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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

MODELING, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELING, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By MUHAMMAD HAIDER KHAN AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved..................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Overview of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.............................................. 1 1

2

IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS #12;ii IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS............................................................... 2 1.3. Overview of the Parameter Estimation Water-to-Water Heat Pump Model ........... 5 1

3

MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By CENK SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: ___________________________________________ Thesis Adviser scale test data. The short-term behavior of ground-coupled heat pump systems is important for the design

4

North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Overview: Installation of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Replacement of Aging Heat Pumps. Alignment with Furmans Sustainability Goals.

5

MODELING, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELING, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS Thesis Approved by: Dr.................................................................................................................... 16 MODELING OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS

6

Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program:Ground Source...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program:Ground Source Heat Pumps Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program:Ground Source Heat Pumps A detailled description of the...

7

Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Comparison of building energy use before and after...

8

Hybrid Ground Source System Analysis and Tool Development | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hybrid Ground Source System Analysis and Tool Development Hybrid Ground Source System Analysis and Tool Development Project objectives: 1. Compile filtered hourly data for three...

9

Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Source Heat Pump Subprogram Overview Ground

10

Development of a Residential Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A residential-size ground-source integrated heat pump (GSIHP) system has been developed and is currently being field tested. The system is a nominal 2-ton (7 kW) cooling capacity, variable-speed unit, which is multi-functional, e.g. space cooling, space heating, dedicated water heating, and simultaneous space cooling and water heating. High-efficiency brushless permanent-magnet (BPM) motors are used for the compressor, indoor blower, and pumps to obtain the highest component performance and system control flexibility. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model (HPDM) for each of the four primary modes of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options and to simulate the selected internal control strategies, such as controlling to a constant air supply temperature in the space heating mode and a fixed water temperature rise in water heating modes. Equipment performance maps were generated for each operation mode as functions of all independent variables for use in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. These were performed for the GSIHP installed in a well-insulated 2600 ft2(242 m2) house and connected to a vertical ground loop heat exchanger(GLHE). We selected a 13 SEER (3.8 CSPF )/7.7 HSPF (2.3 HSPF, W/W) ASHP unit with 0.90 Energy Factor (EF) resistance water heater as the baseline for energy savings comparisons. The annual energy simulations were conducted over five US climate zones. In addition, appropriate ground loop sizes were determined for each location to meet 10-year minimum and maximum design entering water temperatures (EWTs) to the equipment. The prototype GSIHP system was predicted to use 52 to 59% less energy than the baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads.

Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Hern, Shawn [ClimateMaster, Inc.] [ClimateMaster, Inc.; McDowell, Tim [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC] [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California Geothermal Resources Development Account http://www.energy.ca.gov/geothermal/ grda.html May 2011 The Issue Ground source heat pumps can far made little impact in California. Estimates are that adoption of ground source heat pumps

13

ADVANCES IN MODELING OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ADVANCES IN MODELING OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By ANDREW D. CHIASSON Bachelor of Applied 1999 #12;ii ADVANCES IN MODELING OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: Thesis Adviser..............................................................................................................1 1.1. Overview of Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems ..............................................1 1

14

DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By SHAWN ALEX HERN.1 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM DESIGN........................................2-3 2.1.1 Design...............................................................................2-5 2.2 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION................................2-9 3

15

APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS TO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS TO BUILDINGS AND BRIDGE DECKS. By MAHADEVAN Chapter Page 1. Introduction 1.1. Overview of hybrid ground source heat pump systems 1.2. Literature review 1.3. Thesis objective and scope 2. Optimal sizing of hybrid ground source heat pump system

16

Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test experience, CM developed a 2nd generation (or beta) prototype in 2012. Field test verification units were fabricated and installed at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge in May 2012 and at several sites near CM headquarters in Oklahoma. Field testing of the units continued through February 2013. Annual performance analyses of the beta unit (prototype 2) with vertical well ground heat exchangers (GHX) in 5 U.S. locations predict annual energy savings of 57% to 61%, averaging 59% relative to the minimum efficiency suite and 38% to 56%, averaging 46% relative to the SOA GSHPwDS. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the test units it was projected that the 2nd generation units would achieve ~58% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at the Zebra Alliance site with horizontal GHX. A new product based on the beta unit design was announced by CM in 2012 – the Trilogy 40® Q-mode™ (http://cmdealernet.com/trilogy_40.html). The unit was formally introduced in a March 2012 press release (see Appendix A) and was available for order beginning in December 2012.

Baxter, V. D. [ORNL; Rice, K. [ORNL; Murphy, R. [ORNL; Munk, J. [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Craddick, William [ORNL; Hearn, Shawn A. [ClimateMaster, Inc.

2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

17

Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates The Current State of the Alaska Industry, a Review-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates The Current State of the Alaska Industry, a Review of the Literature and contributions from individuals and organizations involved in ground-source heat pump installation around Alaska

Wagner, Diane

18

Hybrid Ground Source System Analysis and Tool Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development Principal Investigator Scott Hackel, Energy Center of Wisconsin Ground Source Heat Pumps Demonstration Projects May 18, 2010 This presentation does not contain any...

19

Monitoring SERC Technologies —Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory Project Leader Dave Peterson about Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps and how to properly monitor its installation.

20

Optimal Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design May 19, 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program 2010 Peer Review ENVIRON International PI : Metin Ozbek Track : GSHP Demonstration Projects This...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Train-the-Trainer As ground source heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Train-the-Trainer As ground source heat pumps capture more of the HVAC market, the need will also receive a copy of the Closed-Loop/ Ground- Source Heat Pump Systems Installation Guide · Soils and Rock Identification · Pump and Fluid Selection Registration information You must be an IGSHPA

22

Ground-source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground-source heat pump technology.

Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

23

Combined permeable pavement and ground source heat pump systems   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The PhD thesis focuses on the performance assessment of permeable pavement systems incorporating ground source heat pumps (GSHP). The relatively high variability of temperature in these systems allows for the survival of pathogenic organisms within...

Grabowiecki, Piotr

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Optimal Design for a Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although the advantages of ground-source heat pumps over their conventional alternatives make these systems a very attractive choice for air conditioning, not only for residential buildings but increasingly also for institutional and commercial...

Yu, Z.; Yuan, X.; Wang, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Dispersion modeling of ground-level area sources of particulate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the concentration predictions, in order to account for variation or wind speed and direction within an hour period. For ground-level sources, the vertical distribution involves mathematically dispersing the pollutant underground, then reflecting it back up. The next...

Fritz, Bradley Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

26

Ground Source Heat Pump Subprogram Overview | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Source Heat Pump Subprogram Overview Ground Source

27

Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for ground-source heat pumps. in ASHRAE Summer Meeting.savings of ground source heat pump systems in Europe: Afor ground-source heat pumps: A literature review,

Qian, Hua

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Convective heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Convective heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

Thorogood, R.M.

1983-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

30

Marketing Ground Source Heat Pump Advanced Applications that  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Thermal n Real World Examples Overview #12;n High First Cost n Incompetent Contractor n Operating Wallace President, Energy Environmental Corporation October 9, 2013 #12;Within the United States, what is the fastest growing market with the available capital and need for the benefits of ground source heat pumps

31

A capital cost comparison of commercial ground-source heat pump systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report provides a capital cost comparison of commercial ground source heat pump systems. The study includes groundwater systems, ground-coupled systems and hybrid systems.

Rafferty, K.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diagram 1: A Typical Tank Water Heater Source: http://to-unit comparisons of tank versus tankless water heaters.Energy Use MJ/(unit*year) Tank Tankless MJ/(unit*year) Tank

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temporal variation of the heat pump COP over the three-monthfor ground-source heat pumps. in ASHRAE Summer Meeting.savings of ground source heat pump systems in Europe: A

Qian, Hua

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Discussion of an Optimization Scheme for the Ground Source Heat Pump System of HVAC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the implementation of the global sustainable development strategy, people pay more attention to renewable energy resources such as ground source heat pumps. The technology of ground source heat pump is widely applied to heat and cold...

Mu, W.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION USING VISUAL MODELING TOOL FOR HVACSIM+  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION USING VISUAL MODELING TOOL FOR HVACSIM+ M.H. Khan, 74078, USA ABSTRACT This paper presents a simulation of a hybrid ground source heat pump system, performed using a new graphical user interface for HVACSIM+. Hybrid ground source heat pump systems

37

Selecting a new water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Feasibility Study of Using Ground Source Heat Pumps in Two Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feasibility Study of Using Ground Source Heat Pumps in Two Buildings at Whidbey Island Naval Air and Mt. Olympus BOQ) presently heated by steam from the central steam plant. Ground source heat pump source heat pumps provide both heating and cooling, there would essentially be no cost increase

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

39

Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Storage Water Heater.draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper waswater heater, gas-fired storage water heater, flue damper,

Lutz, James D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Transcript of a presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps.

42

Implementation and validation of a Ground Source Heat Pump model in MATLAB.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The aim of the project is the implementation of a simple Ground-Source Heat Pump (GSHP) system model in MATLAB. The program is able to run… (more)

Casetta, Damien

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objective: Create a new modeling decision? tool that will enable ground source heat pump (GSHP) designers and customers to make better design and purchasing decisions.

44

Grouped exposed metal heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

45

Grouped exposed metal heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, ML); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

BY SHAWN XU, Ph.D. Ground Source Heat Pumps Serve  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BY SHAWN XU, Ph.D. 1 Ground Source Heat Pumps Serve A Large; BY SHAWN XU, Ph.D. 7 Loop Func>ons § Seasonal storage (Single output) § Hourly buffering (Dual output) #12; BY SHAWN XU, Ph.D. 8 Ground Loops § Ground

47

Gas Water Heater Energy Losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Input Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1. Tankthe house. Supply pipe – this is the water heater inlet pipewith refills the water heater with cold water Note: The TANK

Biermayer, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Gas Water Heater Energy Losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residential gas-fired storage water heater was modeled underin a typical residential storage water heater that meets thereplace a gas-fired storage water heater with a conventional

Biermayer, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM WITH ANTIFREEZE SOLUTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM WITH ANTIFREEZE SOLUTION M in a ground source heat pump system falls near or below 0o C, an antifreeze mixture must be used to prevent freezing in the heat pump. The antifreeze mixture type and concentration has a number of implications

50

Efficiency, Economic and Environmental Assessment of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Efficiency, Economic and Environmental Assessment of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Central pump (GSP) for heating, cooling and hot water in a Central Pennsylvania residence (namely, the author, the efficiency gain for the ground-source heat pump compared to electricity is 43% for cooling and 81

Blumsack, Seth

51

192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Ground-source heat pumps for cooling-dominated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research ABSTRACT Ground-source heat pumps for cooling- tion of the heat pump performance is avoided by offsetting the annual load imbalance in the borefield operating and control strategies in a hybrid ground-source heat pump application using an hourly system

Ghajar, Afshin J.

52

Study of the design Method of an Efficient Ground Source Heat Pump Thermal Source System in a Cold Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system-an energy efficiency and environment friendly system-is becoming popular in many parts of China. However, an imbalance usually exists between the annual heat extracted from and rejected to the ground due...

Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.; Zou, Y.; Du, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Introduction Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are used  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heating and cooling loads and their distribution over the year, as well as ground thermal properties reduced heating and cooling loads (as compared to conventional construction, USA, spitler@okstate.edu signhilD e.a. gehlin Technical Expert, Swedish Centre for Shallow Geothermal

54

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) activities related to sources of ground-water contamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report contains a listing of EPA programs and activities, as of October 1986, that address 33 sources of potential ground-water contamination. The information on each activity is presented in a matrix format that is organized by type of contamination source. The following information is presented for each program and activity listed: title, lead office, contact person, type of activity (study, regulation, guidance, strategy, etc.) status, and a summary of the activity. The 33 sources of ground-water contamination are discussed in the 1984 EPA Office of Technology report: Protecting the Nations Ground Water from Contamination.

Black-Coleman, W.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

Hadley, Donald L.

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Explosives tester with heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

57

Short communication Optimization of hybrid ground coupled and air source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short communication Optimization of hybrid ­ ground coupled and air source ­ heat pump systems 2008 Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Ground coupled heat pump Air to water heat pump Thermal storage device Hybrid HVAC system Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b

Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

58

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tool for geothermal water loop heat pump systems, 9thInternational IEA Heat Pump Conference, Zürich, Switzerland,Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zero

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

Kavanaugh, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Ground source heat storage and thermo-physical response of soft clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground source heat storage can condition buildings with reduced consumption of fossil fuels, an important issue in modem building design. However, seasonal heat storage can cause soil temperature fluctuations and possibly ...

Saxe, Shoshanna Dawn

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

ORNL/TM-2008/232 Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORNL/TM-2008/232 Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption Division Sponsored by EERE Geothermal Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy #12;Page iii DOCUMENT

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

62

ORNL/TM-2008/232 Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORNL/TM-2008/232 Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption Division Sponsored by EERE Geothermal Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy #12; Page iii

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

63

Ball State University Completes Nation's Largest Ground-Source...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

need an all-of-the-above approach to American energy-an approach that uses homegrown and alternative energy sources designed and produced by American workers," said U.S. Energy...

64

Development of an integrated building load and ground source heat pump model to assess heat pump and ground loop design and performance in a commercial office building.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) offer an efficient method for cooling and heating buildings, reducing energy usage and operating cost. In hot, arid regions such… (more)

Blair, Jacob Dale

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rcul2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERSJune 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS*

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil? Fired Residential Water Heaters. Berkeley Heights, Newof Residential Gas Water Heaters. Chicago, IL, Gas ApplianceDampers for Natural Draft Water Heaters: Technical Report.

Lutz, James D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-fired Storage Water Heater .. 418 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heaters Small Gas Storage Water Heater Market The objective of

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

69

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

71

Energy Conservation in Process Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY CONSERVATION IN PROCESS HEATERS Roger l~. Bagge Neste Engineering Porvoo, Finland ABSTRACT OPTIMIZATION OF EMER~Y USE Energy savings in refinery and petrochemical fired heaters can basically be achieved in two ways: Thru optimization...

Bagge, R. W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Designing, selecting and installing a residential ground-source heat pump system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It's a compelling proposition: Use the near-constant-temperature heat underground to heat and cool your home and heat domestic water, slashing your energy bills. Yet despite studies demonstrating significant energy savings from ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, their adoption has been hindered by high upfront costs. Fewer than 1% of US homes use a GSHP system. However, compared to a minimum-code-compliant conventional space-conditioning system, when properly designed and installed, a GSHP retrofit at current market prices offers simple payback of 4.3 years on national average, considering existing federal tax credits. Most people understand how air-source heat pumps work: they move heat from indoor air to outdoor air when cooling and from outdoor air to indoor air when heating. The ground-source heat pump operates on the same principle, except that it moves heat to or from the ground source instead of outdoor air. The ground source is usually a vertical or horiontal ground heat exchanger. Because the ground usually has a more favorable temperature than ambient air for the heating and cooling operation of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, GSHP sysems can operate with much higher energy efficiencies than air-source heat pump systems when properly designed and installed. A GSHP system used in a residual building typically provides space conditioning and hot water and comprises three major components: a water-source heat pump unit designed to operate at a wider range of entering fluid temperatures (typically from 30 F to 110 F, or 1 C to 43 C) than a conventional water-source heat pump unit; a ground heat exchanger (GHX); and distribution systems to deliver hot water to the storage tank and heating or cooling to the conditioned rooms. In most residual GSHP systems, the circulation pumps and associated valves are integrated with the heat pump to circulate the heat-carrier fluid (water or aqueous antifreeze solution) through the heat pump and the GHX. A recent assessment indicates that if 20% of US homes replaced their existing space-conditioning and water-heating systems with properly designed, installed and operated state-of-the-art GSHP systems, it would yield significant benefits each year. These include 0.8 quad British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy savings, 54.3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} emission reductions, $10.4 billion in energy cost savings and 43.2 gigawatts of reduction in summer peak electrical demand.

Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Payback Analysis for Ground Source Heat Pump Retrofits Using eQuest Modeling Software  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There has been much research and analysis done on the performance and potential energy savings related to installing a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system. Much of this research has been dedicated to the new construction industry, and focused on a...

Wahlers, Drake

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

76

A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS...

Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

A numerical simulation tool for multilayer grounding analysis integrated in an open-source CAD interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the challenges of the electrical engineers and designers since the beginning of the large-scale harnessing-source platform 1. Introduction Obtaining the distribution of potential levels of an earthing system has been one of electricity. Thus, the grounded electrode dissipates the electrical currents generated during a fault

Colominas, Ignasi

78

E-Print Network 3.0 - air heater experiment Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

air heat... exchanger Two dc power supplies; power supply for running the cooling fan Thermocouples, heaters, load Source: Braun, Paul - Department of Materials...

79

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the CFR as being storage water heaters, instantaneous watersupply boilers. Storage water heater means a water heaterAppliance Gas storage water heaters Definition a water

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Regenerative air heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Regenerative air heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

82

Water heater control module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

Hammerstrom, Donald J

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

83

MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M. Daneshyar. andOF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M. Daneshyar, tWarm Water Standard Water Heater Tank Hot Water The solar

Place, W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

display the distribution of water heater models by fee typeelectric and gas-fired water heaters, respectively. DeliveryDistribution of Electric Water Heaters by Fee Type Figure B-

Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

86

Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

87

Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC)...

