and demanufacture and recycle materials from the replaced units. The US Department of Energy (DOE) helped develop and plan the project through the ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Partnerships program conducted by its Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL designed the metering protocol and occupant survey used in 1997, supplied and calibrated the metering equipment, and managed and analyzed the data collected by NYPA. The objective of the 1997 metering study was to achieve a general understanding of savings as a function of refrigerator label ratings, occupant effects, indoor and compartment temperatures, and characteristics (such as size, defrost features, and vintage). The data collected in 1997 was used to construct models of refrigerator energy consumption as a function of key refrigerator and occupant characteristics.

  12. A small self-powered space heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menchen, W.R.; McAlonan, M.

    1995-12-31

    The work described combines the use of thermoelectric energy conversion with diesel burner technology, yielding a forced convection heater that does not require the use of external electric power. A heater of this type has both commercial and military application if, at reasonable cost, it is safe, portable and easy to operate. Self-powered refers to a design approach where part of the heat generated by a burner is used to produce all of the electrical power required to run system components. A successful self-powered heater requires careful attention to heat transfer and pressure drop so that power requirements and hence cost can be minimized.

  13. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  14. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Ginestra, Jean Charles (Richmond, TX)

    2011-07-26

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  15. Heat Pump Water Heater Durabliltiy Testing - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, VAND.

    2004-05-29

    Ten heat pump water heaters (HPWH) were placed in an environmentally controlled test facility and run through a durability test program of approximately 7300 duty cycles (actual cycles accumulated ranged from 6640 to 8324 for the ten units). Five of the units were upgraded integral types (HPWH mounted on storage tank, no pump) from the same manufacturer as those tested in our first durability program in 2001 (Baxter and Linkous, 2002). The other five were ''add-on'' type units (HPWH with circulation pump plumbed to a separate storage tank) from another manufacturer. This durability test was designed to represent approximately 7-10 years of normal operation to meet the hot water needs of a residence. The integral units operated without incident apart from two control board failures. Both of these were caused by inadvertent exposure to very hot and humid (>135 F dry bulb and >120 F dew point) conditions that occurred due to a test loop failure. It is not likely that any residential water heater would be installed where such conditions were expected so these failures are not considered a long-term reliability concern. Two of the integral HPWHs featured a condensate management system (CMS) option that effectively eliminated any need for an evaporator condensate drain, but imposed significant efficiency penalties when operating in high humidity ambient conditions. The add-on units experienced no operational failures (breakdowns with loss of hot water production) during the course of the testing. However, their control systems exhibited some performance degradation under the high temperature, high humidity test conditions--HPWHs would shut off with tank water temperatures 15-20 F lower than when operating under moderate ambient conditions. One unit developed a refrigerant leak during the test program and lost about 50% of its charge resulting in reduced efficiency. Efficiency measurements on all the integral units and four of the add-on units showed significantly higher efficiencies than conventional electric water heaters (EWH). DOE Simulated Use Tests conducted prior to starting the durability testing resulted in energy factors (EF) of about 2.3 for the integral design and 1.4 for the add-on design compared to the minimum value of 0.86 prescribed for EWHs. Based on the experience from this and the previous durability testing, there is no evidence that strongly suggests that any of the HPWHs suffered significant performance degradation after undergoing over 7000 water heat cycles.

  16. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  17. Device for collecting emissions from kerosene heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilloti, N.J.

    1984-09-04

    An apparatus for both improving the heat distribution throughout a room from a portable kerosene heater and for collecting undesirable emissions resulting from the burning of the kerosene, includes a base adapted to be mounted on the top of the heater, the base supporting a vertically extending shaft on which is mounted a heat-driven fan formed of either paper or metal, and a disposable disk mounted a spaced distance above the fan on the same shaft, the disk serving as a collector for the undesirable emissions. When the device is placed on an operating kerosene heater, the rising hot air and gases from the heater cause the fan to rotate, which in turn causes emissions from the burning fuel to move upwardly in a more or less cylindrical path. As the products of combustion move upwardly, certain emissions therein such as soot, oily vapors, etc. deposit or condense onto the surface of the spinner and disposable disk.

  18. How Control Improvements Save Process Heater Fuel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukelow, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Steam boilers and process heaters are the two primary combustion processes in petrochemical and petroleum refining plants. There are key differences in the evolution of these processes which resulted from the historical cost of fuel per unit...

  19. Heater head for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darooka, D.K.

    1988-09-06

    A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

  20. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  1. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  2. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

    1992-01-01

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

  3. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, J.A.

    1992-03-31

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

  4. Phase change material storage heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goswami, D. Yogi (Gainesville, FL); Hsieh, Chung K. (Gainesville, FL); Jotshi, Chand K. (Gainesville, FL); Klausner, James F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  5. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    tankless com- bined space/water heaters, solar watermarket research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ableheaters, combined solar space/water heater, electric water

  6. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  7. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  8. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    76 to 379 liters) for gas storage water heaters and aStorage Water Heaters Gas Storage Water Heaters Electricand PBP Results for Gas Storage Water Heaters LCC Average

  9. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  10. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualifyboth a gas furnace and gas storage water heater. This study

  11. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    pool's water, the water drawn from the pool passes through a filter and the heat pump heater. The heat pump heater has a fan that draws in the outside air and directs it over the...

  12. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

  13. ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the Next Five Years ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the...

  14. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or demand-type water heaters heat water directly without the use of a storage tank Heat pump water heaters move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat...

  15. Getting Warmer: Solar Water Heaters Grade Levels: 6 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    water heaters use energy from the sun to heat water. The water heater is made up of a collector and a storage tank. In the collector, energy from the sun is absorbed the rubber tubing in the collector

  16. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  17. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A household can receive a maximum of two solar water heater rebates. Rebate amounts vary slightly based upon installed equipment. Rebates will be $1,250 for solar water heaters with an OG-300 rat...

