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1

Evaporative Coolers | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

List of Evaporative Coolers Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleEvaporativeCoolers&oldid380633" Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

2

Evaporative Coolers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Coolers Evaporative Coolers Evaporative Coolers July 1, 2012 - 6:51pm Addthis Evaporative Coolers, sometimes called swamp coolers, is another way to cool air in warm climates with low humidity. | Photo courtesy of Public Domain Photos. Evaporative Coolers, sometimes called swamp coolers, is another way to cool air in warm climates with low humidity. | Photo courtesy of Public Domain Photos. What does this mean for me? If you live in a warm, dry climate, you can save money on utility bills and stay comfortable during the cooling season by installing an evaporative cooler. Evaporative coolers add humidity to indoor air, a benefit in dry, warm climates. Unlike air conditioners that recirculate air, an evaporative cooler

3

List of Evaporative Coolers Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coolers Incentives Coolers Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 35 Evaporative Coolers Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 35) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active APS - Energy Efficiency Solutions for Business (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Retail Supplier Schools State Government Building Insulation Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Programmable Thermostats Refrigerators LED Exit Signs Evaporative Coolers Vending Machine Controls Food Service Equipment Yes Austin Utilities (Gas and Electric) - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Minnesota) Utility Rebate Program Minnesota Commercial

4

Exergy method of optimisation of a wavy plate indirect evaporative cooler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper deals with the performance optimisation of a wavy plate surface of indirect evaporative coolers with cooling capacities of 10, 25, 45 kW. Based on the minimum entropy generation rate and by applying a number of geometrical constraints, as well as using a search method, the optimum apparatus's dimensions and the secondary air discharge and the primary air mass flow rates are calculated. The numerical results show that, to increase the cooling load of an indirect evaporative cooler, the optimisation of the above mentioned parameters by this method can increase energy efficiency by up to 65%.

A. Abbassi; M. Aliehyaei

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The evaporation phenomenon of a liquid droplet was investigated by using microfabricated heaters. All 32 microheaters were designed to have the same resistance. Gold microheaters worked both as temperature indicators and as heaters. The first...

Paik, Sokwon

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

6

Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

7

Preliminary evaluation of the performance, water use, and current application trends of evaporative coolers in California climates  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the latest results of an ongoing analysis investigating the potential for evaporative cooling as an energy-efficient alternative to standard air-conditioning in California residences. In particular, the study uses detailed numerical models of evaporative coolers linked with the DOE-2 building energy simulation program to study the issues of indoor comfort, energy and peak demand savings with and without supplemental air-conditioning and consumptive water use. In addition, limited surveys are used to assess the current market availability of evaporative cooling in California, typical contractor practices and costs, and general acceptance of the technology among engineers, contractors, and manufacturers. The results show that evaporative coolers can provide significant energy and peak demand savings in California residences, but the impact of the increased indoor humidity on human comfort remains an unanswered question that requires further research and clarification. Evaluated against ASHRAE comfort standards developed primarily for air-conditioning both direct and two-stage evaporative coolers would not maintain comfort at peak cooling conditions due to excessive humidity. However, using bioclimatic charts that place human comfort at the 80% relative humidity line, the study suggests that direct evaporative coolers will work in mild coastal climates, while two-stage models should provide adequate comfort in Title 24 houses throughout California, except in the Imperial Valley. The study also shows that evaporative coolers will increase household water consumption by less than 6% on an annual basis, and as much as 23% during peak cooling months, and that the increases in water cost are minimal compared to the electricity savings. Lastly, a survey of engineers and contractors revealed generally positive experiences with evaporative coolers, with operational cost savings, improved comfort, unproved air quality as the primary benefits in their use.

Huang, Y.J.; Hanford, J.W.; Wu, H.F.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Performance Analysis of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Incorporating a Brazed-Plate Gas-cooler.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study focuses on the experimental testing and numerical modeling of a 4.5 kW transcritical CO2 heat pump water heater at Queens University in the (more)

Murray, PORTIA

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Swimming Pool Heaters Swimming Pool Heaters Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 1:49pm Addthis How a heat pump works. How a heat pump works. How They Work Heat pumps use electricity to capture heat and move it from one place to another. They don't generate heat. As the pool pump circulates the swimming pool's water, the water drawn from the pool passes through a filter and the heat pump heater. The heat pump heater has a fan that draws in the outside air and directs it over the evaporator coil. Liquid refrigerant within the evaporator coil absorbs the heat from the outside air and becomes a gas. The warm gas in the coil then passes through the compressor. The compressor increases the heat, creating a very hot gas that then passes through the condenser. The condenser transfers the heat from the hot gas to the cooler pool water circulating

10

Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler  

SciTech Connect

The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

11

Sandia Cooler  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Sandia Cooler is 30-times more efficient than conventional air-cooled heat exchangers and is available for licensing to electronics and solid state lighting cooling manufacturers.

Koplow, Jeff; Fornaciari, Neal; Gharagozloo, Patricia

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

12

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

13

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

14

Variably insulating portable heater/cooler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Variably insulating portable heater/cooler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

Potter, T.F.

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

16

CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

17

Sandia Cooler Blows Traditional CPU Coolers Away  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Sandia Cooler's innovative, compact design improves the way heat is transferred in microelectronics, earning it R&D Magazine Editor's Choice Award.

18

Static gas expansion cooler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has long been recognized that evaporative cooling is an effective and logical substitute for mechanical cooling in hot-arid climates. This paper explores the application of evaporative coolers to the hot-humid climates using a controlled...

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

EGR Cooler Deposit Analysis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Analysis of fouling and performance of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers as a function of EGR flow rate, inlet gas and coolant temperatures, soot level, and hydrocarbon concentration

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Convective heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Convective heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

24

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

25

Shipboard electronics thermoacoustic cooler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermoacousticrefrigerator that was optimized for preservation of biological samples in space was modified for use as a cooler for the CV?2095 shipboard radar electronics rack. The thermoacoustic cooler was tested in the laboratory and demonstrated at sea aboard USS DEYO (DD?989). In the laboratory using a calibrated heat load the data acquisition system was able to account for the total energy balance to within 4%. At the highest operating power aboard ship 227 W of acoustic power was used to provide 419 W of useful cooling power corresponding to a coefficient of performance of 1.85. Taking into account the 54% electroacoustic efficiency of the loudspeakers the shipboard electronics thermoacoustic cooler (SETAC) provided 1 W of cooling for each watt of electrical power input. [Work supported the Office of Naval Research and the Navy Science Assistance Program.

D. McKelvey; S. Ballaster; S. Garrett

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Lead Performer: University of Florida, Gainesville, FloridaPartners: -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Stony Brook University - Stony Brook, NY

27

Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

Vitale, Nicholas G. (Albany, NY); Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Definition: Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate.[1] References ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporative_cooler Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Evaporative_Cooling&oldid=601323" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes

29

Heat Pump Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Heaters Showerheads Residential Weatherization Performance Tested Comfort Systems Ductless Heat Pumps New Construction Residential Marketing Toolkit Retail Sales...

30

Selecting a new water heater  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Commercial Cooler: Order (2013-CE-5343)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered Commercial Cooler, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Cooler had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

32

Southeast Cooler: Order (2013-CE-5331)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered Southeast Cooler Corp. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Southeast Cooler had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

33

Golden Cooler: Order (2013-CE-5345)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered Golden Cooler to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Golden Cooler had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

34

Custom Coolers: Order (2013-CE-5315)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered Custom Coolers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Custom Coolers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

35

Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Homes Water Heating Swimming Pool Heaters Swimming Pool Heaters July 10, 2014 Gas Swimming Pool Heaters Selecting the right kind of swimming pool heater...

36

Grouped exposed metal heaters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

37

Explosives tester with heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

38

HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? January 10, 2011 - 4:27pm Addthis Andrea Spikes Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory I live in Colorado, and when it's cold it is very, very cold. Since I hate paying high heating bills, I typically have my thermostat set to a chilly 62°F. My husband and I have gotten used to this, and really like being able to use a warm comforter while the air stays cooler. There are some nights, however, that even this setting seems too high and the heater is running a lot more than I'd like it to. When it's below 0° overnight, or even sometimes during the day, we occasionally break out our oil-filled space heater when we're only using one room. That has me

39

HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? January 10, 2011 - 4:27pm Addthis Andrea Spikes Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory I live in Colorado, and when it's cold it is very, very cold. Since I hate paying high heating bills, I typically have my thermostat set to a chilly 62°F. My husband and I have gotten used to this, and really like being able to use a warm comforter while the air stays cooler. There are some nights, however, that even this setting seems too high and the heater is running a lot more than I'd like it to. When it's below 0° overnight, or even sometimes during the day, we occasionally break out our oil-filled space heater when we're only using one room. That has me

40

AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater  

SciTech Connect

An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

Akyurt, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Department of Energy - Swimming Pool Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

736189 en Gas Swimming Pool Heaters http:energy.govenergysaverarticlesgas-swimming-pool-heaters heaters" class"title-link">

42

Plugging of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

EGR coolers donated by industry and analyzed at ORNL contained lacquer-like deposits, which can be prevented by maintaining the cooler above the dew point of the hydrocarbons.

43

Commercial Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5343)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Cooler, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

44

American Cooler Technologies: Order (2013-CE-5305)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered American Cooler Technologies to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding American Cooler Technologies had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in coolers or freezers (WICF) components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

45

Floating solar pool heater  

SciTech Connect

A floating solar heater for swimming pools is disclosed which includes a top cover, a vertical outer side wall with inclined inner side wall segments connected thereto, an outside rim and a bottom wall. The inner side wall segments are octagonal, coated with light reflective material, and aid in reflecting the sun's rays to heat the space inside the walls formed by the cover which dead air space also provides for floatation of the heater. The bottom wall is heated by direct sun inpingement and by the air in contact with it and is formed of a material having high heat conductivity.

McCluskey, J.E.

1981-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

46

Energy savings from indirect evaporative pre-cooling: Control strategies and commissioning  

SciTech Connect

Package rooftop air conditioning units (RTU) with evaporative pre-cooling systems were installed at an Agricultural History Museum and conference center in the northern Sacramento Valley in California, a hot and dry summer climate region. The evaporative pre-coolers serve to extend the economizer range of the RTU's. A commissioning team monitored the performance of the RTU evaporative pre-coolers. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine if changes were warranted to optimize the system's energy efficiency. The commissioning process revealed that the RTU evaporative pre-coolers were being controlled by the economizer control cycle. With this control cycle, the evaporative pre-cooler operates when the outdoor air temperature is falling below the space return air temperature. This means that the pre-cooler will never operate at peak load conditions. The conference center is an assembly occupancy. Building codes require significant levels of outdoor air for ventilation. The evaporative pre-cooler system provides the means to significantly offset the energy requirements for cooling down and heating up this ventilation air. A DOE2 energy simulation analysis indicated that the evaporative pre-cooler could cut energy use by over 50% if it were working correctly. Investigation concludes that in buildings with high outdoor air requirements, evaporative pre-cooling, using building exhaust air as the indirect evaporative cooling source, significantly reduce building energy consumption. This evaporative pre-cooling technology works in any climate, regardless of outdoor conditions, since the return air stream exhausted from the building provides a relatively constant temperature and humidity source for evaporative cooling. An added benefit is that the evaporative pre-cooler heat exchanger recovers heat from the exhausted air stream in cold weather.

Felts, D.; Jump, D.A.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Portable Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Portable Heaters Portable Heaters Portable Heaters November 26, 2013 - 2:41pm Addthis Portable heaters can be an efficient way to supplement inadequate heating. | Photo courtesy iStockphoto.com Portable heaters can be an efficient way to supplement inadequate heating. | Photo courtesy iStockphoto.com What does this mean for me? A portable heater is a good choice if you have a space that requires supplemental heating or is infrequently occupied. You should carefully follow all the manufacturer's installation and operation instructions. Small space heaters are typically used when the main heating system is inadequate or when central heating is too costly to install or operate. In some cases, small space heaters can be less expensive to use if you only want to heat one room or supplement inadequate heating in one room. They

48

Energy Conservation in Process Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENERGY CONSERVATION IN PROCESS HEATERS Roger l~. Bagge Neste Engineering Porvoo, Finland ABSTRACT OPTIMIZATION OF EMER~Y USE Energy savings in refinery and petrochemical fired heaters can basically be achieved in two ways: Thru optimization...

Bagge, R. W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

50

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

51

Dehumidifying water heater  

SciTech Connect

The indoor swimming pool at the Glen Cove YMCA in Glen Cove, New York, has been selected for the dehumidification/water heating system demonstration project. This report provides the specifications for this system which includes a dehumidifier/air handler, condenser/water heater, and outdoor condenser. Current progress underway includes construction, vendor selection, and control system selection. (SM)

Stark, W.

1991-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

52

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Radial Sandia Cooler Report | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Cooler More Documents & Publications Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact...

54

Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-12-2 1 Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters Shangli Shan Dandan Wang Ruixiang Wang Master Master Professor Beijing...) [21] Wang sui-lin . Affection on fin-and-tube Heat Exchanger's Properties by non azeotropic mixtures[J] . Fluid machinery , 1996 , 24 (5) [22] Ge run-ting . Foundation of Dynamic Parameter Model and Theoritical Calculation of Evaporator...

Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heater Basics Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a larger one on the bottom. In the top chamber are a fan, a cylindrical compressor, and an evaporator that runs along the inside of the chamber. Jutting out from the exterior of the bottom chamber is a temperature and pressure relief valve. This valve has a tube called a hot water outlet attached to the top. Below the valve is the upper thermostat, a small square outside the cylinder that is attached to a curved tube inside the heater. Resistance elements run from the upper thermostat to the similarly shaped lower thermostat. Below the lower thermostat is a drain valve with a cold water inlet attached to the top. Inside the cylinder is an anode, a series of thin tubes running through the bottom chamber to a coiled tube called a condenser. Insulation runs along the inside of the cylinder.

56

Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about theeconomics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

57

New and Underutilized Technology: Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling New and Underutilized Technology: Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling October 4, 2013 - 4:33pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for multi-stage evaporative cooling within the Federal sector. Benefits Multi-stage indirect evaporative cooling is an advanced evaporative cooler that can lower air temperatures without adding moisture. These systems evaporate water in a secondary (or working) airstream, which is discharged in multiple stages. No water or humidity is added to the primary (or product) airstream in the process. Application Multi-stage indirect evaporative cooling is applicable in office, research and development, service, and school applications. Climate and Regional Considerations

58

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

60

Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Tankless Gas Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless Gas Water Heaters Tankless Gas Water Heaters Standardized Templates for Reporting Test Results tanklessgaswaterheaterv12.xlsx More Documents & Publications Heat Pump...

62

Commercial Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heaters Commercial Water Heaters Standardized DOE Testing Templates commercialwaterheater v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers...

63

Storage Gas Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Storage Gas Water Heaters Storage Gas Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance...

64

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Standardized Templates for Reporting Test Results heatpumpwaterheaterv1.7.xlsx More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water...

65

Advanced Evaporative Deposition System with Embedded Heater Element...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is part of a large portfolio of thin film technologies specifically developed for CdTe photovoltaic devices but potentially applicable to a wide variety of thin film...

66

Direct Evaporative Precooling Model and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Evaporative condenser pre-cooling expands the availability of energy saving, cost-effective technology options (market engagement) and serves to expedite the range of options in upcoming codes and equipment standards (impacting regulation). Commercially available evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit for existing packaged rooftop units, commercial unitary split systems, and air cooled chillers. We map the impact of energy savings and peak energy reduction in the 3 building types (medium office, secondary school, and supermarket) in 16 locations for three building types with four pad effectivenesses and show the effect for HVAC systems using either refrigerants R22 or R410A

Shen, Bo [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Methods for forming long subsurface heaters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

Kim, Dong Sub

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

68

Heater head for stirling engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

Corey, John A. (R.D. #2, Box 101 E, North Troy, NY 12182)

1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

69

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heaters Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters May 4, 2012 - 5:21pm Addthis A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient than conventional electric storage water heaters. Heat pump water heaters work in locations that remain in the 40º-90ºF range year-round. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore, they can be two to

70

Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Small space heaters, also called portable heaters, are typically used when the main heating system is inadequate or when central heating is too costly to install or operate. Space heater capacities generally range between 10,000 Btu to 40,000 Btu per hour. Common fuels used for this purpose are electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene. Although most space heaters rely on convection (the circulation of air in a room), some rely on radiant heating; that is, they emit infrared radiation that directly heats up objects and people that are within their line of sight. Combustion Space Heaters Space heaters are classified as vented and unvented, or "vent free." Unvented combustion units are not recommended for inside use, as they

71

The application of Stirling cooler to refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The application field of the free-piston Stirling Cooler, Model 100A of Global Cooling BV in the refrigeration has been studied. The cooling effectiveness of the free-piston Stirling Cooler which means small capacity with better efficiency, large range of temperature and capacity modulated operation is of much use to cool a space insulated well. One practicable application is suggested here, in which FPSC and secondary heat transfer fluid are used to the single temperature refrigerator (60 liter) instead of conventional vapor compression machines. In the freezer operation at {minus}20 C inside cabinet, the steady-state test results show 25% improvement in energy consumption over original one. The application of free-piston Stirling Cooler to a freezer at lower temperature shows great potentials also.

Kim, S.Y.; Chung, W.S.; Shin, D.K.; Cho, K.S. [LG Electronics Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Living System Lab.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater...

73

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) Development2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiencyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Development of Single Stage Stirling Cooler for Space Use  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A single?stage Stirling cooler has been developed and tested for space applications which include instrument or detector cooling and a supplemental cooler for the cryogenic system. The mechanical cooler is a free displacer type and consists of a compressor a cold head and a connecting tube. The features of this cooler are a moving cylinder clearance seal by diaphragm spring twin pole magnet system and pneumatically driven displacer. The typical cooling power is 2 W at 80 K and the input power to the cooler is 50 W without driver electronics. The total weight of the cooler is 4.2 kg. The engineering and the flight models of the cooler have been fabricated and evaluated to verify the capability for three space missions. This paper describes the design of the cooler and the results from verification tests including cooler performance test thermal vacuum test vibration test and lifetime test.

K. Narasaki; S. Tsunematsu; K. Kanao; K. Otsuka; S. Hoshika; K. Fujioka; K. Tsurumi; M. Hirabayashi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

A performance correlation of horizontal solar heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solar heaters are shown tn Figure VI, page 31 30 Figure VI Horizontal Solar Heaters ~GLAZING AND FRAME ~~ POLYETHYLENE HEATERS THERMAL IN S U LA T I N 8 CELLS THERMOCOUPLES HORIZONTAL TABLE TOP THERMOCOUPLES COPPER LEADS TO CONTROL... The solar heaters are shown tn Figure VI, page 31 30 Figure VI Horizontal Solar Heaters ~GLAZING AND FRAME ~~ POLYETHYLENE HEATERS THERMAL IN S U LA T I N 8 CELLS THERMOCOUPLES HORIZONTAL TABLE TOP THERMOCOUPLES COPPER LEADS TO CONTROL...

Gopffarth, Wilford Hugo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

77

Heater head for Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a heater head for a Stirling engine comprising: a housing for enclosing the heater head with gas at a substantial elevated pressure; insulator means attached to the housing for insulating the heater head; inlet means attached to a regenerator in the housing for admission of relatively high pressure working fluid from the regenerator of a Stirling engine; a first annular heating wall in the housing attached to the inlet means for heating the working fluid; and, a second annular heating wall in the housing concentric with the first heating wall but of lesser diameters so that an annular space is formed between the first heating wall and the second heating wall for heating working fluid; and a third heating wall in the housing concentric with and smaller in diameter than the second heating wall forming the condensing area of a heat pipe between the second heating wall and the third heating wall.

White, M.A.; Emigh, S.G.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

78

Solar heater for swimming pools  

SciTech Connect

A solar heater for swimming pools is provided having one or more heating panels installable on a roof or the like and arranged to discharge into a pool equipped with an apron without need for disturbing or obstructing the apron. This is accomplished by the provision of an elevated bistable dumper adjacent the perimeter of the apron having a dispensing spout normally inclined upwardly but pivoting at intervals to discharge into the pool across the apron without obstructing it. Water to be heated is diverted from the pool filtering system to the solar heater via a pressure regulator and a solar responsive flow control.

Babcock, H.W.

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

79

Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15, 2012 - 6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Conventional storage water heaters remain the most popular type of water heating system for the home. Here you'll find basic information about how storage water heaters work; what criteria to use when selecting the right model; and some installation, maintenance, and safety tips. How They Work A single-family storage water heater offers a ready reservoir -- from 20 to

80

An internal winding high temperature heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An internal winding high temperature heater ... General principles are outlined for the construction of compact heaters that are suitable for heating small containers or reaction vessels at constant temperature and up to about 1000 C. ...

A. J. Delbouille; E. G. Derouane

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Energy conversion by an electric space heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By means of measuring the temperature of the air blown by an electric space heater one can show students that the air is heated at a rate approximately equal to the rated wattage of the heater.

Willem H. van den Berg

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype
Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab...

83

Oil and Gas Air Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Heating technologies for energy efficiency Vol.III-1-2 Oil and Gas Air Heaters1 Guangxiao Kou Hanqing Wang Jiemin Zhou Doctoral Ph.D Ph.D Candidate Professor Professor Hunan University of Technology Hunan...

Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Swimming Pool Heaters Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 6:03pm Addthis An example of a solar pool heater. An example of a solar pool heater. You can significantly reduce swimming pool heating costs by installing a solar pool heater. They're cost competitive with both gas and heat pump pool heaters, and they have very low annual operating costs. Actually, solar pool heating is the most cost-effective use of solar energy in many climates. How They Work Most solar pool heating systems include the following: A solar collector -- the device through which pool water is circulated to be heated by the sun A filter -- removes debris before water is pumped through the collector A pump -- circulates water through the filter and collector and back to the pool A flow control valve -- automatic or manual device that diverts pool

85

Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate collector is connected to a tank called a solar storage/backup water heater by two pipes. One of these pipes runs through a cylindrical pump into the bottom of the tank, where it becomes a coil called a double-wall heat exchanger. This coil runs up through the tank and out again to the flat plate collector. Antifreeze fluid runs only through this collector loop. Two pipes run out the top of the water heater tank; one is a cold water supply into the tank, and the other sends hot water to the house. Solar water heaters use the sun's heat to provide hot water for a home or

86

Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 6:03pm Addthis An example of a solar pool heater. An example of a solar pool heater. You can significantly reduce swimming pool heating costs by installing a solar pool heater. They're cost competitive with both gas and heat pump pool heaters, and they have very low annual operating costs. Actually, solar pool heating is the most cost-effective use of solar energy in many climates. How They Work Most solar pool heating systems include the following: A solar collector -- the device through which pool water is circulated to be heated by the sun A filter -- removes debris before water is pumped through the collector A pump -- circulates water through the filter and collector and back to the pool

87

A high performance thin film thermoelectric cooler  

SciTech Connect

Thin film thermoelectric devices with small dimensions have been fabricated using microelectronics technology and operated successfully in the Seebeck mode as sensors or generators. However, they do not operate successfully in the Peltier mode as coolers, because of the thermal bypass provided by the relatively thick substrate upon which the thermoelectric device is fabricated. In this paper a processing sequence is described which dramatically reduces this thermal bypass and facilitates the fabrication of high performance integrated thin film thermoelectric coolers. In the processing sequence a very thin amorphous SiC (or SiO{sub 2}SiN{sub 4}) film is deposited on a silicon substrate using conventional thin film deposition and a membrane formed by removing the silicon substrate over a desired region using chemical etching or micro-machining. Thermoelements are deposited on the membrane using conventional thin film deposition and patterning techniques and configured so that the region which is to be cooled is abutted to the cold junctions of the Peltier thermoelements while the hot junctions are located at the outer peripheral area which rests on the silicon substrate rim. Heat is pumped laterally from the cooled region to the silicon substrate rim and then dissipated vertically through it to an external heat sink. Theoretical calculations of the performance of a cooler described above indicate that a maximum temperature difference of about 40--50K can be achieved with a maximum heat pumping capacity of around 10 milliwatts.

Rowe, D.M.; Min, G.; Volklein, F.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Welding shield for coupling heaters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

Menotti, James Louis (Dickinson, TX)

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

89

Regenerative Boiler Feedwater Heater Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REGENERATIVE BOILER FEEDWATER HEATER ECONOMICS William L. Viar, PE waterland, Viar & Associates, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware ABSTRACT The basic Rankine Vapor Cycle has been r,~peatedly modified to improve efficiency. Always, the objective....g., first and second laws of thermodynamics) have improved and contributed to the evolution. The demands for larger systems with higher performance have been persistent. Progress i ve changes in the app1icat ion of the fundamental Rankine cycle have...

