Sample records for heaters electric current

  1. Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heater, Tankless Electric - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water Heaters Water Heaters (Storage...

  2. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  3. Water Heaters (Storage Electric) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electric) Water Heaters (Storage Electric) The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with...

  4. A Study on the Failure of Industrial Electric Heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chyu, M. C.

    The break down mechanism of a cylindrical electric heater is investigated by studying the uneven heating behavior of the heater by measuring the surface temperature variation of the heater when it is subjected to a boundary condition of constant...

  5. Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative- Residential Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative offers up to $300 for the purchase of an electric water heater. The rebate amount varies based on the size of the water heater purchased.

  6. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and StandardsElectric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standardsresistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water

  7. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    blankets to electric hot water heaters in South Africa,” J.for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, andfor Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and

  8. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

  9. Approved Space Heaters In order to ensure that all space heaters meet current safety guidelines, the University Fire Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holsinger, Kent

    EHS 1/2012 Approved Space Heaters In order to ensure that all space heaters meet current safety approved a limited selection of space heaters for use within the University, which are available at Central Stores. The following Space Heaters are approved for use in University of Connecticut buildings provided

  10. Electric Currents Electric Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jaehoon

    ;Problem 3: At $0.095/kWh, what does it cost to leave a 25W porch light on day and night for a year = 219000 Watt- hour = 219kWh. So, total cost = 219 x$0.095 = $20.8 #12;Problem 4: A 100 W light bulb has of charge per unit time: = . Unit of current: Ampere (A). The purpose of a battery is to produce

  11. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  12. Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During #EnergyFaceoff...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three November 19, 2014...

  13. Salem Electric- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salem Electric residential customers with electric water heating are eligible for a $600 rebate through Salem's Bright Way program. A program brochure with details is available on the program...

  14. Warren RECC- Electric Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Warren Rural Electric Cooperative Corporation (RECC) provides service to customers in the south-central Kentucky counties of Ohio, Butler, Grayson, Edmonson, Warren, Simpson, Logan and Barren. Upon...

  15. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  16. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  17. Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady; Michael Patrick (Oak Ridge, TN), Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno (Oak Ridge, TN), Vitek; John Michael (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

  18. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  19. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, ML); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  20. Microsoft Word - Summary_of_project_CL_heater_AnnexII_final.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heater solution for current lead terminal instrumentation of the ITER coils Call for Nomination Purpose This Contract concerns the supply of several types of electrical heaters to...

  1. Tri-County Electric Cooperative- Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tri-County Electric Cooperative offers a $75 rebate on the purchase of energy-efficient electric water heaters. The rebate is valid for new or replacement units which have an Energy Factor Rating...

  2. Water Heaters (Storage Oil) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil) Water Heaters (Storage Oil) Water Heater, Storage Oil - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Storage Electric)...

  3. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  4. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) throughwater heaters, and heat pump water heaters are not typical.water heaters, heat pump water heater (HPWH) technology

  5. ELECTRICAL HEATERS FOR THERMO-MECHANICAL TESTS AT THE STRIPA MINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burleigh, R.H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ELECTRICAL HEATERS FOR THERMO-MECHANICAL TESTS AT THE STRIPAprogram evaluates the thermo-mechan i CP.I response of thespacing that would create a thermo-mechanical response with

  6. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

  7. Gibson Electric Membership Corporation- Residential Energy Efficient Water Heater Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gibson Electric Membership Corporation provides loans to its residential customers to finance new, energy efficient water heaters. The loans are interest-free and can be paid off in as many as 3...

  8. Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation- Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blue Ridge Mountain EMC and TVA, its power supplier, offer the Energy Right and In Home Energy Evaluation programs to qualified members. To qualify for water heater rebates provided by the Energy...