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory studied heat pump water heaters, an efficient, cost-effective alternative to traditional electric resistance water heaters that can improve energy efficiency by up to 62%.

  19. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National...

  20. Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE September 15, 2015 - 3:41pm Addthis Xergy Inc. and GE...

  1. Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative- Residential Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative offers up to $300 for the purchase of an electric water heater. The rebate amount varies based on the size of the water heater purchased.

  2. Which Water Heater Is Right for You? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Which Water Heater Is Right for You? March 5, 2015 - 11:07am Addthis Investing in a more energy efficient water heater can save you money in the long run. | Photo courtesy of...

  3. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 1:49pm Addthis How a heat pump works. How a heat pump works. How They Work Heat pumps use electricity...

  4. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a demand water heater at each hot water outlet. ENERGY STAR estimates that a typical family can save 100 or more per year with an ENERGY STAR qualified tankless water heater....

  5. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

  6. Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherell, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    of Cascade Refrigeration and Liquefaction Systems", Industrial Engineering Chemicals, Process Des. Develop., Vol. 13, No.4, 1974, pp. 421-433. 5. Cheng, W.B., and Mah, R.S.H., "Interactive Synthesis of Cascade Refrigeration Systems", Indus trial...

  7. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

  8. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

  9. WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water Heaters

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE. regulators consumer advocates WIPP UpdateDepartmentofas

  10. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  11. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  12. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  13. Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    properties Kilmarnock Scotland demonstration History of Carbon Dioxide (R744) as Refrigerant CO2 proposed · Introduction to Thar Geothermal · Carbon Dioxide (R744) the Environmentally Exceptional Refrigerant · Thar Scale, Direct Exchange Design Carbon Dioxide (co2) R744 the Safe & Natural Refrigerant #12;150 Gamma

  14. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  15. Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  16. Fridges to fight childhood disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lerner, T.

    1983-04-01

    A solar-powered refrigerator/freezer has been installed in a medical center in Bhoorbaral, India. The installation and performance of the refrigerator/freezer are described.

  17. Energy Department Issues New Appliance Efficiency Standards ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and heating equipment; commercial refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers; automatic commercial ice makers; and commercial clothes washers. The Department of Energy...

  18. Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @compute.dtu.dk www.compute.dtu.dk M.Sc.-2013-87 #12;Summary (English) The Danish power production coming from energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present Thesis

  19. A recuperative superfluid stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, J.G.; Swift, G.W.

    1993-07-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator has been built with a counterflow heat exchanger serving as a recuperative regenerator. It has achieved temperatures of 296 mK with a 4% {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixture. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for a 6.6% mixture.

  20. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

  1. Electric heater for nuclear fuel rod simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reginald W. (Knoxville, TN); Morgan, Jr., Chester S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dial, Ralph E. (Concord, TN)

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an electric cartridge-type heater for use as a simulator for a nuclear fuel pin in reactor studies. The heater comprises an elongated cylindrical housing containing a longitudinally extending helically wound heating element with the heating element radially inwardly separated from the housing. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of boron nitride electrically insulate the heating element from the housing while providing good thermal conductivity. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of magnesia or a magnesia-15 percent boron nitride mixture are disposed in the cavity of the helical heating element. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the magnesia or the magnesia-boron nitride mixture is higher than that of the boron nitride disposed about the heating element for urging the boron nitride radially outwardly against the housing during elevated temperatures to assure adequate thermal contact between the housing and the boron nitride.

  2. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    "B. Sparn, L. Earle, D. Christensen, J. Maguire, and E. Wilson, C.E. Hancock

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  3. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

    1990-09-11

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

  4. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA); McDermott, Wayne T. (Allentown, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  5. Analysisi Benchmark of the Single Heater Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.M. Wade; H. Marr; M.J. Anderson

    2006-07-27

    The Single Heater Test (SHT) is the first of three in-situ thermal tests included in the site characterization program for the potential nuclear waste monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The heating phase of the SHT started in August 1996 and was concluded in May 1997 after 9 months of heating. Cooling continued until January 1998, at which time post-test characterization of the test block commenced. Numerous thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical sensors monitored the coupled processes in the unsaturated fractured rock mass around the heater (CRWMS M&O 1999). The objective of this calculation is to benchmark a numerical simulation of the rock mass thermal behavior against the extensive data set that is available from the thermal test. The scope is limited to three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations of the computational domain of the Single Heater Test and surrounding rock mass. This calculation supports the waste package thermal design methodology, and is developed by Waste Package Department (WPD) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 3, BSCN 1, Calculations.

  6. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  7. Switchover software reliability estimate for Paducah Freezer/Sublimer computer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, D.M.; Davis, J.N.

    1993-04-01

    K-25 Engineering Division purchased a series of redundant computer systems and developed software for the purpose of providing continuous process monitoring and control for the Freezer/Sublimer equipment in the gaseous diffusion process at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The application software is loaded on two central processing units (CPU) so that in the event of a failure of the primary unit, the processing can switch to the backup unit and continue processing without error. It is the purpose of this document to demonstrate the reliability of this system with respect to its ability to switch properly between redundant CPU. The total reliability estimation problem -- which considers the computer hardware, the operating system software, and the application software -- has been reduced to one that considers only the application software directly involved in the switchover process. Estimates are provided for software reliability and the testing coverage. Software and hardware reliability models and reliability growth models are considered in addition to Bayesian approaches.