88

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

89

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

90

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Methods for forming long subsurface heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

Kim, Dong Sub

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

92

International Workshop on Geomechanics and Energy The Ground as Energy Source and Storage Lausanne, Switzerland, 26-28 November 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International Workshop on Geomechanics and Energy ­ The Ground as Energy Source and Storage storage. In any such application, a deep understanding of the hydro- mechanical behaviour of the involved region of Switzerland. #12;International Workshop on Geomechanics and Energy ­ The Ground as Energy

Candea, George

93

Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The price paid for the three-dimensional detail is the large computational times required with GEO3D. The computational times required for GEO2D are reasonable, a few minutes for a 20 year simulation. For a similar simulation, GEO3D takes days of computational time. Because of the small simulation times with GEO2D, a number of attractive features have been added to it. GEO2D has a user friendly interface where inputs and outputs are all handled with GUI (graphical user interface) screens. These GUI screens make the program exceptionally easy to use. To make the program even easier to use a number of standard input options for the most common GSHP situations are provided to the user. For the expert user, the option still exists to enter their own detailed information. To further help designers and GSHP customers make decisions about a GSHP heating and cooling system, cost estimates are made by the program. These cost estimates include a payback period graph to show the user where their GSHP system pays for itself. These GSHP simulation tools should be a benefit to the advancement of GSHP systems.

Menart, James A. [Wright State University

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

94

Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ���¢��������Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.���¢������� The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The price paid for the three-dimensional detail is the large computational times required with GEO3D. The computational times required for GEO2D are reasonable, a few minutes for a 20 year simulation. For a similar simulation, GEO3D takes days of computational time. Because of the small simulation times with GEO2D, a number of attractive features have been added to it. GEO2D has a user friendly interface where inputs and outputs are all handled with GUI (graphical user interface) screens. These GUI screens make the program exceptionally easy to use. To make the program even easier to use a number of standard input options for the most common GSHP situations are provided to the user. For the expert user, the option still exists to enter their own detailed information. To further help designers and GSHP customers make decisions about a GSHP heating and cooling system, cost estimates are made by the program. These cost estimates include a payback period graph to show the user where their GSHP system pays for itself. These GSHP simulation tools should be a benefit to the advancement of GSHP system

James A Menart, Professor

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

95

Numerical Simulation of a Latent Heat Storage System of a Solar-Aided Ground Source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, the rectangular phase change storage tank (PCST) linked to a solar-aided ground source heat pump (SAGSHP) system is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The container of the phase change material (PCM) is the controlling...

Wang, F.; Zheng, M.; Li, Z.; Lei, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

A comparison of ground source heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power as residential greenhouse gas reduction strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Both ground source heat pumps operating on electricity and micro-combined heat and power systems operating on fossil fuels offer potential for the reduction of green house gas emissions in comparison to the conventional ...

Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building Na Zhu*, Yu Lei, Pingfang Hu, Linghong Xu, Zhangning Jiang Department of Building Environment and Equipment Engineering... heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage technology could save energy and shift peak load. This paper studied the optimal design of a ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change thermal storage tank in an office...

Zhu, N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Heater head for stirling engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

Corey, John A. (R.D. #2, Box 101 E, North Troy, NY 12182)

1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

99

The citation for this paper is: Spitler, J.D., X. Liu, S.J. Rees, C. Yavuzturk. 2005. Simulation and Optimization of Ground Source Heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are potentially more efficient than conventional air-to-air systems. In practice, ground-source heat pump systems and Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. 8th International Energy Agency Heat Pump Conference. Las Vegas. May 30-June 2. 1 #12;SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS J.D. Spitler

100

A pre-feasibility study to assess the potential of Open Loop Ground Source Heat to heat and cool the proposed Earth Science Systems Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................................1 1.2. History of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems................................................3 1.3. Components of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems..........................................3 1.4. Types of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems ................................................4 1.5. The Earth Systems Science

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) throughwater heaters, and heat pump water heaters are not typical.water heaters, heat pump water heater (HPWH) technology

Johnson, Alissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater...

104

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) Development2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiencyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) DevelopmentJ. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into The2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiency

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an electric resistance storage water heater (ESWH) with tankof total electric storage water heater shipments in the nextelectric resistance storage water heaters. The rated storage

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Advanced Ground Source Heat Pump Technology for Very-Low-Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

loop designs being evaluated for their ground loop cost reduction potential
Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Three newunder-utilized ground loop designs being evaluated for...

108

Contamination source review for Building E3236, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with each building. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E3236. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot- scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Glennon, M.A.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Auto-Calibration and Control Strategy Determination for a Variable-Speed Heat Pump Water Heater Using Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper introduces applications of the GenOpt optimizer coupled with a vapor compression system model for auto-calibration and control strategy determination towards the development of a variable-speed ground-source heat pump water heating unit. The GenOpt optimizer can be linked with any simulation program using input and output text files. It effectively facilitates optimization runs. Using our GenOpt wrapper program, we can flexibly define objectives for optimizations, targets, and constraints. Those functionalities enable running extensive optimization cases for model calibration, configuration design and control strategy determination. In addition, we describe a methodology to improve prediction accuracy using functional calibration curves. Using the calibrated model, we investigated control strategies of the ground-source heat pump water heater, considering multiple control objectives, covering the entire operation range.

Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FOR HOT AND HUMID CLMATE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U-tube sizes and varied thermal conductivity with different grout materials are studied based on the benchmark residential building in Hot-humid Pensacola, Florida. In this study, the benchmark building is metered and the data is used to validate the simulation model. And a list of comparative simulation cases with varied parameter value are simulated to study the importance of pipe size and grout to the ground source heat pump energy consumption. The simulation software TRNSYS [1] is employed to fulfill this task. The results show the preliminary energy saving based on varied parameters. Future work needs to be conducted for the cost analysis, include the installation cost from contractor and materials cost.

Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Modeling of Standing Column Wells in Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Zheng Deng O'Neill, Ph.D., P.E.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling of Standing Column Wells in Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Zheng Deng O'Neill, Ph.D., P Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, ground source heat pump-surface environment: · Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems (Closed-loop) · Surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems

112

Heater head for Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a heater head for a Stirling engine comprising: a housing for enclosing the heater head with gas at a substantial elevated pressure; insulator means attached to the housing for insulating the heater head; inlet means attached to a regenerator in the housing for admission of relatively high pressure working fluid from the regenerator of a Stirling engine; a first annular heating wall in the housing attached to the inlet means for heating the working fluid; and, a second annular heating wall in the housing concentric with the first heating wall but of lesser diameters so that an annular space is formed between the first heating wall and the second heating wall for heating working fluid; and a third heating wall in the housing concentric with and smaller in diameter than the second heating wall forming the condensing area of a heat pipe between the second heating wall and the third heating wall.

White, M.A.; Emigh, S.G.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

113

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters May 2, 2012 - 6:47pm Addthis Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. How...

114

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

116

Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy service needs of a net-zero-energy house (ZEH) include space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and humidification, depending on the requirements of the specific location. These requirements differ in significant ways from those of current housing. For instance, the most recent DOE buildings energy data (DOE/BED 2007) indicate that on average {approx}43% of residential buildings primary energy use is for space heating and cooling, vs. {approx}12% for water heating (about a 3.6:1 ratio). In contrast, for the particular prototype ZEH structures used in the analyses in this report, that ratio ranges from about 0.3:1 to 1.6:1 depending on location. The high-performance envelope of a ZEH results in much lower space heating and cooling loads relative to current housing and also makes the house sufficiently air-tight to require mechanical ventilation for indoor air quality. These envelope characteristics mean that the space conditioning load will be closer in size to the water heating load, which depends on occupant behavior and thus is not expected to drop by any significant amount because of an improved envelope. In some locations such as the Gulf Coast area, additional dehumidification will almost certainly be required during the shoulder and cooling seasons. In locales with heavy space heating needs, supplemental humidification may be needed because of health concerns or may be desired for improved occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that achieving their ZEH goal will require energy service equipment that can meet these needs while using 50% less energy than current equipment. One promising approach to meeting this requirement is through an integrated heat pump (IHP) - a single system based on heat pumping technology. The energy benefits of an IHP stem from the ability to utilize otherwise wasted energy; for example, heat rejected by the space cooling operation can be used for water heating. With the greater energy savings the cost of the more energy efficient components required for the IHP can be recovered more quickly than if they were applied to individual pieces of equipment to meet each individual energy service need. An IHP can be designed to use either outdoor air or geothermal resources (e.g., ground, ground water, surface water) as the environmental energy source/sink. Based on a scoping study of a wide variety of possible approaches to meeting the energy service needs for a ZEH, DOE selected the IHP concept as the most promising and has supported research directed toward the development of both air- and ground-source versions. This report describes the ground-source IHP (GS-IHP) design and includes the lessons learned and best practices revealed by the research and development (R&D) effort throughout. Salient features of the GS-IHP include a variable-speed rotary compressor incorporating a brushless direct current permanent magnet motor which provides all refrigerant compression, a variable-speed fan for the indoor section, a multiple-speed ground coil circuit pump, and a single-speed pump for water heating operation. Laboratory IHP testing has thus far used R-22 because of the availability of the needed components that use this refrigerant. It is expected that HFC R-410A will be used for any products arising from the IHP concept. Data for a variable-speed compressor that uses R-410A has been incorporated into the DOE/ORNL Mark VI Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). HPDM was then linked to TRNSYS, a time-series-dependent simulation model capable of determining the energy use of building cooling and heating equipment as applied to a defined house on a sub-hourly basis. This provided a highly flexible design analysis capability for advanced heat pump equipment; however, the program also took a relatively long time to run. This approach was used with the initial prototype design reported in Murphy et al. (2007a) and in the business case analysis of Baxter (2007).

Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pump systems (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pump or Geo-Exchange systems, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national energy and climate strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE s request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential and other benefits, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in a report along with conclusions and recommendations. This paper summarizes the key information from the report.

Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Contamination source review for Building E3162, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3162 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3162 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories Building E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War 2. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment involving chemical warfare agents. Building E3162 was used as a holding and study area for animals involved in non-agent burns. The building was constructed in 1952, placed on inactive status in 1983, and remains unoccupied. Analytical results from these air samples revealed no distinguishable difference in hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent levels between the two background samples and the sample taken inside Building E3162.

Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Contamination source review for Building E3180, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3180 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, collection of air samples, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E3180. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994. Building,E3180 (current APG designation) is located near the eastern end of Kings Creek Road, north of Kings Creek, and about 0.5 miles east of the airstrip within APG`s Edgewood Area. The building was constructed in 1944 as a facsimile of a Japanese pillbox and used for the development of flame weapons systems until 1957 (EAI Corporation 1989). The building was not used from 1957 until 1965, when it was converted and used as a flame and incendiary laboratory. During the 1970s, the building was converted to a machine (metal) shop and used for that purpose until 1988.

Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Contamination source review for Building E3163, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3163 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. This report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3163 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War II. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment. Building E3163, constructed in 1946, was used for toxicological studies on animals until 1965. All agent testing was done using laboratory-scale quantities of agents. All operational data were destroyed; total quantities and types of agents used during the testing are unknown. No experimentation has been conducted in the building since 1965. However, the building was used as overflow office space until the late 1980s. Since that time, the building has been unoccupied.

Draugelis, A.K.; Muir-Ploense, K.L.; Glennon, M.A.; Zimmerman, R.E.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

124

Analysis of Selection of Single or Double U-bend Pipes in a Ground Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is widely used because of its energy-saving and environmental-friendly characteristics. The buried pipes heat exchangers play an important role in the whole GSHP system design. However, in most cases, single...

Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Impacts of Soil and Pipe Thermal Conductivity on Performance of Horizontal Pipe in a Ground-source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper the composition and thermal property of soil are discussed. The main factors that impact the soil thermal conductivity and several commonly-used pipe materials are studied. A model of heat exchanger with horizontal pipes of ground-source...

Song, Y.; Yao, Y.; Na, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as other types of air source heat pumps, VRF systems needconventional packaged air source heat pumps. Typical GSHPis basically an air source heat pump), especially when the

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Welding shield for coupling heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

Menotti, James Louis (Dickinson, TX)

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

129

Performance improvement of direct- and indirect-fired heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operating performance of direct and indirect heaters is discussed, and principles and guidelines that can be applied to effect improvements in efficiency are presented. This paper also discusses the associated heater efficiencies and several useful operating techniques to approach the maximum, steady-state heater efficiency. The techniques presented apply to all types of direct-and indirect-fired heaters: salt bath heaters, propane vaporizers, heater/treaters, production heaters, and glycol and amine regenerators.

Sams, G.W.; Hunter, J.D.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

Brady; Michael Patrick (Oak Ridge, TN), Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno (Oak Ridge, TN), Vitek; John Michael (Oak Ridge, TN)

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

131

Molded polymer solar water heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

132

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water heaters, heat-pump water heaters, and instantaneous (Wasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/New

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Exergy and Energy analysis of a ground-source heat pump for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents detailed analysis of a water to water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) to provide all the hot water needs in a 345 m2 house located in DOE climate zone 4 (mixed-humid). The protocol for hot water use is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which aims to capture the living habits of the average American household and its impact on energy consumption. The entire house was operated under simulated occupancy conditions. Detailed energy and exergy analysis provides a complete set of information on system efficiency and sources of irreversibility, the main cause of wasted energy. The WW-GSHP was sized at 5.275 kW (1.5-ton) for this house and supplied hot water to a 303 L (80 gal) water storage tank. The WW-GSHP shared the same ground loop with a 7.56 kW (2.1-ton) water to air ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) which provided space conditioning needs to the entire house. Data, analyses, and measures of performance for the WW-GSHP in this paper complements the results of the WA-GSHP published in this journal (Ally, Munk et al. 2012). Understanding the performance of GSHPs is vital if the ground is to be used as a viable renewable energy resource.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

What is Nonpoint Source Pollution? Nonpoint Source Pollution, or people pollution, is a contamination of our ground water,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, recreational water activities, the fishing industry, tourism and our precious drinking water resources, humans and fish. Do not dump used motor oil down storm drains or on the ground. Recycle all used motor such as fertilizing the lawn, walking pets, changing motor oil and littering. With each rainfall, pollutants generated

Rainforth, Emma C.

135

Joint used for coupling long heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for coupling ends of elongated heaters and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include two elongated heaters with an end portion of one heater abutted or near to an end portion of the other heater and a core coupling material. The core coupling material may extend between the two elongated heaters. The elongated heaters may include cores and at least one conductor substantially concentrically surrounds the cores. The cores may have a lower melting point than the conductors. At least one end portion of the conductor may have a beveled edge. The gap formed by the beveled edge may be filled with a coupling material for coupling the one or more conductors. One end portion of at least one core may have a recessed opening and the core coupling material may be partially inside the recessed opening.

Menottie, James Louis

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

136

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Parallel heater system for subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

138

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

None

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

140

CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

None

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage water: Heat Flow Cold Water Solar Tank Warm Water Standard Water Heaterstorage tank can also be accom- plished by natural convection. In the compact water heater,

Place, W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between multiple organizations performing their part in the test.

J.B. Cho

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,gas water heater and electrical water heater in Guangzhou was compared and the Annual Cost Calculation Method (ACCM)was introduced to explain the remarkable economic benefits. The social benefits of the solar water heater were introduced from a scientific...

Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

A Study on the Failure of Industrial Electric Heater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The break down mechanism of a cylindrical electric heater is investigated by studying the uneven heating behavior of the heater by measuring the surface temperature variation of the heater when it is subjected to a boundary condition of constant...

Chyu, M. C.

146

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

price for a condensing commercial water heater is $1,579.For condensing commercial water heaters with a thermalFound products for water heater in any product field and gas

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Foundation heat exchangers for residential ground source heat pump systems Numerical modeling and experimental validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new type of ground heat exchanger that utilizes the excavation often made for basements or foundations has been proposed as an alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers. This article describes a numerical model that can be used to size these foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems. The numerical model is a two-dimensional finite-volume model that considers a wide variety of factors, such as soil freezing and evapotranspiration. The FHX numerical model is validated with one year of experimental data collected at an experimental house located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The model shows good agreement with the experimental data-heat pump entering fluid temperatures typically within 1 C (1.8 F) - with minor discrepancies due to approximations, such as constant moisture content throughout the year, uniform evapotranspiration over the seasons, and lack of ground shading in the model.

Xing, Lu [Oklahoma State University; Cullin, James [Oklahoma State University; Spitler, Jeffery [Oklahoma State University; Im, Piljae [ORNL; Fisher, Daniel [Oklahoma State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study on Eco-Design of Water Heaters, Van Holstein en Kemnaon Eco-Design of Water Heaters”, Task 5 Report, DefinitionTesting of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance. Davis

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than standard storage water heaters [2]. However, they aredown for both storage-type water heaters and tankless water1]. The typical water heater storage tank wastes energy to

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Weatherization Assistance Program Pilot Projects Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar On Feb. 22, 2011, Jerone Gagliano,...