  9. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    households with water heaters, solar water heaters areMODELING THE IMPACT OF SOLAR WATER HEATERS ON THE REDUCTIONconditions than solar water heaters, and therefore provide

  10. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODELING THE IMPACT OF SOLAR WATER HEATERS ON THE REDUCTIONinsurance industry as a solar water heater driver in Southwith water heaters, solar water heaters are gaining in

  11. Catalytic combustion of very lean mixtures in a reverse flow reactor using an internal electrical heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunill, F.; Beld, L. van de; Westerterp, K.R. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)] [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study of the reverse flow reactor, equipped with an internal electrical heater, for the autothermal combustion of very dilute organic compounds, in particular ethene, propane, and their mixtures, has been carried out. The influence of several operating parameters like electrical heater power, cycle period, chemical character, and concentration of the pollutants on the maximum temperature and on the shape of temperature profiles in the stationary state is discussed. Experimental results show that an internal electrical heater can be successfully used to oxidize completely very lean mixtures which would not be able to maintain an autothermal process only by themselves. The predictions with a heterogeneous one-dimensional model without using fit parameters show a good agreement with experiments except for critical situations.

  12. Electric current locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul E. (Corvallis, OR); Woodside, Charles Rigel (Corvallis, OR)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  13. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  14. Metal spray apparatus with a U-shaped electric inlet gas heater and a one-piece electric heater surrounding a nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Verbael, D.J.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically heated metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  15. Metal spray apparatus with a U-shaped electric inlet gas heater and a one-piece electric heater surrounding a nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glovan, Ronald J. (Butte, MT); Tierney, John C. (Butte, MT); McLean, Leroy L. (Butte, MT); Johnson, Lawrence L. (Butte, MT); Verbael, David J. (Butte, MT)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically heated metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments.

  16. Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and Labeling Program to 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heaters, electric water heaters, and solar water heaters.by electric water heaters (31.3%), and solar water heaters (

  17. Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Association (Linn County RECA) is a member-owned cooperative. To encourage energy efficiency, Linn County offers a number of rebates to commercial,...

  18. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ablecom- bined space/water heaters, solar water heaters,combined solar space/water heater, electric water heaters

  19. Performance testing and Bayesian Reliability Analysis of small diameter, high power electric heaters for the simulation of nuclear fuel rod temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Kelly, David Sean

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ), indirect electric heaters to simulate the centerline temperatures of operating nuclear fuel in a pressurized water reactor. The heater was inserted into annular surrogate fuel pellets containing depleted uranium, cerium oxide and trace quantities (10 ppm...

  20. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX)

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  1. Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

  2. Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

    2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

  3. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    condensing tankless com- bined space/water heaters, solarmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ablewater heaters, combined solar space/water heater, electric

  4. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renewabletankless combined space/water heaterds, solar water heaters,combined solar space/water heater, electric water heaters

  5. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  6. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

  7. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  8. The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    display the distribution of water heater models by fee typeelectric and gas-fired water heaters, respectively. DeliveryDistribution of Electric Water Heaters by Fee Type Figure B-

  9. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Republic of South Africa, “National Energy Act 34 of 2008. ”water heaters in South Africa,” J. Energy South. Afr. , vol.Energy Efficiency Country Study: Republic of South Africa,”

  10. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    condensing furnaces and water heaters and power vent waterheater, electric water heaters and furnaces, which includeResidential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States

  11. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experienceslarger market for heat pump water heaters (US Department offurnace or heat pump and electric water heater (26%; US

  12. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  13. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, MIchael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mains Pressure Electric Storage Water Heaters Small MainsElectric Storage Water Heaters (water heaters. The objective is to

  14. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Domestic Electric Storage Water Heater (DESWH) Test Methodsfans, washing machines, water heaters and space heaters.and Space Heating Water heater intensities and electric

  15. Electric field induced spin-polarized current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murakami, Shuichi; Nagaosa, Naoto; Zhang, Shoucheng

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and a method for generating an electric-field-induced spin current are disclosed. A highly spin-polarized electric current is generated using a semiconductor structure and an applied electric field across the semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure can be a hole-doped semiconductor having finite or zero bandgap or an undoped semiconductor of zero bandgap. In one embodiment, a device for injecting spin-polarized current into a current output terminal includes a semiconductor structure including first and second electrodes, along a first axis, receiving an applied electric field and a third electrode, along a direction perpendicular to the first axis, providing the spin-polarized current. The semiconductor structure includes a semiconductor material whose spin orbit coupling energy is greater than room temperature (300 Kelvin) times the Boltzmann constant. In one embodiment, the semiconductor structure is a hole-doped semiconductor structure, such as a p-type GaAs semiconductor layer.