  8. Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Products: Test Procedures for Water Heaters; Final Rule,"Testing of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance," DavisInc. , "T-K2 Instantaneous Water Heater Installation Manual

  9. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01

    Emissions from Residential Water Heaters Table of Contents46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentally50 Table 11. Published information for water heater

  10. Energy Efficient Commercial Refrigeration with Carbon Dioxide Refrigerant and Scroll Expanders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, John

    2013-04-04

    Current supermarket refrigeration systems are built around conventional fluorocarbon refrigerants – HFC-134a and the HFC blends R-507 and R404A, which replaced the CFC refrigerants, R-12 and R-502, respectively, used prior to the Montreal Protocol phase out of ozone depleting substances. While the HFC refrigerants are non-ozone depleting, they are strong greenhouse gases, so there has been continued interest in replacing them, particularly in applications with above average refrigerant leakage. Large supermarket refrigeration systems have proven to be particularly difficult to maintain in a leak-tight condition. Refrigerant charge losses of 15% of total charge per year are the norm, making the global warming impact of refrigerant emissions comparable to that associated with the energy consumption of these systems.

  11. Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); DeRossi, Raymond S. (Amsterdam, NY); Mullins, Lawrence E. (Middle Grove, NY)

    1993-01-01

    A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a prober assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

  12. Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX)

    2012-04-03

    A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

  13. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Refrigeration Cycle 1 Refrigeration Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    COP W Q COP , , The Reversed Carnot Cycle Reversing the Carnot cycle does reverse the directions of heat and work interactions. A refrigerator or heat pump that operates on the reversed Carnot cycle refrigerator. The reversed Carnot cycle is the most efficient refrigeration cycle operating between two

  14. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by 50% compared to today's best common practice - Alternative refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP) are needed to achieve these goals - Provide guidance to the...

  15. Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review New Project Lee Jestings (lee@S-RAM.com), Project Summary Timeline: Key Partners: Start date:...

  16. Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Level: 7 - Full system prototype tested in a controlled environment Patent Status: Thermoacoustic Refrigerators and Engines Comprising Cascading Stirling Thermodynamic Units, US...

  17. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kW air-to-water and air-to- refrigerant heat exchangers Investigate conventional and additive manufacturing techniques Analyze system level performance of novel heat...

  18. High Efficiency Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Low Emission Refrigeration System 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Brian Fricke, frickeba@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

  19. Miniaturized Air to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Improving Data Center Efficiency with Rack or Row...

  20. Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    beverage vending machines are the General Services Administration (GSA) and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). GSA sells refrigerated beverage vending machines through its...

  1. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.

    2012-05-01

    A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

  2. Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc- Residential Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Aiken Electric Cooperative offers residential members rebates for installing high-efficiency electric water heaters and/or timers in their homes. Customers have four rebate options: 

  3. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  4. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01

    pump water heater might be more exposed to the outdoor environment, such as garages and crawlspaces, a 5- year preventative maintenance cost

  5. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

  6. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to building occupants. Unit heaters are a major source of energy use nationally, accounting for nearly 18% of primary space heating energy use for commercial buildings, and...

  7. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    overcame market barriers to widespread implementation of solar water heaters, thanks to local high-level government champions, financial incentives, and a locally sensitive...

  8. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Commission. California’s Water-Energy Relationship. Novemberthe monthly hot water draw and energy usage for household2001 Department of Energy Water Heater Rulemaking Technical

  9. Shipping device for heater unit assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaushild, Ronald M. (Export, PA); Abbott, Stephan L. (Monroeville, PA); Miller, Phillip E. (Greensburg, PA); Shaffer, Robert (Swissvale, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A shipping device for a heater unit assembly (23), the heater unit assembly (23) including a cylindrical wall (25) and a top plate (31) secured to the cylindrical wall (25) and having a flange portion which projects radially beyond the outer surface of the cylindrical wall (25), and the shipping device including: a cylindrical container (3) having a closed bottom (13); a support member (47) secured to the container (3) and having an inwardly directed flange for supporting the flange portion of the top plate (31); a supplemental supporting system (1) for positioning the heater unit assembly (23) in the container (3) at a spaced relation from the inner surface and bottom wall (13) of the container (3); a cover (15) for closing the top of the container (3); and a container supporting structure (5,7,8) supporting the container (3) in a manner to permit the container (3) to be moved, relative to the supporting structure (5,7,8 ), between a vertical position for loading and unloading the assembly (23) and a horizontal position for transport of the assembly (23). A seal (57) is interposed between the container (3) and the cover (15) for sealing the interior of the container (3) from the environment. An abutment member (41) is mounted on the container supporting structure (5,7,8) for supporting the container bottom (13), when the container (3) is in the vertical position, to prevent the container (3) from moving past the vertical position in the direction away from the horizontal position, and a retainer member (55) is secured within the cover (15) for retaining the assembly top plate (31) in contact with the support member (47) when the cover (15) closes the top of the container (3).

  10. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater March 2, 2015 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY...

  11. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    associated with the EU water heater test procedure loadEU test procedure for water heaters. Load No. Delivered Max.period to allow the water heater to adjust completely to

  12. ELECTRICAL HEATERS FOR THERMO-MECHANICAL TESTS AT THE STRIPA MINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burleigh, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    5.5 Dewatering Pump 6. ELECTRICAL HEATER CONTROL SYSTEMS 6.1water influx ABSTRACT Electrical heaters were installed atcanister) which houses the electrical heater elements; c. d.

  13. Commercial Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment ofCommercial Grade Dedication (CGD) isWater Heaters --

  14. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerants Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Brian Fricke...

  15. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies...

  16. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

  17. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of lower global warming potential (low-GWP) alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon...

  18. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Lead Performer: National Institute of Standards and Technology -...

  19. High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cooler relative to current heat exchanger technology are additional refrigerated space, noise reduction, and fouling reduction. Additional refrigerated volume realized by the more...