Viar, W. L.

90

NETL: Gasification Systems - Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and Fouling Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and Fouling Project No.: DE-FE0007952 Reaction Engineering International (REI) is working to develop practical solutions to mitigate the plugging and fouling of syngas coolers (SC) - fire tube heat exchangers located between the coal gasifier and the combustion turbine. Syngas coolers used in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants offer high efficiency, but their reliability is generally lower than other process equipment in the gasification island. The principle downtime events associated with syngas coolers are typically a result of ash deposits that: form on (wall) surfaces upstream of the syngas cooler, break loose, and then lodge in the tubes; or form on the fireside surface of the syngas cooler tubes that lead to fouling and reduced heat transfer. Both ash deposit mechanisms result in reduced equipment life and increased maintenance costs.

91

American Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305) Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305) American Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305) January 31, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that American Cooler Technologies failed to certify walk-in coolers and freezers as compliant with the energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. American Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305) More Documents & Publications American Cooler Technologies: Order (2013-CE-5305)

92

Golden Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5345) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Golden Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5345) Golden Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5345) Golden Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5345) February 21, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Golden Cooler failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. Golden Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5345) More Documents & Publications Golden Cooler: Order (2013-CE-5345)

93

Performance improvement of direct- and indirect-fired heaters  

SciTech Connect

The operating performance of direct and indirect heaters is discussed, and principles and guidelines that can be applied to effect improvements in efficiency are presented. This paper also discusses the associated heater efficiencies and several useful operating techniques to approach the maximum, steady-state heater efficiency. The techniques presented apply to all types of direct-and indirect-fired heaters: salt bath heaters, propane vaporizers, heater/treaters, production heaters, and glycol and amine regenerators.

Sams, G.W.; Hunter, J.D.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

Brady; Michael Patrick (Oak Ridge, TN), Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno (Oak Ridge, TN), Vitek; John Michael (Oak Ridge, TN)

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

95

CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters  

SciTech Connect

A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

None

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

96

CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

None

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

97

Parallel heater system for subsurface formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

98

Enhanced heat transfer tubes for film absorbers of absorption chiller/heater  

SciTech Connect

Absorption chiller/heaters using non-CFC refrigerants are attracting attention as environmentally friendly energy systems. As the refrigerant/absorbent pair, the water/lithium bromide aqueous solution pair is preferably used for most absorption chiller/heaters in Japan. Absorption chiller/heaters, mainly used as water chillers and air-conditioners, are commercially available at least for unit cooling capacities above 60 kW. In absorption chiller/heaters, the absorber must be made compact, because the absorber has the largest heat transfer area of the four primary heat exchangers in the system: the evaporator, absorber, regenerator and condenser. Although a great amount of information is available on the evaporator and condenser, the same type of information concerning the absorber is lacking. This paper introduces two kinds of double fluted tubes called Arm tubs and Floral tubes for film absorbers. Arm tubes are manufactured using a two-pass drawbench process, while Floral tubes are made using a single pass drawbench process. The experiments using a lithium bromide aqueous solution with the addition of 250 ppm n-octyl alcohol as the surfactant showed that Arm tubes and Floral tubes had about 40% higher heat transfer performance than plain tubes. Therefore, Floral tubes are expected to realize a high performance at low cost. Furthermore, the optimization of the number of grooves on the outside of the tubes is also described here.

Sasaki, Naoe; Nosetani, Tadashi [Sumitomo Light Metal Industry, Ltd., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Ora, Gunma (Japan). Commercial Air-Conditioning Div.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

100

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

102

EGR Cooler Fouling- Visualization of Deposition and Removal Mechanis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presents experimental data on exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) cooler fouling using new test apparatus that allows for in-situ observation of deposition and removal processes

103

A Study on the Failure of Industrial Electric Heater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The break down mechanism of a cylindrical electric heater is investigated by studying the uneven heating behavior of the heater by measuring the surface temperature variation of the heater when it is subjected to a boundary condition of constant...

Chyu, M. C.

104

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: EnergyA Specification for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

For many buildings that do not require space cooling, non-centralized equipment such as unit heaters provide space heating to building occupants. Unit heaters are a major source of energy use nationally, accounting for nearly 18% of primary space heating energy use for commercial buildings, and most prominently appear in warehouses, distribution centers, loading docks, etc.

106

Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

107

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's...

108

Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heater Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Diagram of absorption heat...

109

Ex Parte Memorandum on Grid-Enabled Water Heaters | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

with DOE representatives regarding water heater standards and thermal storage and demand response programs. DOE exparte memo100213 Grid-EnabledWaterHeaterAmendment More...

110

Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and...

111

Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Weatherization Assistance Program Pilot Projects Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar On Feb. 22, 2011, Jerone Gagliano,...

112

Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for gas storage...

113

Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electric and Gas Water Heaters Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and or efficiency level. INPUT...

114

GEA Heat Exchangers GEA Searle Cooler and Condensing Unit Ranges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have high efficiency EC fans as standard across the range. All our commercial unit coolers have whiteUnits GEA Searle Condensing Units are supplied as standard to a high specification with a complete controlGEA Heat Exchangers GEA Searle Cooler and Condensing Unit Ranges Top-level engineering solutions

Frandsen, Søren

115

COMMISSIONING COSY COOLER WITH ELECTRON BEAM AT NOVOSIBIRSK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the classic scheme of low energy coolers like cooler CSRm, CSRe, LEIR that was produced in BINP before gun to a collector. This optic scheme is stimulated by the wide range of the working energies 0 of the transformers connected in series with isolating winding. SETUP DESCRIPTION A new generation of accelerators

Kozak, Victor R.

116

Monolithic Integration of Solid State Thermionic Coolers with Semiconductor Lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-893-8447 Fax. 805-893-7990 E-mail: bowers@ece.ucsb.edu ABSTRACT: We examine the cooling requirements the performance such as increasing the output power. Conventionally, thermoelectric (TE) coolers are used of a packaged laser module [3]. An alternative to traditional TE coolers is heterostructure integrated

117

DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Water Heater and Certain Commercial Water Heater Test Procedures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for residential water heaters and certain commercial water heaters.

118

Direct Measurement of EGR Cooler Deposit Thermal Properties for Improved Understanding of Cooler Fouling  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOX emissions standards. This paper reports results of a study of fundamental aspects of EGR cooler fouling. An apparatus and procedure were developed to allow surrogate EGR cooler tubes to be exposed to diesel engine exhaust under controlled conditions. The resulting fouled tubes were removed and analyzed. Volatile and non-volatile deposit mass was measured for each tube. Thermal diffusivity of the deposited soot cake was measured by milling a window into the tube and using the Xenon flash lamp method. The heat capacity of the deposit was measured at temperatures up to 430 C and was slightly higher than graphite, presumably due to the presence of hydrocarbons. These measurements were combined to allow calculation of the deposit thermal conductivity, which was determined to be 0.041 W/mK, only ~1.5 times that of air and much lower than the 304 stainless steel tube (14.7 W/mK). The main determinant of the deposit thermal conductivity is density, which was measured to be just 2% that of the density of the primary soot particles (or 98% porous). The deposit layer thermal resistance was calculated and compared with estimates of the thermal resistance calculated from gas temperature data during the experiment. The deposit properties were also used to further analyze the temperature data collected during the experiment.

Wang, Hsin [ORNL] [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Custom Coolers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5315) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5315) Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5315) Custom Coolers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5315) January 31, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Custom Coolers, LLC, failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer (WICF) components as compliant with the energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. Custom Coolers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5315) More Documents & Publications Custom Coolers: Order (2013-CE-5315) Imperial Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5322)

120

Southeast Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5331) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5331) Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5331) Southeast Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5331) January 31, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Southeast Cooler Corp. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. Southeast Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5331) More Documents & Publications Southeast Cooler: Order (2013-CE-5331) Dade Engineering: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5316)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters May 2, 2012 - 6:47pm Addthis Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. How does it work? Tankless water heaters deliver hot water as it is needed, eliminating the need for storage tanks. Tankless water heaters, also known as demand-type or instantaneous water heaters, provide hot water only as it is needed. They don't produce the standby energy losses associated with storage water heaters, which can save you money. Here you'll find basic information about how they work, whether a tankless water heater might be right for your home, and what criteria to use when selecting the right model. Check out the Energy Saver 101: Water Heating infographic to learn if a tankless water heater is right for you.

122

Improvements to the Cooling Power of a Space Qualified Two-Stage Stirling Cycle Cooler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A long life two stage cooler has been developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) for space purposes. This cooler has been qualified for space use by Matra Marconi Space Systems (MMS). This cooler is us...

T. W. Bradshaw; A. H. Orlowska; C. Jewell; B. G. Jones; S. Scull

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Tankless Water Heaters: Do They Really Work?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless Water Heaters: Do They Tankless Water Heaters: Do They Really Work? Center for Energy and Environment, NorthernSTAR, Ben Schoenbauer Context * Domestic Water Heating is the next big residential energy in efficiency. - Space heating loads are being reduced - Largest peak load in almost all homes is water heating - Annual water heating load is larger than annual space heating load in many homes - Most DHW equipment is inefficiency 50-60% Technical Approach * TWHs and condensing TWHs have significant energy savings potential - Do these ratings relate to real world performance? - How do TWHs compare to standard water heaters? - What performance/install issues do they have? * 10 home 26 water heater alternating mode field study was conducted Recommended Guidance * In situations where economics are

124

Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters May 7, 2012 - 9:52am Addthis Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use -- sunshine -- is free. How They Work Solar water heating systems include storage tanks and solar collectors. There are two types of solar water heating systems: active, which have circulating pumps and controls, and passive, which don't. Active Solar Water Heating Systems There are two types of active solar water heating systems: Direct circulation systems Pumps circulate household water through the collectors and into the home. They work well in climates where it rarely freezes. Indirect circulation systems

125

Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

heaters heaters Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)[1] Solar Water Heater One of the most cost-effective ways to include renewable technologies into a building is by incorporating solar hot water. A typical residential solar water-heating system reduces the need for conventional water heating by about two-thirds. It minimizes the expense of electricity or fossil fuel to heat the water and reduces the associated environmental impacts. Solar Water Heating for Buildings Most solar water-heating systems for buildings have two main parts: (1) a solar collector and (2) a storage tank. The most common collector used in solar hot water systems is the flat-plate collector. Solar water heaters use the sun to heat either water

126

Heater head for a Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

Darooka, D.K.

1988-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

127

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

128

Heat Pump Water Heaters Demonstration Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Demonstration Project Building America Stakeholder Meeting Ron Domitrovic Ammi Amarnath 3/1/2012 Austin, TX 2 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. HPWH Field Demonstration: Research Objectives * Assess heat pump water heater technology by measuring efficiency. * Provide credible data on the performance and reliability of heat pump water heaters. * Assess user satisfaction in a residential setting. 3 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Demonstration Host Utilities Target: 40 Units per Utility Installed and Potential Sites by Climate Zone Source: Department of Energy (DOE), Building America climate regions 4 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Installation Locations-Southern Company Region

129

Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Ginestra, Jean Charles (Richmond, TX)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

130

Phase change material storage heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

Goswami, D. Yogi (Gainesville, FL); Hsieh, Chung K. (Gainesville, FL); Jotshi, Chand K. (Gainesville, FL); Klausner, James F. (Gainesville, FL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

132

Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... it is essential to estimate accurately baseline NOx emissions. ? This will establish each units current compliance status. ? Emissions ? Current excess air level ? Carbon monoxide ? Combustibles ? NOx corrected to 3% 02 314 ESL-IE-00-04-46 Proceedings...

Garg, A.

133

Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater May 29, 2012 - 7:16pm Addthis Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® A properly sized water heater will meet your household's hot water needs while operating more efficiently. Therefore, before purchasing a water heater, make sure it's the correct size. Here you'll find information about how to size these systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems -- including some heat pump systems, and tankless coil and indirect water heaters -- consult a qualified contractor.

134

Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater August 29, 2012 - 7:30pm Addthis Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When selecting a new water heater for your home, choose a water heating system that will not only provide enough hot water but also that will do so energy efficiently, saving you money. This includes considering the different types of water heaters available and determining the right size and fuel source for your home. Check out the Energy Saver 101: Water Heating infographic to learn more about the different types of water heaters and how to select the right model for your home. Types of Water Heaters It's a good idea to know the different types of water heaters available

135

Monolithic integration of thin-film coolers with optoelectronic devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monolithic integration of thin-film coolers with optoelectronic devices Christopher La Barbara, California 93106-9560 Abstract. Active refrigeration of optoelectronic components through the use manuscript received June 30, 2000; accepted for publication June 30, 2000. 1 Introduction Optoelectronic

136

Identification and Control of Factors that Affect EGR Cooler Fouling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Key factors that cause exhaust gas recirculation cooler fouling were identified through extensive literature search and controlled experiment was devised to study the impact of a few key factors on deposition.

137

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters May 16, 2013 - 7:21pm Addthis An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. How does it work? Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use your home's heating system to heat water. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's space heating system to heat water. They're part of what's called integrated or combination water and space heating systems. How They Work A tankless coil water heater provides hot water on demand without a tank. When a hot water faucet is turned on, water is heated as it flows through a heating coil or heat exchanger installed in a main furnace or boiler. Tankless coil water heaters are most efficient during cold months when the heating system is used regularly but can be an inefficient choice for many

138

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of a tankless coil water heater. The heater is box-shaped, and has two pipes sticking out one end: one a cold water inlet, and one a hot water outlet. These pipes lead into the heater to a cylindrical coil called a heat exchanger. Long tubes surrounding the heat exchanger are labeled the heated water jacket. At the bottom of the box is a row of small flames, called the boiler heat source. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home or building's space heating system to heat water as part of an integrated or combination water and space heating system. How Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Work A tankless coil water heater uses a heating coil or heat exchanger

139

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency andSurvey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency andby electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers),

Johnson, Alissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Systems and methods for making heaters are described herein. At least one heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The heater provides a first amount of heat at a lower temperature. The heater may provide a second reduced amount of heat when the heater reaches a selected temperature, or enters a selected temperature range, at which the ferromagnetic conductor undergoes a phase transformation.

Vitek, John Michael [Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Michael Patrick [Oak Ridge, TN

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

Carlson, A.W.; Chait, I.L.; Saari, D.P.; Marksberry, C.L.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

water heaters water heaters (Redirected from - Solar Hot Water) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)[1] Solar Water Heater One of the most cost-effective ways to include renewable technologies into a building is by incorporating solar hot water. A typical residential solar water-heating system reduces the need for conventional water heating by about two-thirds. It minimizes the expense of electricity or fossil fuel to heat the water and reduces the associated environmental impacts. Solar Water Heating for Buildings Most solar water-heating systems for buildings have two main parts: (1) a solar collector and (2) a storage tank. The most common collector used in solar hot water systems is the

143

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Armin Rudd Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas 2 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas More builder's wanting to use gas-fired tankless water heaters, and with solar pre-heat  Endless hot water  Helps HERS Index  Space saving 2 3 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas Problem with elevated TWH inlet temperature 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Maximum Inlet Temperature (F) DHW flow rate (gpm) Maximum TWH inlet temperature to stay below 125 F delivered temperature, with 15 kBtu/h minimum firing rate Typical shower temperature 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting

144

Solar Water Heater Rebate | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Rebate Solar Water Heater Rebate Solar Water Heater Rebate < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Hawaii Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Residential Solar Water Heating: $1,000 upfront, or Residential Solar Water Heating Interest Loan Buy-Down: $1,000 Residential Solar Attic Fans: $50 Commercial: $250 per 12,000 Btu/hr derated capacity Provider Hawaii Energy Hawaii Energy, a third-party administered public benefits fund, provides incentives for energy efficiency and conservation to customers of the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and its subsidiaries, Maui Electric Company (MECO) and Hawaii Electric Light Company (HELCO). This incentive is available for installations on the islands of Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, Lanai and

145

NISTIR 5873 INTRACYCLE EVAPORATIVE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vapor, is used to subcool the high-pressure liquid leaving the condenser. Intracycle evaporative cooling and Technology Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Arati Prabhakar, Director 1000 Independence Ave., SW of the refrigerant leaving the condenser. Intracycle evaporative cooling is similar to the use of a liquid

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

146

Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HVAC and Water Heater HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Appliances Research

147

Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

148

Design, Stress Analysis and Operating Experience in Feedwater Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of feedwater heaters has a direct bearing on the thermal efficiency of the plant. A typical feedwater heater may have three distinct regions of heat transfer, namely desuperheating, condensing and subcooling zones. The design...

Singh, K. P.; Libs, T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each...

150

TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local...

151

Making Water Heaters More Efficient | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Heaters More Efficient Making Water Heaters More Efficient Jigar Shah 2013.11.13 As children, many of us grow up wanting to make some sort of lasting positive impact on...

152

NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money October 22, 2010 - 11:33am Addthis EAA Executive Director Luis Bernal addresses an audience about Puerto Rico’s State Energy Program. | Photo courtesy EAA EAA Executive Director Luis Bernal addresses an audience about Puerto Rico's State Energy Program. | Photo courtesy EAA Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Market saving $16,000 annually from cooling upgrades $37 million in Recovery Act funding projected to save millions on island Recovery Act funded 11 programs 22 direct jobs, 394 indirect jobs in Puerto Rico Buying fruits and vegetables at the Las Piedras farmers market is now more comfortable for the thousands of Puerto Ricans who shop there regularly.

154

Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities July 23, 2010 - 2:07pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofs and roadways create what is called the "urban heat island effect," meaning a city is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. Light colored roofs reduce the heat island effect and improve air quality by reducing emissions. Lighter-colored roofing surfaces reflect more of the sun's heat, which helps to improve building efficiency by reducing cooling costs and offsetting carbon emissions. Roofs and road pavement cover 50 to 65 percent of urban areas. Because they absorb so much heat, dark-colored roofs and roadways create what is called

155

Micro-cooler enhancements by barrier interface analysis  

SciTech Connect

A novel gallium arsenide (GaAs) based micro-cooler design, previously analysed both experimentally and by an analytical Heat Transfer (HT) model, has been simulated using a self-consistent Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) model for a more in depth analysis of the thermionic cooling in the device. The best fit to the experimental data was found and was used in conjunction with the HT model to estimate the cooler-contact resistance. The cooling results from EMC indicated that the cooling power of the device is highly dependent on the charge distribution across the leading interface. Alteration of this charge distribution via interface extensions on the nanometre scale has shown to produce significant changes in cooler performance.

Stephen, A.; Dunn, G. M. [Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, King's College, AB24 3UE Aberdeen (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, King's College, AB24 3UE Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Glover, J.; Oxley, C. H. [Department of Engineering, De Montfort University, Gateway, LE1 9BH Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Engineering, De Montfort University, Gateway, LE1 9BH Leicester (United Kingdom); Bajo, M. Montes; Kuball, M. [Center for Device Thermography and Reliability, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom)] [Center for Device Thermography and Reliability, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Cumming, D. R. S.; Khalid, A. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Building, G12 8LT Glasgow (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Building, G12 8LT Glasgow (United Kingdom)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

157

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diagram 1: A Typical Tank Water Heater Source: http://to-unit comparisons of tank versus tankless water heaters.Energy Use MJ/(unit*year) Tank Tankless MJ/(unit*year) Tank

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Soluble Substances and Evaporation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soluble Substances and Evaporation Soluble Substances and Evaporation Name: JD Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: FL Country: New Zealand Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Do soluble substances evaporate with the water? Replies: JD, As a general rule, no. If the soluble substance is a solid, then its boiling point is well above that of water, so it cannot possibly boil off. If the substance is a liquid, it may have a boiling point that is below that of water and will boil off at a lower temperature than water. If the boiling point is higher than that of water, than it will boil off after the water has evaporated. Some substances, like ethanol for example, form an "azeotrope" with water. The combination of ethanol and water form a tight intermolecular connection that makes the two substances boil off at the same time.

159

Mixed feed evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

Vakil, Himanshu B. (Schenectady, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Closed cycle refrigerators -Pulse tube coolers Peter Dahl Nissen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-McMahon and Joule-Thomson cryocoolers all use expansion of a gas to obtain cooling. Different operating principles certain criteria. In this text the build-ups and principles of cooling for the mentioned coolers freezing ice-cream [1] to cryoablation of particular locations in the heart to treat heart arrhythmia [2

Nygård, Jesper

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

European Atmospheric Pollution Imported by Cooler Air Masses to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

European Atmospheric Pollution Imported by Cooler Air Masses to the Eastern Mediterranean during of European pollution are observed in the atmosphere (74 ( 13%). On the other hand, when the Persian Trough). This study demonstrates that atmospheric pollution over the East Mediterranean region during the summer

Einat, Aharonov

162

An Overview of the New Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Overview of the New Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards An Overview of the New Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Date: April 26, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 DOE issued new standards for residential water heaters last month that will save an estimated 2.6 quads of energy over 30 years. For most product sizes sold, the new standards can be met with modest changes, such as adding more insulation to today's conventional tank-style water heaters. For the most common size electric water heater (50 gallons), the standards will save 4 percent, while for the most common size gas water heater (40 gallons), the new standards will save 3 percent. However, for the biggest products (those with over 55 gallons in storage capacity, which is about 9% and 4% of the electric and gas storage water heater markets, respectively), the new

163

TVA Partner Utilities - Energy Right' Water Heater Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Right' Water Heater Program Right&#039; Water Heater Program TVA Partner Utilities - Energy Right' Water Heater Program < Back Eligibility Installer/Contractor Residential Utility Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Member utility water heater rebate programs can range from $25 to total cost. Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Efficient Water Heater: $50 from TVA Provider Tennessee Valley Authority The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each installation. Power Companies may pass these incentives on to customers. Customers should contact their local power company to see what programs are

164

Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $1,500 Provider Rebates Burbank Water and Power is providing incentives for the purchase of solar water heaters. Incentives are only available to residential customers with electric water heaters. There is a limit of one solar water heater per year per property. Applicants must provide access to their residence for a pre-inspection to verify the existing use of an electric water heater. Customers must comply with all code and permit requirements. More

165

Advanced refinery process heater. Annual report, October 1983-September 1984  

SciTech Connect

Activity during the first year of this project has focused on the conceptual design of the prototype heater and on the development of a custom-designed Pyrocore ceramic fiber burner for the heater. Three different concepts for the prototype heater have been produced, one of them modeled after a vertical cylindrical design and the other two resembling box-type heaters. All three concepts take advantage of the Pyrocore burner's flameless characteristic to make the heater more compact. Concerning the development of the burners, two different geometries were considered. Subscale prototypes of each type of burner were fabricated and tested. The more successful burners used actively-cooled edges to maintain the integrity of the gas-tight seals. Work on this project in the second year will include the design and fabrication of the 10 MMBtu/hr prototype heater, using the most feasible heater and burner designs developed during the first year.