151

Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for gas storage...

152

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resistance and heat pump water heaters are not covered.other than commercial heat pump water heaters). 10CFR431.110

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

154

Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

156

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and F. Southworh. 2004. Heat pump water heater technology:gas tankless water heaters, heat pump water heaters,heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well as

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Technical Feasibility Study for Deployment of Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems: Portsmouth Naval Shipyard -- Kittery, Maine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNSY) is a United States Navy facility located on a series of conjoined islands in the Piscataqua River between Kittery, ME and Portsmouth, NH. EPA engaged NREL to conduct a study to determine technical feasibility of deploying ground-source heat pump systems to help PNSY achieve energy reduction goals.

Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

multiple water-to-air heat pump units, which are connectedeach of the water-to-air heat pump units can run in eitheras other types of air source heat pumps, VRF systems need

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Ginestra, Jean Charles (Richmond, TX)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Olson, and Stuart Chaitkin (LBNL). We also want to thank ourand Mithra Moezzi, also of LBNL. This work was supported byLBNL – 44749 The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

163

Is your electric process heater safe?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past 35 years, electric process heaters (EPHs) have been used to heat flowing fluids in different sectors of the energy industry: oil and gas exploration and production, refineries, petrochemical plants, pipeline compression facilities and power-generation plants. EPHs offer several advantages over fired heaters and shell-and-tube exchangers, which have been around for many years, including: smaller size, lighter weight, cleaner operation, lower capital costs, lower maintenance costs, no emissions or leakage, better control and improved safety. However, while many industrial standards have addressed safety concerns of fired heaters and shell-and-tube exchangers (API, TEMA, NFPA, OSHA and NEC), no standards address EPHs. The paper presents a list of questions that plant operators need to ask about the safety of their electric process heaters. The answers are also given.

Tiras, C.S.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Grays Harbor PUD- Solar Water Heater Loan  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a low-interest loan program (currently 4.0%) for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans are available for the installation of solar...

165

Grays Harbor PUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a rebate program for the installation of solar water heaters. Rebates of $600 are available for the installation of solar collectors of 40 square...

166

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Approved Space Heaters In order to ensure that all space heaters meet current safety guidelines, the University Fire Department  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EHS 1/2012 Approved Space Heaters In order to ensure that all space heaters meet current safety approved a limited selection of space heaters for use within the University, which are available at Central Stores. The following Space Heaters are approved for use in University of Connecticut buildings provided

Holsinger, Kent

168

Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... it is essential to estimate accurately baseline NOx emissions. ? This will establish each units current compliance status. ? Emissions ? Current excess air level ? Carbon monoxide ? Combustibles ? NOx corrected to 3% 02 314 ESL-IE-00-04-46 Proceedings...

Garg, A.

169

Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

170

Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

171

ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Phase change material storage heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

Goswami, D. Yogi (Gainesville, FL); Hsieh, Chung K. (Gainesville, FL); Jotshi, Chand K. (Gainesville, FL); Klausner, James F. (Gainesville, FL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The method may include monitoring one or more operating parameters of the heaters, the intermittent power source, and a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source that transforms power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters; and controlling the power output of the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R; Richard, Jr., James E

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

174

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Star Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.2004. Heat pump water heater technology: Experiences ofmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experiences ofStar Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

al. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experiencesstar residential water heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renew- able

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blankets to electric hot water heaters in South Africa,” J.for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, andfor Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and

Johnson, Alissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency andSurvey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency andby electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers),

Johnson, Alissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fixed Electric Storage Water Heaters, South African Nationalinternational electric storage water heater test proceduresefficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines

Johnson, Alissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents theboth gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pumpliters) for gas storage water heaters and a maximum input

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify forgas furnace and gas storage water heater. This study focusesis predominantly storage water heaters. Regionally, gas-

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

al. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experienceslarger market for heat pump water heaters (US Department offurnace or heat pump and electric water heater (26%; US

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Drop-In Heat Pump Water Heater, Oak Ridge National Lab.CA. Maxwell, J. 2004. Heat Pump Water Heater Economic Model.water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant...

Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

189

Design, Stress Analysis and Operating Experience in Feedwater Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The performance of feedwater heaters has a direct bearing on the thermal efficiency of the plant. A typical feedwater heater may have three distinct regions of heat transfer, namely desuperheating, condensing and subcooling zones. The design...

Singh, K. P.; Libs, T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Let's start with a basic tenet: electric space heaters are less efficient than HVAC systems. I cannot replace my heating system with room heaters if I want to save money....

191

Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater October 8, 2010 - 12:51pm Addthis L.L. Beans flagship store sees...

192

Nuclear Plant Feedwater Heater Handbook. Volume 1. Primer. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the first part of a three volume handbook covering closed feedwater heaters for electric power generating plants. This volume is a primer to the subject of feedwater heaters and their integration into the plant. 24 refs.

Bell, R.J.; Wells, T.G. Jr.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Burbank Water and Power- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Burbank Water and Power is providing incentives for the purchase of solar water heaters. Incentives are only available to residential customers with electric water heaters. There is a limit of one...

194

Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (U.S. Virgin Islands)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Virgin Islands Energy Office currently offers rebates to residents for purchasing solar water heaters from local vendors. The program will cover residential, solar water heaters of 120 gallons...

195

TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each...

196

TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local...

197

TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right' Water Heater Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each...

198

Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flue natural gas storage water heaters. Battelle developedthe water in a storage water heater is cooling off and

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Fired heater for coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed-humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowner's wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

Not Available

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

Akyurt, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

How Control Improvements Save Process Heater Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such use can be expected. Process Heater Combustion Control Systems The recommended approach today differs only in detail from a combustion control system installed on a process heater in 1946 at Shell Oil Co., Wood River Refinery. In their 1948 paper... Net + 15% Excess Natural Gas 7.18 7.88 9.06 ., (l000 Btu) Refinery Gas 7.21 7.84 9.02 (l600 Btu) Fuel Oil No. 6 7.31 7.75 8.91 (18,000 Btu) Coal 7.56 7.79 8.96 (11,500 Btu) 184 ESL-IE-79-04-20 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy...

Dukelow, S. G.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

A performance correlation of horizontal solar heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A PERFORMANCE CORRELATION OF HORIZONTAL SOLAR HEATERS A Thesis by WILFORD HUGO GOPFFARTH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1964... Major Subject: Chemical Engineering ABSTRACT The purpose of this work was to determine design parameters for flat plastic covered solar collectors. First, the transmittance ? absorp- tion product as a function of the angle of incidence was determined...

Gopffarth, Wilford Hugo

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

Not Available

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

210

Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications.

Uherka, K.L.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a prober assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); DeRossi, Raymond S. (Amsterdam, NY); Mullins, Lawrence E. (Middle Grove, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions from Residential Water Heaters Table of Contents46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentally50 Table 11. Published information for water heater

Rapp, VH

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Test Procedures for Water Heaters; Final Rule," FederalTesting of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance," DavisInc. , "T-K2 Instantaneous Water Heater Installation Manual

Lutz, Jim

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

215

NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

Hudon, K.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the indirect increase in home heating (and the decrease inincrease the home’s heating load in the heating season (Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

219

First Results of the LCLS Laser-Heater System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is an x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project that has just achieved its first lasing at 1.5 {angstrom} radiation wavelength. The very bright electron beam required to drive this FEL is susceptible to a microbunching instability in the magnetic bunch compressors that may increase the slice energy spread beyond the FEL tolerance. To control the slice energy spread and to suppress the microbunching instability, a laser heater (LH) system is installed in the LCLS injector area at 135 MeV, right before the RF deflector that is used for the time-resolved electron diagnostics. This unique component is used to add a small level of intrinsic energy spread to the electron beam in order to Landau damp the microbunching instability before it potentially breaks up the high brightness electron beam. The system was fully installed and tested in the fall of 2008, and effects of heating on the electron beam and the x-ray FEL were studied during the 2009 commissioning period. The laser heater system is composed of a 4-dipole chicane; a 9-period, planar, permanent-magnet, adjustable-gap undulator at the center of the chicane; one OTR screen on each side of the undulator for electron/laser spatial alignment; and an IR laser (up to 15-MW power) which co-propagates with the electron beam inside the undulator generating a 758-nm energy modulation along the bunch. The final two dipoles of the 4-dipole chicane time-smear this modulation leaving only a thermal-like intrinsic energy spread within the bunch. Table 1 lists the main parameters for this system. The very bright electron beam required for an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL), such as the LCLS, is susceptible to a microbunching instability in the magnetic bunch compressors, prior to the FEL undulator. The uncorrelated electron energy spread in the LCLS can be increased by an order of magnitude to provide strong Landau damping against the instability without degrading the FEL performance. To this end, a 'laser-heater' system has been installed in the LCLS injector, which modulates the energy of a 135-MeV electron bunch with an IR laser beam in a short undulator, enclosed within a four-dipole chicane. The last half of the chicane time-smears the energy modulation leaving an effective thermal energy spread increase. We present the first commissioning results of this system, its operational issues, its impact on the microbunching instability, and finally its effect on the FEL performance.

Emma, P; Boyce, R.F.; Brachmann, A.; Carr, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Edstrom, S.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Levashov, Y.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Poling, B.; Ratner, D.; Spampinati, S.; /SLAC

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

220

LOW COST HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER (HPWH)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water heating accounts for the second largest portion of residential building energy consumption, after space conditioning. Existing HPWH products are a technical success, with demonstrated energy savings of 50% or more compared with standard electric resistance water heaters. However, current HPWHs available on the market cost an average of $1000 or more, which is too expensive for significant market penetration. What is needed is a method to reduce the first cost of HPWHs, so that the payback period will be reduced from 8 years to a period short enough for the market to accept this technology. A second problem with most existing HPWH products is the reliability issue associated with the pump and water loop needed to circulate cool water from the storage tank to the HPWH condenser. Existing integral HPWHs have the condenser wrapped around the water tank and thus avoid the pump and circulation issues but require a relatively complex and expensive manufacturing process. A more straightforward potentially less costly approach to the integral, single package HPWH design is to insert the condenser directly into the storage tank, or immersed direct heat exchanger (IDX). Initial development of an IDX HPWH met technical performance goals, achieving measured efficiencies or energy factors (EF) in excess of 1.79. In comparison conventional electric water heaters (EWH) have EFs of about 0.9. However, the initial approach required a 2.5" hole on top of the tank for insertion of the condenser - much larger than the standard openings typically provided. Interactions with water heater manufacturers indicated that the non standard hole size would likely lead to increased manufacturing costs (at least initially) and largely eliminate any cost advantage of the IDX approach. Recently we have been evaluating an approach to allow use of a standard tank hole size for insertion of the IDX condenser. Laboratory tests of a prototype have yielded an EF of 2.02.

Mei, Vince C [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »Exchange Visitors ProgramEnergyGas Swimming Pool Heaters Gas

222

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9HarveyWellnessFebruaryWater Heaters Heat

223

Hydrogeologic Evaluation of a Ground-Source Cooling System at the BSF/CSF on the Battelle Campus: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents both the field characterization activities and the numerical modeling effort at the BSF/CSF site to determine the viability of an open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP). The primary purpose of the integrated field and modeling study was to determine far-field impacts related to a non-consumptive use water right for the well field containing four extraction and four injection wells. In the field, boreholes were logged and used to develop the geologic conceptual model. Hydraulic testing was performed to identify hydraulic properties and determine sustainable pumping rates. Estimates of the Ringold hydraulic conductivity (60-150 m/d) at the BSF/CSF site were consistent with the local and regional hydrogeology as well as estimates previously published by other investigators. Sustainable pumping rates at the extraction wells were variable (100 – 700 gpm), and confirmed field observations of aquifer heterogeneity. Field data were used to develop a numerical model of the site. Simulations assessed the potential of the well field to impact nearby contaminant plumes, neighboring water rights, and the thermal regime of nearby surface water bodies. Using steady-state flow scenarios in conjunction with particle tracking, a radius of influence of 400–600 m was identified around the well field. This distance was considerably shorter than the distance to the closest contaminant plume (~1.2 km northwest to the DOE Horn Rapids Landfill) and the nearest water right holder (~1.2 km southeast to the City of Richland Well Field). Results demonstrated that current trajectories for nearby contaminant plumes will not be impacted by the operation of the GSHP well field. The objective of the energy transport analysis was to identify potential thermal impacts to the Columbia River under likely operational scenarios for the BSF/CSF well field. Estimated pumping rates and injection temperatures were used to simulate heat transport for a range of hydraulic conductivity estimates for the Ringold Formation. Two different operational scenarios were simulated using conservative assumptions, such as the absence of river water intrusion in the near shore groundwater. When seasonal injection of warm and cool water occurred, temperature impacts were insignificant at the Columbia River (< +0.2ºC), irrespective of the hydraulic conductivity estimate. The second operational scenario simulated continuous heat rejection, a condition anticipated once the BSF/CSF is fully loaded with laboratory and computer equipment. For the continuous heat rejection case, where hourly peak conditions were simulated as month-long peaks, the maximum change in temperature along the shoreline was ~1ºC. If this were to be interpreted as an absolute change in a static river temperature, it could be considered significant. However, the warmer-than-ambient groundwater flux that would potentially discharge to the Columbia River is very small relative to the flow in the river. For temperatures greater than 17.0ºC, the flow relative to a low-flow condition in the river is only 0.012%. Moreover, field data has shown that diurnal fluctuations in temperature are as high as 5ºC along the shoreline.

Freedman, Vicky L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Waichler, Scott R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Moon, Thomas W.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; DeSmet, Darrell J.; Lindsey, K. A.; Porcello, J. J.

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

224

Distinguishing barriers and asperities in near-source ground motion Morgan T. Page, Eric M. Dunham,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

process. Numerous kinematic inversions of wave- form data indicate that earthquake ruptures follow complex with equivalent stress drops. This suggests that kinematic models with such constraints overestimate the actual aspects of ground motion in the context of simple but heterogeneous ruptures. [3] Kinematic inversions

Carlson, Jean

225

Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Georgia Power- Residential Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate (Georgia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Georgia Power customers may be eligible for rebates up to $250 each toward the installation costs of a 50 gallon or greater solar water heater or heat pump water heater. The solar water heater or...

227

ELECTRICAL HEATERS FOR THERMO-MECHANICAL TESTS AT THE STRIPA MINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5.5 Dewatering Pump 6. ELECTRICAL HEATER CONTROL SYSTEMS 6.1water influx ABSTRACT Electrical heaters were installed atcanister) which houses the electrical heater elements; c. d.

Burleigh, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Drop-In Heat Pump Water Heater, Oak Ridge National Lab.Clear Seas Research. 2006. Water Heater Study. Plumbing andJ. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into the

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asEvaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embeddedwater to be drawn from a water heater to meet a schedule of

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

associated with the EU water heater test procedure loadEU test procedure for water heaters. Load No. Delivered Max.period to allow the water heater to adjust completely to

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing aAs shown in Table 2, storage water heaters in single-familya gas furnace and a gas storage water heater. This market is

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing aAs shown in Table 2, storage water heaters in single-familya gas furnace and a gas storage water heater. This market is

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas and electric storage water heaters, heat-pump watersmall gas-fired storage water heaters with a large burner.such as electric storage water heaters, the comparison of

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and F. Southworh. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology:a larger market for heat pump water heaters (U.S. Departmentfurnace or heat pump and electric water heater (26%). (U.S.

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

appliance_standards/residential/water_ pool_heaters_prelim_Star (2008). Energy star residential water heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this scheme for operating TANK with HWSim is successful.LBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asCalifornia. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution relied heavily on computational fluid dynamic predictions of design alternatives. The final design features modular separate radiant cells, each with one and two-side fired vertical tubes. The convection section configuration is vertical tube banks enclosed in the radiant channels. Commercial modular plate air preheaters are used. The predicted performance for the integrated advanced heater and Callidus burner is 95 percent efficiency with 9 ppm NOx emissions firing natural gas, and 12 ppm firing refinery gas. The total erected cost is less than a conventional heater with combustion air preheat.

Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

240

THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the heat pump water heater

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy multiplier Distribution losses Smart controls Wasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Commercial Gas Water Heaters, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance and purchasing specifications for commercial gas water heaters under the FEMP-designated product program.

Not Available

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Electrical noise characteristics of a doped silicon microcantilever heater-thermometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical noise characteristics of a doped silicon microcantilever heater-thermometer Elise A with resistive heater-thermometers,10­13 there is a lack of published reports on the electrical noise silicon heater- thermometer cantilevers.12 However, a key difference is that doped silicon heater-thermometers

King, William P.

244

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

245

Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

246

An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The production and reliability performance of Steam Process Heaters can be significantly affected by the condensate drainage design that is employed. There are currently a variety of drainage options which can be confusing to a system designer who...

Risko, J. R.

247

Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A webinar by Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor the installation.

248

New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

249

Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

Kumar, A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

Kumar, A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers residential customers rebates for installing a ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater. Rebates are based on the size of the system; MMU offers $20 per...

252

Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation- Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Blue Ridge Mountain EMC and TVA, its power supplier, offer the Energy Right and In Home Energy Evaluation programs to qualified members. To qualify for water heater rebates provided by the Energy...