  20. Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units This project discusses a CARB Level 2+ verified active regeneration...

  1. China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2008-01-01

    Urban Refrigerator Stocks, 1990-2006 5 Figure 3 China's Energy Information Label for Refrigerators.. 6 Figure 4 China's Voluntary Energy Efficiency

  2. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  3. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) OE Framework Document...

  4. Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate...

  5. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications...

  6. New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases February 20, 2015 - 4:55pm Addthis New...

  7. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for...

  8. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01

    tube Flue Temperature Varies with water heater Air inletnear water heater Air inlet near water heater APT: Automated99 Figure 56. Air intake for water heater AW07. Temperature

  9. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: RefrigeratorsFreezers, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Motor VFDs, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment...

  11. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    heaterds, solar water heaters, combined solar space/watermarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewableheaters, combined space heating and water heating appliances 3 , solar

  12. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

  13. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reg W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dial, Ralph E. (Concord, TN); Finnell, Wilber K. R. (Kingston, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocuple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  14. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  15. Pollutant emissions from portable kerosene-fired space heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traynor, G.W.; Allen, J.R.; Apte, M.G.; Girman, J.R.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1983-06-01

    Indoor use of unvented combustion appliances is known to cause an increase in indoor air pollutants. We conducted laboratory tests on two radiant and two convective portable kerosene-fired space heaters to identify the pollutants they emit and to determine their emission rates. Results show that carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and formaldehyde were emitted by both types of heaters and that the radiant heaters and one of the convective heaters also emitted trace amounts of fine particles. When such heaters are operated for 1 h in a 27-m/sup 3/ chamber with 0.4 air changes per hour, the resultant CO/sub 2/ concentrations are well above the U.S. occupational standard, and NO/sub 2/ concentrations are well above California's short-term outdoor standard.

  16. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  17. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  18. Novel materials for laser refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hehlen, Markus P

    2009-01-01

    The status of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids is reviewed, and the various factors that limit the performance of current laser-cooling materials are discussed. Efficient optical refrigeration is possible in materials for which {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} < E{sub p}/8, where {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} is the maximum phonon energy of the host material and E{sub p} is the pump energy of the rare-earth dopant. Transition-metal and OH{sup -}impurities at levels >100 ppb are believed to be the main factors for the limited laser-cooling performance in current materials. The many components of doped ZBLAN glass pose particular processing challenges. Binary fluoride glasses such as YF{sub 3}-LiF are considered as alternatives to ZBLAN. The crystalline system KPb{sub 2}CI{sub 5} :Dy{sup 3+} is identified as a prime candidate for high-efficiency laser cooling.

  19. Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

  20. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  1. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Middleton, Marc G. (Wyoming, MI); Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH)

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  2. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    1991-01-01

    sorption media. 'i: ! 60 1 60 I 40 SO I 20 a 10 J 0 CC48G-1110 AclivallJd carbon Uquld-II0p0r ~OO-1300 Zealllll Figure 2. Useable refrigerant densities. Summarizing, complex compound exhibit inherent characteristics which make them ideal... refrigerant density than is attainable with any other sorption media. Figure 2 shows usable refrigerant densities for complex compounds and other sorption media. 'i: ! 80 60 1 40 SO 20 a 10 J 0 CC48G-1110 AcIivallld carbon Uqukl-II0p0r ~OO-1300Zaalllll Figure...

  3. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution relied heavily on computational fluid dynamic predictions of design alternatives. The final design features modular separate radiant cells, each with one and two-side fired vertical tubes. The convection section configuration is vertical tube banks enclosed in the radiant channels. Commercial modular plate air preheaters are used. The predicted performance for the integrated advanced heater and Callidus burner is 95 percent efficiency with 9 ppm NOx emissions firing natural gas, and 12 ppm firing refinery gas. The total erected cost is less than a conventional heater with combustion air preheat.

  4. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    heaters. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Berkeley, CA.Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building

  5. Page 1 of 3 05.123 Portable Space Heaters October 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    Page 1 of 3 05.123 Portable Space Heaters October 2009 05.123 PORTABLE SPACE HEATERS Authority 502 Related Links: Portable Space Heater Usage Request Responsible Office: Physical Plant. General 1. The use of portable space heaters on campus is prohibited except in those locations that have

  6. THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the heat pump water heater

  7. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  8. Performance of an integrated heat pump gas-fired water heater system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torab, H.; Sonntag, R.E.

    1984-08-01

    The unsatisfactory performance of the heat pump water heaters (air-to-water) in colder ambient temperatures is the main obstacle to the expansion of the residential market for this device. On the other hand, the price increase of natural gas in the 1980's encourages retrofitting or replacing the existing gas-fired water heaters. The present study examines the possibility of retrofitting the gas-fired water heater with a heat pump water heater. The result of the investigation on the thermodynamic and economic performance of a water heater system comprised of a heat pump water heater and a gas-fired water heater is presented in this paper.

  9. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo [Oklahoma State University

    2015-01-01

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been the most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).

  10. International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  11. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  12. Loveland Water & Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loveland Water & Power is providing an incentive for customers to recycle older, working refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old...

  13. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  14. Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor the installation.

  15. Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

    2006-01-01

    As a mature applied technology, the largest obstacle to the promotion of the solar water heater is the high initial investment that makes an impact on consumers' choices. The initial investment and maintenance cost of the ...

  16. Making Water Heaters More Efficient | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Making Water Heaters More Efficient Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to...

  17. Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Technology is now available to increase heater efficiencies to 92 percent and more. By 1980, this technology will be field proven and corrosion and reliability problems identified and resolved. Recent studies have shown that a minimum efficiency...

  18. Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1983-01-01

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of ...