Schreiber, R.J.; Gotterba, J.A.; Minden, A.C.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation Jeff Maguire, Lieko Earle, and Chuck Booten National Renewable Energy Laboratory C.E. Hancock Mountain Energy Partnership Produced under direction of the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under Interagency Agreement CRD-05-168 and Task No WR49.3000. Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52234 October 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

167

Cryostat including heater to heat a target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

1990-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

168

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

169

Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Program Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Free high efficiency water Heater; $200 installation fee Water heater and timer with normal installation: $2.50 credit for 10 years Timer only: $200 cash payment and $2.50 credit for 10 years New construction contract home: $250 Provider Aiken Electric Cooperative Aiken Electric Cooperative offers residential members rebates for installing high-efficiency electric water heaters and/or timers in their homes. Customers have four rebate options:

170

Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Georgia) Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Georgia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Existing Homes Solar Water Heater: $750 New Homes Solar Water Heater: $1,250 - $1,500 Provider Coweta-Fayette Electric Membership Corporation Coweta-Fayette Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) provides electric and natural gas service to 58,000 customers in Georgia's Coweta, Fayette, Meriwether, Heard, Troop and Fulton counties. Currently, Coweta-Fayette EMC offers rebates on solar water heaters from $750 up to $1,500 as part of the Touchstone Energy Home Program. Solar

171

The Trials and Tribulations of Testing Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Trials and Tribulations of Testing Water Heaters The Trials and Tribulations of Testing Water Heaters Speaker(s): James Lutz Date: August 14, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn During our work on efficiency standards for electric water heaters, we discovered significant discrepancies between the rated and tested efficiencies of the highest rated electric resistance water heaters. For high efficiency electric resistance water heaters with an Energy Factor above .92, the heat losses are so small that minor flaws in the tank or obscure problems in the test procedure become more apparent. This seminar reports on our investigation into the causes of inconsistent results obtained during testing of high efficiency electric resistance water heaters at different test labs. We discovered some reasons for the

172

Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $500 Provider Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Association Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Association (Linn County RECA) is a member-owned cooperative. To encourage energy efficiency, Linn County offers a number of rebates to commercial, residential, and agricultural customers. Owners of both new construction and existing buildings are eligible for a $500 rebate for solar water heaters. The water heaters must have an auxiliary tank of at least 40 gallons and the solar water heater

173

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heater: up to $275 Heat Pump Replacement: $400 Provider Rock Hill Utilities Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed above. If both the water heater and heat pump are purchased then the customer may qualify for the Great Rate program. The Great Rate program will add a 25% discount to a

174

Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

175

Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

176

Advanced refinery process heater. Final report, (October 1983-September 1988)  

SciTech Connect

A prototype refinery process heater was designed, built and successfully tested, demonstrating the improvements available to heater design through the use of Zone-Controlled Pyrocore radiant gas burners. The 10 MMBtu/hr rated heater released 17 ppm NOx (corrected to 3% oxygen) under full load operation, the lowest NOx emissions technically and commercially achieved in this type of equipment without the use of post-combustion flue-gas processing. Operating with 400F combustion air preheat and a 500F process fluid outlet temperature, the heater achieved overall thermal efficiencies of 92.8% on a LHV basis due in part to the significantly improved performance of the radiant heat exchange section. The radiant burners used in the heater have been proven in performance and reliability, and have also been shown to be applicable to both new heater designs and retrofits into existing heaters. The improved radiant performance of the heater and the use of 'flameless' radiant burners eliminates tube burn-out failures in both the radiant and convective tube coils, further improving the reliability of equipment based on this design. Three separate U.S. Patents have been issued covering the heater design and the use of Zone-Controlled Pyrocore burners in this application.

Minden, A.C.; Buckley, G.G.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

Hudon, K.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with thetwo technologies: (1) an electric resistance storage watertransfers heat from the electric resistance element to the

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

Moujaes, S.F.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

The energy saving potential of precooling incoming outdoor air by indirect evaporative cooling  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the energy saving potentials of using indirect evaporative coolers to precool incoming outdoor air as the first stage of a standard cooling system. For dry and moderately humid locations, either exhaust room air or outdoor air can be used as the secondary air to the indirect evaporative precooler with similar energy savings. Under these conditions, the use of outdoor air is recommended due to the simplicity in installing the duct system. For humid locations, the use of exhaust room air is recommended because the precooling capacity and energy savings will be greatly increased. For locations with short cooling seasons, the use of indirect evaporative coolers for precooling may not be worthwhile. The paper also gives some simplified indices for easily predicting the precooling capacity, energy savings and water consumption of an indirect evaporative precooler. These indices can be used for cooling systems with continuous operation, but further work is needed to determine whether the same indices are also suitable for cooling systems with intermittent operations.

Chen, P.; Qin, H.; Huang, Y.J.; Wu, H.; Blumstein, C.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Georgia Power- Residential Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate (Georgia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Georgia Power customers may be eligible for rebates up to $250 each toward the installation costs of a 50 gallon or greater solar water heater or heat pump water heater. The solar water heater or...

182

ELECTRICAL HEATERS FOR THERMO-MECHANICAL TESTS AT THE STRIPA MINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5.5 Dewatering Pump 6. ELECTRICAL HEATER CONTROL SYSTEMS 6.1water influx ABSTRACT Electrical heaters were installed atcanister) which houses the electrical heater elements; c. d.

Burleigh, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Solar pool heaters: The simplest use of active solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Solar pool heating is the most attractive solar water heating market today, because most pool heaters pay back their purchase price in lower utility bills in two to three years. This article describes why solar pool heaters are popular and their design, operation, and return on investment. 1 fig.

Sheinkopf, K. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Design and development of a four-cell sorption compressor based J-T cooler using R134a as working fluid  

SciTech Connect

The need of a cooler with no electromagnetic interference and practically zero vibration has led to sorption compressor based Joule-Thomson (J-T) coolers. These are useful for sophisticated electronic, ground based and space borne systems. In a Sorption compressor, adsorbed gases are desorbed into a confined volume by raising temperature of the sorption bed resulting in an increase in pressure of the liberated gas. In order to have the system (compressor) functioning on a continuous basis, with almost a constant gas flow rate, multiple cells are used with the adaptation of Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) process. As the mass of the desorbed gas dictates the compressor throughput, a combination of sorbent material with high adsorption capacity for a chosen gas or gas mixture has to be selected for efficient operation of the compressor. Commercially available (coconut-shell base) activated carbon has been selected for the present application. The characterization study for variation of discharge pressure is used to design the Four-cell sorption compressor based cryocooler with a desired output. Apart from compressor, the system includes a) After cooler b) Return gas heat exchanger c) capillary tube as the J-T expansion device and d) Evaporator.

Mehta, R. N. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076, India and Government Engineering College Bharuch, Gujarat - 392002 (India); Bapat, S. L.; Atrey, M. D. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 (India)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

185

Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $75 Provider Tri-County Electric Cooperative Tri-County Electric Cooperative offers a $75 rebate on the purchase of energy-efficient electric water heaters. The rebate is valid for new or replacement units which have an Energy Factor Rating of 0.90 or higher. The minimum tank size is 40 gallons, with a minimum 4,500 watt heating element. For validation purposes, a copy of the sales or installation receipt must accompany the [http://www.tcectexas.com/Forms/water%20heater%20rebate%20form.pdf

186

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $600 Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 0.01 per BTU output Provider Clay Electric Co-op Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per system, or $600. Eligible solar water heaters can be either passive or active systems. The proposed solar system must meet Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) specifications and be installed by a contractor certified to install solar water heating

187

Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Date: March 22, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn This presentation describes the analysis of the costs of increased energy efficiency for residential water heaters. Here, we focus on the cost and efficiency data for electric and gas-fired water heaters. This data formed the basis of the Technical Support Document for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Final Rule on Water Heaters. The engineering analysis uses computer simulation models to investigate the efficiency improvements due to design options and combinations thereof. The analysis covers four polyurethane foam insulation types based on non-ozone-depleting substances as blowing

188

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Demand Water Heater Basics Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is shown. Cold water flows in one end of a pipe, flows through and around several curved pipes over the heating elements, and out the other end as hot water. Beneath the heating unit, a typical sink setup is shown. The sink has two pipes coming out the bottom, one for the hot water line and one for the cold water line. Both pipes lead to the heating unit, which is installed in close proximity to the area of hot water use, and is connected to a power source (110 or 220 volts). Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as

189

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is shown. Cold water flows in one end of a pipe, flows through and around several curved pipes over the heating elements, and out the other end as hot water. Beneath the heating unit, a typical sink setup is shown. The sink has two pipes coming out the bottom, one for the hot water line and one for the cold water line. Both pipes lead to the heating unit, which is installed in close proximity to the area of hot water use, and is connected to a power source (110 or 220 volts). Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as

190

Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $500 Provider Clark PUD Clark Public Utilities offers a rebate of $500 to customers who install a solar water heating system. Customers must own the residence or business where the solar water heating system is installed and must have an electric water heater. In addition, Clark Public Utilities offers a [http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=WA29F&re=1&ee=1 loan program] for eligible solar water heater equipment. For additional information, call Energy Services at (360) 992-3355.

191

Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this scheme for operating TANK with HWSim is successful.LBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asCalifornia. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and PoolConservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

searc searc e er tra A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Re h Institut of the Univ sity of Cen l Florida searc e er tra Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Laboratory House Building America Technical Update 2013 ACI National Home Performance Conference April 29- 30 , 2013 Carlos J. Colon carlos@fsec.ucf.edu A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Re h Institut of the Univ sity of Cen l Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Hot Water Systems (HWS) Laboratory FSEC Grounds, Florida (east coast) 2009 -Present (Currently fourth testing rotation) FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida

195

Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This paper reports on studies carried out at ORNL to examine the shear force required to remove particles from a well-developed EGR cooler deposit.

196

Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance Title The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-47352 Year of Publication 2001 Authors Lekov, Alexander B., James D. Lutz, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, and James E. McMahon Document Number LBNL-47352 Date Published January 12 Abstract The National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consider amendments to the energy conservation standards to increase energy efficiency in residential water heaters. A driving force affecting efficiency is the ozone-depletion regulation regarding blowing agents for insulation in all water heater fuel types. This paper presents results of cost and efficiency impacts of three potential blowing agents. Residential water heaters are typically insulated with polyurethane foam in the space between the tank and the jacket. Currently, water heater manufacturers use HCFC-141b, an ozone-depleting substance, as a blowing agent. After 2003, as a result of the Montreal Protocol (1993), manufacturers must use blowing agents that do not deplete the ozone layer. The analysis presented in this paper considers three replacement candidates, HFC-245fa, HFC-134a, and cyclopentane by comparing their efficiency and cost effectiveness when applied to water heater insulation. This analysis used computer simulation models and other analytical methods to investigate the efficiency improvements due to different design options, when alternative blowing agents are applied. The calculations were based on the DOE test procedure for residential water heaters. The analysis used average manufacturer, retailer, and installer costs to calculate the total consumer costs. Consumer operating expenses were calculated based on modeled energy consumption under test procedure conditions and U.S. average energy prices. With this information, a cost-efficiency relationship was developed to show the average manufacturer and consumer cost to achieve increased efficiency.

198

Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation - Water Heater Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation - Water Heater Rebate Program Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation - Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Ventilation Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Georgia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount In-Home Energy Evaluation Program Windows: $500 Duct Repair: $500 Rehabilitation Work: $250 HVAC Replacement: $250/unit HVAC Tune-up: $150/unit Insulation: $500 Water Heater and Pipe Insulation: $50 Air Sealing: $500 Energy Right Program

199

Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine's helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Design, fabrication, and testing of a sodium evaporator for the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development and testing of a compact heat-pipe heat exchanger kW(e) designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases. The liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine, where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15 kW(t) of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760 C. Four of these prototype units were eventually used to power a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this report.

Rawlinson, K.S.; Adkins, D.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the heat pump water heater

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

203

Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used must be currently UL (Underwriters Laboratory) approved. 4. Approved space heaters must be fan driven. Space heaters with heated coils are not permitted. 5. Space heaters must have a thermostat that shuts unit off when a certain temperature is reached. 6. Space heaters must have a tip-over shutdown

de Lijser, Peter

204

Electrical noise characteristics of a doped silicon microcantilever heater-thermometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrical noise characteristics of a doped silicon microcantilever heater-thermometer Elise A with resistive heater-thermometers,10­13 there is a lack of published reports on the electrical noise silicon heater- thermometer cantilevers.12 However, a key difference is that doped silicon heater-thermometers

King, William P.

205

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heaters and the Economy Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy July 11, 2012 - 11:59am Addthis Ernie Tucker Editor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory These are the days of hot sun and mortgage refinance frenzy. Somehow, they've both combined in my mind to make me ponder the economics of a solar water heater. Because the sun's been beating down on our garden hose, the initial flush of water can be very hot. The warm spray reminded me of the times on camping trips when we'd bring along a portable solar shower -- essentially a black plastic bag with a tube and shower nozzle -- for bathing. While not an endless supply (perhaps 10 gallons), it was a very enjoyable luxury. Of course, it assumes that there's plenty of sunshine, but if so -- voila -- a warm and sudsy campsite clean-up is possible.

206

Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $600 Provider Grays Harbor PUD Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a rebate program for the installation of solar water heaters. Rebates of $600 are available for the installation of solar collectors of 40 square feet or more. Only customers who currently use electricity for hot water are eligible. This rebate is available on a case-by-case basis, so you must contact the utility in order to take advantage of it. Customers may choose a [http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=WA09F&re=1&ee=1

207

List of Water Heaters Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heaters Incentives Heaters Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 973 Water Heaters Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-973) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility Nonprofit Schools State Government Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Water Heaters Commercial Cooking Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Room Air Conditioners Yes AEP Public Service Company of Oklahoma - Residential Efficiency Rebate Program (Oklahoma) Utility Rebate Program Oklahoma Residential Building Insulation

208

Covered Product Category: Gas Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas Storage Water Heaters Gas Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Gas Storage Water Heaters October 7, 2013 - 10:43am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

209

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy July 11, 2012 - 11:59am Addthis Ernie Tucker Editor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory These are the days of hot sun and mortgage refinance frenzy. Somehow, they've both combined in my mind to make me ponder the economics of a solar water heater. Because the sun's been beating down on our garden hose, the initial flush of water can be very hot. The warm spray reminded me of the times on camping trips when we'd bring along a portable solar shower -- essentially a black plastic bag with a tube and shower nozzle -- for bathing. While not an endless supply (perhaps 10 gallons), it was a very enjoyable luxury. Of course, it assumes that there's plenty of sunshine, but if so -- voila -- a

210

Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Loan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Loan Solar Water Heater Loan Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Loan < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate not specified Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount not specified Provider Grays Harbor PUD Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a low-interest loan program (currently 4.0%) for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans are available for the installation of solar collectors of 40 square feet or more. The loans are provided through local lenders, with interest subsidized by the PUD. Only customers who currently use electricity for hot water are eligible. Pre-approval is required for this loan and loan amounts are determined on a case-by-case basis.

211

New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $0.265/kWh Provider New Braunfels Utilities New Braunfels Utilities offers a rebate for residential customers who purchase and install solar water heating systems on eligible homes. A rebate of the equivalent of $0.265 per kWh is available to these customers. The maximum rebate amount is $900 for participating customers. Applicants must have an active residential electric service account with NBU in order to be eligible. Solar water heaters must preheat water for an electric

212

FS: heat pump water heaters | The Better Buildings Alliance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Food Service » Install a heat pump Food Service » Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specificat Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specification The Food Service team developed a Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater Specification that can be used to reduce water heating energy by 70%. An older, electric resistance water heater (operated in a building with a hot water demand of 500 gallons a day) can cost more than $3,500 each year

213

Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

Kumar, A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Split system CO2 heat pump water heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Split-system-CO2-heat-pump-water-heaters- Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE...

215

An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The production and reliability performance of Steam Process Heaters can be significantly affected by the condensate drainage design that is employed. There are currently a variety of drainage options which can be confusing to a system designer who...

Risko, J. R.

216

Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A webinar by Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor the installation.

217

New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study  

SciTech Connect

This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

218

Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technology is now available to increase heater efficiencies to 92 percent and more. By 1980, this technology will be field proven and corrosion and reliability problems identified and resolved. Recent studies have shown that a minimum efficiency...

Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers residential customers rebates for installing a ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater. Rebates are based on the size of the system; MMU offers $20 per...

220

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

Vinegar; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

222

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater May 30, 2012 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR What does this mean for me? Solar water heaters cost more to purchase and install but may save you money in the long run. Estimate the annual operating costs and compare several solar water heaters to determine whether it is worth investing in a more efficient system. Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can

223

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater May 30, 2012 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR What does this mean for me? Solar water heaters cost more to purchase and install but may save you money in the long run. Estimate the annual operating costs and compare several solar water heaters to determine whether it is worth investing in a more efficient system. Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can

224

Updating for Ash Cooler Fluidized Air System of a 410 t/h CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper presents an updating scheme for ash cooler fluidized air system of a 410 t/h CFB boiler. The ash cooler fluidized air, which is originally designed, is provided by the independent configuration of two forced fans. By analyzing and studying ...

Gao Jian-qiang; Chen Hong-wei; Zhang Wei

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Title Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-45618 Year of Publication 2000 Authors Lekov, Alexander B., James D. Lutz, Xiaomin Liu, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, and James E. McMahon Document Number LBNL-45618 Date Published May 4 Abstract Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential water heater energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a water heater and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers are significant. At the efficiency level examined in this paper, 35% of households with electric water heaters experience LCC savings, with an average savings of $106, while 4% show LCC losses, with an average loss of $40 compared to a pre-standard LCC average of $2,565. The remainder of the population (61%) are largely unaffected.

226

Test research of bed ash coolers for a 50 MWe CFB boiler  

SciTech Connect

CFB boilers have been developed and commercialized in China. As one of the main auxiliaries of FBC boilers, the bed ash cooler plays an important role in regular operation of the boilers. A 50 MWe 2-shaped CFB boiler will be put into operation in North China. Many kinds of bed ash cooling systems for this boiler had been designed and compared. Then the optimum bed ash coolers were determined and made. Experimental research and pilot-scale test for the bed ash coolers were also carried out. The result indicates that the bed ash cooler can be operated reliably and can meet the demand for cooling bed ash of the 50 MWe CFB boiler. The test data are very useful for further improving the performance of ash coolers.

Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Lin, Z.J.; Liu, D.C. [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China). National Lab. of Coal Combustion; Hu, L.L.; Xie, P.J.; Yan, H.X.; Liu, M.C. [Hubei Boiler Auxiliary Factory, Jingshan, Hubei (China)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

330 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 30, NO. 2, JUNE 2007 Enhancing Performance of Thermoelectric Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

material-based research initiatives to further compound the benefits. Index Terms--Thermoelectric coolers Performance of Thermoelectric Coolers Through the Application of Distributed Control R. D. Harvey, D. G. Walker, and K. D. Frampton Abstract--The primary drawback of thermoelectric coolers (TECs

Walker, D. Greg

229

A large solar/heat?driven thermoacoustic cooler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on the success of an earlier solar?powered thermoacoustics prime mover which used a direct?illumination stack and no hot?side heat exchanger [Chen and Garrett Proc. 16th Int. Cong. Acoust. Vol. II 813814 (1998)] a large solar/heat?driven thermoacoustic cooler was designed and fabricated. Target cooling powers of 10 to 60 W over a 25?deg temperature span were based on a thermal input power of 150 to 600 W. To concentrate the required amount of solar power on an 11?cm?diameter ceramic stack a 10?ft diameter fiberglass parabolic dish used for satellite TV has been converted by gluing aluminized MylarTM on its surface over a 2?m diameter. A two?axis coordinated solar tracking system driven by two computer?controlled motors has produced the required 600 W of solar power to illuminate the hot side of the stack for a maximum of 3 h. Measured performance of the solar refrigerator will be compared to DE L T AE models. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rawlinson, K. Scott (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

232

Performance characteristics of solar air heater with surface mounted obstacles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The performance of conventional solar air heaters (SAHs) can be improved by providing obstacles on the heated wall (i.e. on the absorber plate). Experiments have been performed to collect heat transfer and flow-friction data from an air heater duct with delta-shaped obstacles mounted on the absorber surface and having an aspect ratio 6:1 resembling the conditions close to the solar air heaters. This study encompassed for the range of Reynolds number (Re) from 2100 to 30,000, relative obstacle height (e/H) from 0.25 to 0.75, relative obstacle longitudinal pitch (Pl/e) from 3/2 to 11/2, relative obstacle transverse pitch (Pt/b) from 1 to 7/3 and the angle of incidence (?) varied from 30 to 90. The thermo-hydraulic performance characteristics of SAH have been compared with the previous published works and the optimum range of the geometries have been explored for the better performance of such air-heaters compared to the other designs of solar air heaters.

Adisu Bekele; Manish Mishra; Sushanta Dutta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Modeling properties of chromospheric evaporation driven by thermal conduction fronts from reconnection shocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetic reconnection in the corona results in contracting flare loops, releasing energy into plasma heating and shocks. The hydrodynamic shocks so produced drive thermal conduction fronts (TCFs) which transport energy into the chromosphere and drive upflows (evaporation) and downflows (condensation) in the cooler, denser footpoint plasma. Observations have revealed that certain properties of the transition point between evaporation and condensation (the "flow reversal point" or FRP), such as temperature and velocity-temperature derivative at the FRP, vary between different flares. These properties may provide a diagnostic tool to determine parameters of the coronal energy release mechanism and the loop atmosphere. In this study, we develop a 1-D hydrodynamical flare loop model with a simplified three-region atmosphere (chromosphere/transition region/corona), with TCFs initiated by shocks introduced in the corona. We investigate the effect of two different flare loop parameters (post-shock temperature and tra...

Brannon, Sean

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

SMUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Solar Water Heater Rebate Program SMUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 500 - 1,500 per system, depending on energy savings Provider Sacramento Municipal Utility District The Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Solar Domestic Hot Water Program provides rebates and/or loan financing to customers who install solar water heating systems. The amount of the rebate depends on how much electricity the system will offset annually: * 800 - 1,399 kWh: $500 * 1,400 - 2,199 kWh: $1,000 * 2,200 kWh or greater: $1,500 . All solar water-heating units must meet standards set by the Solar Rating

235

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters Title FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5514E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Lutz, James D. Subsidiary Authors Energy Analysis Department Document Number LBNL-5514E Pagination 8 Date Published April 1 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley ISBN Number LBNL-5514E Abstract None Notes This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State, and Community Programs, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Attachment Size PDF 240.22 KB Google Scholar BibTex RIS RTF XML Alternate URL: http://eetd.lbl.gov/node/50317

236

Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Addthis Project Level medium Energy Savings $20-$45 annually Time to Complete 1.5 hours Overall Cost $30 Insulate your hot water tank to save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/glennebo Insulate your hot water tank to save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/glennebo Just like insulating your walls or roof, insulating your hot water tank is an easy and inexpensive way to improve energy efficiency and save you money each month. If your water tank is new, it is likely already insulated. If you have an older hot water tank, check to see if it has insulation with an R-value of at least 24. If not, consider insulating your water tank, which

237

Experimental study of integrated collector storage solar water heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heaters (ICSSWH) have been designed, constructed and experimentally studied in comparison to a Flat Plate Thermosiphonic Unit (FPTU). Each of the ICS experimental models consists of one cylindrical tank horizontally mounted in a stationary symmetrical Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) reflector trough. The main objective is the design and construction of low cost solar water heaters with improved thermal performance and lower possible depths. The experimental models can be mounted on horizontal as well as on inclined roofs by adopting the lowest possible depth. The results show that these solar devices perform more than effectively all year long. This could contribute significantly on the development of ICS type solar water heaters.

M. Souliotis; D. Chemisana; Y.G. Caouris; Y. Tripanagnostopoulos

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater October 8, 2010 - 12:51pm Addthis L.L. Bean’s flagship store sees nearly 3 million visitors each year. The store now uses solar-heated water for showers, restrooms and two cafes. | Photo courtesy of L.L. Bean | L.L. Bean's flagship store sees nearly 3 million visitors each year. The store now uses solar-heated water for showers, restrooms and two cafes. | Photo courtesy of L.L. Bean | Lindsay Gsell L.L. Bean is known for its outdoor apparel- jackets, backpacks and cozy winter sweaters. However, the company does more than just dress for the outdoors, it also works to protect and preserve it. For nearly 100 years, L.L. Bean has been committed to environmental conservation and

239

Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable porportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005/sup 0/C at a flow rate of 50 cm/sup 3//sec with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

1984-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

240

Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable proportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005.degree. C. at a flow rate of 50 cm.sup.3 /second with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

242

Experimental Study on Heat Transfer in a Rolling Ash Cooler used in the CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From the view of the reliability and the techno-economy, the rolling ash cooler is feasible for the large-scale CFB boilers. However, existing studies on heat...

W. Wang; J. J. Li; S. Yang; X. D. Si

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review ...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy This...

244

Electric Blanket vs. Space Heater: #EnergyFaceoff Round 3 Heats...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Blanket vs. Space Heater: EnergyFaceoff Round 3 Heats Up Electric Blanket vs. Space Heater: EnergyFaceoff Round 3 Heats Up November 17, 2014 - 9:49am Q&A Which appliance do you...

245

Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During #EnergyFaceoff...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three November 19, 2014...

246

Numerical analysis of thermal-hydrological conditions in the single heater test at Yucca Mountain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single Heater Test at Yucca Mountain, LBNL-39789, E.O. LawSingle Heater Test at Yucca Mountain Jens T. Birkholzer andwaste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heating phase of the

Birkholzer, Jens T.; Tsang, Yvonne W.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Modeling and Test-and-Rate Methods for Innovative Thermosiphon Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper regarding research in modeling and test-and-rate methods for thermosiphon solar domestic water heaters.