  16. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  17. Current Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew|CoreCpWing County,ElectricCuming CountyCupertinoCurran,

  18. Electrical noise characteristics of a doped silicon microcantilever heater-thermometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William P.

    microcantilevers during cantilever self-heating over the temperature range 296­781 K. The dominant noise source-thermometers are designed to operate with self-heating, while the preferred operation of piezoresis- tive cantilevers is for minimal self-heating.12,16,17 This paper explores how the electrical noise characteristics of a doped

  19. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account forDomestic Electric Storage Water Heater (DESWH) Test Methodswashing machines, water heaters and space heaters. BUENAS

  20. Electric Current Wound Healing David Cukjati

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ljubljana, University of

    , Slovenia The authors review the existing physical modalities for treatment of chronic wounds and show the advantages of electric current and electromagnetic field stimulation. Direct currents, low frequency pulsed disruption is activation of the coagulation cascade and the production of blood clot. After several minutes

  1. Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Download presentation slides from...

  2. Axial Current Generation from Electric Field: Chiral Electric Separation Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu-Guang Huang; Jinfeng Liao

    2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a relativistic plasma containing charged chiral fermions in an external electric field. We show that with the presence of both vector and axial charge densities, the electric field can induce an axial current along its direction and thus cause chirality separation. We call it the Chiral Electric Separation Effect (CESE). On very general basis, we argue that the strength of CESE is proportional to $\\mu_V\\mu_A$ with $\\mu_V$ and $\\mu_A$ the chemical potentials for vector charge and axial charge. We then explicitly calculate this CESE conductivity coefficient in thermal QED at leading-log order. The CESE can manifest a new gapless wave mode propagating along the electric field. Potential observable of CESE in heavy-ion collisions is also discussed.

  3. Axial Current Generation from Electric Field: Chiral Electric Separation Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a relativistic plasma containing charged chiral fermions in an external electric field. We show that with the presence of both vector and axial charge densities, the electric field can induce an axial current along its direction and thus cause chirality separation. We call it the Chiral Electric Separation Effect (CESE). On very general basis, we argue that the strength of CESE is proportional to $\\mu_V\\mu_A$ with $\\mu_V$ and $\\mu_A$ the chemical potentials for vector charge and axial charge. We then explicitly calculate this CESE conductivity coefficient in thermal QED at leading-log order. The CESE can manifest a new gapless wave mode propagating along the electric field. Potential observable of CESE in heavy-ion collisions is also discussed.

  4. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater Use Goal 4:Administration

  5. Master Thesis Proposal Eddy Current Imaging of Electrically Conducting Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Master Thesis Proposal Eddy Current Imaging of Electrically Conducting Media Domenico Lahaye and optimization techniques en- abling the eddy current imaging of electrically conducting media. Examples: · perform a literature study into topics such as eddy current imaging, inverse problems including

  6. Electric current generation in distorted graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ana Julia Mizher; Alfredo Raya; Cristian Villavicencio

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene-like materials can be effectively described by quantum electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. In a pure state these systems exhibit a symmetry between the non-equivalent Dirac points in the honeycomb lattice. The effect of some types of doping or the contact with asymmetric external lattices (for instance a boron nitride layer) break this symmetry via a mechanism of effective mass generation that works differently for each Dirac point. In this work we show that the incorporation of an in-plane external magnetic field on this pseudochiral asymmetric configuration generates a non-dissipative electric current aligned with the magnetic field. This mass structure is associated to a Chern-Simons type of effective action. Together with the presence of a magnetic field generating an electric current, this scenario resembles the chiral magnetic effect in Quantum Chromodynamics.