  19. A Gas-Fired Heat Pipe Zone Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J.

    1984-01-01

    A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar...

  20. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  1. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    heaters, or hot water supply boilers. Storage water heaterper gallon of stored water. 2 Hot water supply boiler meansa packaged boiler that has an input rating from 300,000 Btu/

  2. Air-pollutant emissions from kerosene space heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaderer, B.P.

    1982-12-10

    Air pollutant emissions from portable convective and radiant kerosene space heaters were measured in an environmental chamber. Emission factors for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen depletion are presented. The data suggest that the use of such heaters in residences can result in exposures to air pollutants in excess of ambient air quality standards and in some cases in excess of occupational health standards.

  3. Kerosene vs. electric portable heaters: the question of risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leff, H.S.

    1984-03-01

    As home heating costs have risen, more and more people have turned to portable electric and kerosene space heaters. Kerosene heaters are cheaper to run than electric, but there are numerous health and safety issues - many of them unanswered - associated with their use. Among the issues discussed are indoor air pollution by sulfur dioxide, the life-cycle costs, the deposition of pollution on furniture, and the fire hazards.

  4. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX)

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  5. Improved Combustion Efficiencies - Control Systems for Process Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varma, A. C.; Prengle, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    % O 2 ) by using high efficiency low excess air burners. 3. Installing modern combustion control systems for automatic control of proper air/fuel ratio to optimize heater combustion. 4. Reducing radiation losses from the furnace to about 1... fuels. CONVENTIONAL HEATER CONTROLS A conventional control system is defined as the minimum control instrumentation necessary, as illustra ted by Figure 3. The feed outlet temperature controller provides the set point for the burner fuel pressure...

  6. Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

    2006-01-01

    With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

  7. Quantum heat engines and refrigerators: Continuous devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronnie Kosloff; Amikam Levy

    2013-10-02

    Quantum thermodynamics supplies a consistent description of quantum heat engines and refrigerators up to the level of a single few level system coupled to the environment. Once the environment is split into three;a hot, cold and work reservoirs a heat engine can operate. The device converts the positive gain into power;where the gain is obtained from population inversion between the components of the device. Reversing the operation transforms the device into a quantum refrigerator. The quantum tricycle, a device connected by three external leads to three heat reservoirs is used as a template for engines and refrigerators. The equation of motion for the heat currents and power can be derived from first principle. Only a global description of the coupling of the device to the reservoirs is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Optimisation of the devices leads to a balanced set of parameters where the couplings to the three reservoirs are of the same order and the external driving field is in resonance. When analysing refrigerators special attention is devoted to a dynamical version of the third law of thermodynamics. Bounds on the rate of cooling when approaching the absolute zero are obtained by optimising the cooling current. At low temperature all refrigerators show universal behavior. Restrictions on the system imposed by the dynamical version of the third law are studied.

  8. Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrer, P. J.; Jones, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two moderately sized ammonia refrigeration systems retrofitted for floating head pressure control. It also presents a parametric analysis to assist in selecting appropriate pressures in an ammonia refrigeration...

  9. Refrigerant pressurization system with a two-phase condensing ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergander, Mark (Madison, CT)

    2009-07-14

    A refrigerant pressurization system including an ejector having a first conduit for flowing a liquid refrigerant therethrough and a nozzle for accelerating a vapor refrigerant therethrough. The first conduit is positioned such that the liquid refrigerant is discharged from the first conduit into the nozzle. The ejector includes a mixing chamber for condensing the vapor refrigerant. The mixing chamber comprises at least a portion of the nozzle and transitions into a second conduit having a substantially constant cross sectional area. The condensation of the vapor refrigerant in the mixing chamber causes the refrigerant mixture in at least a portion of the mixing chamber to be at a pressure greater than that of the refrigerant entering the nozzle and greater than that entering the first conduit.

  10. Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    775 Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering P. A systems developed specifically for neutron scattering environ- ments. The refrigerators are completely relatively recently however, the lowest temperatures available in almost all neutron scattering laboratories

  11. Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In a mucilage glue fiber factory, the design of the refrigeration system takes into account the characteristics of mucilage glue fiber production and fully uses the refrigeration compressor heat to economize energy and reduce the production cost...

  12. Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New HVAC, water heating, and appliance technologies that work without conventional refrigerants are critical for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to reach its long-term goal of cutting building...

  13. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alekseev, A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  14. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  15. T N YORK, NEW YORKI AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    lDC) r; T N YORK, NEW YORKI OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING /*s\\ TECHNICAL ANDITI

  16. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  17. Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In Are Commercial Buildings?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie; Brown, Richard; Busch, John; Pinckard, Margaret; Roberson, Judy

    2007-01-01

    refrigerator, small uninterruptible power supply exam table,PIPS, ILPS, uninterruptible power supply, charger (for

  18. Cooling at the quantum limit and RF refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Cooling at the quantum limit and RF refrigeration Jukka Pekola Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki (electromagnetic) heat transport Cooling at the quantum limit: experiments RF refrigeration in a single as a refrigerator Optimum cooling power is reached at V 2/e: Cooling power of a NIS junction: Temperature TN

  19. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

    2003-01-01

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  20. Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

    1997-11-25

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

  1. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  2. Kerosene space heaters--combustion technology and kerosene characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubayashi, k.; I Wasaki, N.

    1984-07-01

    This paper describes kerosene combustion technology. Unvented wick-type kerosene space heaters are very popular in Japan because of their economy and convenience. In recent years new vaporized kerosene burners having premixed combustion systems have been developed to solve some of the problems encountered in the older portable type. Some of the features of the new burners are instantaneous ignition, no vaporizing deposit on the burner and a wide range heating capacity. These new kerosene heaters have four major components: an air supply fan, a fuel supply assembly, a burner assembly and a control assembly. These heaters are designed to be highly reliable, have stable combustion characteristics, yield minimum carbon deposit. Finally, they are simple and inexpensive to operate.