Burch, J.; Shoukas, G.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

249

Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On top of the tank are two thin pipes; one pipe is the hot water outlet, and the other is the cold water inlet. A large pipe in the middle is called a vent pipe. A pressure/temperature relief valve is also on top of the tank and is connected to an open pipe that runs down the side of the tank. Another valve near the bottom of the outside of the tank is the thermostat and gas valve. A cutout shows the parts inside the tank, which include a large tube called a flue tube/heat exchanger. Inside this tube is a jagged insert called a flue baffle. Beside the flue tube/heat exchanger is a thin tube called the anode rod. At the bottom of the tank is a gas burner, and beneath the burner are combustion air openings.

250

Silicon microbench heater elements for packaging opto-electronic devices  

SciTech Connect

Examples are presented of the application of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s expertise in photonics packaging. Several examples of packaged devices will be described. Particular attention is given to silicon microbenches incorporating heaters and their use in semiconductor optical amplifier fiber pigtailing and packaging.

Combs, R.; Keiser, P.; Kleint, K.; Pocha, M.; Patterson, F.; Strand, O.T.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

252

Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

FEMP sets Federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

253

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

257

Novel Column Heater for Fast Capillary Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......expected advantage of radial heating with the coaxial heater...with other "coated" heating elements, differences...Louisiana light crude oil; 3 m 0.1 mm phenyl...expansion coefficient, and price imposed substantial practical...existing standard column heating technology. Thus, chromatographic......

E.U. Ehrmann; H.P. Dharmasena; K. Carney; E.B. Overton

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Restoration of Refinery Heaters Using the Technique of Prefabricated Ceramic Fiber Lined Panels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refinery heater fuel requirements often represent 50% of a units operating cost. A one percent change in the efficiency of a heater firing 100 MBtu/hr amounts to more than $25,000 per year. Heater efficiency is influenced by casing hot spots, air...

Sento, H. D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater  

SciTech Connect

This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize the design for manufacturing. This work included the initiation of a large field testing program (over 125 units) and an in-depth reliability program intended to minimize the risks associated with a new product introduction. At the time of this report, A.O. Smith plans to introduce this product to the marketplace in the early 2006 time period.

Peter Pescatore

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

260

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is generally recognized that as much as 60% of the air conditioning load in a building is generated by solar heat from the roof. This paper on SOLAR ROOF COOLING BY EVAPORATION is presented in slide form, tracing the history of 'nature's way...

Patterson, G. V.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Thermal performance analysis of a direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater (DX-SAHPWH) is described, which can supply hot water for domestic use during the whole year. The system mainly employs a bare flat-plate collector/evaporator with a surface area of 4.2m2, an electrical rotary-type hermetic compressor, a hot water tank with the volume of 150L and a thermostatic expansion valve. R-22 is used as working fluid in the system. A simulation model based on lumped and distributed parameter approach is developed to predict the thermal performance of the system. Given the structure parameters, meteorological parameters, time step and final water temperature, the numerical model can output operational parameters, such as heat capacity, system COP and collector efficiency. Comparisons between the simulation results and the experimental measurements show that the model is able to give satisfactory predictions. The effect of various parameters, including solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind speed and compressor speed, has been analyzed on the thermal performance of the system.

X.Q. Kong; D. Zhang; Y. Li; Q.M. Yang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Placing technology : examining the emerging use of solar water heaters in Oaxaca, Mexico: Examining the emerging use of solar water heaters in Oaxaca, Mexico.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study is an examination of the (broadly envisioned) process that has led to the emerging use of solar water heaters in Oaxaca de Jua?rez, (more)

Shannon, Steven Jacob

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

264

Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Based Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

265

Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas-Fired Absorption Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

266

Can Photo-Evaporation Trigger Planetesimal Formation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Can Photo-Evaporation Trigger Planetesimal Formation? Henry Throop John Bally SWRI Univ.Colorado / CASA DPS 12-Oct-2004 #12;Orion Nebula Photo-evaporation by extr 4 O/B stars, UV-bright, 105 solar luminosities 2000 solar-type stars with disks Photo-evaporation (PE) by external O/B stars removes disks on 105

Throop, Henry

267

Southeast Cooler Corp. Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southeast Cooler Corp. Southeast Cooler Corp. Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER Case Number: 2013-CE-5331 By the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Energy: I. In this Order, I adopt the attached Compromise Agreement entered into between the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") and Southeast Cooler Corp. ("Respondent"). The Compromise Agreement resolves the case initiated to pursue a civil penalty for violations of the compliance certification requirements located at 10 C.P.R.§§ 429.12 and 429.53. 2. DOE and Respondent have negotiated the terms of the Compromise Agreement that resolve this matter. A copy of the Compromise Agreement is attached hereto and incorporated by reference. 3. After reviewing the terms of the Compromise Agreement and evaluating the facts

268

Commercial Cooler, Inc. Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Cooler, Inc. Commercial Cooler, Inc. Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER Case Number: 2013-CE-5343 By the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Energy: I. In this Order, I adopt the attached Compromise Agreement entered into between the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") and Commercial Cooler, Inc. ("Respondent"). The Compromise Agreement resolves the case initiated to pursue a civil penalty for violations of the compliance certification requirements located at I 0 C.F.R. §§ 429.12 and 429.53. 2. DOE and Respondent have negotiated the terms of the Compromise Agreement that resolve this matter. A copy of the Compromise Agreement is attached hereto and incorporated by reference. 3. After reviewing the terms of the Compromise Agreement and evaluating the facts

269

Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students September 21, 2010 - 4:30pm Addthis Ring Factory Elementary School has installed a new ENERGY STAR-rated "cool" roof that is estimated to be 57 percent more energy efficient than the previous roof. | U.S. Department of Energy Ring Factory Elementary School has installed a new ENERGY STAR-rated "cool" roof that is estimated to be 57 percent more energy efficient than the previous roof. | U.S. Department of Energy Loretta Prencipe Senior Communications Analyst, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy It is back to school time for the 513 students at Ring Factory Elementary School in Harford County, Md. And there's something new and cool --

270

Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students September 21, 2010 - 4:30pm Addthis Ring Factory Elementary School has installed a new ENERGY STAR-rated "cool" roof that is estimated to be 57 percent more energy efficient than the previous roof. | U.S. Department of Energy Ring Factory Elementary School has installed a new ENERGY STAR-rated "cool" roof that is estimated to be 57 percent more energy efficient than the previous roof. | U.S. Department of Energy Loretta Prencipe Senior Communications Analyst, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy It is back to school time for the 513 students at Ring Factory Elementary School in Harford County, Md. And there's something new and cool --

271

Custom Coolers, LLC Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Custom Coolers, LLC Custom Coolers, LLC Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER Case Number: 2013-CE-5315 By the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Energy: I. In this Order, I adopt the attached Compromise Agreement entered into between the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") and Custom Coolers, LLC ("Respondent"). The Compromise Agreement resolves the case initiated to pursue a civil penalty for violations ofthe compliance certification requirements located at 10 C.F.R. §§ 429.12 and 429.53. 2. DOE and Respondent have negotiated the terms of the Compromise Agreement that resolve this matter. A copy of the Compromise Agreement is attached hereto and incorporated by reference. 3. After reviewing the terms of the Compromise Agreement and evaluating the facts

272

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Prepared under Task Nos. WTN9.1000, ARRB.2204 Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

273

U. K. consortium Stirling engine regenerator effectiveness and heater performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper covers results of measurements of effectiveness of regenerator materials by use of a dynamic test rig. The rig enables measurements to be made of enthalpy flux through the regenerator under simulated Stirling engine conditions of fluid flow and heat transfer. The paper also discusses the design and operation of the 60 kw heat-pipe heater head of the U.K. Consortium Stirling engine.

Rice, G.; Dadd, M.W.; Jones, J.D.; Thonger, J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Chiller-heater unit nets building 2-yr payback  

SciTech Connect

A 500-ton double-absorption Hitachi Paraflow chiller-heater that switches from purchased steam to natural gas will reduce a Manhattan office building's energy costs by 55% and achieve a two-year payback. The new system replaces a steam-powered, single-stage absorption chiller. By reusing heat in a second-stage generator, the Hitachi unit uses only half as many Btus per ton as a conventional chiller. (DCK)

Duffy, J.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

275

Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters  

SciTech Connect

Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters  

SciTech Connect

Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

278

A Test Facility for MEIC ERL Circulator Ring Based Electron Cooler Design  

SciTech Connect

An electron cooling facility which is capable to deliver a beam with energy up to 55 MeV and average current up to 1.5 A at a high bunch repetition rate up to 750 MHz is required for MEIC. The present cooler design concept is based on a magnetized photo-cathode SRF gun, an SRF ERL and a compact circulator ring. In this paper, we present a proposal of a test facility utilizing the JLab FEL ERL for a technology demonstration of this cooler design concept. Beam studies will be performed and supporting technologies will also be developed in this test facility.

Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB; Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [JLAB; Douglas, David R. [JLAB; Hutton, Andrew M. [JLAB; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [JLAB; Nissen, Edward W. [JLAB

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Dynamics of evaporative colloidal patterning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drying suspensions often leave behind complex patterns of particulates, as might be seen in the coffee stains on a table. Here we consider the dynamics of periodic band or uniform solid film formation on a vertical plate suspended partially in a drying colloidal solution. Direct observations allow us to visualize the dynamics of the band and film deposition, and the transition in between when the colloidal concentration is varied. A minimal theory of the liquid meniscus motion along the plate reveals the dynamics of the banding and its transition to the filming as a function of the ratio of deposition and evaporation rates. We also provide a complementary multiphase model of colloids dissolved in the liquid, which couples the inhomogeneous evaporation at the evolving meniscus to the fluid and particulate flows and the transition from a dilute suspension to a porous plug. This allows us to determine the concentration dependence of the bandwidth and the deposition rate. Together, our findings allow for the control of drying-induced patterning as a function of the colloidal concentration and evaporation rate.

C. Nadir Kaplan; Ning Wu; Shreyas Mandre; Joanna Aizenberg; L. Mahadevan

2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

280

Performance Method Overview Page 7-1 7 Performance Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

charge in air conditioners · Heating and cooling equipment efficiency · High EER air conditioners storage air conditioners · Air conditioners with evaporatively-cooled condensers · Evaporative coolers ventilation · Zonal control · Water heater efficiency and distribution system type Credit for many

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Environmental test report on the CTI-Cryogenics 1-watt integral Stirling cooler (long-life HD-1033d). Final report, 16 June-24 July 1988  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes and provides the data on the environmental testing of the CTI-Cryogenics 1-Watt Integral Stirling Cooler (Long-Life HD-1033D). The 1-Watt Integral Cooler (HD-1033B/C) is currently used in the M1 FLIR, M60 FLIR, and the Advanced Attack Helicopter FLIR. The long life cooler (clearance seal) improves life of the cooler by approximately two and one half times. C2NVEO evaluated the cooler performance at environmental extremes per the purchase description, PD-0182-001(CR). The cooler successfully passed all the environmental tests with no failures.

Doggett, G.; Dunmire, H.; Samuels, R.; Shaffer, J.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

TWO STAGE MONOLITHIC THIN FILMaCOOLERS Chris LaBounty, Ali Shakouri', Patrick Abraham, and John E. Bowers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University of California ~ Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, CA 95064-1077,USA ABSTRACT Optoelectronic devices of these coolers with optoelectronic devices should be possible. KEY WORDS: integratecl; thermionic; thermoelectric accomplished with thermoelectric (TE) coolers. Since optoelectronic devices are not easily integrated with TE

283

Buddy's is now offering a self-service cooler and checkout system in the SNS b  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Buddy's is now offering a self-service cooler and checkout system in the SNS building 8600 after its Buddy's is now offering a self-service cooler and checkout system in the SNS building 8600 after its normal operating hours. The self-service cooler and kiosk will be open from 1:15 pm to 6:30 am the following morning. Buddy's employees will not be available or present during this time. The cafeteria will be operating on the Honor System, choose what you like and make sure to ring up each item you wish to purchase, as the items are inventoried every day. While traditional cafeteria style buffet etc. will not be offered, Buddy's will offer a wide variety of the following: sandwiches, salads, soups, side items, yogurts, drinks and desserts. The self-service cooler is located next to the salad bar and behind the drink station. All items have been tagged with custom barcodes (if they didn't have one already, ex. Chips and

284

Effect of Engine Operating Condition and Coolant Temperature on EGR Cooler Deposit Microstructure and Chemical Composition  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In this work, the performance of a stand-alone EGR cooler attached to a 6.4L turbodiesel engine is being investigated by analyzing the microstructure and chemical composition of the deposits in the fouled heat exchanger surfaces, at two engine loads: medium and low, and at two coolant temperatures: 85?C and 40?C.

285

ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has emerged as an important issue in diesel engine development. Uncertainty about the level of impact that fuel chemistry may have upon this issue has resulted in a need to investigate the cooler fouling process with emerging non-traditional fuel sources to gage their impact on the process. This study reports experiments using both ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel (B20) at elevated exhaust hydrocarbon conditions to investigate the EGR cooler fouling process. The results show that there is little difference between the degradation in cooler effectiveness for ULSD and B20 at identical conditions. At lower coolant temperatures, B20 exhibits elevated organic fractions in the deposits compared with ULSD, but this does not appear to lead to incremental performance degradation under the conditions studied. Comparisons with a previous study conducted at low HC levels shows that the presence of increased volatiles in the deposit does not impact the degradation in effectiveness significantly. Moreover, the effectiveness loss divided by the deposit mass gain for both low- and high-HC conditions seems to indicate that the HC fraction in the deposit does not significantly alter the overall thermal properties of the deposit layer.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

P-type SiGe/Si Superlattice Cooler Xiaofeng Fan, Gehong Zeng, Edward Croke1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the temperature of the device below ambient. For a material to be a good thermoelectric cooler, it must have]. SiGe is a good thermoelectric material especially for high temperature applications [11 element thermoelectric devices, and it will enable us to achieve large cooling capacities with relatively

287

University of California and HRL Laboratories, LLC. All rights reserved. SiGe/Si SUPERLATTICE COOLERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for SiGe/Si superlattice coolers. SiGe is a good thermoelectric material for high temperature and thermally in parallel, similar to conventional thermoelectric devices, and thus achieve large cooling of the barriers to further increase clock speeds and decrease feature sizes. Thermoelectric (TE) refrigeration

288

Development and Testing of an Integrated Sandia Cooler Thermoelectric Device (SCTD).  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a FY14 effort to develop an integrated Sandia Cooler T hermoelectric D evice (SCTD) . The project included a review of feasible thermoelectric (TE) cooling applications, baseline performance testing of an existing TE device, analysis and design development of an integrated SCTD assembly, and performance measurement and validation of the integrated SCTD prototype.

Johnson, Terry A.; Staats, Wayne Lawrence,; Leick, Michael Thomas; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Radermacher, Reinhard; Martin, Cara; Nasuta, Dennis; Kalinowski, Paul; Hoffman, William

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Evaporative oxidation treatability test report  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Testing and analysis of the Semiscale Mod-1 heater rod design  

SciTech Connect

The use of electrically heated nuclear fuel rod simulators in the Semiscale Program is traced from a historical viewpoint. The design of the Semiscale Mod-1 electrical heater rod and core simulator is discussed. Heater rod thermal response during transient thermal-hydraulic depressurization experiments conducted in the Mod-1 system, and analysis techniques and tests conducted to help quantify heater rod characteristics and behavior are presented.

Larson, T.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

HEATER TEST PLANNING FOR THE NEAR SURFACE TEST FACILITY AT THE HANFORD RESERVATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heater Experiment at Hanford. Berkeley, Lawre ;e BerkeleyTest Facility, Hole DC-11, Hanford Reservation. Prepared forof Gable Mountain Basalt Cores, Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

DuBois, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During #EnergyFaceoff Round Three  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

#EnergyFaceoff round three goes to the electric blanket, see how much more money it can save you over a space heater!

293

Development of solar air heaters & thermal energy storage system for drying applications in food processing industries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the present work, the author has designed and developed all types of solar air heaters called porous and nonporous collectors. The developed solar air (more)

Sreekumar, A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heater Test Procedures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters.

295

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters.

296

A model for improvement of water heating heat exchanger designs for residential heat pump water heaters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat pump water heaters are a promising technology to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A key component is the water heating heat exchanger. (more)

Weerawoot, Arunwattana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Annual Operating Characteristics of Solar Central Water Heater System Assisted by Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solar central water heater (SCWH) could supply ... massive users effectively and reliably. A SCWH assisted by heat pump (SCWHP) was proposed...

Wei Hu; Zhaolin Gu; Shiyu Feng; Xiufeng Gao

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Solar Hot Water Heater Augmented with PV-TEM Heat Pump.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solar assisted heat pumps (SAHPs) can provide higher collector efficiencies and solar fractions when compared against standard solar hot water heaters. Vapour compression (VC) heat (more)

PRESTON, NATHANIEL

300

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as conventional electric resistance water heaters. Atwo technologies: (1) an electric resistance storage waterin heat pump or in electric resistance mode. The electric

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Policy for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VII-4-4 Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou Ying Wang LiHua Zhao Graduated Student Associate Professor School of Architecture, South China... and lasting from a social benefit point of view in order to sustainable develop and ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Policy for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VII-4-4 benefit our offspring. REFERENCES [1] Yi Yun, ShanMing Wang. Market insight of solar...

Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

303

Ocean Currents Produced by Evaporation and Precipitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 September 1933 research-article Ocean Currents Produced by Evaporation and Precipitation G. R. Goldsbrough The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve...

1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Apparatus and method for evaporator defrosting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for warm-liquid defrosting of the evaporator of a refrigeration system. The apparatus includes a first refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands refrigerant for cooling the evaporator, a second refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands the refrigerant after the refrigerant has passed through the evaporator, and a defrosting control for the first refrigerant expansion device and second refrigerant expansion device to selectively defrost the evaporator by causing warm refrigerant to flow through the evaporator. The apparatus is alternately embodied with a first refrigerant bypass and/or a second refrigerant bypass for selectively directing refrigerant to respectively bypass the first refrigerant expansion device and the second refrigerant expansion device, and with the defrosting control connected to the first refrigerant bypass and/or the second refrigerant bypass to selectively activate and deactivate the bypasses depending upon the current cycle of the refrigeration system. The apparatus alternately includes an accumulator for accumulating liquid and/or gaseous refrigerant that is then pumped either to a refrigerant receiver or the first refrigerant expansion device for enhanced evaporator defrosting capability. The inventive method of defrosting an evaporator in a refrigeration system includes the steps of compressing refrigerant in a compressor and cooling the refrigerant in the condenser such that the refrigerant is substantially in liquid form, passing the refrigerant substantially in liquid form through the evaporator, and expanding the refrigerant with a refrigerant expansion device after the refrigerant substantially passes through the evaporator.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Domitrovic, Ronald E. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Eleana near-surface heater experiment final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a near-surface heater experiment operated at a depth of 23 m in argillite within the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test geometrically simulated emplacement of a single canister of High-Level Waste (HLW) and was operated at a power level of 2.5 kW for 21 days, followed by 3.8 kW to 250 days, when the power was turned off. Below 85 to 100{sup 0}C, there was good agreement between modeled and measured thermal results in the rock and in the emplacement hole, except for transient transport of water in the heater hole. Above 100{sup 0}C, modeled and measured thermal results increasingly diverged, indicating that the in-situ rock-mass thermal conductivity decreased as a result of dehydration more than expected on the basis of matrix properties. Correlation of thermomechanical modeling and field results suggests that this decrease was caused by strong coupling of thermal and mechanical behavior of the argillite at elevated temperatures. No hole-wall decrepitation was observed in the experiment; this fact and the codrrelation of modeled and measured results at lower temperatures indicate that there is no a priori reason to eliminate argillaceous rocks from further consideration as a host rock for nuclear wastes.

Lappin, A R; Thomas, R K; McVey, D F

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric and Gas Water Heaters Electric and Gas Water Heaters Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters October 8, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Type of Water Heater Electric Gas Electric Average Daily Usage (gallons per day)* gallons 64* Energy Factor† 0.92 (electric) 0.61 (gas) Energy Cost $ / kWh $0.06 per kWh $.60 per therm Quantity of Water Heaters to be Purchased unit(s) 1 unit * See assumptions for various daily water use totals. † The comparison assumes a storage tank water heater as the input type. To allow demand water heaters as the comparison type, users can specify an input EF of up to 0.85; however, 0.66 is currently the best available EF for storage water heaters.

307

Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the water heater's annual operation costs but also its size and energy efficiency. Natural gas, oil or tank water heater operates by releasing hot water from the top of the tank when the hot water tap is turned on. The hot water is released into the hot water line. As the hot water leaves the tank, cold

308

Tankless water heaters fill the bill at fast-food restaurants  

SciTech Connect

This article explains why Kentucky Fried Chicken has installed a PH-24 water heater. The tankless water heater meets the restaurant's criteria for space spacing, flow rates, certification and availability, and money saving efficiency. This article describes the system and its advantages.

Not Available

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

242-A evaporator vacuum condenser system  

SciTech Connect

This document is written for the 242-A evaporator vacuum condenser system (VCS), describing its purpose and operation within the evaporator. The document establishes the operating parameters specifying pressure, temperature, flow rates, interlock safety features and interfacing sub-systems to support its operation.

Smith, V.A.

1994-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

310

TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (SwRI) John Bally (U. Colorado) #12;Takeaway: Photo-evaporation alters the disk structure in essentially unpredictable ways, because for disks formed at the same time in the same cluster. #12;30 Doradus: 100+ O/B stars Photo

Throop, Henry

311

Water Evaporation: A Transition Path Sampling Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. Based on thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface, and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

Patrick Varilly; David Chandler

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

312

Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program {open_quotes}Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.{close_quotes} The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.

Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A. [and others

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES R. A. Marcus1 , A. V. Fedkin2-K) equation for the rate of condensation of a gas or evaporation of a solid or liquid is used for systems, Tg, differs from that of the condensed phase, Ts . Here, we modify the H-K equation for this case

Grossman, Lawrence

314

Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Model-Based Controls Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) develops affordable and clean energy from coal and other fossil fuels to secure a sustainable energy economy. To further this mission, NETL funds research and development of advanced sensor and control technologies that can function under the extreme operating conditions often found in advanced power systems, particularly

315

6D mu (+/-) cooling using a solenoid-dipole ring cooler for a muon collider  

SciTech Connect

Six dimensional cooling of large emittance {mu}{sup +} and {mu}{sup -} beams is required in order to obtain the desired luminosity for a muon collider. We propose to use a ring cooler that employs both dipoles and solenoids with the additional requirement that the arcs of the ring be achromatic. We describe the lattice and the beam dynamics of the proposed ring, and demonstrate that the lattice gives substantial cooling in all 6 phase space dimensions.

Garren, A.; Berg, J.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Kirk, H.G.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Cheaper, Cleaner, Cooler Ways to Meet our Needs for New Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Warming And Power Plant Pollution Energy Efficiency HB 3693 retrofits Energy Management Building Codes, Green Buildings and Net Zero buildings 2030 goal of US Conference of Mayors, Renewable Energy Wind, solar thermal, geothermal, solar....9% by the summer of 2012 well below the 12.5% that is considered the safety margin. Cooler Power: Texas Leads the Nation in Renewable Energy Potential Source: Texas State Energy Conservation Office. Texas Has Been VERY Successful Promoting Wind Over 3352...

Smith, T.

317

Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System Providing Water Resiliency in a typical Chemical Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System Providing Water Resiliency in a Typical Chemical Plant Presentation to the: May 21, 2014 Thomas P. Carter, P.E. Sr. Program Manager, Heat Rejection Technology Johnson Controls, Building Efficiency thomas....p.carter@jci.com ESL-IE-14-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 2Johnson Controls is a globally diversified company in the building and automotive industries Automotive Experience...

Carter, T. P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system. DEVAP uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less

319

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system.

320

One-step method for the production of nanofluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A one step method and system for producing nanofluids by a particle-source evaporation and deposition of the evaporant into a base fluid. The base fluid such (i.e. ethylene glycol) is placed in a rotating cylindrical drum having an adjustable heater-boat-evaporator and heat exchanger-cooler apparatus. As the drum rotates, a thin liquid layer is formed on the inside surface of the drum. A heater-boat-evaporator having an evaporant material (particle-source) placed within its boat evaporator is adjustably positioned near a portion of the rotating thin liquid layer, the evaporant material being heated thereby evaporating a portion of the evaporant material, the evaporated material absorbed by the liquid film to form nanofluid.