253

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Not Available

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

Vinegar; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

255

Gas Turbine Fired Heater Integration: Achieve Significant Energy Savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GAS TURBINE FIRED HEATER INTEGRATION: ACHIEVE SIGNIFICANT ENERGY SAVINGS G. Iaquaniello**, P. Pietrogrande* *KTI Corp., Research and Development Division, Monrovia, California **KTI SpA, Rome, Italy ABSTRAer Faster payout will result if gas... as in steam turbines. A specific example of how cogeneration can work in this way is in the integration of a gas turbine with a fired heater as shown in Figure 2. Electrical or mechanical power is delivered by the gas turbine while the exhaust combustion...

Iaquaniello, G.; Pietrogrande, P.

256

Exergy Analysis and Operational Efficiency of a Horizontal Ground Source Heat Pump System Operated in a Low-Energy Test House under Simulated Occupancy Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents data, analyses, measures of performance, and conclusions for a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) providing space conditioning to a 345m2 house whose envelope is made of structural insulated panels (SIP). The entire thermal load of this SIP house with RSI-3.7 (RUS-21) walls, triple pane windows with a U-factor of 1.64 W/m2 K (0.29 Btu/h ft2 oF) and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of 0.25, a roof assembly with overall thermal resistance of about RSI-8.8 (RUS-50) and low leakage rates of 0.74 ACH at 50Pa was satisfied with a 2.16-Ton (7.56 kW) GSHP unit consuming negligible (9.83kWh) auxiliary heat during peak winter season. The highest and lowest heating COP achieved was 4.90 (October) and 3.44 (February), respectively. The highest and lowest cooling COP achieved was 6.09 (April) and 3.88 (August). These COPs are calculated on the basis of the total power input (including duct, ground loop, and control power losses ). The second Law (Exergy) analysis provides deep insight into how systemic inefficiencies are distributed among the various GSHP components. Opportunities for design and further performance improvements are identified. Through Exergy analysis we provide a true measure of how closely actual performance approaches the ideal, and it unequivocally identifies, better than energy analysis does, the sources and causes of lost work, the root cause of system inefficiencies.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The system may include an intermittent power source; a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source, and a tap controller coupled to the transformer. The transformer may be configured to transform power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters. The tap controller may be configured to monitor and control the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters from the transformer regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

Stone, Jr., Francis Marion (Cut-N-Shoot, TX); Goodwin, Charles R. (League City, TX); Richard, Jr., James (Kingwood, TX)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

258

Pre-Shot Simulations of Far-Field Ground Motions for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) will involve a series of explosions in various geologic and emplacement conditions to validate numerical simulation methods to predict behavior of seismic wave excitation and propagation for nuclear test monitoring. The first SPE's currently underway involve explosions in the Climax Stock (granitic geology) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Detailed geologic data and published material properties for the major lithologic units of the NNSS and surrounding region were used to build three-dimensional models for seismic wave propagation simulations. The geologic structure near the SPE shot point is quite varied including granitic, carbonate, tuff and alluvium lithologies. We performed preliminary ground motion simulations for a near-source domain covering 8 km x 8 km at the surface centered on the shot point to investigate various source and propagation effects using WPP, LLNL's anelastic seismic wave finite difference code. Simulations indicate that variations in wave propagation properties of the sub-surface will generate strongly path-dependent response once the energy has left the relatively small granitic geology of the near-surface Climax Stock near the SPE shot point. Rough topography to the north and west of SPE shot point causes additional complexity in the signals including energy on the transverse components. Waves propagate much faster through the granitic and carbonate formations and slower through the tuff and alluvium. Synthetic seismograms for a pure explosion source in a 3D geologic structure show large amplitudes on transverse component. For paths to the south sampling the granite, tuff and alluvium lithologies transverse component amplitudes are as high as 50% of that on the vertical and radial components.

Rodgers, A J; Wagoner, J; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

2010-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

259

Low to moderate temperature nanolaminate heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low to moderate temperature heat source comprising a high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures wherein the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is positioned between two thin pieces to form a close contact sheath. In one embodiment the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is a nanolaminate multilayer foil of reactive materials that produces a heating level of less than 200.degree. C.

Eckels, J. Del (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hau-Riege, Stefan (Fremont, CA); Walton, Chris (Oakland, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

260

Pre-shot simulations of far-field ground motion for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site: SPE2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is planning a 1000 kg (TNT equivalent) shot (SPE2) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in a granite borehole at a depth (canister centroid) of 45 meters. This shot follows an earlier shot of 100 kg in the same borehole at a depth 60 m. Surrounding the shotpoint is an extensive array of seismic sensors arrayed in 5 radial lines extending out 2 km to the north and east and approximately 10-15 to the south and west. Prior to SPE1, simulations using a finite difference code and a 3D numerical model based on the geologic setting were conducted, which predicted higher amplitudes to the south and east in the alluvium of Yucca Flat along with significant energy on the transverse components caused by scattering within the 3D volume along with some contribution by topographic scattering. Observations from the SPE1 shot largely confirmed these predictions although the ratio of transverse energy relative to the vertical and radial components was in general larger than predicted. A new set of simulations has been conducted for the upcoming SPE2 shot. These include improvements to the velocity model based on SPE1 observations as well as new capabilities added to the simulation code. The most significant is the addition of a new source model within the finite difference code by using the predicted ground velocities from a hydrodynamic code (GEODYN) as driving condition on the boundaries of a cube embedded within WPP which provides a more sophisticated source modeling capability linked directly to source site materials (e.g. granite) and type and size of source. Two sets of SPE2 simulations are conducted, one with a GEODYN source and 3D complex media (no topography node spacing of 5 m) and one with a standard isotropic pre-defined time function (3D complex media with topography, node spacing of 5 m). Results were provided as time series at specific points corresponding to sensor locations for both translational (x,y,z) and rotational components. Estimates of spectral scaling for SPE2 are provided using a modified version of the Mueller-Murphy model. An estimate of expected aftershock probabilities were also provided, based on the methodology of Ford and Walter, [2010].

Mellors, R J; Rodgers, A; Walter, W; Ford, S; Xu, H; Matzel, E; Myers, S; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B; Hauk, T; Wagoner, J

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

SOURCE?  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), is an open-source code package designed to be a common, low-cost, standardized tool...

262

Energy, Exergy and Uncertainty Analyses of the Thermal Response Test for a Ground Heat Exchanger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchanger, Ground coupled heat pump Corresponding author, Tel.: +1-617-308-7214, Fax: +1-617-253-3484, E calibration DAS data acquisition system g ground H heater loss1 losses from the heating section loss2 losses heating and cooling, water heating, crop drying, agricultural greenhouses, etc. In vertical U

Al-Shayea, Naser Abdul-Rahman

263

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

264

Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable porportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005/sup 0/C at a flow rate of 50 cm/sup 3//sec with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

1984-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

265

Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable proportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005.degree. C. at a flow rate of 50 cm.sup.3 /second with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchangers used to transfer heat to tqe com- I bustion air are divided into two groups. IndiIlect ! heat exchangers called "regenerative" types an~ direct heat exchangers called "recuperative" types. In a regenerative air heater, heat is transferred i...~duced I draft, air preheat system. This system can ac~omodate either a regenerative or recuperative air heater and ! Fig. 5 - Heat recovery systems. 857 ESL-IE-80-04-157 Proceedings from the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX...

Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During #EnergyFaceoff...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three November 19, 2014...

268

E-Print Network 3.0 - air heater duct Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

15542 Fuel-Fired Radiant Heaters - RESERVED 15543 Fuel-Fired Unit Heaters... Electric Heating Cables -RESERVED 15785 Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Units - RESERVED 15815 Metal Ducts...

269

Nuclear Plant Feedwater Heater Handbook. Volume 3. Operation and maintenance guidelines. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the third part of a three-volume handbook covering closed feedwater heaters for nuclear electric power generating plants. This third volume covers the operation and maintenance of closed feedwater heaters. 11 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

Bell, R.J.; Hardy, C.D. Jr.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentallyfor interchangeability experiments for storage water heaterfor experiments with storage water heater AW01. 53

Rapp, VH

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

272

Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance and purchasing specifications for whole-home gas water heaters under the FEMP-designated product program.

Not Available

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Restoration of Refinery Heaters Using the Technique of Prefabricated Ceramic Fiber Lined Panels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinery heater fuel requirements often represent 50% of a units operating cost. A one percent change in the efficiency of a heater firing 100 MBtu/hr amounts to more than $25,000 per year. Heater efficiency is influenced by casing hot spots, air...

Sento, H. D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER (2} (3) (21 icense in and to any copyright covering the drticle. This paper describes a high-efficiency water heater which uses a design approach quite different from the conventional center-flue water heater. While high

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

276

A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS William P a heat pump water heater (HPWH). After developing the HPWH, a field-test plan was implemented whereby 20 evaluate this effect. #12;INTRODUCTION Domestic water heaters account for approximately 2.5 EJ (2.4 x 1015

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

277

Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for space heating. 14. Do not use space heaters or any other electric appliance around water. 15Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with temperature and heat. The use of electric space heaters as a temporary measure is permitted

de Lijser, Peter

278

Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

Chen, Tsuhan

279

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

283

Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

285

Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize the design for manufacturing. This work included the initiation of a large field testing program (over 125 units) and an in-depth reliability program intended to minimize the risks associated with a new product introduction. At the time of this report, A.O. Smith plans to introduce this product to the marketplace in the early 2006 time period.

Peter Pescatore

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

286

Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

287

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Heaters 7.0 Glossary of Abbreviations AGA American Gas Association ANSI American National Standards

Rapp, VH

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Chemicals (223) 0.81xlO 15 81xl0 6 3) Pulp & Paper (8) 1.30xlO 15 2.2xI0 6 4) ~leta1s (32) O.07xlO 15 6.4x10 6 O.28xl0 15 308 291xl0 6 2.46xlO 15 Sec =Specific energy consumption * Calculated as %reduction in SEC - value 10TOR "OUSI.. SEi...Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers Ash Kumar, Pennzoil Company, Shreveport, Louisiana The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers...

Kumar, A.

289

Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

290

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

291

Ground heat exchanger design for direct geothermal energy systems .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Direct geothermal energy systems use the ground to heat and cool buildings. Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are the most widespread form of direct geothermal… (more)

COLLS, STUART

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Testing and analysis of the Semiscale Mod-1 heater rod design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of electrically heated nuclear fuel rod simulators in the Semiscale Program is traced from a historical viewpoint. The design of the Semiscale Mod-1 electrical heater rod and core simulator is discussed. Heater rod thermal response during transient thermal-hydraulic depressurization experiments conducted in the Mod-1 system, and analysis techniques and tests conducted to help quantify heater rod characteristics and behavior are presented.

Larson, T.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

MEMS Hotplates with TiN as a Heater Material J.F. Creemer1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEMS Hotplates with TiN as a Heater Material J.F. Creemer1 , W. van der Vlist2 , C.R. de Boer2 , H investigated as a heater material for hotplates and microreactors. TiN is CMOS compatible, and has a higher melting point (2950 ºC) than conventional heaters of Pt and poly-Si. For the first time, TiN is tested

Technische Universiteit Delft

294

Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Heaters Jim Lutz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory January 25, 2011 The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

E-Print Network 3.0 - active heater control Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

suborder Scombroidei have independently Summary: event when the activity of the SERCA pumps was reduced. RNase protection assays revealed that heater... be under neural control....

297

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiences of residential consumers and utilities. OakStar (2008). Energy Star Residential Water Heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Development of solar air heaters & thermal energy storage system for drying applications in food processing industries.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In the present work, the author has designed and developed all types of solar air heaters called porous and nonporous collectors. The developed solar air… (more)

Sreekumar, A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters.

300

HEATER TEST PLANNING FOR THE NEAR SURFACE TEST FACILITY AT THE HANFORD RESERVATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heater Experiment at Hanford. Berkeley, Lawre ;e BerkeleyTest Facility, Hole DC-11, Hanford Reservation. Prepared forof Gable Mountain Basalt Cores, Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

DuBois, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mountain Association for Community Economic Development- Solar Water Heater Loan Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Kentucky Solar Partnership (KSP) and the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED) partner to offer low interest loans for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans...

302

Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Integral finned heater and cooler for stirling engines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A piston and cylinder for a Stirling engine and the like having top and bottom meshing or nesting finned conical surfaces to provide large surface areas in close proximity to the working gas for good thermal (addition and subtraction of heat) exchange to the working gas and elimination of the usual heater and cooler dead volume. The piston fins at the hot end of the cylinder are perforated to permit the gas to pass into the piston interior and through a regenerator contained therein.

Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

305

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water

306

Creep failure of cracking heater at a petrochemical plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After two and half years of operation, a bend tube in a cracking heater at an ethylene plant failed due to creep cracking. Creep damage occurred as a result of metallurgical instability including coarsening of carbides that caused softening and initiation of voids or wedge-type intergranular cracks. This was accelerated due to increasing inner surface temperature during decoking process. Thermal fatigue contributed to the failure as a result of temperature variations due to several shutdown-startup operations. To minimize such failure in futures, periodic inspection to monitor crack formation was scheduled. Nondestructive tests including dye penetrant test for surface cracking and radiographic test for internal crack were implemented.

El-Batahgy, A. [Welding Research Department, Central, Metallurgical R and D Institute, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: elbatahgy@yahoo.com; Zaghloul, B. [Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, P.O. Box: 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock

308

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock3

309

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock34

310

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock345

311

Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd: ScopeDepartment1,Energy ForBryanREvaluation ofGround Source

312

Eleana near-surface heater experiment final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a near-surface heater experiment operated at a depth of 23 m in argillite within the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test geometrically simulated emplacement of a single canister of High-Level Waste (HLW) and was operated at a power level of 2.5 kW for 21 days, followed by 3.8 kW to 250 days, when the power was turned off. Below 85 to 100{sup 0}C, there was good agreement between modeled and measured thermal results in the rock and in the emplacement hole, except for transient transport of water in the heater hole. Above 100{sup 0}C, modeled and measured thermal results increasingly diverged, indicating that the in-situ rock-mass thermal conductivity decreased as a result of dehydration more than expected on the basis of matrix properties. Correlation of thermomechanical modeling and field results suggests that this decrease was caused by strong coupling of thermal and mechanical behavior of the argillite at elevated temperatures. No hole-wall decrepitation was observed in the experiment; this fact and the codrrelation of modeled and measured results at lower temperatures indicate that there is no a priori reason to eliminate argillaceous rocks from further consideration as a host rock for nuclear wastes.

Lappin, A R; Thomas, R K; McVey, D F

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Tankless water heaters fill the bill at fast-food restaurants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article explains why Kentucky Fried Chicken has installed a PH-24 water heater. The tankless water heater meets the restaurant's criteria for space spacing, flow rates, certification and availability, and money saving efficiency. This article describes the system and its advantages.

Not Available

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

TiN for MEMS hotplate heaters J.F. Creemer1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TiN for MEMS hotplate heaters J.F. Creemer1 , P.M. Sarro2 , M. Laros2 , H. Schellevis2 , L, DIMES, ECTM, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, Netherlands. Summary: Low-stress TiN has been investigated is required to protect the TiN against oxidation. Keywords: TiN thin films, micro heater, hot plate 1

Technische Universiteit Delft

315

High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Nuclear Plant Feedwater Heater Handbook. Volume 2. Design and procurement guidelines. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the second part of a three volume handbook covering closed feedwater heaters for nuclear electric power generating plants. This second volume covers the engineering, design, specification, bid, procurement, fabrication, installation and commissioning of the heater. 22 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

Bell, R.J.; Wells, T.G. Jr.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the water heater's annual operation costs but also its size and energy efficiency. Natural gas, oil or tank water heater operates by releasing hot water from the top of the tank when the hot water tap is turned on. The hot water is released into the hot water line. As the hot water leaves the tank, cold

318

PRELIMINARY THERMAL AND THERMOMECH-ANICAL MODELING FOR THE NEAR SURFACE TEST FACILITY HEATER EXPERIMANTS AT HANFORD: Appendix D  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heater Experiments at Hanford V O L U M E II (Appendix D) TENG-48 and for Rockwell Hanford Operations — a Department ofFACILITY HEATER EXPERIMENTS AT HANFORD Volume 2 (Appendix D)

Chan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Request for Information  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Request for Information

320

THEORETICAL TEMPERATURE FIELDS FOR THE STRIPA HEATER PROJECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ture fields around heat sources in rock may well differand rock behavior immediately around individual sources ofthe finite line source solution for the rock temperature is

Chan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume I. A. Introduction and executive summary. B. Reference Design Document (RDD)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The orbiter and probe portions of the NASA Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Nuclear Projects (OSNP) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulate mission failures or malfunctions occur, which would result in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events.

Johnson, E.W.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Kosciusko REMC- Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Kosciusko REMC offers rebates (as bill credits) to residential members for the purchase and installation of high efficiency air-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, and electric water heaters....