  3. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable proportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005.degree. C. at a flow rate of 50 cm.sup.3 /second with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  4. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1984-06-13

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable porportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005/sup 0/C at a flow rate of 50 cm/sup 3//sec with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  5. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  6. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Patio Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    heater to each customer into account. Bioethanol burners and electric infrared heaters were chosen, the Ecosmar+tm Fire AB3 Bioethanol Burner, and the PARAMOUNT +tm Offset Pole Mounted Stainless Steel Infrared

  7. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    test procedures for solar water heaters characterizes systemWasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/Newheaters/Annex_IV_8July08 International Organization for Standardization, "Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 9459-4 Solar

  8. Numerical analysis of thermal-hydrological conditions in the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens T.; Tsang, Yvonne W.

    1998-01-01

    Single Heater Test at Yucca Mountain, LBNL-39789, E.O. Law­Single Heater Test at Yucca Mountain Jens T. Birkholzer andwaste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heating phase of the

  9. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater March 2, 2015 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water...

  10. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics for a New Type of Air Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, H.; Fan, X.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new type air heater was developed, and an experimental set-up was built to analyze its characteristics. Within the Reynolds number from 2000 to 15000, the integrated characteristics in air heater channels with and without ...

  11. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  12. Solubility modeling of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    A general model for predicting the solubility properties of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures has been developed based on applicable theory for the excess Gibbs energy of non-ideal solutions. In our approach, flexible thermodynamic forms are chosen to describe the properties of both the gas and liquid phases of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. After an extensive study of models for describing non-ideal liquid effects, the Wohl-suffix equations, which have been extensively utilized in the analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures, have been developed into a general form applicable to mixtures where one component is a POE lubricant. In the present study we have analyzed several POEs where structural and thermophysical property data were available. Data were also collected from several sources on the solubility of refrigerant/lubricant binary pairs. We have developed a computer code (NISC), based on the Wohl model, that predicts dew point or bubble point conditions over a wide range of composition and temperature. Our present analysis covers mixtures containing up to three refrigerant molecules and one lubricant. The present code can be used to analyze the properties of R-410a and R-407c in mixtures with a POE lubricant. Comparisons with other models, such as the Wilson or modified Wilson equations, indicate that the Wohl-suffix equations yield more reliable predictions for HFC/POE mixtures.

  13. Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    in the booster pump suction line to prevent pump cavitation and to improve refrigeration cycle effi ciency. Por each lOOp of sUDcooling, cycle efficiency increases by about 2%. Approxi mately 20 0 p of subcooling is planned for the modified system...

  14. Measurements with a recuperative superfluid Stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, A.; Swift, G.W.; Brisson, J.G.

    1995-08-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator cooled to 168 mK using a 4.9% {sup 3}He- {sup 4}He mixture and exhausting its waste heat at 383 mK. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for 4.9%, 17%, and 36% mixtures. At the highest concentration, a dissipation mechanism of unknown origin is observed.

  15. Frontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conversion, which harnesses the oscillations of temperature, heat flux, pressure, and motion in intense sound-transfer and acoustic components and filled with a gas-- typically high-pressure helium. Refrigeration is produced because gas that oscillates through the cold heat exchanger is depressurized adiabatically on the pulse

  16. The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu

    2011-12-02

    We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

  17. Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

  18. Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including refrigerated beverage vending machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  19. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  20. Modeling and Test-and-Rate Methods for Innovative Thermosiphon Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Shoukas, G.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

    2006-05-01

    Conference paper regarding research in modeling and test-and-rate methods for thermosiphon solar domestic water heaters.

  1. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

  2. Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

  3. A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS William P a heat pump water heater (HPWH). After developing the HPWH, a field-test plan was implemented whereby 20 estimates were that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) could save from 50 to 70% of the energy used

  4. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  5. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  6. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  7. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  8. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  9. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  10. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  11. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Steven A.; Pratt, Richard M.; Chassin, Forrest S.

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  12. Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-02-14

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

  13. Measurements of the efficiency and refrigeration power of pulse-tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, S.; Radebaugh, R.

    1986-09-01

    Pulse-tube or thermoacoustic refrigerators have the potential for high reliability since they require only one moving part - an oscillating piston or diaphragm at room temperature. If a tube is closed at one end and connected to a pressure-wave generator at the open end, and if the phase angle between mass flow and pressure is shifted from 90/sup 0/, then refrigeration occurs at the open end. The shift in phase angle can be realized by thermal relaxation between the gas and the tube walls or by an orifice at the closed end. A low temperature of 60 K using helium gas in a one-stage orifice pulse tube has been achieved at NBS. The report describes the first measurements of the efficiency, refrigeration power, and refrigeration power per unit mass flow, for three pulse-tube refrigerators. Three tube sizes, differing in length and diameter, were studied over a frequency range of 3 to 11.5 Hz. Cooling efficiencies as high as 90% of the Carnot efficiency were obtained when compressor and regenerator losses are neglected.

  14. Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

    2013-04-29

    An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

  15. Delmarva Power- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: Rebates for ENERGY STAR appliances on air conditioners, freezers, water heaters purchased after Feb 1, 2015 have been discontinued.  

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Freezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt....

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Caulking...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Freezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Motors, Other EE, LED Lighting Energy Optimization (Electric)- Residential Efficiency Program Energy Optimization...

  19. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2012-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  20. Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

  1. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric)...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Replacement: 50 Dishwasher Replacement: 20 Freezer: 25 Room Air Conditioner: 25 Water Heater: 50 Electric Heat Pump Water Heaters: 100 Circulating Fans: 25 - 75...