Kostic, Milivoje (Chicago, IL); Golubovic, Mihajlo (Chicago, IL); Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL); Choi, Stephen U. S. (Napersville, IL)

2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

PRELIMINARY THERMAL AND THERMOMECH-ANICAL MODELING FOR THE NEAR SURFACE TEST FACILITY HEATER EXPERIMANTS AT HANFORD: Appendix D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heater Experiments at Hanford V O L U M E II (Appendix D) TENG-48 and for Rockwell Hanford Operations a Department ofFACILITY HEATER EXPERIMENTS AT HANFORD Volume 2 (Appendix D)

Chan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incorporating tankless water heaters was one Incorporating tankless water heaters was one of many energy-efficiency recommendations Building America's research team IBACOS had for San Antonio builder Imagine Homes. Although tankless gas water heaters should save approximately 33% on hot water heating compared to a conventional storage water heater, actual energy savings vary significantly based on individual draw volume. Above 10 gallons per draw, the efficiency approaches the rated energy factor. The greatest savings occur at a daily use quantity of about 50 gallons. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 1. Advanced Technologies and Practices 1.2 Energy Efficient Components Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance As improved thermal enclosures dramatically reduce heating and cooling loads,

323

Enhancement of Heat Transfer in an Artificially Roughened Solar Air Heater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: solar air heater is one of the basic equipment through which solar energy is converted into thermal energy. Solar air heaters, because of their simple in design, are cheap and most widely used collection devices of solar energy. The thermal efficiency of a solar air heater is significantly low because of the low value of the convective heat transfer coefficient between the absorber plate and the air, leading to high absorber plate temperature and high heat losses to the surroundings. This paper presents the study of heat transfer in a solar air heater by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The effect of Reynolds number on Nusselt number is investigated. A commercial finite volume package ANSYS FLUENT 12.1 is used to analyze and visualize the nature of the flow across the duct of a solar air heater.

unknown authors

324

Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Emerging Technologies » Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into carbon gas-fired absorption heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to increase water heating energy efficiency over conventional gas storage water heaters by 40%. Project Description This project seeks to develop a natural gas-fired water heater using an absorption heat. The development effort is targeting lithium bromide aqueous solutions as a working fluid in order to avoid the negative implications of using more toxic ammonia. Project Partners Research is being undertaken through a Cooperative Research and Development

325

Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission  

SciTech Connect

The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

Schock, Alfred

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Indoor air pollutants from unvented kerosene heater emissions in mobile homes: studies on particles, semivolatile organics, carbon monoxide, and mutagenicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Indoor air pollutants from unvented kerosene heater emissions in mobile homes: studies on particles, semivolatile organics, carbon monoxide, and mutagenicity ...

Judy L. Mumford; Ron W. Williams; Debra B. Walsh; Robert M. Burton; David J. Svendsgaard; Jane C. Chuang; Virginia S. Houk; Joellen Lewtas

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools  

SciTech Connect

A combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools comprises a fence shaped for extending about the periphery of the pool to restrict ingress and egress therefrom. A tubular heat exchanger is formed in at least one section of the fence, includes an exterior surface adapted to absorb solar energy, and communicates with the water in the swimming pool. The number of heat exchanger fence sections can be varied in accordance with the climate in which the pool is located. A pump flows the water in the swimming pool through the heat exchanger fence sections during daylight hours, thereby simultaneously heating the water in the pool, and providing an attractive and protective safety barrier about the swimming pool.

Divine, D.L.

1981-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

328

Fundamental study of evaporation model in micron pore  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of evaporation has not been established. The purpose of this study is to establish a method to apply the evaporation model based on the statistical rate theory for engineering application including vapor-liquid-structure intermolecular effect. The evaporation...

Oinuma, Ryoji

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Water Evaporation Studies in Texas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

69 59 3,893 Records JUL 8.83 8.33 9.64 10.99 1.65 .94 73 73 4,679 3,068 9.76 8.97 11.54 1.32 96 71 2,559 9.78 2.08 1.86 97 71 54 4,262 7.19 2.54 2.77 96 72 78 2,402 9.93 2.54 91 62 51 3,618 7.89 2.17 95 72....15 1.10 55 31 71 4,403 2.31 3.82 3.68 63 43 85 3,374 .45 48 19 3,948 1.92 2.34 58 35 75 4,870 1.64 1.54 1.73 58 33 67 3,138 Table 1 . Mean Monthly and Annual Meteorological Data for Stations from which Evaporation Records...

Patterson, R. E. (Raleigh Elwood); Bloodgood, Dean W.; Smith, R. L.

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

242-A evaporator safety analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR.

CAMPBELL, T.A.

1999-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

331

Tank 26 Evaporator Feed Pump Transfer Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.03 and 0.1 wt% sludge undissolved solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively, and therefore are an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth. Revision 1 clarifies the analysis presented in Revision 0 and corrects a mathematical error in the calculations for Table 4.1 in Revision 0. However, the conclusions and recommendations of the analysis do not change for Revision 1.

Tamburello, David; Dimenna, Richard; Lee, Si

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

332

Operations and Performance of the PACS Instrument 3He Sorption Cooler on board of the Herschel Space Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 3He sorption cooler produced the operational temperature of 285mK for the bolometer arrays of the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instrument of the Herschel Space Observatory. This cooler provided a stable hold time between 60 and 73h, depending on the operational conditions of the instrument. The respective hold time could be determined by a simple functional relation established early on in the mission and reliably applied by the scientific mission planning for the entire mission. After exhaustion of the liquid 3He due to the heat input by the detector arrays, the cooler was recycled for the next operational period following a well established automatic procedure. We give an overview of the cooler operations and performance over the entire mission and distinguishing in-between the start conditions for the cooler recycling and the two main modes of PACS photometer operations. As a spin-off, the cooler recycling temperature effects on the Herschel cryostat 4He bath were utilized as an alt...

Sauvage, Marc; Klaas, Ulrich; Muller, Thomas; Moor, Andras; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Duband, Lionel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Flexible microprocessor-based evaporation controller  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electron beam evaporation sources require two power supplies one each for the filament current and the electron acceleration. To obtain a stable deposition rate the emission current between filament and target must remain constant. During film deposition slight geometry changes in the evaporator cause significant rate variations making constant readjustment of the emission current necessary. While in commercial solutions analog feedback regulators are often used to perform this task these controllers cannot easily be adapted to home-built evaporation sources. The microcontrolled feedback controller presented here is more flexible and versatile than the commercial solutions. The controller can be easily modified to work with different external power supplies and allows the easy upgrade of most existing electron beam evaporation setups. A serial-port computer interface completely integrates the controller into the automated laboratory environment.

F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf; A. C. Belton

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

241-A evaporator flowsheet users manual  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document presents a description of the 242-A Evaporator flowsheet. Material balances are calculated for feed, slurry, and effluent streams based on input data for the feed stream.

Larrick, A.P.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

335

ARM - Lesson Plans: Sunlight and Evaporation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water will evaporate into the atmosphere. The extra water vapor will add to the greenhouse effect (i.e., more water vapor in the atmosphere can trap more heat and it will make...

336

Evaluation of a Stirling engine heater bypass with the NASA Lewis nodal-analysis performance code  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Research Center investigated whether bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater during regenerative cooling would improve the engine thermal efficiency. The investigation was accomplished by using the Lewis nodal-analysis Stirling engine computer model. Bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater at full power resulted in a rise in the indicated thermal efficiency from 40.6 to 41.0 percent. For the idealized (some losses not included) heater bypass that was analyzed, this benefit is not considered significant.

Sullivan, T.J.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

One-step method for the production of nanofluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A one step method and system for producing nanofluids by a nanoparticle-source evaporation and deposition of the evaporant into a base fluid. The base fluid such oil or ethylene glycol is placed in a rotating cylindrical drum having an adjustable heater-boat-evaporator and heat exchanger-cooler apparatus. As the drum rotates, a thin liquid layer is formed on the inside surface of the drum. An insulated heater-boat-evaporator having an evaporant material (nanoparticle-source) placed within its boat evaporator is adjustably positioned near a portion of the rotating thin liquid layer, the evaporant material being heated thereby evaporating a portion of the evaporant material and forming nanoparticles, the nanoparticles absorbed by the liquid film to form nanofluid.

Kostic, Milivoje (Sycamore, IL); Golubovic, Mihajlo (Chicago, IL); Hull, John (Downers Grove, IL); Choi, Stephen U. S. (Naperville, IL)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

338

TANK 32 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 32 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, with the supernate surface at a minimum height of approximately 74.4 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer with a flow rate of 110 gpm. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank toward the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results shows that, for the minimum tank liquid level of 105 inches above the tank bottom (which corresponds to a liquid depth of 74.4 inches above the sludge layer), the evaporator feed pump will contain less than 0.1 wt% sludge solids in the discharge stream, which is an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids (UDS) loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower liquid levels with respect to the sludge layer will result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased plunging jet velocity from the downcomer disturbing the sludge layer.

Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

339

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States New Construction Market Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Gabrielle Wong-Parodi James McMahon Victor Franco Date: May 8, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 In the new single-family home construction market, the choice of what gas furnace and gas water heater combination to install is primarily driven by first cost considerations. In this study, the authors use a life-cycle cost analysis approach that accounts for uncertainty and variability of inputs to assess the economic benefits of installing different gas furnace and water heater combinations. Among other factors, it assesses the economic feasibility of eliminating the traditional metal vents and replacing them with vents made of plastic materials used in condensing and power vent

340

Critical Question #8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best 8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? Critical Question #8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? What do we know about actual performance compared to promised performance? What is the best way to manage the space conditioning impacts on a home? Is there an easy decision tree for deciding if this is the best solution for a particular home (Climate? Utility prices? Accessibility? Physical space constraints? Workforce?)? cq8_residential_hpwh_costs_maguire.pdf cq8_hpwh_performance_colon.pdf cq8_hpwhs_multifamily_weitzel.pdf More Documents & Publications Track A - Energy Systems Innovations Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Standing Technical Committee Working Sessions

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

A Small Scale Solar Agricultural Dryer with Biomass Burner and Heat Storage Back-Up Heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a small scale solar agricultural dryer with a simple biomass burner and heat storage back-up heater. The key design features ... are the combination of direct and indirect type solar dryer, t...

Elieser Tarigan; Perapong Tekasakul

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

343

Development and Application of Engineering-Scale Solar Water Heater System Assisted by Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump was developed based on ... . The subunits of modularized system include vacuum solar energy collectors, air source heat pump, ... Energy source...

Xiufeng Gao; Shiyu Feng; Wei Hu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Thermal performance evaluation of a solar air heater with and without thermal energy storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This communication presents the experimental study and performance analysis of a solar air heater with and without phase change ... found that the output temperature in case with thermal energy storage (TES) is h...

V. V. Tyagi; A. K. Pandey; S. C. Kaushik

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Design, modeling, and performance of four breadbox passive solar water heaters  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Southwest Border Regional Commission demonstration program on Solar Upgrading of Low-Income Housing, three different types of passive breadbox solar water heaters were designed. Using these designs, a total of six solar water heaters have been installed on public housing units in Las Cruces; these systems act as preheaters to the existing conventional gas-fired water heaters. Under a separate contract from the National Center for Appropriate Technology, four of these installations have been instrumented with two Btu meters each to measure the thermal output of both the solar preheater and conventional backup system. This has enabled measurement of the actual solar fraction of the four instrumented solar systems. The design and construction of the water heaters is described, and the actual performance of the systems is compared with the predicted performance.

Roberts, D. (Energy Management Services, Inc., Santa Fe, NM); Farrer, R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 Million  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 Million in the Next Five Years ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 Million in the Next Five Years December 31, 2008 - 9:18am Addthis WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the availability of ENERGY STAR® residential water heaters. With today's announcement, the ENERGY STAR® program now addresses every major residential appliance found in most American homes. Introduction of this product provides significant potential savings to consumers. Water heating represents up to 15.5 percent of national residential energy consumption, the second largest end use of energy in homes, following heating and cooling. Using one of five specified water heating technologies, ENERGY

347

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Water Heater Efficiencies 2005 2010 Efficiency Stock Minimum Best-Available Residential Type Parameter (1) Efficiency New Efficiency New Efficiency Electric Storage EF 0.90 0.90 (2) 0.95 (2) Electric Instantaneous EF 0.82 0.82 0.98 Electric Heat Pump EF 2.00 2.00 2.35 Gas-Fired Storage EF 0.60 0.59 (3) 0.85 (3) Gas-Fired Instantaneous EF 0.82 0.82 0.98 Oil-Fired Storage EF 0.50 0.53 (4) 0.68 (4) Solar SEF 2.50 N.A. 2.50 2007 2010 Efficiency Stock Minimum Best-Available Commercial Type Parameter (1) Efficiency New Efficiency New Efficiency Electric Storage Thermal Efficiency 0.98 0.98 (5) 0.98 (5) Electric Instantaneous Thermal Efficiency 0.98 0.98 0.98 Gas-Fired Storage Thermal Efficiency 0.78 0.80 (6) 0.96 (6) Gas-Fired Instantaneous Thermal Efficiency 0.77 0.80 0.85 Oil-Fired Storage Thermal Efficiency 0.79 0.78 (7) 0.85 (7) Note(s):

348

Failure assessment of composite cooler tubes in a gas boosting station  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study describes origin and failure mechanisms of air cooled heat exchangers tubes, in a gas pressure boosting station. Hydrocarbon gas was circulating within aluminum finned tubes and cooling was done by forcing ambient air over the exterior of the tubes, made of carbon steel A-214 material. The hydrocarbon gas was contained traces of H2S and substantial level of CO2. The investigation was carried out in a station located in southern part of Iran. The process involved condensation of water and hydrocarbon along the length of tubes, resulting in a wet gas multiphase flow situation. Such type of coolers is also called composite coolers. The failure of tubes was characterized on the bases of all the available evidences and metallurgical examinations, such as analysis of tube materials, feeding gas, condensate water, and the residue inside the tubes. The processing was also simulated by Hysis-3.1 software, in order to evaluate and compare various parameters such as gas flow rate, liquid water and hydrocarbon formation, in actual and design condition. The air cooled tubes showed highest corrosion rate and was experienced leakage regularly. The results indicated that, low velocity assisted sweet corrosion caused severe pitting inside the tubes, and led to failure.

Khalil Ranjbar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

SciTech Connect

New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

350

Mekanisk integration av en IR-detektor i en Stirlingkylare; Mechanical Integration of an IR-detector in a Micro Cooler.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The master thesis Mechanical Integration of an IR-detector in a Micro Cooler has been performed at FLIR Systems AB in Danderyd. FLIR Systems is (more)

Gibson, Camilla

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Changes Made on a 2.7-m Long Superconducting Solenoid Magnet Cryogenic System that allowed the Magnet to be kept Cold using 4 K Pulse Tube Cooler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Cooler, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering 57, pp 581 -Solenoid Magnet Cryogenic System that allowed the Magnet toof the International Cryogenic Engineering Conference 22,

Green, Michael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

353

On the Use of Thermoelectric (TE) Applications Based on Commercial Modules: The Case of TE Generator and TE Cooler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years thermoelectricity sees rapidly increasing usages in applications like portable refrigerators beverage coolers electronic component coolers etc. when used as Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC) and Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) which make use of the Seebeck effect in semiconductors for the direct conversion of heat into electrical energy and is of particular interest for systems of highest reliability or for waste heat recovery. In this work we examine the performance of commercially available TEC and TEG. A prototype TEC?refrigerator has been designed modeled and constructed for in?car applications. Additionally a TEG was made in order to measure the gained power and efficiency. Furthermore a TEG module was tested on a small size car (Toyota Starlet 1300 cc) in order to measure the gained power and efficiency for various engine loads. With the use of a modeling approach we evaluated the thermal contact resistances and their influence on the final device efficiency.

K. Zorbas; E. Hatzikraniotis; K. M. Paraskevopoulos; Th. Kyratsi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

DWPF RECYCLE EVAPORATOR FLOWSHEET EVALUATION (U)  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the high level waste slurries stored at the Savannah River Site into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. The vitrification process results in the generation of approximately five gallons of dilute recycle streams for each gallon of waste slurry vitrified. This dilute recycle stream is currently transferred to the H-area Tank Farm and amounts to approximately 1,400,000 gallons of effluent per year. Process changes to incorporate salt waste could increase the amount of effluent to approximately 2,900,000 gallons per year. The recycle consists of two major streams and four smaller streams. The first major recycle stream is condensate from the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), and is collected in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT). The second major recycle stream is the melter offgas which is collected in the Off Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT). The four smaller streams are the sample flushes, sump flushes, decon solution, and High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME) dissolution solution. These streams are collected in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) or the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). All recycle streams are currently combined in the RCT and treated with sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide prior to transfer to the tank farm. Tank Farm space limitations and previous outages in the 2H Evaporator system due to deposition of sodium alumino-silicates have led to evaluation of alternative methods of dealing with the DWPF recycle. One option identified for processing the recycle was a dedicated evaporator to concentrate the recycle stream to allow the solids to be recycled to the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the condensate from this evaporation process to be sent and treated in the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). In order to meet process objectives, the recycle stream must be concentrated to 1/30th of the feed volume during the evaporation process. The concentrated stream must be pumpable to the DWPF SRAT vessel and should not precipitate solids to avoid fouling the evaporator vessel and heat transfer coils. The evaporation process must not generate excessive foam and must have a high Decontamination Factor (DF) for many species in the evaporator feed to allow the condensate to be transferred to the ETP. An initial scoping study was completed in 2001 to evaluate the feasibility of the evaporator which concluded that the concentration objectives could be met. This initial study was based on initial estimates of recycle concentration and was based solely on OLI modeling of the evaporation process. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has completed additional studies using simulated recycle streams and OLI{reg_sign} simulations. Based on this work, the proposed flowsheet for the recycle evaporator was evaluated for feasibility, evaporator design considerations, and impact on the DWPF process. This work was in accordance with guidance from DWPF-E and was performed in accordance with the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan.

Stone, M

2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

355

Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

Felde, D.K.; McKoon, R.H.

1993-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

356

Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured temperature as low as 9~K. We have modeled the evaporation process for charged particles using appropriate rate equations. Good agreement between experiment and theory is observed, permitting prediction of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped ions and is of particular interest in antiproton physics, where a precise \\emph{CPT} test on trapped antihydrogen is a long-standing goal.

ALPHA Collaboration; G. B. Andresen; M. D. Ashkezari; M. Baquero-Ruiz; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; T. Friesen; M. C. Fujiwara; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; A. Humphries; R. Hydomako; S. Jonsell; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; S. Menary; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; D. M. Silveira; C. So; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; D. Wilding; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

357

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

358

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

359

Performance of unglazed solar ventilation air pre-heaters for broiler barns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar radiation is an interesting heat source for applications requiring a limited amount of energy, such as pre-heating cold fresh air used in venting livestock barns. The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy recovery efficiency of a solar air pre-heater consisting of an unglazed perforated black corrugated siding where the incoming fresh ventilation air picks up heat from its face and back. Installed on the southeast wall of two broiler barns located 40km east of Montreal, Canada, the performance of solar air pre-heaters was monitored over 2years. Sensors inside the barns monitored the temperature of the ambient air, that pre-heated by the solar collector and that exhausted by one of the three operating fans. An on-site weather station measured ambient air temperature, wind direction and velocity and radiation energy absorbed on a vertical plane parallel to the unglazed solar air pre-heaters. The measured vertical solar radiation value was used to evaluate the heat recovery efficiency of the unglazed solar air pre-heaters. Using data from the Varennes Environment Canada weather station located 30km northwest, the solar sensors were found to measure the absorbed solar radiation with a maximum error of 7%, including differences in exterior air moisture. Unglazed, the efficiency of the solar air pre-heaters reached 65% for wind velocities under 2m/s, but dropped below 25% for wind velocities exceeding 7m/s. Nevertheless, the unglazed solar air pre-heaters were able to reduce the heating load especially in March of both years. Over a period starting in November and ending in March, the solar air heaters recovered an energy value equivalent to an annual return on investment of 4.7%.

Sbastien Cordeau; Suzelle Barrington

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Helium Refrigerator Liquid Nitrogen Pre-Cooler Component Parameter Sensitivity Analysis  

SciTech Connect

For helium refrigerators using liquid nitrogen (LN) pre-cooling it is not uncommon for the ambient helium refrigeration return stream(s) exiting the cold box to be significantly colder and for the cycle to use more nitrogen than estimated by the process studies. Often there is an emphasis on the length of 300 to 80-K helium-nitrogen heat exchangers to ensure the exiting nitrogen is as close to ambient as possible. However, it is really the size and flow distribution of the 300 to 80-K helium-helium heat exchangers which are the dominate influence of the nitrogen consumption. As such, an analysis was done to identify and quantify the sensitivity the key parameters in the refrigerator LN pre-cooler section affecting the LN consumption.

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz Data with Asymmetric Beams and Cooler Noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Planck satellite will observe the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of four realistic instrument systematics in the 30 GHz frequency maps: non-axially-symmetric beams, sample integration, sorption cooler noise, and pointing errors. We simulated one year long observations of four 30 GHz detectors. The simulated timestreams contained CMB, foreground components (both galactic and extra-galactic), instrument noise (correlated and white), and the four instrument systematic effects. We made maps from the timelines and examined the magnitudes of the systematics effects in the maps and their angular power spectra. We also compared the maps of different mapmaking codes to see how they performed. We used five mapmaking codes (two destripers and three optimal codes). None of our mapmaking codes makes an attempt to deconvolve the beam from its output map. Therefore all our maps had similar smoothing due to beams and sample integration. Temperature to polarization cross-coupling due to beam mismatch causes a detectable bias in the TE spectrum of the CMB map. The effects of cooler noise and pointing errors did not appear to be major concerns for the 30 GHz channel. The only essential difference found so far between mapmaking codes that affects accuracy (in terms of residual RMS) is baseline length. All optimal codes give essentially indistinguishable results. A destriper gives the same result as the optimal codes when the baseline is set short enough. For longer baselines destripers require less computing resources but deliver a noisier map.

M. A. J. Ashdown; C. Baccigalupi; J. G. Bartlett; J. Borrill; C. Cantalupo; G. de Gasperis; G. de Troia; K. M. Gorski; E. Hivon; K. Huffenberger; E. Keihanen; R. Keskitalo; T. Kisner; H. Kurki-Suonio; C. R. Lawrence; P. Natoli; T. Poutanen; G. Prezeau; M. Reinecke; G. Rocha; M. Sandri; R. Stompor; F. Villa; B. Wandelt

2009-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

362

Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz Data with Asymmetric Beams and Cooler Noise  

SciTech Connect

The Planck satellite will observe the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. Temperature and polarization frequency maps made from these observations are prime deliverables of the Planck mission. The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of four realistic instrument systematics in the 30 GHz frequency maps: non-axially-symmetric beams, sample integration, sorption cooler noise, and pointing errors. They simulated one year long observations of four 30 GHz detectors. The simulated timestreams contained CMB, foreground component (both galactic and extra-galactic), instrument nolise (correlated and white), and the four instrument systematic effects. They made maps from the timelines and examined the magnitudes of the systematics effects in the maps and their angular power spectra. They also compared the maps of different mapmaking codes to see how they performed. They used five mapmaking codes (two destripers and three optimal codes). None of their mapmaking codes makes an attempt to deconvolve the beam from its output map. Therefore all our maps had similar smoothing due to beams and sample integration. This is a complicated smoothing, because every map pixel has its own effective beam. Temperature to polarization cross-coupling due to beam mismatch causes a detectable bias in the TE spectrum of the CMB map. The effects of cooler noise and pointing errors did not appear to be major concerns for the 30 GHz channel. The only essential difference found so far between mapmaking codes that affects accuracy (in terms of residual RMS) is baseline length. All optimal codes give essentially indistiguishable results. A destriper gives the same result as the optimal codes when the baseline is set short enough (Madam). For longer baselines destripers (Springtide and Madam) require less computing resources but deliver a noisier map.

The Planck CTP Working Group; Ashdown, M.A.J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bartlett, J.G.; Borrill, J.; Cantalupo, C.; de Gasperis, G.; Gorski, K.M.; Hivon, E.; Huffenberger, K.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Hurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C.R.; Natoli, P.; Poutanen, T.; Prezeau, G.; Reinecke, M.; Rocha, G.; Sandri, M.; Stompor, R..; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B.; de Troia, G.