323

Evaluation of Analytical and Numerical Techniques for Defining the Radius of Influence for an Open-Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an open-loop groundwater heat pump (GHP) system, groundwater is extracted, run through a heat exchanger, and injected back into the ground, resulting in no mass balance changes to the flow system. Although the groundwater use is non-consumptive, the withdrawal and injection of groundwater may cause negative hydraulic and thermal impacts to the flow system. Because GHP is a relatively new technology and regulatory guidelines for determining environmental impacts for GHPs may not exist, consumptive use metrics may need to be used for permit applications. For consumptive use permits, a radius of influence is often used, which is defined as the radius beyond which hydraulic impacts to the system are considered negligible. In this paper, the hydraulic radius of influence concept was examined using analytical and numerical methods for a non-consumptive GHP system in southeastern Washington State. At this location, the primary hydraulic concerns were impacts to nearby contaminant plumes and a water supply well field. The results of this study showed that the analytical techniques with idealized radial flow were generally unsuited because they over predicted the influence of the well system. The numerical techniques yielded more reasonable results because they could account for aquifer heterogeneities and flow boundaries. In particular, the use of a capture zone analysis was identified as the best method for determining potential changes in current contaminant plume trajectories. The capture zone analysis is a more quantitative and reliable tool for determining the radius of influence with a greater accuracy and better insight for a non-consumptive GHP assessment.

Freedman, Vicky L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Waichler, Scott R.; Horner, Jacob A.

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

324

Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tonnage is due to air?source  heat pumps (Table 4).    Baseboard heater Air-source Heat Pump Ground-Source Heat

Dudley, June Han

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

326

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

An Analysis Method for Operations of Hot Water Heaters by Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Authors tried to apply an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to estimation of state of building systems. The systems used in this study were gas combustion water heaters. Empirical equations to estimate gas consumption from measureble properies...

Yamaha, M.; Takahashi, M.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

329

Gibson Electric Membership Corporation- Residential Energy Efficient Water Heater Loan Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Gibson Electric Membership Corporation provides loans to its residential customers to finance new, energy efficient water heaters. The loans are interest-free and can be paid off in as many as 3...

330

Tri-County Electric Cooperative- Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Tri-County Electric Cooperative offers a $75 rebate on the purchase of energy-efficient electric water heaters. The rebate is valid for new or replacement units which have an Energy Factor Rating...

331

Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers should reinvest in R&D to lower the price of the units. The manufacturers should work with ''do-it-yourself'' (DIY) stores to facilitate introduction of th

Ashdown, BG

2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

332

Preliminary Modeling, Testing and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional storage-tank water heaters, because thermal losses to the environment are much less. Although standard test results are available to compare tankless heaters with storage tank heaters, actual savings depend on the draw details because energy to heat up the internal mass depends on the time since the last draw. To allow accurate efficiency estimates under any assumed draw pattern, a one-node model with heat exchanger mass is posed here. Key model parameters were determined from test data. Burner efficiency showed inconsistency between the two data sets analyzed. Model calculations show that efficiency with a realistic draw pattern is {approx}8% lower than that resulting from using only large {approx}40 liter draws, as specified in standard water-heater tests. The model is also used to indicate that adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater ameliorates unacceptable oscillations that tankless with feedback control can experience with pre-heated water too hot for the minimum burner setting. The added tank also eliminates problematic low-flow cut-out and hot-water-delay, but it will slightly decrease efficiency. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal protocols for parameter extraction.

Burch, J.; Thornton, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

334

Heat pump water heater and method of making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - achieving ground state Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by their frequency or polarization upon decay to their respective ground states. Preliminary... isotope 137 Ba+ whose nuclear spin leads to ground state ... Source:...

336

Factors controlling tungsten concentrations in ground water, Carson Desert, Nevada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Factors controlling tungsten concentrations in ground water, Carson Desert, Nevada Ralph L. Seiler sources. Tungsten concentrations in 100 ground water samples from all aquifers used as drinking water indicates that W exhibits Tungsten con- centrations are strongly and positively correlated

337

Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design was then implemented on a prototype heater that was being developed simultaneously with the controller development. (The prototype's geometry and components are based on a currently marketed heater, but several improvements have been made.) The MPC's temperature control performance was a vast improvement over the existing controller. With a benchmark for superior control performance established, five additional control methods were tested. One problem with MPC control is that it was found to be extremely difficult to implement in a TWH, so that it is unlikely to be widely adopted by manufacturers. Therefore the five additional control methods were selected based on their simplicity; each could be implemented by a typical manufacturer. It was found that one of these methods performed as well as MPC, or even better under many circumstances. This method uses a Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward algorithm that was developed for this project. Due to its simplicity and excellent performance this method was selected as the controller of choice. A final higher-capacity prototype heater that uses Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward control was constructed. This prototype has many improvements over the currently marketed heaters: (1) excellent control; (2) a modular design that allows for different capacity heaters to be built easily; (3) built-in fault detection and diagnosis; (4) a secondary remote user-interface; and (5) a TRIAC switching algorithm that will minimize 'flicker factor'. The design and engineering of this prototype unit will allow it to be built without an increase in cost, compared with the currently marketed heater. A design rendering of the new product is shown below. It will be launched with a new marketing campaign by Keltech in early 2009.

David Yuill

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumer/your_home/water_ heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12980heating is a large source of energy use in California homes.heating is the third largest source of energy use in homes [

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

Braud, H. J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Accelerated Life Structural Benchmark Testing for a Stirling Convertor Heater Head  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For proposed long-duration NASA Space Science missions, the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Infinia Corporation, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110-watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110). A structurally significant limit state for the SRG110 heater head component is creep deformation induced at high material temperature and low stress level. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and a wealth of creep data is available for the Inconel 718 material of construction. However, the specified atypical thin heater head material is fine-grained with a heat treatment that limits precipitate growth, and little creep property data for this microstructure is available in the literature. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply a multiaxial stress state on the component, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, an extensive experimental investigation is ongoing to aid in accurately assessing the durability of the SRG110 heater head. This investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head-like pressure vessels at design temperature with stress levels ranging from approximately the design stress to several times that. This paper presents experimental results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for four higher-stress, accelerated life tests. Analysts are using these results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the SRG110 heater head.

Krause, David L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Kantzos, Pete T. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer County is a county inAl., 1979) |Haar, 1986)EnergyOpenPumps

342

Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer County is a county inAl., 1979) |Haar,

343

A significant number of Iowa water treatment systems are dependent upon well-based water sources. Because of this, CIRAS efforts have been focused on the "Ground Water Levels" as reported by Iowa DNR. Currently, DNR officials are indicating that restricti  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A significant number of Iowa water treatment systems are dependent upon well-based water sources. Because of this, CIRAS efforts have been focused on the "Ground Water Levels" as reported by Iowa DNR. Currently, DNR officials are indicating that restrictions or loss of the water supply is not likely

Lin, Zhiqun

344

Catalytic combustion of very lean mixtures in a reverse flow reactor using an internal electrical heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study of the reverse flow reactor, equipped with an internal electrical heater, for the autothermal combustion of very dilute organic compounds, in particular ethene, propane, and their mixtures, has been carried out. The influence of several operating parameters like electrical heater power, cycle period, chemical character, and concentration of the pollutants on the maximum temperature and on the shape of temperature profiles in the stationary state is discussed. Experimental results show that an internal electrical heater can be successfully used to oxidize completely very lean mixtures which would not be able to maintain an autothermal process only by themselves. The predictions with a heterogeneous one-dimensional model without using fit parameters show a good agreement with experiments except for critical situations.

Cunill, F.; Beld, L. van de; Westerterp, K.R. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)] [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

346

Preliminary Modeling, Testing, and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Today's gas tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional gas storage tank water heaters, but savings depends on the draw pattern. A one-node model incorporating heat exchanger mass is used to address this and other issues. Key model parameters are determined from least-squares regression on short-term data, including burner efficiency, thermal capacitance, and thermal loss coefficient. The calibrated model agrees with data to ~5% on Qgas, with temperature RMS deviation of ~4..deg..C. Efficiency with a standard realistic draw is 71%, compared to 81% predicted from standard energy-factors. Adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater solves issues of oscillations with solar pre-heat, low-flow and hot-water-delay issues. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal data protocols for model parameter extraction.

Burch, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Conservation Division regiulations for appliance-efficiency standards relating to refrigerators and freezers, room air conditioners, central air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The text of the appliance efficiency standards for certain types of new appliances sold in California is presented. Specifications and test methods to identify complying refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances are covered.

Not Available

1981-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

348

The LOFT Ground Segment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We...

Bozzo, E; Argan, A; Barret, D; Binko, P; Brandt, S; Cavazzuti, E; Courvoisier, T; Herder, J W den; Feroci, M; Ferrigno, C; Giommi, P; Götz, D; Guy, L; Hernanz, M; Zand, J J M in't; Klochkov, D; Kuulkers, E; Motch, C; Lumb, D; Papitto, A; Pittori, C; Rohlfs, R; Santangelo, A; Schmid, C; Schwope, A D; Smith, P J; Webb, N A; Wilms, J; Zane, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have the potential to significantly reduce energy use is a function of surrounding air temperature, humidity, hot water usage, and the logic controlling the heat pump

350

Renewable Energy Opportunities at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Yuma Proving Ground, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations.

Orrell, Alice C.; Kora, Angela R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Dixon, Douglas R.

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

351

DETERMINATION OF IN-SITU THERMAL PROPERTIES OF STRIPA GRANITE FROM TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN THE FULL-SCALE HEATER EXPERIMENTS: METHOD AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

observed temperatures for the Lulea University pilot heaterPower room '--_I, I\\'~ \\,1 Lulea drift I I I I I I I I Ithe temperature data from the LUlea University pilot heater

Jeffry, J.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

High efficiency solar air heaters with novel built-in heat storage for use in a humidification-dehumidification desalination cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compared to solar water heaters, solar air heaters have received relatively little investigation and have resulted in few commercial products. However, in the context of a Humidification-Dehumidification (HD) Desalination ...

Summers, Edward K

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

ISSUANCE 2014-12-23: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule

354

Microbunching Instability Effect Studies and Laser Heater Optimization for the SPARX FEL Accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of microbunching instability for the SPARX accelerator have been analyzed by means of numerical simulations. The laser heater counteracting action has been addressed in order to optimize the parameters of the compression system, either hybrid RF plus magnetic chicane or only magnetic, and possibly enhance the FEL performance.

Vaccarezza, C.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Giannessi, L.; Quattromini, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Venturini, C.; Migliorati, M.; Dattoli, G.

2010-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

355

Life cycle assessment of buildings technologies: High-efficiency commercial lighting and residential water heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study the life cycle emissions and energy use are estimated for two types of energy technologies. The first technology evaluated is the sulfur lamp, a high-efficiency lighting system under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Fusion Lighting, the inventor of the technology. The sulfur lamp is compared with conventional metal halide high-intensity discharge lighting systems. The second technology comparison is between standard-efficiency and high-efficiency gas and electric water heaters. In both cases the life cycle energy use and emissions are presented for the production of an equivalent level of service by each of the technologies. For both analyses, the energy use and emissions from the operation of the equipment are found to dominate the life cycle profile. The life cycle emissions for the water heating systems are much more complicated. The four systems compared include standard- and high-efficiency gas water heaters, standard electric resistance water heaters, and heat pump water heaters.

Freeman, S.L.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Efficient generation of extended plasma waveguides with the axicon ignitor-heater scheme  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The plasma col- umn was produced by using an axicon to focus a long laser pulse into a line focusEfficient generation of extended plasma waveguides with the axicon ignitor-heater scheme Y.-F. Xiao for generating extended plasma waveguides is developed by using the axicon lens in conjunction with the ignitor

357

An Evaluation of Low-BTU Gas from Coal as an Alternate Fuel for Process Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these factors, the difference between coal and natural gas prices and the project life are difficult to predict. The resulting uncertainty has caused Monsanto to pursue coal gasification for process heaters with cautious optimism, on a site by site basis....

Nebeker, C. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT HEATER SETTINGS TO PROVIDE SPATIALLY UNIFORM HEATING IN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in foundries, baking ovens that cook food, infrared heating systems that cure painted surfaces, and rapidOPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT HEATER SETTINGS TO PROVIDE SPATIALLY UNIFORM HEATING IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES INVOLVING RADIANT HEATING K. J. Daun, J. R. Howell, and D. P. Morton Department of Mechanical

Morton, David

359

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

360

Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Covered Product Category: Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including whole-home gas tankless water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

362

Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC (180�ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Eliminating air heater plugging and corrosion caused by SCR/SNCR systems for NOx control on coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a typical coal-fired power plant the rotary regenerative air heater is responsible for 5-10% of the boiler's total efficiency. The three biggest threats to air heater performance deterioration are corrosion of the heat exchange surfaces, plugging, and air heater leakage through the seals. The article concentrates on the vastly increased level of corrosion and plugging issues associated with installing selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems for controlling nitrogen oxide emissions. Some injected ammonia in the SCR process reacts with SO{sub 2} to form ammonium sulphate and bisulphate (ABS) which is deposited on the air heater element surfaces. This can be overcome by applying coatings, using corrosion-resistant steels, reconfiguring the air heaters to a two layer design, improving air heater blowers, improving technologies for removing ammonia 'slip' before it enters the air heater, and using new catalysts that reduce the oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. 4 figs.

Guffre, J. [Paragon Airheater Technologies (United States)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Predaceous Ground Beetles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predaceous Ground Beetles Caterpillar Hunters and Bombardier Beetles Rick Minzenmayer, Extension Agent-IPM Chris Sansone, Extension Entomologist Texas Cooperative Extension genus Calosoma, a brightly colored ground beetle. Some species are called...

Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

367

Ground Turkey Stroganoff Ingredients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground Turkey Stroganoff Ingredients: 8 ounces egg noodles, uncooked 1 pound ground turkey 1 onion. Meanwhile, brown ground turkey and onions in non stick skillet until meat is no longer pink and onions cup of egg noodles on plate, top with 1/2 cup of turkey mixture. Equipment: Knife Cutting board

Liskiewicz, Maciej

368

Cooking with Ground Pork  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to thaw. Even when cooked, pork that has been thawed at room temperature can make you sick. Cooking ground pork safely For dishes that contain ground pork, cook the pork before mixing it with other ingredients. How to store cooked ground pork Leftover... dishes made with ground pork should be stored in a covered dish in the refrigerator right away to prevent spoilage. Use it within 3 days. Reheat foods with ground pork until they are steaming hot, bubbling, or at 165 degrees. Other uses Use cooked...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

369

Ground Water Management Act (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Under the Ground Water Management Act of 1992, Virginia manages ground water through a program regulating the withdrawals in certain areas called Ground Water Management Areas (GWMA). Currently,...

370

Performance Analysis of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Incorporating a Brazed-Plate Gas-cooler.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study focuses on the experimental testing and numerical modeling of a 4.5 kW transcritical CO2 heat pump water heater at Queen’s University in the… (more)

Murray, PORTIA

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Combustion Air Preheat and Radiant Heat Transfer in Fired Heaters - A Graphical Method for Design and Operating Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The installation of combustion air preheat is a widely used technique for improving the fuel efficiency of existing fired heaters and fired tubular reactors. By increasing adiabatic flame temperature, combustion air preheat increases radiant section...

Grantom, R. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A Simple Method to Continuous Measurement of Energy Consumption of Tank Less Gas Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy consumptions of hot water supply in restaurants or residential houses are large amount, guidelines for optimal design are not presented. measurements of energy consumption of tank less gas water heaters very difficult unless gas flow meters...

Yamaha, M.; Fujita, M.; Miyoshi, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Radiation Tolerant Programmable Power Supply for the LHC Beam Screen Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the next LHC run, it is required to install 200W of heating capacity per LHC beam screen heater to regenerate the beam screen by desorption of gas trapped on its walls. In the LHC, there are 272 beam screen heaters and the associated electronics limit presently the heating capacity to 25W. Those electronics are, for the most part, installed inside the LHC tunnel and exposed to its radiation environment. This paper describes the development of a new programmable power supply card that will be integrated into the existing LHC radiation tolerant electronic infrastructure used by the cryogenic system. Radiation tests were undertaken to qualify a power switch capable of coping with the 230Vrms grid voltage and an analog signal multiplexer; these components are required respectively for satisfying the higher power requirements and for reducing the overall cost by using a single analog to digital converter to sample all the signals.

Casas, J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

Burch, J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States.

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Microcantilever heater-thermometer with integrated temperature-compensated strain sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides microcantilever hotplate devices which incorporate temperature compensating strain sensors. The microcantilever hotplate devices of the present invention comprise microcantilevers having temperature compensating strain sensors and resistive heaters. The present invention also provides methods for using a microcantilever hotplate for temperature compensated surface stress measurements, chemical/biochemical sensing, measuring various properties of compounds adhered to the microcantilever hotplate surface, or for temperature compensated deflection measurements.