  2. Microcomputer Software for Refrigerant Property and Cycle Analysis Calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierschenk, J. L.; Strohl, S. T.; Schmidt, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    .e., minimum temperature difference betweeD the refrigerant and the process stream) in the evapo rator and condenser on the energy utilization and cooling requirements for the refrigeration system. The assumed refrigeration load is 30 million Btu... on an existing system for purposes of improving energy utilization efficiency. Consider the case of a chiller for a commercial office building, operating on R12 at an evapo rator temperature of 42 deg F. During typical summer conditions, the chiller provides...

  3. Supermarket with Ground Coupled Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehault, N.

    2012-01-01

    SUPERMARKET WITH GROUND COUPLED CARBON DIOXIDE REFRIGERATION PLANT Dipl.-Ing. Nicolas R?hault Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE ICEBO 2012 Manchester, 25.10.2012 ? Fraunhofer ISE 2 AGENDA 1. Background on supermarkets, energy...- conditioning: Insulation and air tightness to Passivhaus Standard CO2 refrigeration plant as only energy supply No use of fossil fuels Use of ground to sub-cool refrigerant and as heat source for heat pump Use of covers and night curtains LED...

  4. Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - 2013 BTO Peer Review Better Buildings Alliance Equipment Performance Specifications - 2013 BTO Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

  5. Test results on a supercharged compressor for commercial refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Butcher, T.A.; Wilhelm, W.G. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a project whose objective was to quantify the technical benefits of using refrigerant R-502 in a supercharged reciprocating compressor for commercial refrigeration applications. The supercharged compressor concept used a special heat exchanger that subcools the major portion of the liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser. This subcooling is achieved by flashing the remaining portion of the condensed liquid through an expansion valve, thereby cooling it, and using it to absorb heat from the rest of the refrigerant. This supercharged stream is then fed to the cylinders through ports in the cylinder walls that are uncovered when the piston reaches bottom dead center.

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Radial Sandia Cooler Report Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact...

  7. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    final rule regarding test procedures for commercial refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014. Though it is not...

  8. Acoustic recovery of lost power in pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Gardner, D.L.; Backhaus, S.

    1999-02-01

    In an efficient Stirling-cycle cryocooler, the cold piston or displacer recovers power from the gas. This power is dissipated into heat in the orifice of an orifice pulse tube refrigerator, decreasing system efficiency. Recovery of some of this power in a pulse tube refrigerator, without sacrificing the simplicity and reliability inherent in a system with no cold moving parts, is described in this paper. In one method of such power recovery, the hot ends of both the regenerator and the pulse tube are connected to the front of the piston driving the refrigerator. Experimental data is presented demonstrating this method using a thermoacoustic driver instead of a piston driver. Control of time-averaged mass flux through the refrigerator is crucial to this power recovery, lest the refrigerator{close_quote}s cooling power be overwhelmed by a room-temperature mass flux. Two methods are demonstrated for control of mass flux: a barrier method, and a hydrodynamic method based on turbulent irreversible flow. At {minus}55{degree}C, the refrigerator provided cooling with 9{percent} of the Carnot coefficient of performance. With straightforward improvements, similar refrigerators should achieve efficiencies greater than those of prior pulse tube refrigerators and prior standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerators, while maintaining the advantages of no moving parts. {copyright} {ital 1999 Acoustical Society of America.}

  9. New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solstice N40 offer supermarkets an easy solution to reduce their refrigeration system's electricity consumption, save energy, and cut greenhouse gas emissions. The Building...

  10. Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and...

  11. Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards...

  12. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  13. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  14. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  15. Tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstrations Daniel A. Russell and Pontus Weibulla)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Daniel A.

    Tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstrations Daniel A. Russell and Pontus Weibulla; accepted 22 April 2002 An inexpensive less than $25 tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstration in the literature, this demonstration model effectively illustrates the behavior of a thermoacoustic refrigerator

  16. Energy Efficient Design, Retrofit and Control of Evaporative Condensers in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Energy Efficient Design, Retrofit and Control of Evaporative Condensers in Ammonia Refrigeration ABSTRACT Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because efficiency of ammonia refrigeration systems. Introduction About 7.5% of the total manufacturing energy

  17. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

  18. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential5 Commercial5 Water Heater

  20. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  1. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  2. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  3. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  4. Changing Industrial Energy Behavior Via Education: Case Study of an Energy Efficiency Refrigeration Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClaren, Mersiha; Phoutrides, Steve; O'Neil, Nick; McRae, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    refrigeration systems efficiently, while more executivesour refrigeration systems efficiently Middle manager (n=28)Value of Operating Equipment Efficiently Vendors are selling

  5. Changing Industrial Energy Behavior Via Education: Case Study of an Energy Efficiency Refrigeration Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClaren, Mersiha; Phoutrides, Steve; O'Neil, Nick; McRae, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Changing Industrial Energy Behavior Via Education: Casewith the operation of industrial refrigeration plants,aim was to encourage industrial refrigeration professionals

  6. GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Fredrich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Technologies3 Achema 2012 // heat pumps using ammonia Industrial demand on heat in Germany Heatdemandin Fredrich GEA Grasso heat pumps using ammonia ­ the megawatt range #12;GEA Refrigeration Technologies2 Achema 2012 // heat pumps using ammonia Heat pumps using ammonia ­ a sustainable choice How to improve

  7. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhyankar, Nikit

    2011-01-01

    refrigerators, water heaters (solar, natural gas, LPG) andwith natural gas or solar heaters), space cooling (replacingof electric water heaters by solar water heaters (iv)

  8. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Prenger, Jr., F. Coyne (Madison, WI)

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe of pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  9. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1985-10-25

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  10. Commercial Refrigeration Equipment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower Ventures Jump to:Information9176632°,InformationRefrigeration

  11. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-10-31

    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

  12. Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Statement Regarding Walk-in CoolerWalk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in CoolerWalk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems This policy is...