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

363

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

California at Davis, University of

364

Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study  

SciTech Connect

Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

Adu-Wusu, K.

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

365

An AlGaAsGaAs quantum cascade laser operating with a thermoelectric cooler for spectroscopy of NH3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

out using a compact thermo-electrically cooled laser package. The QCL described here is designedAn AlGaAs­GaAs quantum cascade laser operating with a thermoelectric cooler for spectroscopy of NH3. Langford b a Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Rankine Building, University of Glasgow

366

Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol...

Bachman, L. R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters February 17, 2009 - 9:48am Addthis Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory If you've gone shopping for new appliances sometime in the last decade, then you're probably familiar with the ENERGY STAR® label. ENERGY STAR is a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that sets higher-than-average standards for household appliances, electronics, and commercial products. Products that meet these rigorous energy requirements can be designated as ENERGY STAR products. For the average consumer, it basically means that ENERGY STAR products are more energy efficient than their standard counterparts, and therefore will

368

City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State California Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider City of San Jose Building, Planning and Electrical Permits are required for Photovoltiac (PV) systems installed in San Jose. In most cases, PV systems must also undergo a Building Plan Review and an Electrical Plan Review. Building Plan Reviews are not required for installations that meet all of the following criteria: 1. Total panel weight (including frame) is not greater than 5 lbs. per

369

Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters: Initial Findings of Draw Profile Effect on HPWH Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluation Overview  2000-2002 Evaluated 20 installations with CL&P  Product had problems; not ready for prime time (average COPs of 1.67 was not the problem)  New batch of heaters available, including:  GE's GeoSpring Hybrid (50 gal)  A.O.Smith's Voltex Hybrid (60 & 80 gal)  Stiebel-Eltron's Accelera 300 (80 gal)  Evaluating 14 installations for National Grid, NSTAR, & Cape Light Compact. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.

370

Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the US Jeff Maguire 4/30/13 Outline * Why HPWHs? * US Water Heating Market * Overview of HPWHs * Model Description * Results o HPWH Performance o Energy Savings Potential o Breakeven Cost 2 Heat Pump Water Heaters Save $300 a year over standard electric? Save $100 a year over standard gas? Heat Pump Electric Gas 3 Questions about HPWHs * Are HPWHs a good replacement for typical gas and electric storage water heaters? o In different locations across the country? o In conditioned/unconditioned space? o Source energy savings?

371

Development status of coal-fired gas heaters for Brayton-cycle cogeneration systems  

SciTech Connect

Under contract from the Department of Energy, Rocketdyne is developing the technology of coal-fired gas heaters for utilization in Brayton-cycle cogeneration systems. The program encompasses both atmospheric fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustion systems; and it is directed toward the development of gas heater systems capable of delivering high pressure air or helium at 1550 F, when employing metallic heat exchangers, and 1750 F, when employing ceramic heat exchangers. This paper reports on the development status of the program, with discussions of the completed ''screening'' corrosion/erosion tests of candidate heat exchanger materials, a description and summary of the operating experience with the 6- by 6-foot AFB test facility and a projection of the potential for relatively near term commercialization of such heater systems.

Gunn, S.V.; McCarthy, J.R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Refractory oxides for high?temperature coal?fired MHD air heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a coal?burning MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) power plant the use of a regenerative air heater is one option for producing the required high plasma temperatures. However thermal mechanical and chemical stresses which the MHD environment places on materials are enormous and candidate materials must be carefully tested. We report on the results of such testing for a variety of materials studied in heater test facilities at both FluiDyne Engineering Corporation and at Montana State University. We describe the experimental program and test facilities for MHD heater development the rationale for the choice of materials and their performance (success or failure) under various envirnoments (slagging and nonslagging). Future materials needs are discussed in light of the observed effects.

Richard J. Pollina; Ronald R. Smyth

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Development of Industrially Produced Composite Quench Heaters for the LHC Superconducting Lattice Magnets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quench heaters are vital elements for the protection of the LHC superconducting lattice magnets in the case of resistive transitions of the conductor. The basic concept of magnet protection and technical solutions are briefly presented. The quench heater consists of partially copper clad stainless steel strips sandwiched in between electric insulating carrier foils with electrical and mechanical properties such as to withstand high voltages, low temperatures, pressures and ionizing radiation. Testing of some commercial available electric insulation foils, polyimide (PI), polyetheretherketon (PEEK) and polyarylate (PA) and combinations of adhesive systems which are suitable for industrial processing are described. Possible industrial methods for series production for some 80km of these composite quench heaters are indicated.

Szeless, Balzs; Calvone, F

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Conservation Division regiulations for appliance-efficiency standards relating to refrigerators and freezers, room air conditioners, central air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances  

SciTech Connect

The text of the appliance efficiency standards for certain types of new appliances sold in California is presented. Specifications and test methods to identify complying refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances are covered.

Not Available

1981-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

375

Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries A Saleh1 and MA Al-Nimr2 1 Abstract: The present study proposes an evaporative refrigerating system used to keep water or other are found to be consistent with the available literature data. Keywords: evaporative refrigeration, heat

376

City-level energy and CO2 reduction effect by introducing new residential water heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation models for a variety of new water heater systems were developed and the models were integrated into a city-level residential energy end-use model for Osaka City. Using the model, the potential of energy conservation and CO2 emission-reduction by introducing new residential water heaters was evaluated at the city-level. Optimal water-heating systems for each household category for primary energy reduction, CO2 emission-reduction, or cost reduction were identified by applying the end-use demand model. The effect of subsidies for installing more efficient systems and the influence of diffusion of these systems on electricity load curves were also discussed.

Yoshiyuki Shimoda; Tomo Okamura; Yohei Yamaguchi; Yukio Yamaguchi; Ayako Taniguchi; Takao Morikawa

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Can photo-evaporation trigger planetesimal formation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose that UV radiation can stimulate the formation of planetesimals in externally-illuminated protoplanetary disks. We present a numerical model of disk evolution including vertical sedimentation and photo-evaporation by an external O or B star. As solid material grows and settles toward the disk midplane, the outer layers of the disk become dust depleted. When such a disk is exposed to UV radiation, heating drives photo-evaporative mass-loss from its surface, generating a dust-depleted outflow. The dust:gas surface density ratio in the disk interior grows until dust in the disk midplane becomes gravitationally unstable. Thus, UV radiation fields may induce the rapid formation of planetesimals in disks where sedimentation has occurred.

Henry B. Throop; John Bally

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

378

CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN AN M1.8 FLARE OBSERVED BY THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE  

SciTech Connect

We discuss observations of chromospheric evaporation for a complex flare that occurred on 2012 March 9 near 03:30 UT obtained from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode spacecraft. This was a multiple event with a strong energy input that reached the M1.8 class when observed by EIS. EIS was in raster mode and fortunately the slit was almost at the exact location of a significant energy input. Also, EIS obtained a full-CCD spectrum of the flare, i.e., the entire CCD was readout so that data were obtained for about the 500 lines identified in the EIS wavelength ranges. Chromospheric evaporation characterized by 150-200 km s{sup -1} upflows was observed in multiple locations in multi-million degree spectral lines of flare ions such as Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV, with simultaneous 20-60 km s{sup -1} upflows in million degree coronal lines from ions such as Fe XII-Fe XVI. The behavior of cooler, transition region ions such as O VI, Fe VIII, He II, and Fe X is more complex, but upflows were also observed in Fe VIII and Fe X lines. At a point close to strong energy input in space and time, the flare ions Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV reveal an isothermal source with a temperature close to 14 MK and no strong blueshifted components. At this location there is a strong downflow in cooler active region lines from ions such as Fe XIII and Fe XIV, on the order of 200 km s{sup -1}. We speculate that this downflow may be evidence of the downward shock produced by reconnection in the current sheet seen in MHD simulations. A sunquake also occurred near this location. Electron densities were obtained from density sensitive lines ratios from Fe XIII and Fe XIV. Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used with JHelioviewer to obtain a qualitative overview of the flare. However, AIA data are not presented in this paper. In summary, spectroscopic data from EIS are presented that can be used for predictive tests of models of chromospheric evaporation as envisaged in the Standard Flare Model.

Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Young, P. R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)] [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

379

Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges: (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Kugel, H. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Bell, M. G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Allain, J. P. [Purdue University; Gates, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kallman, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaye, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Menard, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ono, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Paul, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle; Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ross, P. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Schneider, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Stevenson, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Timberlake, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Wampler, W. R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Zakharov, L. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: 1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; 2) suppression of ELMs; 3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; 4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; 5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; 6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; 7) reduced SOL plasma density; and 8) reduced edge neutral density.

Kugel, H. W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Bel, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Allain, J. P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.

2009-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Nuclear evaporation process with simultaneous multiparticle emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nuclear evaporation process is reformulated by taking into account simultaneous multiparticle emission from a hot compound nucleus appearing as an intermediate state in many nuclear reaction mechanisms. The simultaneous emission of many particles is particularly relevant for high excitation energy of the compound nucleus.These channels are effectively open in competition with the single particle emissions and fission in this energy regime. Indeed, the inclusion of these channels along the decay evaporating chain shows that the yield of charged particles and occurrence of fission are affected by these multiparticle emission processes of the compounded nucleus, when compared to the single sequential emission results. The effect also shows a qualitative change in the neutron multiplicity of different heavy compound nucleus considered. This should be an important aspect for the study of spallation reaction in Acceleration Driven System (ADS) reactors. The majority of neutrons generated in these reactions come from the evaporation stage of the reaction, the source of neutron for the system. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine the effect of these channels on the particle yield and fission process. The relevance of the simultaneous particle emission with the increasing of excitation energy of the compound nucleus is explicitly shown.

Leonardo P. G. De Assis; Sergio B. Duarte; Bianca M. Santos

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

382

Evaporated lithium surface coatings in NSTX.  

SciTech Connect

Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density.

Zakharov, L. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gates, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Menard, J. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Maingi, R. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Schneider, H. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Mueller, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Wampler, William R.; Roquemore, A. L. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kallman, Jeffrey K. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Sabbagh, S. (Columbia University, New York, NY); LeBlanc, B. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Raman, R. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Ono, M. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Wilgren, J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Allain, J.P. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Timberlake, J. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Stevenson, T. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Ross, P. W. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Majeski, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kugel, Henry W. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Skinner, C. H. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gerhardt, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Paul, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Bell, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kaye, S. M. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kaita, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Soukhanovskii, V. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Bell, Michael G. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Mansfield, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ)

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

DETERMINATION OF IN-SITU THERMAL PROPERTIES OF STRIPA GRANITE FROM TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN THE FULL-SCALE HEATER EXPERIMENTS: METHOD AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

observed temperatures for the Lulea University pilot heaterPower room '--_I, I\\'~ \\,1 Lulea drift I I I I I I I I Ithe temperature data from the LUlea University pilot heater

Jeffry, J.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Optical runaway evaporation for multi-BEC production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on parallel production of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in steerable, multi-plexed crossed optical dipole traps. Using a trap-weakening evaporation scheme, where the optical trapping power is lowered, we obtain an array of up to four independent similarly sized BECs. In the weakening scheme the elastic collision rate decreases with time, leading to inefficient evaporation. As an efficient alternative, we demonstrate an all-optical evaporation scheme, where a ghost tweezer beam near a trapping site establishes an escape route for hot atoms, without compromising trap stiffness. The ghost beam scheme leads to runaway evaporation and is particularly suited for simultaneous evaporative cooling at multiple trap sites.

Deb, Amita; Kjrgaard, Niels

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

ISSUANCE 2014-12-23: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule

386

Unified theory for inhomogeneous thermoelectric generators and coolers including multistage devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel generalized Lagrange multiplier method for functional optimization with inclusion of subsidiary conditions is presented and applied to the optimization of material distributions in thermoelectric converters. Multistaged devices are considered within the same formalism by inclusion of position-dependent electric current in the legs leading to a modified thermoelectric equation. Previous analytical solutions for maximized efficiencies for generators and coolers obtained by Sherman [J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1 (1960)], Snyder [Phys. Rev. B 86, 045202 (2012)], and Seifert et al. [Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 760 (2010)] by a method of local optimization of reduced efficiencies are recovered by independent proof. The outstanding maximization problems for generated electric power and cooling power can be solved swiftly numerically by solution of a differential equation-system obtained within the new formalism. As far as suitable materials are available, the inhomogeneous TE converters can have increased performance by use of purely temperature-dependent material properties in the thermoelectric legs or by use of purely spatial variation of material properties or by a combination of both. It turns out that the optimization domain is larger for the second kind of device which can, thus, outperform the first kind of device.

York Christian Gerstenmaier and Gerhard Wachutka

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

387

Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercElctrcEngineHeaters | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPElectrtyUsePercElctrcEngineHeaters SPElectrtyUsePercElctrcEngineHeaters Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Electric engine heaters Pages using the property "Building/SPElectrtyUsePercElctrcEngineHeaters" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 3.74913558105 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.625045331062 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 2.19814987082 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 +

388

Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2ElctrcEngineHeaters | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ElctrcEngineHeaters ElctrcEngineHeaters Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Electric engine heaters Pages using the property "Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2ElctrcEngineHeaters" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 2.44788473329 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.353408923575 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.835160644485 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 +

389

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

390

An Energy-Efficient Self-Regulating Heater for Flow-Through Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Except for the bifilar wire (two strands separately insulated, as in household two-conductor cable, except in miniature, the fabrication of the other heaters is the same. ... The heated reactor was wrapped in foam sheets for insulation and put inside a 25-mm-thick plastic box. ...

Purnendu K. Dasgupta; Ellis L. Loree; Jianzhong Li; Zhang Genfa

2003-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

391

Efficient generation of extended plasma waveguides with the axicon ignitor-heater scheme  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The plasma col- umn was produced by using an axicon to focus a long laser pulse into a line focusEfficient generation of extended plasma waveguides with the axicon ignitor-heater scheme Y.-F. Xiao for generating extended plasma waveguides is developed by using the axicon lens in conjunction with the ignitor

392

NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES  

SciTech Connect

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82?ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.

Blume, Ingo (Hengelq, NL); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Eliminating air heater plugging and corrosion caused by SCR/SNCR systems for NOx control on coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

In a typical coal-fired power plant the rotary regenerative air heater is responsible for 5-10% of the boiler's total efficiency. The three biggest threats to air heater performance deterioration are corrosion of the heat exchange surfaces, plugging, and air heater leakage through the seals. The article concentrates on the vastly increased level of corrosion and plugging issues associated with installing selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems for controlling nitrogen oxide emissions. Some injected ammonia in the SCR process reacts with SO{sub 2} to form ammonium sulphate and bisulphate (ABS) which is deposited on the air heater element surfaces. This can be overcome by applying coatings, using corrosion-resistant steels, reconfiguring the air heaters to a two layer design, improving air heater blowers, improving technologies for removing ammonia 'slip' before it enters the air heater, and using new catalysts that reduce the oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. 4 figs.

Guffre, J. [Paragon Airheater Technologies (United States)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

A cold model experimental study on the flow characteristics of bed material in a fluidized bed bottom ash cooler in a CFB boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cold model experimental study on the flowing characteristics of bed material between a fluidized bed ash cooler and a furnace of CFB boiler were discussed in this paper. The research results showed that flowing...

Xiaofeng Lu; Yourong Li

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Cooler-less and heat-sink free 980nm pump laser diode module wavelength-stabilized from -40 to 100 C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cooler-less 200mW kink free 980nm LD module was developed. Center wavelength was locked and unnecessary modes were suppressed from -40 to 100 deg. C. under low heat dissipation...

Irie, Yuichiro; Koseki, Takashi; Minamino, Masayuki; Miyokawa, Jun; Nishikata, Kevin; Koiso, Takeshi; Yamagata, Yuji; Ikegami, Yoshikazu

397

Evaporation of Water from Particles in the Aerodynamic Lens Inlet...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Water from Particles in the Aerodynamic Lens Inlet: An Experimental Study. Evaporation of Water from Particles in the Aerodynamic Lens Inlet: An Experimental Study. Abstract:...

398

"Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative Cooling" Inventors..--.. Lewis Meixler, Charles Gentile, Patricia Hillyer, Dylan Carpe, Jason Wang, Caroline Brooks...

399

Studies on the Ecological Impact of Evaporation Retardation Monolayers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TR-6 1966 Studies on the Ecological Impact of Evaporation Retardation Monolayers B.G. Wixson Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

Wixson, B.G.

400

Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Radiation Tolerant Programmable Power Supply for the LHC Beam Screen Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the next LHC run, it is required to install 200W of heating capacity per LHC beam screen heater to regenerate the beam screen by desorption of gas trapped on its walls. In the LHC, there are 272 beam screen heaters and the associated electronics limit presently the heating capacity to 25W. Those electronics are, for the most part, installed inside the LHC tunnel and exposed to its radiation environment. This paper describes the development of a new programmable power supply card that will be integrated into the existing LHC radiation tolerant electronic infrastructure used by the cryogenic system. Radiation tests were undertaken to qualify a power switch capable of coping with the 230Vrms grid voltage and an analog signal multiplexer; these components are required respectively for satisfying the higher power requirements and for reducing the overall cost by using a single analog to digital converter to sample all the signals.

Casas, J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

MHD air heater technology development. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress on the technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described in detail. The objective of task 1 is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The objectives of task 2 are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of task 3 are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)

None

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Experimental study of a thermosyphon solar water heater coupled to a fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) storage tank  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal performance of the thermosyphon solar water heater was analyzed to show its ... %. Also, an analysis of the temperature storage characteristics of a novel fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) storage tank w...

P. N. Nwosu; O. U. Oparaku; W. I. Okonkwo; G. O. Unachukwu

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Thermal calculation of combined transpiration-liquid cooling of discharge-chamber walls of an electric-arc heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The article presents a theoretical calculation of the temperature profiles and optimal thicknesses of porous and solid cooled walls, which provide a steady-state operation of an electric-arc heater with transpira...

G. L. Dobroedov; V. I. Krylovich

1970-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Not Available

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Microcantilever heater-thermometer with integrated temperature-compensated strain sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides microcantilever hotplate devices which incorporate temperature compensating strain sensors. The microcantilever hotplate devices of the present invention comprise microcantilevers having temperature compensating strain sensors and resistive heaters. The present invention also provides methods for using a microcantilever hotplate for temperature compensated surface stress measurements, chemical/biochemical sensing, measuring various properties of compounds adhered to the microcantilever hotplate surface, or for temperature compensated deflection measurements.

King, William P. (Champaign, IL); Lee, Jungchul (Champaign, IL); Goericke, Fabian T. (Wolfsburg, DE)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

408

Evaluation of TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim Title Evaluation of TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5092E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Lutz, James D. Document Number LBNL-5092E Pagination 11 Date Published December 22 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley ISBN Number LBNL-5092E Abstract This report evaluates the hot water temperatures and flow rates as calculated by the combined HWSim and TANK simulation models. Notes This work was sponsored by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) which is funded by the California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, under Residential Water Heating Program Contract No. 500-08-060. This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State, and Community Programs, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

409

Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters  

SciTech Connect

Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing dirty fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

411

Evaporative Hydrochloric Acid Recovery: Something Old, Something New...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. If zinc is present from the pickling of galvanizing racks or stripping of parts, the zinc concentration will range from as low as zinc chloride solution remains. In the evaporative process of the Hydrochloric Acid Recovery System, the waste acid is pumped through a pre-filter into the evaporator section oftI1e recovery system. This solution is heated by means...

Cullivan, B.

412

Modeling Coupled Evaporation and Seepage in Ventilated Cavities  

SciTech Connect

Cavities excavated in unsaturated geological formations are important to activities such as nuclear waste disposal and mining. Such cavities provide a unique setting for simultaneous occurrence of seepage and evaporation. Previously, inverse numerical modeling of field liquid-release tests and associated seepage into cavities were used to provide seepage-related large-scale formation properties by ignoring the impact of evaporation. The applicability of such models was limited to the narrow range of ventilation conditions under which the models were calibrated. The objective of this study was to alleviate this limitation by incorporating evaporation into the seepage models. We modeled evaporation as an isothermal vapor diffusion process. The semi-physical model accounts for the relative humidity, temperature, and ventilation conditions of the cavities. The evaporation boundary layer thickness (BLT) over which diffusion occurs was estimated by calibration against free-water evaporation data collected inside the experimental cavities. The estimated values of BLT were 5 to 7 mm for the open underground drifts and 20 mm for niches closed off by bulkheads. Compared to previous models that neglected the effect of evaporation, this new approach showed significant improvement in capturing seepage fluctuations into open cavities of low relative humidity. At high relative-humidity values (greater than 85%), the effect of evaporation on seepage was very small.

T. Ghezzehei; R. Trautz; S. Finsterle; P. Cook; C. Ahlers

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Forward-backward emission of target evaporated evaporated fragments at high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The multiplicity distribution, multiplicity moment, scaled variance, entropy and reduced entropy of target evaporated fragment emitted in forward and backward hemispheres in 12 A GeV $^{4}$He, 3.7 A GeV $^{16}$O, 60 A GeV $^{16}$O, 1.7 A GeV $^{84}$Kr and 10.7 A GeV $^{197}$Au induced emulsion heavy targets (AgBr) interactions are investigated. It is found that the multiplicity distribution of target evaporated fragments emitted in forward and backward hemispheres can be fitted by a Gaussian distribution. The multiplicity moments of target evaporated particles emitted in forward and backward hemispheres increase with the order of the moment {\\em q}, and second-order multiplicity moment is energy independent over the entire energy for all the interactions in the forward and backward hemisphere respectively. The scaled variance, a direct measure of multiplicity fluctuations, is close to one for all the interactions which may be said that there is a feeble correlation among the produced particles. The entropy of...

Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Dong-Hai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Effect of cooler electrons on a compressive ion acoustic solitary wave in a warm ion plasma Forbidden regions, double layers, and supersolitons  

SciTech Connect

It is observed that the presence of a minority component of cooler electrons in a three component plasma plays a deterministic role in the evolution of solitary waves, double layers, or the newly discovered structures called supersolitons. The inclusion of the cooler component of electrons in a single electron plasma produces sharp increase in nonlinearity in spite of a decrease in the overall energy of the system. The effect maximizes at certain critical value of the number density of the cooler component (typically 15%20%) giving rise to a hump in the amplitude variation profile. For larger amplitudes, the hump leads to a forbidden region in the ambient cooler electron concentration which dissociates the overall existence domain of solitary wave solutions in two distinct parameter regime. It is observed that an inclusion of the cooler component of electrons as low as < 1% affects the plasma system significantly resulting in compressive double layers. The solution is further affected by the cold to hot electron temperature ratio. In an adequately hotter bulk plasma (i.e., moderately low cold to hot electron temperature ratio), the parameter domain of compressive double layers is bounded by a sharp discontinuity in the corresponding amplitude variation profile which may lead to supersolitons.

Ghosh, S. S., E-mail: sukti@iigs.iigm.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410218 (India); Sekar Iyengar, A. N. [Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for the Circulator Cooler Ring in the Proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider  

SciTech Connect

The current electron cooler design for the proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab utilizes a circulator ring for reuse of the cooling electron bunch up to 100 times to cool the ion beams. This cooler requires a fast kicker system for injecting and extracting individual bunches in the circulator ring. Such a kicker must work at a high repetition rate, up to 7.5 to 75 MHz depending on the number of turns in the recirculator ring. It also must have a very short rise and fall time (of order of 1 ns) such that it will kick an individual bunch without disturbing the others in the ring. Both requirements are orders of magnitude beyond the present state-of-the-art as well as the goals of other on-going kicker R&D programs such as that for the ILC damping rings. In this paper we report a scheme of creating this fast, high repetition rate kicker by combining RF waveforms at multiple frequencies to create a kicker waveform that will, for example, kick every eleventh bunch while leaving the other ten unperturbed. We also present a possible implementation of this scheme as well as discuss its limitations.

Nissen, Edward W.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Kimber, Andrew J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Spent-fuel pool thermal hydraulics: The evaporation question  

SciTech Connect

Many nuclear power plants are currently using dense fuel arrangements that increase the number of spent fuel elements stored in their spent-fuel pools (SFPs). The denser spent-fuel storage results in higher water temperatures, especially when certain event scenarios are analyzed. In some of these event scenarios, it is conservative to maximize the evaporation rate, while in other circumstances it is required to minimize the evaporation rates for conservatism. Evaporation is such a fundamental phenomenon that many branches of engineering developed various equations based on theory and experiments. The evaporation rates predicted by existing equations present a wide range of variation, especially at water temperatures >40{degrees}C. Furthermore, a study on which equations provide the highest and lowest evaporation rates has not been done until now. This study explores the sensitivity of existing evaporation equations to various parameters and recommends the limiting evaporation equations for use in the solution of SFP thermal problems. Note that the results of this study may be applicable to a much wider range of applications from irrigation ponds, cooling lakes, and liquid-waste management to calculating adequate air exchange rate for swimming pools and health spas.