King, William P. (Champaign, IL); Lee, Jungchul (Champaign, IL); Goericke, Fabian T. (Wolfsburg, DE)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

379

Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Application of high temperature air heaters to advanced power generation cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent developments in ceramic composite materials open up the possibility of recuperative air heaters heating air to temperatures well above the feasible with metal tubes. A high temperature air heater (HTAH) has long been recognized as a requirement for the most efficient MHD plants in order to reach high combustor flame temperatures. The application of gas turbines in coal-fired plants of all types has been impeded because of the problems in cleaning exhaust gas sufficiently to avoid damage to the turbine. With a possibility of a HTAH, such plants may become feasible on the basis of air turbine cycles, in which air is compressed and heated in the HTAH before being applied to turbine. The heat exchanger eliminates the need for the hot gas cleanup system. The performance improvement potential of advanced cycles with HTAH application including the air turbine cycle in several variations such as the DOE program on ``Coal-Fired Air Furnace Combined Cycle...,`` variations originated by the authors, and the MHD combined cycle are presented. The status of development of ceramic air heater technology is included.

Thompson, T R [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)] [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Boss, W H; Chapman, J N [Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Space Inst.] [Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Space Inst.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

382

Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing ‘dirty’ fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes – both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

383

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

384

Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Water Heater Geothermal energy Biomass Pellets mil m2an increasingly important geothermal energy user in the lastin direct use of geothermal energy through ground source

Zheng, Nina

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

East Central Electric Cooperative- Residential Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

East Central Electric Cooperative offers rebates to residential customers to install energy-efficient ground source heat pumps, electric water heaters, and appliances. To qualify for the rebate...

386

Substation grounding programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 3, is a users manual and an installation and validation manual for the computer program SGSYS (Substation Grounding SYStem Analysis Program). This program analyzes the substation ground field given the total electric current injected into the ground field and the design of the grounding system. Standard outputs of the program are (1) total ground resistance, (2) step voltage, (3) touch voltage, (4) voltages on a grid of points, (5) voltage profile along straight lines, (6) transfer voltages, (7) ground potential rise, (8) body currents, (9) step voltage profile along straight lines, and (10) touch voltage profile along straight lines. This program can be utilized in an interactive or batch mode. In the interactive mode, the user defines the grounding system geometry, soil parameters, and output requests interactively, with the use of a user friendly conversational program. The users manual describes data requirements and data preparation procedures. An appendix provides forms which facilitate data collection procedures. The installation and validation manual describes the computer files which make up the program SGSYS and provides a test case for validation purposes.

Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Electric Power Lab.)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Cooking with Ground Beef  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of ground beef, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

388

Renewable Energy Opportunties at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Dugway Proving Ground, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment.

Orrell, Alice C.; Kora, Angela R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Horner, Jacob A.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Nesse, Ronald J.; Dixon, Douglas R.

2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

389

Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - Second Prototype  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the 1980s various attempts have been made to apply the efficiency of heat pumps to water heating. The products generated in the 80s and 90s were not successful, due in part to a lack of reliability and difficulties with installation and servicing. At the turn of the century, EnvironMaster International (EMI) produced a heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on a design developed by Arthur D. Little (ADL), with subsequent developmental assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ADL. This design was a drop-in replacement for conventional electric water heaters. In field and durability testing conducted by ORNL, it proved to be reliable and saved on average more than 50% of the energy used by the best conventional electric water heater. However, the retail price set by EMI was very high, and it failed in the market. ORNL was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. Several cost saving opportunities were found. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. After some experimentation, a prototype unit was built with a double-wall coil inserted into the tank. When tested it achieved an energy factor (EF) of 2.12 to 2.2 using DOE-specified test procedures. A.O. Smith contacted ORNL in May 2006 expressing their interest in the ORNL design. The prototype unit was shipped to A.O. Smith to be tested in their laboratory. After they completed their test, ORNL analyzed the raw test data provided by A.O. Smith and calculated the EF to be approximately 1.92. The electric resistance heating elements of a conventional electric water heater are typically retained in a heat pump water heater to provide auxiliary heating capacity in periods of high demand. A.O. Smith informed us that when they applied electric resistance backup heating, using the criterion that resistance heat would be applied whenever the upper thermostat saw water temperatures below the heater s nominal setpoint of 135oF, they found that the EF dropped to approximately 1.5. This is an extremely conservative criterion for backup resistance heating. In a field test of the previously mentioned EMI heat pump water heater, residential consumers found satisfactory performance when the criterion for use of electric resistance backup heating was the upper temperature dropping below the set point minus 27 degrees. Applying this less conservative criterion to the raw data from the original A.O. Smith EF tests indicates that electric resistance heating would never have come on during the test, and thus the EF would have remained in the vicinity of 1.9. A.O. Smith expressed concern about having an EF below 2, as that value triggers certain tax advantages and would assist in their marketing of the product. We believe that insertion of additional length of tubing plus a less conservative set point for electric resistance backup heating would remedy this concern. However, as of this writing, A.O. Smith has not decided to proceed with a commercial product.

Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

A ground-coupled storage heat pump system with waste heat recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on an experimental single-family residence that was constructed to demonstrate integration of waste heat recovery and seasonal energy storage using both a ventilating and a ground-coupled heat pump. Called the Idaho energy Conservation Technology House, it combines superinsulated home construction with a ventilating hot water heater and a ground coupled water-to-water heat pump system. The ground heat exchangers are designed to economically promote seasonal and waste heat storage. Construction of the house was completed in the spring of 1989. Located in Moscow, Idaho, the house is occupied by a family of three. The 3,500 ft{sup 2} (325 m{sup 2}) two-story house combines several unique sub-systems that all interact to minimize energy consumption for space heating and cooling, and domestic hot water.

Drown, D.C.; Braven, K.R.D. (Univ. of Idaho, ID (US)); Kast, T.P. (Thermal Dynamic Towers, Boulder, CO (US))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Ground State Quantum Computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We formulate a novel ground state quantum computation approach that requires no unitary evolution of qubits in time: the qubits are fixed in stationary states of the Hamiltonian. This formulation supplies a completely time-independent approach to realizing quantum computers. We give a concrete suggestion for a ground state quantum computer involving linked quantum dots.

Ari Mizel; M. W. Mitchell; Marvin L. Cohen

1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

392

Substation grounding programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. It can be used to compute transient ground potential rise due to lightning or switching, and the ground impedance (i.e. resistance and reactance) at specified frequencies. This report, Volume 4, is a users manual and an installation and validation manual for the computer program TGRND (Transient GRouNDing System Analysis Program). This program computes transient ground potential rise resulting from lightning, switching, or other transient electric currents injected to a grounding system. The program also computes the impedance (i.e. resistance and reactance) of a grounding system as a function of frequency. This program can be utilized in an interactive or batch mode. The users manual describes data requirements and data preparation procedures. The installation and validation manual describes the computer files which make up the program TGRND and provides a test case for validation purposes.

Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Electric Power Lab.)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

DC source assemblies  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

394

Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components ofTankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to determine if it was feasible to collect information regarding energy use and hot water delivery from tankless gas water heaters using the sensors and controls built into the water heaters. This could then be used to determine the water heater efficiency ? the ratio of energy out (hot water delivered) to energy in (energy in the gas) in actual residential installations. The goal was to be as unobtrusive as possible, and to avoid invalidating warranties or exposing researchers to liability issues. If feasible this approach would reduce the costs of instrumentation.This paper describes the limited field and laboratory investigations to determine if using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters is feasible for field monitoring.It was more complicated to use the existing gas flow, water and temperature sensors than was anticipated. To get the signals from the existing sensors and controls is difficult and may involve making changes that would invalidate manufacturer warrantees. The procedures and methods for using signals from the existing gas valves, water flow meters and temperature sensors will vary by model. To be able to monitor different models and brands would require detailed information about each model and brand.Based on these findings, we believe that for field monitoring projects it would be easier, quicker and safer to connect external meters to measure the same parameters rather than using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters.

Lutz, Jim; Biermayer, Peter

2008-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

395

Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

396

Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

397

2015-03-25 Issuance: Definitions Regarding Consumer Water Heaters Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding definitions for consumer water heaters, as issued by the Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 25, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

398

2015-03-26 Issuance: Residential Water Heaters; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Withdrawal  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking withdrawal regarding Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, as issued by the Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 26, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

399

Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could sufficiently develop this technology to impact the water heater market in the near term.

Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecember 2005DepartmentDecember U.S. Department of EnergyEqualHeaters |

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - First Prototype  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Until now the heat pump water heater (HPWH) has been a technical success but a market failure because of its high initial cost. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. ORNL was also tasked to verify the technical feasibility of the cost saving opportunities where necessary and appropriate. The objective was to retain most of the HPWH s energy saving performance while reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. Several cost saving opportunities were found. Immersing the HPWH condenser directly into the tank allowed the water-circulating pump to be eliminated and a standard electric resistance storage water heater to be used. In addition, designs could be based on refrigerator compressors. Standard water heaters and refrigerator compressors are both reliable, mass produced, and low cost. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water heater tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. The sleeve contour causes the bayonet-style condenser to helix while being pushed into the tank, enabling a condenser of sufficient heat transfer surface area to be inserted. Based on this design, ORNL fabricated the first laboratory prototype and completed preliminary laboratory tests in accordance with the DOE Simulated Use Test Procedure. Hardening during double-wall condenser fabrication was not overcome, so the prototype is single-walled with a liner. The prototype unit was found to have an energy factor of 2.02, verifying that the low-cost design retains most of the HPWH s energy saving performance. Industry involvement is being sought to resolve the fabrication issue and quantify progress on reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. This report provides information on the design, prototype construction, laboratory test data, and analyses of this HPWH.

Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Tomlinson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired)

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

2014-06-27 Issuance: Test Procedures for Residential and Commercial Water Heaters; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential and commercial water heaters, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on June 27, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

404

Substation grounding programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 2, is a users manual and an installation and validation manual for the computer program SMECC (Substation Maximum Earth Current Computation Program). This program analyzes the electric current distribution among grounded structures inside and outside a substation for different fault conditions. The fault conditions are automatically selected by the program, or they may be specified by the user, or both. The fault condition resulting in maximum substation earth current is identified and reported. Data requirements for this program are: ground impedance, transformer data, transmission line data, transmission line grounding impedances, etc. The program provides four types of standard outputs: (1) a report of voltages and current flow in the unfaulted system, (2) a brief report of the maximum ground potential rise (worst fault condition), (3) a summary report of all fault conditions which have been analyzed by the program, and (4) a detailed report of voltages and current flow for a selected set of fault conditions.

Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Electric Power Lab.)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options...

Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

406

Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

407

Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

408

Effect of oxide films on hydrogen permeability of candidate Stirling heater head tube alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure hydrogen has been selected as the working fluid for the developmental automotive Stirling engine. Containment of the working fluid during operation of the engine at high temperatures and at high hydrogen gas pressures is essential for the acceptance of the Stirling engine as an alternative to the internal combustion engine. Most commercial alloys are extremely permeable to pure hydrogen at high temperatures. A program was undertaken at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) to reduce hydrogen permeability in the Stirling engine heater head tubes by doping the hydrogen working fluid with CO or CO/sub 2/. Small additions of these gases were shown to form an oxide on the inside tube wall and thus reduce hydrogen permeability. A study of the effects of dopant concentration, alloy composition, and effects of surface oxides on hydrogen permeability in candidate heater head tube alloys is summarized. Results showed that hydrogen permeability was similar for iron-base alloys (N-155, A286, IN800, 19-9DL, and Nitronic 40), cobalt-base alloys (HS-188) and nickel-base alloys (IN718). In general, the permeability of the alloys decreased with increasing concentration of CO or CO/sub 2/ dopant, with increasing oxide thickness, and decreasing oxide porosity. At high levels of dopants, highly permeable liquid oxides formed on those alloys with greater than 50% Fe content. Furthermore, highly reactive minor alloying elements (Ti, Al, Nb, and La) had a strong influence on reducing hydrogen permeability.

Schuon, S R; Misencik, J A

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase with increasing fuel Wobbe number.

Rapp, VH; Singer, BC

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

National Solar Water Heater Workshop Present at DOE Region V meeting for managers of State Energy Extension Service and State Energy Conservation Plan, March 18-19, 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After a brief description of the National Solar Water Heater Workshop and some comments by users of the solar water heater, the hardware supplier handbook is presented. The performance expected of a hardware supplier is described, solar system components and their specifications are listed, and information is provided to assist the hardware supplier in obtaining necessary materials. (LEW)

Mumma, S.A.; Marinello, M.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Substation grounding programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 5, is an applications guide of the three computer programs. SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS, for the purpose of designing a safe substation grounding system. The applications guide utilizes four example substation grounding systems for the purpose of illustrating the application of the programs, SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS. The examples are based on data provided by four contributing utilities, namely, Houston Lighting and Power Company, Southern Company Services, Puget Sound Power and Light Company, and Arizona Public Service Company. For the purpose of illustrating specific capabilities of the computer programs, the data have been modified. As a result, the final designs of the four systems do not necessarily represent actual grounding system designs by these utilities. The example system 1 is a 138 kV/35 kV distribution substation. The example system 2 is a medium size 230 kV/115 kV transmission substation. The third example system is a generation substation while the last is a large 525 kV/345 kV/230 kV transmission substation. The four examples cover most of the practical problems that a user may encounter in the design of substation grounding systems.

Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Electric Power Lab.)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

E-Print Network 3.0 - above-and below- ground Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a foam Graphic 3: Below-ground parking structure in Chicago, IL being backfilled with EPS-geofoam blocks Source: Horvath, John S. - Civil and Environmental Engineering...

415

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline ground waters Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water from the Lake Calumet... , and ground ... Source: Bethke, Craig - Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Collection: Environmental Sciences and...

416

BOILING CRISIS:THEORY,SIMULATION,AND EXPERIMENTSBOILING CRISIS: THEORY, SIMULATION, AND EXPERIMENTS Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid heat carrier. We discuss the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that separates the liquid from the heater. Film boiling can be also observed in the kitchen by sprinkling water onto a hot frying pan. In spite of the large temperature of the heater (the pan) the water drops Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid heat carrier. We discuss

Nikolayev, Vadim S.

417

Cryogenic hydrogen circulation system of neutron source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cold neutron sources of reactors and spallation neutron sources are classic high flux neutron sources in operation all over the world. Cryogenic fluids such as supercritical or supercooled hydrogen are commonly selected as a moderator to absorb the nuclear heating from proton beams. By comparing supercritical hydrogen circulation systems and supercooled hydrogen circulation systems, the merits and drawbacks in both systems are summarized. When supercritical hydrogen circulates as the moderator, severe pressure fluctuations caused by temperature changes will occur. The pressure control system used to balance the system pressure, which consists of a heater as an active controller for thermal compensation and an accumulator as a passive volume controller, is preliminarily studied. The results may provide guidelines for design and operation of other cryogenic hydrogen system for neutron sources under construction.

Qiu, Y. N. [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100190 China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100049 (China); Hu, Z. J.; Wu, J. H.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y. [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100190 (China); Zhang, P. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, HuaZhong University of Science and Technology, WH430074 (China); Wang, G. P. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100049 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

418

Substation grounding programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The five volume report comprises the user manual, installation, and validation manual and an applications guide for the SGA (Substation Grounding Analysis) software package. SGA consists of four computer programs: (1) SOMIP, (2) SMECC, (3) SGSYS, and (4) TGRND. The first three programs provide a comprehensive analysis tool for the design of substation grounding systems to meet safety standards. The fourth program, TGRND, provides a state of the art analysis tool for computing transient ground potential rise and ground system impedance. This part of the report, Volume 1, is a users manual and an installation and validation manual for the computer program SOMIP (SOil Measurement Interpretation Program). This program computes the best estimate of the parameters of a two layer soil model from usual soil resistivity measurements. Four pin or three pin soil measurements can be accommodated. In addition, it provides error bounds on the soil parameters for a given confidence level. The users manual describes data requirements and data preparation procedures. The installation and validation manual describes the computer files which make up the program SOMIP and provides two test cases for validation purposes. 4 refs.

Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical Engineering)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To evaluate the performance of central heat pump water heaters for multifamily applications, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California, for 16 months.

420

Abstract--Titanium nitride (TiN) has been investigated as a material for MEMS hotplate heaters operating at high  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TiN Bond pad TiN Figure 1. Schematic cross section of the hotplate. Titanium Nitride for MEMSAbstract--Titanium nitride (TiN) has been investigated as a material for MEMS hotplate heaters boundaries start to diffuse above one- third of the melting point. As a result, residual stresses relax [3

Technische Universiteit Delft

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air source to be added Discharge Includes: Source energy multiplier Distribution losses Smart controls Wasted water Solar Heat pump

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. The principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the integrated WHD, and creating programs that embrace first-cost and life-cycle cost principles.

Ashdown, BG

2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

423

GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As required by the terms of the above referenced grant, the following summary serves as the Final Report for that grant. The grant relates to work performed at two separate sites, the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site south of Gillette, Wyoming, and the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Site near Rock Springs, Wyoming. The primary concern to the State of Wyoming at each site is ground water contamination (the primary contaminants of concern are benzene and related compounds), and the purpose of the grant has been to provide tiding for a Geohydrologist at the appropriate State agency, specifically the Land Quality Division (LQD) of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. The LQD Geohydrologist has been responsible for providing technical and regulatory support to DOE for ground water remediation and subsequent surface reclamation. Substantial progress has been made toward remediation of the sites, and continuation of LQD involvement in the remediation and reclamation efforts is addressed.