  7. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and F. Southworh. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology:a larger market for heat pump water heaters (U.S. Departmentfurnace or heat pump and electric water heater (26%). (U.S.

  8. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  9. Electrically heated DPF start-up strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine has a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates in the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates. Heat generated by combustion of particulates in the heater induces combustion of particulates within the DPF. A control module selectively enables current flow to the electrical heater for an initial period of a DPF regeneration cycle, and limits exhaust flow while the electrical heater is heating to a predetermined soot combustion temperature.

  10. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  11. Nuclear Plant Feedwater Heater Handbook. Volume 1. Primer. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.J.; Wells, T.G. Jr.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the first part of a three volume handbook covering closed feedwater heaters for electric power generating plants. This volume is a primer to the subject of feedwater heaters and their integration into the plant. 24 refs.

  12. Burbank Water and Power- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Burbank Water and Power is providing incentives for the purchase of solar water heaters. Incentives are only available to residential customers with electric water heaters. There is a limit of one...

  13. THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the heat pump water heater

  14. Wiregrass Electric Cooperative- H2O Plus Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wiregrass Electric Cooperative is a consumer-owned electric utility serving over 20,000 consumers in the "Wiregrass" area of southeast Alabama.  They currently offer a water heater rebate program...

  15. Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

  16. COOKSON, EDWARD JAMES. Development of the Metal Foam Electrical Resistance Heater. (Under the Direction of Dr. Albert Shih.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Albert J.

    to convert the electrical energy into thermal energy. An analytic heat transfer model is first developed

  17. Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (U.S. Virgin Islands)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Virgin Islands Energy Office currently offers rebates to residents for purchasing solar water heaters from local vendors. The program will cover residential, solar water heaters of 120 gallons...

  18. Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas supplied to the water heater and the electricity used bywater supplied to the water heater, and • use of resistanceTest Procedures for Water Heaters; Final Rule," Federal

  19. Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    10,000 Btu to 40,000 Btu per hour. Common fuels used for this purpose are electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene. Although most space heaters rely on convection (the...

  20. Behavior of Electric Current Subjected to ELF Electromagnetic Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fran De Aquino

    2002-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational effects produced by ELF electromagnetic radiation upon the electric current in a conductor are studied. An apparatus has been constructed to test the behavior of current subjected to ELF radiation. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical predictions and show that ELF radiation can cause transitory interruptions in electric current conduction.

  1. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Domestic Electric Storage Water Heater (DESWH) Test Methodsby products 5 , and water heaters. Appliance diffusion isor endorsement levels. Water Heaters The share of electric

  2. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stand-by products 5 , and water heaters. Appliance diffusionDomestic Electric Storage Water Heater (DESWH) Test Methodsor endorsement levels. Water Heaters The share of electric

  3. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examination Table 1. HECO Water Heater Direct Control –Reliability Table 2. HECO Water Heater Direct Control –criteria for current water heater and air conditioning

  4. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cold water to the water heater and hot water from the waterinduced draft water heaters, water heaters with flue designsInput Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1. Tank

  5. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  6. Laser and Electrical Current Induced Phase Transformation of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Induced Phase Transformation of In2Se3 Semiconductor thin film on Si(111) . Laser and Electrical Current Induced Phase Transformation of In2Se3 Semiconductor thin film...

  7. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  8. Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bredemann, Michael V

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

  9. Packaged die heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  10. Grays Harbor PUD- Solar Water Heater Loan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a low-interest loan program (currently 4.0%) for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans are available for the installation of solar...