Yilmaz, T.P. [Belcan Services, Lombard, IL (United States); Lai, J.C. [Public Service Electric & Gas Co., Berwick, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort  

SciTech Connect

Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

418

Microsoft Word - ASHRAE_Water Heater Paper_2010-11-24_Final_LBNL_.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers Presented at: 2011 ASHRAE Winter Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada January 2011 Alex B. Lekov, Victor H. Franco, Steve Meyers, Lisa Thompson, and Virginie Letschert Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division One Cyclotron Road Berkeley, CA 94720 This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State, and Community Programs, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY 2 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States

419

Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future  

SciTech Connect

The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. Radiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing furnaces, Petroleum cracking/ refining furnaces, Metal Casting/Heat Treating in atmosphere and fluidized bed furnaces, Glass lair annealing furnaces, Forest Products infrared paper driers, Chemical heat exchangers and immersion heaters, and the indirect grain driers in the Agriculture Industry. Several common needs among the industries are evident: (1) Energy Reductions, (2) Productivity Improvements, (3) Zero Emissions, and (4) Increased Component Life. The Category I award entitled Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) doubling the heat transfer rates (2) improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) improving temperature uniformity by 100oF (38 oC) and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH addresses EEREs primary mission of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. The primary goal of this project was to design, manufacture and test a commercial APH prototype by integrating three components: (1) Helical Heat Exchanger, (2) Shared Wall Radiant U-tube, and (3) Helical Flame Stabilization Element. To accomplish the above, a near net shape powder ceramic Si-SiC low-cost forming process was used to manufacture the components. The project defined the methods for making an Advanced Process Heater that produced an efficiency between 70% to 80% with temperature uniformities of less than 5oF/ft (9oC/m). Three spin-off products resulted from this project: (1) a low-cost, high-temperature heat exchanger, (2) a new radiant heat transfer system, and (3) a hybrid or integral advanced process heater that incorporates a high surface area ceramic heat exchanger and burner combined with either a metallic or ceramic radiant tube and heat transfer elements.

Thomas D. Briselden

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

2014-06-27 Issuance: Test Procedures for Residential and Commercial Water Heaters; Final Rule  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential and commercial water heaters, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on June 27, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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421

Control Strategy for Domestic Water Heaters during Peak Periods and its Impact on the Demand for Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because they store hot water, water heaters are easily-shifted loads that can be controlled to reduce peak demands. However, load shifting may have some detrimental consequences on the domestic hot water supply temperature if the heating element is deactivated for a long period of time. Furthermore, a new peak may be caused if a significant number of heaters are reactivated at the same time. This study presents a control strategy for water heaters that minimizes the pick-up demand when the heating elements are reactivated at the end of a load shifting period and that ensures, in all cases, the client's hot water supply. The study is based on a simulation model of a water heater that was experimentally validated and takes into account the diversity of the population's hot water withdrawal profile. More specifically, the data of 8,167 real water withdrawal profiles of several clients were input into the simulation model in order to evaluate the performance of water heaters under different operating conditions.

Alain Moreau

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components ofTankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine if it was feasible to collect information regarding energy use and hot water delivery from tankless gas water heaters using the sensors and controls built into the water heaters. This could then be used to determine the water heater efficiency ? the ratio of energy out (hot water delivered) to energy in (energy in the gas) in actual residential installations. The goal was to be as unobtrusive as possible, and to avoid invalidating warranties or exposing researchers to liability issues. If feasible this approach would reduce the costs of instrumentation.This paper describes the limited field and laboratory investigations to determine if using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters is feasible for field monitoring.It was more complicated to use the existing gas flow, water and temperature sensors than was anticipated. To get the signals from the existing sensors and controls is difficult and may involve making changes that would invalidate manufacturer warrantees. The procedures and methods for using signals from the existing gas valves, water flow meters and temperature sensors will vary by model. To be able to monitor different models and brands would require detailed information about each model and brand.Based on these findings, we believe that for field monitoring projects it would be easier, quicker and safer to connect external meters to measure the same parameters rather than using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters.

Lutz, Jim; Biermayer, Peter

2008-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

423

Black Hole Evaporation in an Expanding Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the quantum radiation power of black holes which are asymptotic to the Einstein-de Sitter universe at spatial and null infinities. We consider two limiting mass accretion scenarios, no accretion and significant accretion. We find that the radiation power strongly depends on not only the asymptotic condition but also the mass accretion scenario. For the no accretion case, we consider the Einstein-Straus solution, where a black hole of constant mass resides in the dust Friedmann universe. We find negative cosmological correction besides the expected redshift factor. This is given in terms of the cubic root of ratio in size of the black hole to the cosmological horizon, so that it is currently of order $10^{-5} (M/10^{6}M_{\\odot})^{1/3} (t/14 {Gyr})^{-1/3}$ but could have been significant at the formation epoch of primordial black holes. Due to the cosmological effects, this black hole has not settled down to an equilibrium state. This cosmological correction may be interpreted in an analogy with the radiation from a moving mirror in a flat spacetime. For the significant accretion case, we consider the Sultana-Dyer solution, where a black hole tends to increase its mass in proportion to the cosmological scale factor. In this model, we find that the radiation power is apparently the same as the Hawking radiation from the Schwarzschild black hole of which mass is that of the growing mass at each moment. Hence, the energy loss rate decreases and tends to vanish as time proceeds. Consequently, the energy loss due to evaporation is insignificant compared to huge mass accretion onto the black hole. Based on this model, we propose a definition of quasi-equilibrium temperature for general conformal stationary black holes.

Hiromi Saida; Tomohiro Harada; Hideki Maeda

2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

424

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Swenson Evaporator Co - IL 23  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Swenson Evaporator Co - IL 23 Swenson Evaporator Co - IL 23 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: SWENSON EVAPORATOR CO. (IL.23 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Harvey , Illinois IL.23-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 IL.23-1 Site Operations: Scheduled a raffinate spray drying test that was later cancelled. IL.23-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication that radioactive materials were handled at this site IL.23-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: None Indicated Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: None Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated Site Status: Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Also see Documents Related to SWENSON EVAPORATOR CO. IL.23-1 - Memorandum/Checklist; D.Levine to the File; Subject:

425

Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaporative cooling potential for building in various climatic zones in India is investigated. Maintainable indoor conditions are obtained from the load - capacity analysis for the prevailing ambient conditions. For the assumed activity level...

Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the Energy Crisis Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retro-fit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

427

Superhydrophobic coated apparatus for liquid purification by evaporative condensation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a first vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The first vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus simplifying maintenance of the apparatus.

Simpson, John T; McNeany, Steve R; Dinsmore, Thomas V; Hunter, Scott R; Ivanov, Ilia N

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

428

Thermodynamics and evaporation of the noncommutative black hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the thermodynamics of the noncommutative black hole whose static picture is similar to that of the nonsingular black hole known as the de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. It turns out that the final remnant of extremal black hole is a thermodynamically stable object. We describe the evaporation process of this black hole by using the noncommutativity-corrected Vaidya metric. It is found that there exists a close relationship between thermodynamic approach and evaporation process.

Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

2006-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

429

Rates of evaporation from swimming pools in active use  

SciTech Connect

The rates of water evaporation from indoor and outdoor swimming pools in active use have been measured and compared with evaporation rates from unoccupied pools and with values calculated by the equation W = (95 + 0.425 v) (pw-pa)Y, where W is evaporation rate, lb/h ft{sup 2}; v is air velocity at water surface, ft/min.; pw is saturation vapor pressure at water temperature, in. Hg; pa is saturation vapor pressure at air dewpoint, in. Hg; and Y is latent heat at pool temperature, Btu/lb. In undisturbed pools, evaporation rates were measured and found to be 74% of the rates obtained by use of the equation. Rates of evaporation from pools in active use increase with the number of swimmers, rising 40--70% above the rates from a quiet water surface. Measurements of evaporation from a pool in use by 15--20 swimmers per 1,000 ft{sup 2} were found to average 26% higher than the rate calculated by the equation.

Smith, C.C.; Loef, G.O.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Solar Energy Applications Lab.; Jones, R.W. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a superheated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope  

SciTech Connect

There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

432

Feasibility of accompanying uncontrolled linear heater with solar system innatural gas pressure drop stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural gas (NG) must be preheated before pressure reduction takes places at City Gate Stations (CGS). Indirect Water Bath Gas Heaters are employed in the CGS for preheating. The heaters consume a considerable amount of NG for preheating. As low temperature is required, a solar system has been proposed to provide part of heat demand. The system consists of a collector array and a storage tank. The tank stores solar heat during the day and releases it during the night. To show the capabilities of the proposed system, the Akand CGS has been chosen as a case study. The results show that as the number of collector increases, the fuel cost decreases but the capital cost increases. An optimum number of collectors and the storage tank capacity have been found based on economic analysis. The fuel saving occurs throughout the year with the maximum at June. The economic feasibility study of the proposed system has been carried out using two methods. These methods are Simple Payback Ratio (SPR) and (Net Present Value) NPV. The first one unveils that the payback ratio is only 6.9 years. The NPV method shows that the system will give net benefit after 11 years.

M. Farzaneh-Gord; A. Arabkoohsar; M. Deymi Dasht-bayaz; V. Farzaneh-Kord

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model  

SciTech Connect

Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

434

Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Analysis of thermal properties of basalt from heater Test No. 2 experiment  

SciTech Connect

Rockwell Hanford Operations is conducting a series of full-scale in situ tests at the Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) near Richland, Washington as an integral part of the Basalt Waste isolation project. An objective of the Phase I tests, which include Main Heater Test No. 2, is to provide data for determination the material properties necessary for predicting the response of a repository system at depth. During the first 90 days Heater Test No. 2 represents the near-field response of a high-level waste canister which generates 1 kW of heat energy. The analysis of the thermal response of basalt from data collected during this initial heating period is described in this report. Values of thermal conductivity and heat capacity for basalt are determined using three methods referred to as type curve matching, Jacob's straight line method, and the Gauss-Newton parameter optimization method. Results indicate that the type curve and the Gauss-Newton methods give values which correspond relatively closely to those measured in the laboratory.

Huyakorn, P.; Williams, J.R.; Thomas, S. (GeoTrans, Inc., Reston, VA (USA); Applied Mechanics, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (USA); GeoTrans, Inc., Reston, VA (USA))

1981-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

436

Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with ultra low-NO{sub X} burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase with increasing fuel Wobbe number.

Rapp, VH; Singer, BC

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Dynamic Modeling and Simulation Study of Falling Film Evaporation and Condensation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Falling film evaporators and condensers have demonstrated a good performance in air-conditioning and refrigeration. A study of falling film evaporation and condensation models is presented in this document. Two different evaporator models and a condenser ... Keywords: Falling film, evaporator, condenser, horizontal tube bundle, heat pump, dryout, Modelica

Alberto de la Calle; Luis J. Yebra; Sebastin Dormido

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Control of the rate of evaporation in protein crystallization by the `microbatch under oil' method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A procedure is presented for controlling the rate of evaporation during `microbatch under oil' protein crystallization.

Brumshtein, B.

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

440

Thin Film Coolers for Localized Temperature Control in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits Yan Zhang. James Cliristofferson, Danoosh Vaslkiee. Phuong Nguyen. Ali Shakouri  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin Film Coolers for Localized Temperature Control in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits Yan Zhang-sensitive properties of optoelectronic are constraints for high frequency high power operation. and for high level, optoelectronic. transient, integration Introduction 1. Thermal Issue in Optoelectronic Devices The on

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

S0june 2007State of the Climate in 2006 | of Iran were up to 8C cooler than normal during  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S0june 2007State of the Climate in 2006 | of Iran were up to 8°C cooler than normal during December. Snow and cold weather penetrated north- ern Iran, with heavy rainfall in eastern and southern Iran, precipitation totals were normal to above normal in much of Iran during autumn 2006. (v) Significant weather

442

National Solar Water Heater Workshop Present at DOE Region V meeting for managers of State Energy Extension Service and State Energy Conservation Plan, March 18-19, 1981  

SciTech Connect

After a brief description of the National Solar Water Heater Workshop and some comments by users of the solar water heater, the hardware supplier handbook is presented. The performance expected of a hardware supplier is described, solar system components and their specifications are listed, and information is provided to assist the hardware supplier in obtaining necessary materials. (LEW)

Mumma, S.A.; Marinello, M.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U  

SciTech Connect

NSTX plasma performance has been significantly enhanced by lithium conditioning [1]. To date, the lower divertor and passive plates have been conditioned by downward facing lithium evaporators (LITER) as appropriate for lower null plasmas. The higher power operation expected from NSTX-U requires double null plasma operation in order to distribute the heat flux between the upper and lower divertors making it desirable to coat the upper divertor region with Li as well. An upward aiming LITER (U-LITER) is presently under development and will be inserted into NSTX-U using a horizontal probe drive located in a 6" upper midplane port. In the retracted position the evaporator will be loaded with up to 300 mg of Li granules utilizing one of the calibrated NSTX Li powder droppers[2]. The evaporator will then be inserted into the vessel in a location within the shadow of the RF limiters and will remain in the vessel during the discharge. About 10 seconds before a discharge, it will be rapidly heated and the lithium completely evaporated onto the upper divertor, thus avoiding the complication of a shutter that prevents evaporation during the shot when the diagnostic shutters are open. The minimal time interval between the evaporation and the start of the discharge will avoid the passivation of the lithium by residual gases and enable the study of the conditioning effects of un-passivated Li surfaces [3]. Two methods are being investigated to accomplish the rapid (few second) heating of the lithium. A resistive method relies on passing a large current through a Li filled crucible. A second method requires using a 3 kW e-beam gun to heat the Li. In this paper the evaporator systems will be described and the pros and cons of each heating method will be discussed.

Roquemore, A. L.

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

444

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

To evaluate the performance of central heat pump water heaters for multifamily applications, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California, for 16 months.

445

Experimental study of heat transfer in an electric arc gas heater with vortex stabilization of the discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of an experimental investigation into heat transfer in the discharge chamber of an electric-arc gas heater are presented. For the anode...an=f(I, d), St=f(l/d, Re, N/GH0). The energy losses in the bas...

V. L. Sergeev

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recommendations for Applying Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems A. Rudd, K. Ueno, D. Bergey, R. Osser Building Science Corporation June 2012 i This report received minimal editorial review at NREL. NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

447

Simultaneous multiparticle emissions in hot nuclei evaporation process  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a new mechanism for the evaporation with simultaneous particles emission mechanism in the evaporation chain as new channels opened to high excitation energy regime of the compound nucleus. The probability of multiple simultaneous emissions is determined based on phase space approach. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to compute the final average yield of emitted particles after the decay chain. The neutron, proton, alpha and fission yields are obtained and compared to the conventional calculation with sequential simple particles emission and the relevance of the different channels in competition is also analyzed.

Santos, B. M. [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade Federal Fluminense Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, 24210-346 Niteroi. RJ (Brazil); De Assis, L. P.; Duarte, S. B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas - CBPF Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro. RJ (Brazil)

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

448

2F Evaporator CP class instrumentation uncertainties evaluations  

SciTech Connect

There are two instrumentation systems in the 2F Evaporator facilities (bldg. 242-16F) that are classified as the Critical Protection (CP). They are the Evaporator Pot Temperature instrumentations and Steam Condensate Gamma Monitor. The pot instrumentation consists of two interrelated circuits sharing the same temperature sensor and transducer. They are the high alarm and interlock circuit and the recorder circuit. The gamma monitor instrumentation consists of four interrelated circuits sharing the same scintillation detector. They are the gamma alarm and interlock circuit, failure alarm and interlock circuit, condensate cesium activity recorder circuit, and condensate americium activity recorder circuit. The resulting uncertainties for the instrument circuits are tabulated. (GHH)

Hwang, E.

1994-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

449

A techno-economic analysis of cost savings for retrofitting industrial aerial coolers with variable frequency drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A techno-economic model was created in order to develop curves that show the typical annual energy savings, rate of return, and payback for retrofitting aerial coolers with variable frequency drives (VFDs) for up to 50motors, motor sizes from 4 to 186kW (5250hp), and varying climate conditions. The cost savings due to installing a VFD depends on the reduction in energy used, as well as the reduction in power demand, the capital cost of the VFD, installation cost of the VFD, change in operating cost, and cost of electricity. The geographic locations examined in this report were Fort McMurray, Calgary, Vancouver, and Thunder Bay. This study found that the IRR increases rapidly with motor size, becomes greater than 10% at a motor size of approximately 15kW, and may be as high as 220% (for the case of fifty, 186kW motors). The IRR is sensitive to the number of fan motors retrofitted with VFDs, however the sensitivity rapidly declines as the number of motors is increased beyond five. The simple payback period becomes less than 1year and nearly independent of number of motors and motor size for motors larger than 90kW. Ambient temperature and geographic location affect the profitability of the investment, although the IRR only changes by approximately 4%.

Patrick Miller; Babatunde Olateju; Amit Kumar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Low-Cost Wind Speed Measurements Using Naphthalene Evaporation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Six 125-cm3 metal mesh cages, filled with 99% pure naphthalene mothballs, were suspended near anemometers during 8 winter weeks. Each week the cages were weighed to determine how much evaporation had occurred. A least-squares linear regression of ...

Pierre Y. Bernier

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

452

Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condensation in winter, reduced life and reliability of ventilation equipment, and high repair bills cooling and heating systems. VENTILATION SYSTEMS The operating efficiency of a ventilation fan can be pockets of stagnant air, inadequate cooling from evaporative cooling pads, high heating expenses, heavy

Watson, Craig A.

453

Evaporation Minus Precipitation and Density Fluxes for the North Atlantic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Estimates of evaporation (E) over the North Atlantic Ocean by Bunker have been combined with estimates of precipitation (P) by Dorman and Bourke to produce new annual and seasonal maps of EP and surface density flux. Although uncertainties about ...

Raymond W. Schmitt; Philip S. Bogden; Clive E. Dorman

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Process Control Plan for 242A Evaporator Campaign  

SciTech Connect

The wastes in tanks 107-AP and 108-AP are designated as feed for 242-A Evaporator Campaign 2000-1, which is currently scheduled for the week of April 17, 2000. Waste in tanks 107-AP and 108-AP is predominantly comprised of saltwell liquor from 200 West Tank Farms.

LE, E.Q.

2000-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

455

Isotope Fractionation of Water during Evaporation without Condensation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Specifially, isotope fractionation factors associated with free evaporation (?evap) have been measured as a function of the isotopic composition and temperature of the liquid. ... Liquid-vapor fractionation of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of water from the freezing to the critical temperature ...

Christopher D. Cappa; Walter S. Drisdell; Jared D. Smith; Richard J. Saykally; Ronald C. Cohen

2005-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

456

242-A Evaporator Waste Analysis Plan. Revision 5  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) provides the plan for obtaining information needed for proper waste handling and processing in the 242-A Evaporator (Evaporator) located on the Hanford Site. In particular it addresses analysis necessary to manage the waste according to Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303 and Parts 264 and 265 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Regulatory and safety issues are addressed by establishing boundary conditions for waste received and treated at the 242-A Evaporator. The boundary conditions are set by establishing limits for items such as potential exothermic reactions, waste compatibility, and control of vessel vent organic emissions. Boundary conditions are also set for operational considerations and to ensure waste acceptance at receiving facilities. The issues that are addressed in this plan include prevention of exotherms in the waste, waste compatibility, and vessel vent emissions. Samples from the other streams associated with the Evaporator are taken as required by Process Control Plans but are excluded from this plan because either the streams do not contain dangerous waste or the analyses are not required by WAC 173-303-300.

Basra, T.S.

1995-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

457

Exhaust and evaporative emissions from gasohol-type fuels  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted at the US Department of Energy's Bartlesville (Okla.) Energy Technology Center in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency to determine the characteristics of gasohol-type fuels with respect to exhaust and evaporative emissions. Five fuels, 2 gasolines (reference and commercial unleaded) and 3 gasohols (90% gasoline/10% ethanol) were tested in a fleet of 10 late-model automobiles. Six were equipped with oxidation catalysts and 4 were equipped with three-way catalysts. The results obtained from the 1978 Federal test procedure indicate that the addition of ethanol to the base gasoline, whether it is a reference fuel (Indolene) or a commercial fuel, has measurable effects on exhaust and evaporative emissions. However, on the average, the magnitude of these effects was generally within the 1978 emission standards established by the EPA. More specifically, the addition of ethanol, in the case of vehicles with oxidation catalysts, decreased hydrocarbons by an average of 27%, decreased carbon monoxide by 43%, decreased volumetric fuel economy by 3%, and increased oxides of nitrogen by 16%. Evaporative emissions were increased by 40%. In the case of vehicles with three-way catalysts, the addition of ethanol to the base fuel, on the average, decreased carbon monoxide by 7%, decreased fuel economy by 5%, increased hydrocarbons by 12%, increased oxides of nitrogen by 7%, and increased evaporative emissions by 49%.

Naman, T.M.; Allsup, J.R.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Infiltration and evaporation of small hydrocarbon spills at gas stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Small gasoline spills frequently occur at gasoline dispensing stations. We have developed a mathematical model to estimate both the amount of gasoline that infiltrates into the concrete underneath the dispensing stations and the amount of gasoline that evaporates into the typically turbulent atmosphere. Our model shows that the fraction of infiltrated gasoline can exceed the fraction that evaporates from the sessile droplets. Infiltrated gasoline then evaporates and is slowly released to the atmosphere via slow diffusive transport in pores. Tentative experiments show that our theoretical approach captures observed experimental trends. Predictions based on independently estimated model parameters roughly describe the experimental data, except for the very slow vapor release at the end of Stage II evaporation. Our study suggests that, over the lifespan of a gas station, concrete pads underneath gas dispensing stations accumulate significant amounts of gasoline, which could eventually break through into underlying soil and groundwater. Our model also shows that lifetimes of spilled gasoline droplets on concrete surfaces are on the order of minutes or longer. Therefore contamination can be carried away by foot traffic or precipitation runoff. Regulations and guidelines typically do not address subsurface and surface contaminations due to chronic small gasoline spills, even though these spills could result in non-negligible human exposure to toxic and carcinogenic gasoline compounds.

Markus Hilpert; Patrick N. Breysse

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

On the Motion of an Intensely Heated Evaporating Boundary  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......several calculations of weld pool shapes and isotherms, etc...effect on the shape of a weld pool (Gibb & Longworth, private...material evaporated is Adx and conservation of energy implies that hpAbx...Magnesium Mercury Nickel Tungsten Water Zinc Heat capacity (from 0......

J. G. ANDREWS; D. R. ATTHEY

1975-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Hanford high-level waste evaporator/crystallizer corrosion evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Hanford Site nuclear reservation, located in Southeastern Washington State, is currently home to 61 Mgal of radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground storage tanks. As an intermediate waste volume reduction, the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer processes waste solutions from most of the operating laboratories and plants on the Hanford Site. The waste solutions are concentrated in the Evaporator/Crystallizer to a slurry of liquid and crystallized salts. This concentrated slurry is returned to Hanford Site waste tanks at a significantly reduced volume. The Washington State Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-393 require that a tank system integrity assessment be completed and maintained on file at the facility for all dangerous waste tank systems. This corrosion evaluation was performed in support of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Tank System Integrity Assessment Report. This corrosion evaluation provided a comprehensive compatibility study of the component materials and corrosive environments. Materials used for the Evaporator components and piping include austenitic stainless steels (SS) (primarily ASTM A240, Type 304L) and low alloy carbon steels (CS) (primarily ASTM A53 and A106) with polymeric or asbestos gaskets at flanged connections. Building structure and secondary containment is made from ACI 301-72 Structural Concrete for Buildings and coated with a chemically resistant acrylic coating system.

Ohl, P.C.; Carlos, W.C.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The Adhesion of Evaporated Metal Films on Glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The Adhesion of Evaporated Metal Films on Glass P. Benjamin C. Weaver The adhesion of...deposited by vacuum techniques on to a glass surface have been examined. It has been...intermediate oxide layer at the metal/glass interface is necessary for good adhesion...