  13. Hisense USA: Order (2010-CE-1211)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued an Order after entering into a Compromise Agreement with Hisense USA Corp. after finding Hisense USA had failed to certify that certain models of residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. Hisense USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-1211)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Hisense USA Corp. failed to certify a variety of residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  15. Restoration of Refinery Heaters Using the Technique of Prefabricated Ceramic Fiber Lined Panels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sento, H. D.

    1981-01-01

    OF REFINERY HEATERS USING THE TECHNIQUE OF PREFABRICATED CERAMIC FIBER LINED PANELS Henry D. Sento Exxon Co. U.S.A., Refining Department Baton Rouge, Louisiana ABSTRACT Refinery heater fuel requirements often represent HEATER COMPONENTS 50... in position and seal welded. This completes the job. TYPICAL RESTORATION These are Panels Being Shop Prefabricated Prior to Turnaround 25 ESL-IE-81-04-04 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981...

  16. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  17. Effects on carbon monoxide levels in mobile homes using unvented kerosene heaters for residential heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.; Walsh, D.; White, J.; Jackson, M.; Mumford, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old. These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. Respondents were asked to operate their heaters in a normal fashion. CO, air exchange and temperature values were measured during the study in each home. Results indicate that consumers using unvented kerosene heaters may be unknowingly exposed to high CO levels without taking proper precautions.

  18. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.The gas-fired tank type water heaters in the housing units were replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  19. Design issues of a thermoacoustic refrigerator and its heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, M.; Herman, C.

    1996-12-31

    Thermoacoustic refrigeration is a fast advancing new refrigeration technology. Performance calculations indicate remarkable values for the thermoacoustic core of a thermoacoustic refrigerator. The thermoacoustic core is responsible for pumping heat from a cold to a hot temperature reservoir. However, the systems necessary to support the thermoacoustic core, such as heat exchangers and acoustic drivers are the weak points of this refrigeration technology. Particularly, heat exchangers were designed so far without any optimization. A reason for this is the lack of knowledge of the flow structures and heat transfer phenomena at the interface between the thermoacoustic core and the heat exchangers. For the purpose of gaining better insight, the authors built a thermoacoustic refrigerator model and applied visualization techniques, such as smoke injection and holographic interferometry, to visualize the flow and temperature fields at the interface.

  20. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  1. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  2. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    water heaters in US new construction market Alex B. Lekov &single-family home construction rep- resents a significantequipment. In the new construction market, the choice of

  3. Mountain Association for Community Economic Development- Solar Water Heater Loan Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Kentucky Solar Partnership (KSP) and the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED) partner to offer low interest loans for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans...

  4. An Analysis Method for Operations of Hot Water Heaters by Artificial Neural Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaha, M.; Takahashi, M.

    2004-01-01

    supply heater forbathtub 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 14: 24 14: 38 14: 52 15: 07 15: 21 15: 36 15: 50 Temperature 0 0. 5 1 1. 5 2 2. 5 Electrical current [A] Exaust air temp. Exaust air temp. for small burner Electrical current Hot water supply... Hot water supply and additional combustion Additional combustion for bathtub Figure 2. The diagram of heater and operational modes The heater had 2 burners, which were main burner for hot water supply and additional heater for a bathtub...

  5. Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In Are Commercial Buildings?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie; Brown, Richard; Busch, John; Pinckard, Margaret; Roberson, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In Arefixture type. For battery chargers, we noted the portablecomponent and whether the charger was empty or full. For

  6. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heater Test Procedures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters.

  7. ELECTRICAL HEATERS FOR THERMO-MECHANICAL TESTS AT THE STRIPA MINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burleigh, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    heaters h. i. temperature monitoring equipment; a borescopeProvide thermocouples for monitoring the temperature of thethermocouple monitoring of the temperature of the protective

  8. New technologies for refrigeration without CFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Today the appliance industry and other cooling industries are facing the double challenge of eliminating environmentally harmful CFCs while simultaneously improving energy efficiency. These challenges will force this industry to make tremendous changes and to work out many difficult problems, ranging from choice of technology through production-line retooling to product-liability concerns. Three new cooling technologies--sonic compression, thermoacoustic refrigeration, and Malone refrigeration--have been developed at least in part at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We will discuss the principles, features, and status of each of these three technologies. With these three examples we hope to show that mechanical compression and subsequent evaporation of CFCs is not the only potentially practical way to produce cooling. These examples are only three of many alternative cooling technologies. No new technology can be guaranteed a success before development is complete, from either an economic or engineering point of view. But enough alternative cooling technologies exist, and the probability for success of each technology is high enough, that one or more of these technologies can almost certainly be produced at reasonable cost, eliminate CFCS, and reduce the consumption of electricity.

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with ENERGY STAR Eligibility Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Equipment...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Landfill Gas, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers,...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Federal Government, Agricultural, Institutional Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Specific... Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers,...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    invoice from retai... Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Air conditioners,...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Building Insulation, Windows, Doors, Comprehensive Measures...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Eligibility: Commercial, Nonprofit, Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Combined Heat & Power, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily Residential, Low Income Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers,...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    convenient stores... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Nonprofit, Schools, Multifamily Residential, Institutional Savings Category: Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Lighting,...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Equipment Energy Optimization (Electric)- Commercial Efficiency Program Energy Optimization Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: RefrigeratorsFreezers,...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    LED Lighting Energy Optimization (Electric)- Commercial Efficiency Program Energy Optimization Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: RefrigeratorsFreezers,...