Unknown

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Measured Impact on Space Conditioning Energy Use in a Residence Due to Operating a Heat Pump Water Heater inside the Conditioned Space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact on space conditioning energy use due to operating a heat pump water heater (HPWH) inside the conditioned space is analyzed based on 2010-2011 data from a research house with simulated occupancy and hot water use controls. The 2700 ft2 (345 m2) house is located in Oak Ridge, TN (mixed-humid climate) and is equipped with a 50 gallon (189 l) HPWH that provided approximately 55 gallons/d (208 l/d) of hot water at 120 F (46 C) to the house during the test period. The HPWH has been operated every other week from December 2010 through November 2011 in two modes; a heat pump only mode, and a standard mode that utilizes 15355 Btu/hr (4500 W) resistance heating elements. The energy consumption of the air-source heat pump (ASHP) that provides space conditioning for the house is compared for the two HPWH operating modes with weather effects taken into account. Impacts during the heating and cooling seasons are compared.

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings evaluated three newly released heat pump water heater products in order to provide publicly available field data on these products.

427

Performance testing and Bayesian Reliability Analysis of small diameter, high power electric heaters for the simulation of nuclear fuel rod temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

proposed full test using prototypic mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) containing plutonium from converted nuclear weapons. Bayesian reliability analysis methods were used to determine the expected heater failure rate because of the expected short test duration...

O'Kelly, David Sean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

428

DETERMINATION OF IN-SITU THERMAL PROPERTIES OF STRIPA GRANITE FROM TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN THE FULL-SCALE HEATER EXPERIMENTS: METHOD AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Properties of Granite:Stripa, Sweden. TerraTekStorage of Nuclear Waste in Granite by P. A. Witherspoon, P.Discontinuities in the Strira Granite -- Time-Scale Heater

Jeffry, J.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Unattended ground sensor situation assessment workstation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effective utilization of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) in a theater reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, and kill assessment environment requires that a human operator be able to interpret, and collectively assess, the significance of real time data obtained from UGS emplacements over large geographical regions of interest. The products of this UGS data interpretation and assessment activity can then be used in the decision support process for command level evaluation of appropriate courses of action. Advancements in both sensor hardware technology and in software systems and processing technology have enabled the development of practical real time situation assessment capabilities based upon information from unattended ground sensors. A decision support workstation that employs rule-based expert system processing of reports from unattended ground sensors is described. The primary goal of this development activity is to produce a suite of software to track vehicles using data from unattended ground sensors. The situational assessment products from this system have stand-alone utility, but are also intended to provide cueing support for overhead sensors and supplementary feeds to all-source fusion centers. The conceptual framework, developmental architecture, and demonstration field tests of the system are described.

Jeppesen, D.; Trellue, R.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

The impact of water flow configuration on crystallisation in LiBr/H2O absorption water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium Bromide (LiBr) strong solution entering the absorber tends to crystallise when the absorber temperature is increased for a fixed evaporating pressure. This is considered the key technical barrier for the development of a LiBr absorption heat pump water heater. There are several approaches to avoid the crystallisation problem, such as chemical crystallisation inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement and thermodynamic cycle modification. This paper investigates and compares two flow configurations of LiBr absorption heat pump water heater to evaluate the allowable operating conditions for each. The simulation results indicated that introducing the process water through the absorber first results in lower absorber temperature and hence less tendency for crystallisation.

Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flux datum per one droplet. No spatial or temporal heat flux information was given. Klassen et al. [12] and di Marzo et al. [13] were the first to use an infrared thermography technique to attempt to measure the spatially and temporally resolved... infrared thermography. Because of the aforementioned limitation of the IR thermography, measurements were only possible outside of the droplets. Michiyoshi and Makino [15] used a dual beam synchroscope to measure the variation of the heater supply...

Paik, Sokwon

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

432

Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

NONE

1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

NONE

1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

434

Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for warming field plots from 1 to 100 m  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To study the likely effects of global warming on open-field vegetation, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters are currently being used for low-stature (<1 m) plants in small ({le}3 m) plots. To address larger ecosystem scales, herein we show that excellent uniformity of the warming can be achieved using nested hexagonal and rectangular arrays. Energy costs depend on the overall efficiency (useable infrared energy on the plot per electrical energy in), which varies with the radiometric efficiency (infrared radiation out per electrical energy in) of the individual heaters and with the geometric efficiency (fraction of thermal radiation that falls on useable plot area) associated with the arrangement of the heaters in an array. Overall efficiency would be about 26% at 4 ms{sup -1} wind speed for a single hexagonal array over a 3-m-diameter plot and 67% for a 199-hexagon honeycomb array over a 100-m-diameter plot, thereby resulting in an economy of scale.

Kimball B. A.; Lewin K.; Conley, M. M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Development of minimum efficiency standards for large capacity air conditioners, and commercial water heaters, refrigerators, and freezers. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission has promulgated appliance energy efficiency standards and energy conservation standards for new construction with the objective of reducing energy consumption in the State of California. The following appliance categories are specifically addressed: large capacity air conditioners; commercial water heaters; and commercial refrigerators and freezers. The tasks that have been performed include: an energy use pattern study for the subject equipment; an examination of the size distribution of commercial air conditioning equipment; an examination of the different types of commercial air conditioning systems; an evaluation of the effectiveness of economizers in reducing commercial air conditioning system energy consumption in California; an examination of the effects of oversizing commercial air conditioners; a detailed study of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; an evaluation of the economic feasibility of utilizing air conditioner waste heat to heat water; an assessment of the applicability of existing test procedures for small water heaters to large water heaters; and a brief investigation of the marketing and distribution systems for air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. Results of the efforts are described.

Merrill, P.S.; Rettberg, R.J.; Erickson, R.C.; Toor, J.S.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

ADVANCED OXYFUEL BOILERS AND PROCESS HEATERS FOR COST EFFECTIVE CO{sub 2} CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This annual technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished during the first year of the program, January-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1--Conceptual Design, Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluations, Task 3--OTM Development, Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning and Task 5--Program Management. The program has experienced significant delays due to several factors. The budget has also been significantly under spent. Based on recent technical successes significant future progress is expected. A number of concepts for integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs) into boilers and process heaters to facilitate oxy-fuel combustion have been proposed. A detailed modeling plan has been proposed and early modeling work has focused on developing spreadsheet based models for quick engineering calculations. Combustion reactor laboratory scale evaluations efforts have been delayed due to the closing of Praxair's Tarrytown facility in December 2001. Experimental facilities and personnel have been relocated to Praxair's facility in Tonawanda. The facilities have recently been re-commissioned. Work with the OTM development task has also been delayed as early material selections were discarded. More recently, more promising OTM material compositions have been identified. Economic evaluation commenced. Information was acquired that quantified the attractiveness of the advanced oxygen-fired boiler. CO{sub 2} capture and compression are still estimated to be much less than $10/ton carbon.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; G. Maxwell Christie

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

ADVANCED OXYFUEL BOILERS AND PROCESS HEATERS FOR COST EFFECTIVE CO2 CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This annual technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished during the second year of the program, January-December 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Conceptual Design, Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluations, Task 3--OTM Development, Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning and Task 5--Program Management. The program has experienced significant delays due to several factors. The budget has also been significantly under spent. Based on recent technical successes and confirmation of process economics, significant future progress is expected. Concepts for integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs) into boilers and process heaters to facilitate oxy-fuel combustion have been investigated. OTM reactor combustion testing was delayed to insufficient reliability of the earlier OTM materials. Substantial improvements to reliability have been identified and testing will recommence early in 2004. Promising OTM material compositions and OTM architectures have been identified that improve the reliability of the ceramic elements. Economic evaluation continued. Information was acquired that quantified the attractiveness of the advanced oxygen-fired boiler. CO{sub 2} capture and compression are still estimated to be much less than $10/ton CO{sub 2}.

John Sirman; Leonard Switzer; Bart van Hassel

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Combustion air preheating for refinery heaters using plate-type heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion air preheating by recovering heat from combustion gases is a cost effective method of increasing the overall thermal efficiency of the refining and petrochemical processes. This paper presents the advantages of the plate-type air preheaters made of smooth plates without extended surfaces. These exchangers provide a relatively high heat transfer coefficient at a relatively low pressure drop, resulting in a flexible and compact design. The air preheater design can easily be integrated into the heater design. Top mounting with natural draft becomes possible for many applications, eliminating the need for I.D. fan and expensive ductwork. The economical extent of heat recovery function of the fuel fired is presented based on practical experience. The use of porcelain enameled (glass coated) plates and of stainless steel materials allows the operation of the air preheater below the acidic and water dew point. Finally the paper presents the experience of the Canadian refineries and petrochemical plants with plate-type heat exchangers used for combustion air preheating.

Dinulescu, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In AreCommercial Buildings?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evidenceof electric plug loads in commercial buildings isvisible everyday: space heaters, portable fans, and the IT technician'stwo monitors connected to one PC. The Energy Information Administrationestimates that office and miscellaneous equipment together will consume2.18 quads in 2006, nearly 50 percent of U.S. commercial electricity use.Although the importance of commercial plug loads is documented, its verynature (diverse product types, products not installed when buildinginitially constructed, and products often hidden in closets) makes itdifficult to accurately count and categorize the end use.We auditedsixteen buildings in three cities (San Francisco, Atlanta, Pittsburgh)including office, medical and education building types. We inventoriedthe number and types of office and miscellaneous electric equipment aswell as estimated total energy consumption due to these product types. Intotal, we audited approximately 4,000 units of office equipment and 6,000units of miscellaneous equipment and covered a diverse range of productsranging from electric pencil sharpeners with a unit energy consumption(UEC) of 1 kWh/yr to a kiln with a UEC of 7,000 kWh/yr. Our paperpresents a summary of the density and type of plug load equipment foundas well as the estimated total energy consumption of the equipment.Additionally, we present equipment trends observed and provide insightsto how policy makers can target energy efficiency for this growing enduse.

Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie; Brown, Richard; Busch, John; Pinckard, Margaret; Roberson, Judy

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park] [General Electric - Appliance Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Equipment Gas Storage Water Heaters Gas Furnaces Air-SourceHeaters Electric Storage Water Heaters Gas Condensing WaterEquipment Electric Storage Water Heaters Product Category

Taylor, Margaret

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities.

Griffin, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

1998-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

444

Ground potential rise monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

Allen, Zachery W. (Mandan, ND); Zevenbergen, Gary A. (Arvada, CO)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

445

Coal mine ground control. 3rd ed.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The third edition not only completely revises and updates the original subject areas, but also is broadened to include a number of new topics such as high horizontal stresses, computer modeling, and highwall stability. The subject areas covered in this book define the current field of coal mine ground control, except for the recently emerging topic of mine seals and some conventional subjects such as coal/rock cutting and impoundment dams. It contains 1,134 references from all published sources, and archived since 1876.

Peng, S.S.

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

446

Tennessee: Ground-Source Heat Pump Receives Innovation Award...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

equipment and greater than 30% versus current state-of-the-art two-stage geothermal heat pumps. This water-to-air packaged heat pump provides significantly lower energy...

447

National Certification Standard for Ground Source Heat Pump Personnel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Certification Standard for the Geothermal Heat Pump Industry adds to the understanding of the barriers to rapid growth of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) industry by bringing together for the first time an analysis of the roles and responsibilities of each of the individual job tasks involved in the design and installation of GHP systems. The standard addresses applicable qualifications for all primary personnel involved in the design, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of GHP systems, including their knowledge, skills and abilities. The resulting standard serves as a foundation for subsequent development of curriculum, training and certification programs, which are not included in the scope of this project, but are briefly addressed in the standard to describe ways in which the standard developed in this project may form a foundation to support further progress in accomplishing those other efforts. Follow-on efforts may use the standard developed in this project to improve the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of curriculum development and training programs for GHP industry personnel, by providing a more complete and objective assessment of the individual job tasks necessary for successful implementation of GHP systems. When incorporated into future certification programs for GHP personnel, the standard will facilitate increased consumer confidence in GHP technology, reduce the potential for improperly installed GHP systems, and assure GHP system quality and performance, all of which benefit the public through improved energy efficiency and mitigated environmental impacts of the heating and cooling of homes and businesses.

Kelly, John [Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium] [Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

448

Optimal Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objectives: Develop a least-cost design tool (OptGSHP) that will enable GSHP developers to analyze system cost and performance in a variety of building applications to support both design, operational and purchase decisions. Integrate groundwater flow and heat transport into OptGSHP. Demonstrate the usefulness of OptGSHP and the significance of a systems approach to the design of GSHP systems.

449

Technical Feasibility Study for Deployment of Ground-Source Heat...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

encountered within both the (1) moderately-to-high permeability, pore- dominated, unconsolidated overburden and fill and (2) lower permeability, fracture-dominated bedrock at PNSY...

450

Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:

451

Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorge Waldmann GeorgeLogging Systems (DecemberGREENINGSenate

452

Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models | Department1 Prepared by:DTE Energy VideoDark Matter and a

453

Ball State University Completes Nation's Largest Ground-Source Geothermal  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement3--Logistical5/08 Attendance List1-02EvaluationJohn

454

Hybrid Ground Source System Analysis and Tool Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objectives: 1. Compile filtered hourly data for three monitored hybrid installations. 2.Validate existing HyGCHP model. 3.Refine and enhance the HyGCHP model (usability / capability). 4. Demonstrate impact of actual hybrid installations. 5. Report lessons learned and impacts of HyGSHPs to design/engineering community.

455

Ground Turkey Stir Fry Ingredients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground Turkey Stir Fry Ingredients: 1 1/2 cups brown rice, medium- grain, making 3 cups cooked 1 pound ground turkey 4 zucchini 1 onion 1 green pepper 1/4 teaspoon pepper Directions 1. Cook brown rice turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break beef into small pieces as it browns. Keep on stirring

Liskiewicz, Maciej

456

GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) in 2007 will open the possibility of combined studies of astrophysical sources with existing ground-based VHE {gamma}-ray experiments such as H.E.S.S., VERITAS and MAGIC. Ground-based {gamma}-ray observatories provide complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal, spatial and population studies of high-energy {gamma}-ray sources. Joint observations cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 50 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing us to perform long-term monitoring of variable sources under uniform observation conditions and to detect flaring sources promptly. Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) will complement these observations with high-sensitivity pointed observations on regions of interest.

Funk, S.; Carson, J.E.; Giebels, B.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.E.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L.C.

2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

457

Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

Not Available

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Acoustic and Seismic Modalities for Unattended Ground Sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we have presented the relative advantages and complementary aspects of acoustic and seismic ground sensors. A detailed description of both acoustic and seismic ground sensing methods has been provided. Acoustic and seismic phenomenology including source mechanisms, propagation paths, attenuation, and sensing have been discussed in detail. The effects of seismo-acoustic and acousto-seismic interactions as well as recommendations for minimizing seismic/acoustic cross talk have been highlighted. We have shown representative acoustic and seismic ground sensor data to illustrate the advantages and complementary aspects of the two modalities. The data illustrate that seismic transducers often respond to acoustic excitation through acousto-seismic coupling. Based on these results, we discussed the implications of this phenomenology on the detection, identification, and localization objectives of unattended ground sensors. We have concluded with a methodology for selecting the preferred modality (acoustic and/or seismic) for a particular application.

Elbring, G.J.; Ladd, M.D.; McDonald, T.S.; Sleefe, G.E.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

460

2014-10-14 Issuance: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Solar Water Heaters; Request for Information  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information regarding test procedures and energy conservation standards for residential solar water heaters, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on October 14, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

NLS ground states on graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the existence of ground states for the subcritical NLS energy on metric graphs. In particular, we find out a topological assumption that guarantees the nonexistence of ground states, and give an example in which the assumption is not fulfilled and ground states actually exist. In order to obtain the result, we introduce a new rearrangement technique, adapted to the graph where it applies. Owing to such a technique, the energy level of the rearranged function is improved by conveniently mixing the symmetric and monotone rearrangement procedures.

Riccardo Adami; Enrico Serra; Paolo Tilli

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

462

E-Print Network 3.0 - aircraft heaters xxviii Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 40 Artificial Intelligence 113 (1999) 149202 Topological inference of teleology Summary: to be...

463

Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the ability to improve control of an olefins furnace (via CO-trim) that resulted in significant energy savings and lower emissions such as NOx and other greenhouse gases. The cost to retrofit measurements on an existing olefins furnace was found to be very attractive, with an estimated payback achieved in 4 months or less.

Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

464

Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of air pollutant emissions. In Phase 3, the team retrofitted three fuel-flexible burners into a fired heater at a Shell plant and demonstrated the project’s technology over a 6-month period. The project burners performed well during this period. They remain in commercial service at the Shell plant. Through this work, an improved understanding of flame stabilization mechanisms was gained. Also, methods for accommodating a wide range of fuel compositions were developed. This knowledge facilitated the commercialization of a new generation of burners that are suitable for the fuels of the future.

Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

465

Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met.

NONE

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

John Peterson

467

Ground Water Management Regulations (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The rules and regulations apply to the management of the state's ground water resources. In addition, the Commissioner of Conservation has recommended that oil and gas operators with an interest...