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Twenty-year progress report on the Copper Development Association do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heating manual and on the associated prototype heater  

SciTech Connect

A prototype do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater was built of copper parts in 1973, combining the solar collector and a copper roof of the flat seam type. It has now heated a pool in Pasadena, California successfully for over 20 years. During those years the associated do-it-yourself manual has been distributed to about 100,000 readers, who have used to make an unknown number of heaters. Some have used the manual as the basis for a business, building repeated customer heater installations. The present paper represents a progress report.

De Winter, F. (Altas Corp., Santa Cruz, CA (United States))

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

USER SATISFACTION WITH INNOVATIVE COOLING RETROFITS IN SACRAMENTO PUBLIC HOUSING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and a housing authority have been retrofitting their buildings with evaporative coolers, ground-source heatpumps

Diamond, Richard

464

Wind Run Changes: The Dominant Factor Affecting Pan Evaporation Trends in Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Class A pan evaporation rates at many Australian observing stations have reportedly decreased between 1970 and 2002. That pan evaporation rates have decreased at the same time that temperatures have increased has become known as the pan ...

D. P. Rayner

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

The Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Radioactive Waste Evaporator Project  

SciTech Connect

The Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator Project was conceived in 1985 to reduce the volume of the high level radioactive waste Process of the high level waste has been accomplished up to this time using Bent Tube type evaporators and therefore, that type evaporator was selected for this project. The Title I Design of the project was 70% completed in late 1990. The Department of Energy at that time hired an independent consulting firm to perform a complete review of the project. The DOE placed a STOP ORDER on purchasing the evaporator in January 1991. Essentially, no construction was to be done on this project until all findings and concerns dealing with the type and design of the evaporator are resolved. This report addresses two aspects of the DOE design review; (1) Comparing the Bent Tube Evaporator with the Forced Circulation Evaporator, (2) The design portion of the DOE Project Review - concentrated on the mechanical design properties of the evaporator. 1 ref.

Presgrove, S.B. (Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., North Augusta, SC (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

The Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Radioactive Waste Evaporator Project  

SciTech Connect

The Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator Project was conceived in 1985 to reduce the volume of the high level radioactive waste Process of the high level waste has been accomplished up to this time using Bent Tube type evaporators and therefore, that type evaporator was selected for this project. The Title I Design of the project was 70% completed in late 1990. The Department of Energy at that time hired an independent consulting firm to perform a complete review of the project. The DOE placed a STOP ORDER on purchasing the evaporator in January 1991. Essentially, no construction was to be done on this project until all findings and concerns dealing with the type and design of the evaporator are resolved. This report addresses two aspects of the DOE design review; (1) Comparing the Bent Tube Evaporator with the Forced Circulation Evaporator, (2) The design portion of the DOE Project Review - concentrated on the mechanical design properties of the evaporator. 1 ref.

Presgrove, S.B. [Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., North Augusta, SC (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Reconstruction of a Daily Large-Pan Evaporation Dataset over China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Land surface evaporation is an important component of the earths surface hydrological cycle, as well as in the atmospheric energy and water balances. In China, different instruments have been used over time to measure evaporation. A small pan ...

An-Yuan Xiong; Jie Liao; Bin Xu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) remove heat from the air and use it to heat water, presenting an energy-saving opportunity for homeowners. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a simulation model to study the inter- actions of HPWHs and space conditioning equipment, related to climate and installa- tion location in the home. This model was created in TRNSYS and is based on data from HPWHs tested at NREL's Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory. The HPWH model accounts for the condenser coil wrapped around the outside of the storage tank, and uses a data-based performance map. Researchers found that simulated energy use was within 2% of lab results, which confirms

469

Neotropical eocene coastal floras and [sup 18]O/[sup 16]O-estimated warmer vs. cooler equatorial waters  

SciTech Connect

The history of the earth's sea-surface temperature (SST) in equatorial regions during the Tertiary is unsettled because of uncertainty as to the presence and extent of glaciers during the Paleogene. The [sup 16]O trapped in glaciers and subsequently released back to the ocean basins as meltwater during interglacials affects the [sup 18]O/[sup 16]O ratio of sea water, one of the variables that must be known for oxygen isotope paleotemperature analysis of calcareous fossils. Estimates of SST range from [approximately]18 to 20 C, assuming an ice-free earth, to [approximately]28 C assuming glaciers were present in the Paleogene. Low latitude SST presently averages 28C, so the former estimate gives a value 8 to 10 C cooler than present, while the latter gives a value as warm or slightly warmer than present. The figures are important for interpreting terrestrial vegetational history because the temperature differential between low and high latitudes is a major factor in determining global climates through the control of poleward transfer of heat. The middle( ) to late Eocene Gatuncillo Formation palynoflora of Panama was deposited at the ocean-continental interface at [approximately]9[degrees]N latitude. The individual components and paleocommunities are distinctly tropical and similar to the present vegetation along the Atlantic coast of southern Central America. This is consistent with data emerging from other recently studied tropical coastal biotas and represents a contribution from paleobiology toward eventually resolving the problem of Eocene equatorial marine environments. Collectively, the evidence is beginning to favor a model of Eocene SST near present values. 50 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Graham, A. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast (Fact Sheet)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings evaluated three newly released heat pump water heater products in order to provide publicly available field data on these products.

471

Performance testing and Bayesian Reliability Analysis of small diameter, high power electric heaters for the simulation of nuclear fuel rod temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

proposed full test using prototypic mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) containing plutonium from converted nuclear weapons. Bayesian reliability analysis methods were used to determine the expected heater failure rate because of the expected short test duration...

O'Kelly, David Sean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

472

Chapter 26 - The Oxyfuel Baseline: Revamping Heaters and Boilers to Oxyfiring by Cryogenic Air Separation and Flue Gas Recycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This feasibility study involves the potential application of oxyfuel technology on a refinery-wide basis at the BP Grangemouth unit in Scotland. A total of seven boilers and 13 process heaters of various types, burning a mixture of refinery fuel gas and fuel oil resulting in the production of approximately 2.0 million tonnes per annum of CO2, form the basis of this study.

Rodney Allam; Vince White; Neil Ivens; Mark Simmonds

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Building America Expert Meeting: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

474

Combustion air preheating for refinery heaters using plate-type heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Combustion air preheating by recovering heat from combustion gases is a cost effective method of increasing the overall thermal efficiency of the refining and petrochemical processes. This paper presents the advantages of the plate-type air preheaters made of smooth plates without extended surfaces. These exchangers provide a relatively high heat transfer coefficient at a relatively low pressure drop, resulting in a flexible and compact design. The air preheater design can easily be integrated into the heater design. Top mounting with natural draft becomes possible for many applications, eliminating the need for I.D. fan and expensive ductwork. The economical extent of heat recovery function of the fuel fired is presented based on practical experience. The use of porcelain enameled (glass coated) plates and of stainless steel materials allows the operation of the air preheater below the acidic and water dew point. Finally the paper presents the experience of the Canadian refineries and petrochemical plants with plate-type heat exchangers used for combustion air preheating.

Dinulescu, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Short term performance comparisons between a solar thermosyphon water heater and two numerical models  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of a solar thermosyphon domestic water heater was conducted in the indoor solar simulator facility at Colorado State University (Bickford, 1994). The system consisted of a closed-loop collector circuit filled with propylene glycol and water solution and a horizontal storage tank with an annular tank-in-tank heat exchanger. Short-term irradiated tests with and without timed draws were performed to assess overall performance and monitor collector flow rate, storage tank stratification, and heat exchanger temperature distribution. The measured performance was compared with the ``standard`` thermosyphon model in TRNSYS 13.1 (transient system simulation program). A revised TRNSYS model was developed by Graham Morrison at the University of New South Wales, Australia. The revised model specifically addressed the horizontal tank, closed-loop configuration. The standard TRNSYS version predicted solar gain within 17% of the measured values and differed dramatically from experimental collector temperatures, closed-loop flow rate, and tank stratification. This is not surprising since this model does not include the tank and tank heat exchanger. The revised TRNSYS model agreed more closely with experimental results. It predicted closed-loop flow at 8% lower than observed flow and collector temperature rise that was higher than the observed flow by approximately the same amount, resulting in extremely accurate prediction of collector output energy. Losses from the storage tank and piping were significantly underpredicted in both models, however.

Bickford, C.; Hittle, D.C. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Solar Energy Applications Lab.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

ADVANCED OXYFUEL BOILERS AND PROCESS HEATERS FOR COST EFFECTIVE CO{sub 2} CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

This annual technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished during the first year of the program, January-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1--Conceptual Design, Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluations, Task 3--OTM Development, Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning and Task 5--Program Management. The program has experienced significant delays due to several factors. The budget has also been significantly under spent. Based on recent technical successes significant future progress is expected. A number of concepts for integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs) into boilers and process heaters to facilitate oxy-fuel combustion have been proposed. A detailed modeling plan has been proposed and early modeling work has focused on developing spreadsheet based models for quick engineering calculations. Combustion reactor laboratory scale evaluations efforts have been delayed due to the closing of Praxair's Tarrytown facility in December 2001. Experimental facilities and personnel have been relocated to Praxair's facility in Tonawanda. The facilities have recently been re-commissioned. Work with the OTM development task has also been delayed as early material selections were discarded. More recently, more promising OTM material compositions have been identified. Economic evaluation commenced. Information was acquired that quantified the attractiveness of the advanced oxygen-fired boiler. CO{sub 2} capture and compression are still estimated to be much less than $10/ton carbon.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; G. Maxwell Christie

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

ADVANCED OXYFUEL BOILERS AND PROCESS HEATERS FOR COST EFFECTIVE CO2 CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

This annual technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished during the second year of the program, January-December 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Conceptual Design, Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluations, Task 3--OTM Development, Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning and Task 5--Program Management. The program has experienced significant delays due to several factors. The budget has also been significantly under spent. Based on recent technical successes and confirmation of process economics, significant future progress is expected. Concepts for integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs) into boilers and process heaters to facilitate oxy-fuel combustion have been investigated. OTM reactor combustion testing was delayed to insufficient reliability of the earlier OTM materials. Substantial improvements to reliability have been identified and testing will recommence early in 2004. Promising OTM material compositions and OTM architectures have been identified that improve the reliability of the ceramic elements. Economic evaluation continued. Information was acquired that quantified the attractiveness of the advanced oxygen-fired boiler. CO{sub 2} capture and compression are still estimated to be much less than $10/ton CO{sub 2}.

John Sirman; Leonard Switzer; Bart van Hassel

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market  

SciTech Connect

Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park] [General Electric - Appliance Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Detailed modeling of the evaporation and thermal decomposition of urea-water-solution in SCR systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed modeling of the evaporation and thermal decomposition of urea-water-solution in SCRE Journal. Keywords: Multi-component, , evaporation, UWS, Adbue, urea decomposition, thermolysis SCR Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. In the multi-component evaporation model, the influence of urea

Boyer, Edmond

480

Optical and electrical characterization of the electron beam gun evaporated TiO2 lm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical and electrical characterization of the electron beam gun evaporated TiO2 ®lm V of TiO2 ®lms obtained by electron beam gun evaporation and annealed in an oxygen environment. A negative with TiO2 insulator ®lms deposited by electron beam gun evaporator. P-type Si wafers (1 0 0 orientation

Eisenstein, Gadi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters evaporative coolers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Electrical characteristics of Ta2O5 thin films deposited by electron beam gun evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrical characteristics of Ta2O5 thin films deposited by electron beam gun evaporation V films deposited by a simple electron beam gun evaporator. We describe thicknessO5 thin films deposited by a simple electron beam gun evaporator which enables versatility

Eisenstein, Gadi

482

Characteristics of Evaporated Antimony Films as a Function of the Antimony Source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thin antimonyfilms deposited by evaporation from a PtSb source differ from films produced from elementary antimony in electrical resistance light transmission reaction with oxygen and particle size. Qualitative mass spectroscopic experiments indicate that these differences may be due to antimony evaporating from PtSb predominantly as Sb1 as distinct from the Sb4 aggregates known to evaporate from elementary antimony.

A. H. Sommer

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a heat pump water heater in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

484

Development of minimum efficiency standards for large capacity air conditioners, and commercial water heaters, refrigerators, and freezers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission has promulgated appliance energy efficiency standards and energy conservation standards for new construction with the objective of reducing energy consumption in the State of California. The following appliance categories are specifically addressed: large capacity air conditioners; commercial water heaters; and commercial refrigerators and freezers. The tasks that have been performed include: an energy use pattern study for the subject equipment; an examination of the size distribution of commercial air conditioning equipment; an examination of the different types of commercial air conditioning systems; an evaluation of the effectiveness of economizers in reducing commercial air conditioning system energy consumption in California; an examination of the effects of oversizing commercial air conditioners; a detailed study of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; an evaluation of the economic feasibility of utilizing air conditioner waste heat to heat water; an assessment of the applicability of existing test procedures for small water heaters to large water heaters; and a brief investigation of the marketing and distribution systems for air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. Results of the efforts are described.

Merrill, P.S.; Rettberg, R.J.; Erickson, R.C.; Toor, J.S.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Understanding Kepler's Super-Earths and Sub-Neptunes: Insights from Thermal Evolution and Photo-Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sculpted by Photo-Evaporation . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245.2.1 Improved Photo-Evaporationsignificantly sculpted by photo-evaporation. . 122 xii List

Lopez, Eric David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Axially Tapered And Bilayer Microchannels For Evaporative Cooling Devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention consists of an evaporative cooling device comprising one or more microchannels whose cross section is axially reduced to control the maximum capillary pressure differential between liquid and vapor phases. In one embodiment, the evaporation channels have a rectangular cross section that is reduced in width along a flow path. In another embodiment, channels of fixed width are patterned with an array of microfabricated post-like features such that the feature size and spacing are gradually reduced along the flow path. Other embodiments incorporate bilayer channels consisting of an upper cover plate having a pattern of slots or holes of axially decreasing size and a lower fluid flow layer having channel widths substantially greater than the characteristic microscale dimensions of the patterned cover plate. The small dimensions of the cover plate holes afford large capillary pressure differentials while the larger dimensions of the lower region reduce viscous flow resistance.

Nilson, Robert (Cardiff, CA); Griffiths, Stewart (Livermore, CA)

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

487

Evaporation-based Ge/.sup.68 Ga Separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Micro concentrations of .sup.68 Ga in secular equilibrium with .sup.68 Ge in strong aqueous HCl solution may readily be separated in ionic form from the .sup.68 Ge for biomedical use by evaporating the solution to dryness and then leaching the .sup.68 Ga from the container walls with dilute aqueous solutions of HCl or NaCl. The chloro-germanide produced during the evaporation may be quantitatively recovered to be used again as a source of .sup.68 Ga. If the solution is distilled to remove any oxidizing agents which may be present as impurities, the separation factor may easily exceed 10.sup.5. The separation is easily completed and the .sup.68 Ga made available in ionic form in 30 minutes or less.

Mirzadeh, Saed (Albuquerque, NM); Whipple, Richard E. (Los Alamos, NM); Grant, Patrick M. (Los Alamos, NM); O'Brien, Jr., Harold A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Cash for Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fowlie. 2008. Demand Side Management and Energy-efficiencyKulick. 2004. Demand-Side Management and Energy- efficiency

Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Cash for Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cost for these electricity consumption. U.S. DOE (2011b), p.replacement reduces electricity consumption by an average ofcontrast, increases electricity consumption by an average of

Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Cash for Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

de Electricidad (CFE), Subdireccin de Programacin.Federal de Electricidad, or CFE) is the exclusive supplierelectricity within Mexico. CFE is responsible for almost all

Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

CFD?Phenomenological Diesel Spray Analysis under Evaporative Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CFD?Phenomenological Diesel Spray Analysis under Evaporative Conditions ... Despite their great uncertainties compared to the experimental studies, numerical simulations permit carrying out extensive parametric studies, isolating every single variable involved in the general process at any point in time and at any position in physical space. ... The thermodynamic codes assume that the cylinder charge is uniform in both composition and temperature, at all times during the cycle. ...

J. M. Desantes; X. Margot; J. M. Pastor; M. Chavez; A. Pinzello

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

492

Concrete characterization for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator Closure Site  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the sampling activities undertaken and the analytical results obtained in a concrete sampling and analyses study performed for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator (300 ASE) closure site. The 300 ASE is identified as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) unit that will be closed in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations. No constituents of concern were found in concentrations indicating contamination of the concrete by 300 ASE operations.

Prignano, A.L.

1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

493

Heavy quark production in the black hole evaporation at LHC  

SciTech Connect

The understanding of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and Quantum Gravity are currently two of the main open questions in Physics. In order to understand these problems some authors proposed the existence of extra dimensions in the Nature. These extra dimensions would be compacted and not visible on the macroscopic world, but the effects would be manifest in ultrarelativistic colision process. In particular, black holes (BH) could be produced in proton-proton colisions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and in future colliders. The BH is an object characterized by its mass and temperature wich also characterizes the evaporation process. All kind of particle should be produced in this process. Our goal in this contribution is to study the BH production in proton - proton collisions at LHC and its evaporation rate in heavy quarks. We present our estimate considering two scenarios (with and without trapped energy corrections) and compare our predictions with those obtained using perturbative QCD. Our results demonstrate that in both scenarios the charm and bottom production in the BH evaporation are smaller than the QCD prediction at LHC. In contrast, the top production is similar or larger than the QCD prediction, if the trapped energy corrections are disregarded.

Thiel, M.; Goncalves, V. P.; Sauter, W. K. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas (Brazil)

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

494

Nanoparticle enhanced evaporation of liquids: A case study of silicone oil and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaporation is a fundamental physical phenomenon, of which many challenging questions remain unanswered. Enhanced evaporation of liquids in some occasions is of enormous practical significance. Here we report the enhanced evaporation of the nearly permanently stable silicone oil by dispersing with nanopariticles including CaTiO3, anatase and rutile TiO2. The results can inspire the research of atomistic mechanism for nanoparticle enhanced evaporation and exploration of evaporation control techniques for treatment of oil pollution and restoration of dirty water.

Wenbin Zhang; Rong Shen; Kunquan Lu; Ailing Ji; Zexian Cao

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

495

Integrated Sensing and Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive systems approach to integrated design of sensing and control systems for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, using advanced model-based techniques. In particular, this program is focused on the model-based sensing and control system design for the core gasification section of an IGCC plant. The overall approach consists of (i) developing a first-principles physics-based dynamic model of the gasification section, (ii) performing model-reduction where needed to derive low-order models suitable for controls analysis and design, (iii) developing a sensing system solution combining online sensors with model-based estimation for important process variables not measured directly, and (iv) optimizing the steady-state and transient operation of the plant for normal operation as well as for startup using model predictive controls (MPC). Initially, available process unit models were implemented in a common platform using Matlab/Simulink{reg_sign}, and appropriate model reduction and model updates were performed to obtain the overall gasification section dynamic model. Also, a set of sensor packages were developed through extensive lab testing and implemented in the Tampa Electric Company IGCC plant at Polk power station in 2009, to measure temperature and strain in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC). Plant operation data was also used to validate the overall gasification section model. The overall dynamic model was then used to develop a sensing solution including a set of online sensors coupled with model-based estimation using nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF). Its performance in terms of estimating key unmeasured variables like gasifier temperature, carbon conversion, etc., was studied through extensive simulations in the presence sensing errors (noise and bias) and modeling errors (e.g. unknown gasifier kinetics, RSC fouling). In parallel, an MPC solution was initially developed using ideal sensing to optimize the plant operation during startup pre-heating as well as steady state and transient operation under normal high-pressure conditions, e.g. part-load, base-load, load transition and fuel changes. The MPC simulation studies showed significant improvements both for startup pre-heating and for normal operation. Finally, the EKF and MPC solutions were coupled to achieve the integrated sensing and control solution and its performance was studied through extensive steady state and transient simulations in the presence of sensor and modeling errors. The results of each task in the program and overall conclusions are summarized in this final report.

Aditya Kumar

2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

496

A Rinsing Effluent Evaporator for Dismantling Operations - 13271  

SciTech Connect

Between 1958 and 1997, the UP1 plant at Marcoule - located in the south of France - reprocessed and recycled nearly 20,000 MT of used fuel from special defense applications reactors, as well as fuel from the first generation of electricity generating reactors in France (natural uranium fuel, CO{sub 2}-cooled, graphite-moderated). Decommissioning and Dismantling of the UP1 plant and its associated units started in 1998. Since 2005, the UP1 facility has been operated by AREVA as the Marcoule Management and Operation contractor for French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). An important part of this decommissioning program deals with the vitrification facility of Marcoule. This facility includes 20 tanks devoted to interim storage of highly active solutions, prior to vitrification. In 2006, a rinsing program was defined as part of the tank cleanup strategy. The main objective of the rinsing phases was to decrease activity in order to limit the volume of 'long-life active' waste produced during the decommissioning operations, so the tanks can be dismantled without the need of remote operations. To enable this rinsing program, and anticipating large volumes of generated effluent, the construction of an evaporation unit proved to be essential. The main objective of this unit was to concentrate the effluent produced during tank rinsing operations by a factor of approximately 10, prior to it being treated by vitrification. The evaporator design phase was launched in September 2006. The main challenge for the Project team was the installation of this new unit within a nuclear facility still in operation and in existing compartments not initially designed for this purpose. Cold operating tests were completed in 2008, and in May 2009, the final connections to the process were activated to start the hot test phase. During the first hot test operations performed on the first batches of clean-up effluent, the evaporator had a major operating problem. Extremely large quantities of foam were produced, affecting the evaporator operation, and creating the risk of a reduction in its capacity and throughput performance. A task force of AREVA process, operations, and safety experts from Marcoule and the La Hague reprocessing complex was assembled. New operating parameters were defined and tested to improve the process. Since then, the evaporator has performed very satisfactorily. The foam buildup phenomenon has been brought under complete control. All the different types of effluents produced during cleanup operations have been concentrated, and the results obtained in terms of quality and throughput, have ensured a consistent supply to the vitrification unit. The evaporator was operated until the end of April 2012, and enabled the production of 500 cubic meters of very high activity effluent, concentrating the fission products rinsed from the storage tanks. The evaporator will now be deactivated and decommissioned, with the first rinsing and cleanup operations scheduled to begin in 2014. (authors)

Rives, Rachel [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France)] [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France); Asou-Pothet, Marielle [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)] [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France); Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia, MD (United States)] [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia, MD (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Development of a cogenerating thermophotovoltaic powered combination hot water heater/hydronic boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cogenerating thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device for hot water hydronic space heating and electric power generation was developed designed fabricated and tested under a Department of Energy contracted program. The device utilizes a cylindrical ytterbia superemissive ceramic fiber burner (SCFB) and is designed for a nominal capacity of 80 kBtu/hr. The burner is fired with premixed natural gas and air. Narrow band emission from the SCFB is converted to electricity by single crystal silicon (Si) photovoltaic (PV) arrays arranged concentrically around the burner. A three-way mixing valve is used to direct heated water to either the portable water storage tank radiant baseboard heaters or both. As part of this program QGI developed a microprocessor-based control system to address the safety issues as well as photovoltaic power management. Flame sensing is accomplished via the photovoltaics a technology borrowed from QGIs Quantum Control safety shut-off system. Device testing demonstrated a nominal photovoltaic power output of 200 W. Power consumed during steady state operation was 33 W with power drawn from the combustion air blower hydronic system pump three-way switching valve and the control system resulting in a net power surplus of 142 W. Power drawn during the ignition sequence was 55 W and a battery recharge time of 1 minute 30 seconds was recorded. System efficiency was measured and found to be more than 83%. Pollutant emissions at determined operating conditions were below the South Coast Air Quality Management Districts (California) limit of 40 ng/J for NOx and carbon monoxide emissions were measured at less than 50 dppm.

Aleksandr S. Kushch; Steven M. Skinner; Richard Brennan; Pedro A. Sarmiento

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

499

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

500

The development of a new evaporation formula for Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Texas. From these maps an equation for evapo- ration can be extracted for any location in Texas. It was found that wind speed and relative humidity had little effect on evaporation from pans in Texas, at least when considered in terms of mean... meteorological parameters, such as temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. These investigations have often been hampered by a lack of reliable data and non-standard instrumenta- tion. In addition, there has been a great deal of con- troversy over...

Moe, R. D

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z