468

Calibrating Pesticide Application Ground Equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This pocket-sized guide gives step-by-step instructions for calibrating ground sprayers. Tables provide instructions, examples and sample formulas for determining speed of application, flow rate and the amount of pesticide to add to the tank....

Shaw, Bryan W.

2000-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

469

Liu and Spitler. Submitted to the 12th International Road Weather Conference 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydronic bridge snow melting systems using ground source heat pumps (GSHP) or other heat sources has been, and glycol-water, are suitable as heat carrier fluids in hydronic heating systems. Freeze protection sources can be used for such systems, including boilers, electrical heater, ground water, and ground

470

Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User's Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User source for science about the Earth, its natural and living resources, natural hazards., 2007, Characterizing hydraulic properties and ground-water chemistry in fractured-rock aquifers: A user

471

Sensitivity of the Earthquake Response of Tall Steel Moment Frame Buildings to Ground Motion Features  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the skyline of many cities in the western US exposed to serious seismicity from a variety of sources. Consider with a simple energy balance analysis. The collapse initiation regime expands to lower ground motion periods are the ground motion features that could collapse these massive structures. Real-world data that could provide

Krishnan, Swaminathan

472

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 3. Historical Ground-Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................................................................................................................................... 9 Mine history and ground-water development ....................................................................................................................................................... 11 Ground-water quality database.......................................................................................................................................................... 29 Compilation of complete database

473

A Simplified Procedure for Sizing Vertical Ground Coupled Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for Residences in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the simplified method were compared to two available heat exchanger sizing methods: the National Water Well Association (NWWA) and the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA). The simplified method predicted shorter lengths than those from...

O'Neal, D. L.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Aldred, W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

A simplified methodology for sizing ground coupled heat pump heat exchangers in cooling dominated climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between GSIM and two commercially available heat exchanger sizing methods, the National Water Well Association (NWWA) and the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA) methods, was performed. GSIM heat exchanger lengths for Dallas were... Pump Capacity and Cooling Load. . . . . Oversizing and Undersizing the Heat Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary. . 72 74 76 78 80 82 85 87 90 92 IX COMPARISON OF HEAT EXCHANGER SIZING METHODS . . 93 International Ground Source Heat...

Gonzalez, Jose Antonio

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Report on International Collaboration Involving the FE Heater and HG-A Tests at Mont Terri  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear waste programs outside of the US have focused on different host rock types for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Several countries, including France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Japan are exploring the possibility of waste disposal in shale and other clay-rich rock that fall within the general classification of argillaceous rock. This rock type is also of interest for the US program because the US has extensive sedimentary basins containing large deposits of argillaceous rock. LBNL, as part of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, is collaborating on some of the underground research laboratory (URL) activities at the Mont Terri URL near Saint-Ursanne, Switzerland. The Mont Terri project, which began in 1995, has developed a URL at a depth of about 300 m in a stiff clay formation called the Opalinus Clay. Our current collaboration efforts include two test modeling activities for the FE heater test and the HG-A leak-off test. This report documents results concerning our current modeling of these field tests. The overall objectives of these activities include an improved understanding of and advanced relevant modeling capabilities for EDZ evolution in clay repositories and the associated coupled processes, and to develop a technical basis for the maximum allowable temperature for a clay repository. The R&D activities documented in this report are part of the work package of natural system evaluation and tool development that directly supports the following Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) objectives: ? Develop a fundamental understanding of disposal-system performance in a range of environments for potential wastes that could arise from future nuclear-fuel-cycle alternatives through theory, simulation, testing, and experimentation. ? Develop a computational modeling capability for the performance of storage and disposal options for a range of fuel-cycle alternatives, evolving from generic models to more robust models of performance assessment. For the purpose of validating modeling capabilities for thermal-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes, we developed a suite of simulation models for the planned full-scale FE Experiment to be conducted in the Mont Terri URL, including a full three-dimensional model that will be used for direct comparison to experimental data once available. We performed for the first time a THM analysis involving the Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) in a full three-dimensional field setting for modeling the geomechanical behavior of the buffer material and its interaction with the argillaceous host rock. We have simulated a well defined benchmark that will be used for codeto- code verification against modeling results from other international modeling teams. The analysis highlights the complex coupled geomechanical behavior in the buffer and its interaction with the surrounding rock and the importance of a well characterized buffer material in terms of THM properties. A new geomechanical fracture-damage model, TOUGH-RBSN, was applied to investigate damage behavior in the ongoing HG-A test at Mont Terri URL. Two model modifications have been implemented so that the Rigid-Body-Spring-Network (RBSN) model can be used for analysis of fracturing around the HG-A microtunnel. These modifications are (1) a methodology to compute fracture generation under compressive stress conditions and (2) a method to represent anisotropic elastic and strength properties. The method for computing fracture generation under compressive load produces results that roughly follow trends expected for homogeneous and layered systems. Anisotropic properties for the bulk rock were represented in the RBSN model using layered heterogeneity and gave bulk material responses in line with expectations. These model improvements were implemented for an initial model of fracture damage at the HG-A test. While the HG-A test model results show some similarities with the test observations, differences between the model results and observations remain.

Houseworth, Jim; Rutqvist, Jonny; Asahina, Daisuke; Chen, Fei; Vilarrasa, Victor; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

476

Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wide band ground penetrating radar system (10) embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals (60) is produced by a single radio frequency source (16) and provided to a transmit antenna (26) for transmission to a target (54) and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna (28). A phase modulator (18) modulates those portion of the radio frequency signals (62) to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal (62) is combined in a mixer (34) with the original radio frequency signal (60) to produce a resultant signal (53) which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals (66) the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot (68) which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform unit 44 into frequency domain data (70) wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target (54) and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target (54).

Bashforth, Michael B. (Buellton, CA); Gardner, Duane (Santa Maria, CA); Patrick, Douglas (Santa Maria, CA); Lewallen, Tricia A. (Ventura, CA); Nammath, Sharyn R. (Santa Barbara, CA); Painter, Kelly D. (Goleta, CA); Vadnais, Kenneth G. (Alexandria, VA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Review of experiments to evaluate the ability of electrical heater rods to simulate nuclear fuel rod behavior during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Issues related to using electrical fuel rod simulators to simulate nuclear fuel rod behavior during postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in light water reactors are summarized. Experimental programs which will provide a data base for comparing electrical heater rod and nuclear fuel rod LOCA responses are reviewed.

McPherson, G D; Tolman, E L

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J. (2012). Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based, presenting an energy-saving opportunity for homeowners. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

479

Flow boiling enhancement on a horizontal heater using carbon nanotube coatings N. Singh, V. Sathyamurthy, W. Peterson, J. Arendt, D. Banerjee *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanisms (thermal and hydro-dy- namic interactions). Apart from the fluid and heater thermo-phys- ical enhancement has been explored in the literature using micro-scale as well as macro-scale features in round have also been reported in the litera- ture such as plate fin surface, micro-fins, twisted-tape inserts

Banerjee, Debjyoti

480

Nonlinear Dynamics of Longitudinal Ground Vehicle Traction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

asphalt b) Wet asphalt c) Gravel d) Packed Snow Nonlinear Dynamics of Longitudinal Ground Vehicle Traction

Shaw, Steven W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters ground source" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Control system for 5 MW neutral beam ion source for SST1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the control system for a 5 MW ion source of the NBI (neutral beam injector) for steady-state superconducting tokamak-1 (SST-1). The system uses both hardware and software solutions. It comprises a DAS (data acquisition system) and a control system. The DAS is used to read the voltage and current signals from eight filament heater power supplies and 24 discharge power supplies. The control system is used to adjust the filament heater current in order to achieve an effective control on the discharge current in the plasma box. The system consists of a VME (Verse Module Eurocard) system and C application program running on a VxWorks{sup TM} real-time operating system. A PID (proportional, integral, and differential) algorithm is used to control the filament heater current. Experiments using this system have shown that the discharge current can be controlled within 1% accuracy for a PID loop time of 20 ms. Response of the control system to the pressure variation of the gas in the chamber has also been studied and compared with the results obtained from those of an uncontrolled system. The present approach increases the flexibility of the control system. It not only eases the control of the plasma but also allows an easy changeover to various operation scenarios.

Patel, G.B.; Onali, Raja; Sharma, Vivek; Suresh, S.; Tripathi, V.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, N.P.; Thakkar, Dipal; Gupta, L.N.; Singh, M.J.; Patel, P.J.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Baruah, U.K.; Mattoo, S.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India-382428 (India)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

483

Montana Ground Water Assessment Act (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute establishes a program to systematically assess and monitor the state's ground water and to disseminate the information to interested persons in order to improve the quality of ground...

484

Case Study/ Ground Water Sustainability: Methodology and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or the lack thereof, of ground water flow systems driven by similar hydrogeologic and economic conditionsCase Study/ Ground Water Sustainability: Methodology and Application to the North China Plain of a ground water flow system in the North China Plain (NCP) subject to severe overexploitation and rapid

Zheng, Chunmiao

485

Prevention of ice formation in light-aircraft-engine induction systems by using an automatic control to operate the carburetor-air heater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIBRARY A A III COLLEGE OF TEXAS PREVENTION OF ICE FORMATION IN LIGHT-AIRCRAFT-EIEIINE INDUCTION SYSTEMS BY USING AN AUTOMATIC CONTROL TO OPERATE THE CARBURETOB AIR HEATER A Thesis GARLAND BISHOP MHISENHUNT & JR SuIm&itted to the Graduate... School of the Agricultural and Mechanioal College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1955 MAJOR SUBJECT ' MECHANICAL ENGINEERING& PREVENTION OF ICE FORMATION IN LIGHT...

Whisenhunt, Garland Bishop

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

CARD No. 53 Consideration of Underground Sources of Drinking Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposure of individuals and the possible levels of radioactive contamination of ground water due resulting from exposure to radioactive contaminants in underground sources of drinking water (USDWs.34, which implement the general containment requirements of the radioactive waste disposal regulations

487

Infrared source test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

Ott, L.

1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

488

An energy equivalency analysis of trade-offs between thermal efficiency and standby loss requirements for commercial gas service water heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Standing Standard Project Committee 90.1 has approved an addendum (90.lb) to ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989. The addendum specifies an increase in the minimum thermal efficiency requirement (from 77% to 78%), accompanied by an easing of the standby loss requirements, for commercial gas-fired service water heaters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed an energy equivalency analysis to assess the impact of trade-offs between the improved thermal efficiency and the less stringent standby loss requirements. The analysis objective was to estimate whether the energy savings during firing would offset the increased energy losses during standby periods. The primary focus of this report is to summarize the major results of the analysis and provide a recommendation for minimum energy-efficiency commercial gas-fired service water heaters. Limitations to the availability of detailed performance and energy-use data for these commercial water heaters are also pointed out.

Somasundaram, S.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Keller, J.M.; Schliesing, J.S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Atlas SCT/Pixel Grounding and Shielding ATLAS SCT/Pixel Grounding and Shielding Note  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlas SCT/Pixel Grounding and Shielding 1 ATLAS SCT/Pixel Grounding and Shielding Note November 22 mostly connects existing mechanical electrical conductive #12; Atlas SCT/Pixel Grounding and Shielding 2 that equivalent. The barrel outer heat shield (150 aluminum) main element shield. #12; Atlas SCT/Pixel Grounding

California at Santa Cruz, University of

490

Optimal arrangement of structural and functional parts in a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parameters that affect the efficiency of a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) are examined experimentally and numerically. This specific ICSSWH contains water that is not refreshed. The service water is heated indirectly through an immersed heat exchanger (HE) in contact with the front and back major surfaces. A forced convection mechanism consisting of a pump that brings the storage water into motion by recirculation is used for heat transfer intensification. The two major (front and back) flat plate surfaces need to be well interconnected so that they are not deformed by the weight of the contained water and the exerted high-pressure. Two main factors that influence the performance are optimized: the position and size of the recirculation ports and the arrangement and size of the interconnecting fins. Both factors are explored to maximize the velocity flow field of the recirculated storage water. Consequently, the heat transfer rate between the two water circuits is maintained at high levels. Various 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are developed using the FLUENT package. An experimental model, made by Plexiglas, is used for the visualization of the flow field. Flow velocities are measured using a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. The optimal arrangement increases the mean storage water velocity by 65% and raises the outlet temperatures up to 8 C. (author)

Gertzos, K.P.; Caouris, Y.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

491

TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Livestock Holding Pen Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Open lots or holding pens for feeding or holding livestock can be sources of ground water contamination. The safety of such operations depends on their separation from water wells, characteristics of the site, and proper management. This publication...

Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

492

TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Fertilizer Storage and Handling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fertilizer is a major source of ground water contamination. This publication emphasizes the best management practices for storing fertilizers, whether you are building a new facility or modifying an existing one. It also includes information on safe...

Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Kantor, A. S.

1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

493

Ground Penetrating Radar in Hydrogeophysics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To meet the needs of a growing population and to provide us with a higher quality of life, increasing pressures are being placed on our environment through the development of agriculture, industry, and infrastructures. Soil erosion, groundwater depletion, salinization, and pollution have been recognized for decades as major threats to ecosystems and human health. More recently, the progressive substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels for energy production and climate change have been recognized as potential threats to our water resources and sustained agricultural productivity. The vadose zone mediates many of the processes that govern water resources and quality, such as the partition of precipitation into infiltration and runoff , groundwater recharge, contaminant transport, plant growth, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. It also determines soil organic carbon sequestration and carbon-cycle feedbacks, which could substantially impact climate change. The vadose zone's inherent spatial variability and inaccessibility precludes direct observation of the important subsurface processes. In a societal context where the development of sustainable and optimal environmental management strategies has become a priority, there is a strong prerequisite for the development of noninvasive characterization and monitoring techniques of the vadose zone. In particular, hydrogeophysical approaches applied at relevant scales are required to appraise dynamic subsurface phenomena and to develop optimal sustainability, exploitation, and remediation strategies. Among existing geophysical techniques, ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology is of particular interest for providing high-resolution subsurface images and specifically addressing water-related questions. Ground penetrating radar is based on the transmission and reception of VHF-UHF (30-3000 MHz) electromagnetic waves into the ground, whose propagation is determined by the soil electromagnetic properties and their spatial distribution. As the dielectric permittivity of water overwhelms the permittivity of other soil components, the presence of water in the soil principally governs GPR wave propagation. Therefore, GPR-derived dielectric permittivity is usually used as surrogate measure for soil water content. In the areas of unsaturated zone hydrology and water resources, GPR has been used to identify soil stratigraphy, to locate water tables, to follow wetting front movement, to estimate soil water content, to assist in subsurface hydraulic parameter identification, to assess soil salinity, and to support the monitoring of contaminants. The purpose of this special section of the Vadose Zone Journal is to present recent research advances and applications of GPR in hydrogeophysics, with a particular emphasis on vadose zone investigations. This special section includes contributions presented at the European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2006 (EGU 2006, Vienna, Austria) and the 11th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR 2006, Columbus, OH). The studies presented here deal with a wide range of surface and borehole GPR applications, including GPR sensitivity to contaminant plumes, new methods for soil water content determination, three-dimensional imaging of the subsurface, time-lapse monitoring of hydrodynamic events and inversion techniques for soil hydraulic properties estimation, and joint interpretation of GPR and electric resistivity tomography (ERT) data.

Hubbard, Susan; Lambot, S.; Binley, A.; Slob, E.; Hubbard, S.

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

494

Heat Source Lire,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9HarveyWellnessFebruaryWater Heaters

495

Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Evaluation of analytical methods to interpret ground deformations due to soft ground tunneling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An in depth study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of analytical solutions in describing ground movements induced by soft ground tunneling. The analytical solutions that were examined consider both isotropic ...

Zymnis, Despina M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Special Section on Ground Water Research in China Featured in This Issue of Ground Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Ground Water by Xun Zhou1, Jiu J. Jiao2, and Mary P. Anderson3 Contained in this issue of Ground Water, Groundwater Resources and the Related Environ- Hydrogeologic Problems in China, Beijing: Seismological Press

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

498

Source Four Ellipsoidal Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parallel-blade U-ground connector -B two-pin and ground, 20 amp connector -c grounded, 20 amp, twistlock. to convert data when using any other HpL lamp, use the lumen or candela multiplying factors (Lm mf or cd mf) for that specific lamp, listed in the Lamps table in this datasheet. for lumen data, multiply by the Lm mf

Martin, Jeff

499

International Borders, Ground Water Flow, and Hydroschizophrenia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

beginning to be recognized. The hidden nature of ground water and the lack of international law governingInternational Borders, Ground Water Flow, and Hydroschizophrenia by Todd Jarvis1,2, Mark Giordano3 conducted on transboundary water, transboundary water law, and the mitigation of transboundary water

Wolf, Aaron

500

Rotor Blades and Ground Effect Richard Purvis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rotor Blades and Ground Effect Richard Purvis Department of Mathematics University College London to examine various aspects of rotor blade flows and ground effect. It explores two- and three- dimensional flows, generally concentrating upon regimes that have a degree of rel- evance to typical rotor blade

Purvis, Richard