  11. Vapor cooled current lead for cryogenic electrical equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method are provided for conducting electric current to cryogenic electrical equipment devices. A combination of inner and outer tubes together form a plurality of hollow composite tubes housed in a sheath. Top and bottom block mounting means are fitted to hold the composite tubes and are affixed to the ends of the sheath. This combination forms a current lead. The current lead is attached to a cryogenic device housing a fluid coolant which moves through the current lead, cooling the current lead as the fluid travels.

  12. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Resistance Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sets federal efficiency...

  13. Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    for space heating. 14. Do not use space heaters or any other electric appliance around water. 15Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with temperature and heat. The use of electric space heaters as a temporary measure is permitted

  14. Performance testing and Bayesian Reliability Analysis of small diameter, high power electric heaters for the simulation of nuclear fuel rod temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Kelly, David Sean

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the initial FRS failures were caused by failures of laser welds or copper/nickel braze areas. Later improvements in fabrication techniques produced heaters that could operate for greater than 1000 hours at temperatures around 1200'C but thermocouple... terminals were brazed to a nickel rod or tube and then to the heating element. The heater filaments were made of Nichrome V and platinum- y 316 Stainless Steel Sheath Internal Thermocouples ', ~ Nickel Tube / Brazed to Copper Tube ~ Solid Nickel Rod...

  15. Vacuum gaps with small tunnel currents at large electric field...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacuum gaps with small tunnel currents at large electric field and its potential applications for energy storage, charge storage and power supplies. Friday, May 27, 2011 - 4:00pm...

  16. Nuclear Plant Feedwater Heater Handbook. Volume 3. Operation and maintenance guidelines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.J.; Hardy, C.D. Jr.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the third part of a three-volume handbook covering closed feedwater heaters for nuclear electric power generating plants. This third volume covers the operation and maintenance of closed feedwater heaters. 11 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Input Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1. Tankthe house. Supply pipe – this is the water heater inlet pipewith refills the water heater with cold water Note: The TANK

  18. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air. For a storage tank water heater, the greater the hotthe water heater with cold water Note: The TANK program usesof a natural draft tank type water heater can be without

  19. Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

  20. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design was then implemented on a prototype heater that was being developed simultaneously with the controller development. (The prototype's geometry and components are based on a currently marketed heater, but several improvements have been made.) The MPC's temperature control performance was a vast improvement over the existing controller. With a benchmark for superior control performance established, five additional control methods were tested. One problem with MPC control is that it was found to be extremely difficult to implement in a TWH, so that it is unlikely to be widely adopted by manufacturers. Therefore the five additional control methods were selected based on their simplicity; each could be implemented by a typical manufacturer. It was found that one of these methods performed as well as MPC, or even better under many circumstances. This method uses a Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward algorithm that was developed for this project. Due to its simplicity and excellent performance this method was selected as the controller of choice. A final higher-capacity prototype heater that uses Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward control was constructed. This prototype has many improvements over the currently marketed heaters: (1) excellent control; (2) a modular design that allows for different capacity heaters to be built easily; (3) built-in fault detection and diagnosis; (4) a secondary remote user-interface; and (5) a TRIAC switching algorithm that will minimize 'flicker factor'. The design and engineering of this prototype unit will allow it to be built without an increase in cost, compared with the currently marketed heater. A design rendering of the new product is shown below. It will be launched with a new marketing campaign by Keltech in early 2009.

  1. On the electrical current distributions for the generalized Ohm's Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Pedro Ramirez Tachiquin

    2011-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper studies a particular class of analytic solutions for the Generalized Ohm's Law, approached by means of the so called formal powers of the Pseudoanalytic Function Theory. The reader will find a description of the electrical current distributions inside bounded domains, within inhomogeneous media, and their corresponding electric potentials near the boundary. Finally, it is described a technique for approaching separable-variables conductivity functions, a requisite when applying the constructive methods posed in this work.

  2. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  3. Estimating electric current densities in solar active regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheatland, M S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric currents in solar active regions are thought to provide the energy released via magnetic reconnection in solar flares. Vertical electric current densities $J_z$ at the photosphere may be estimated from vector magnetogram data, subject to substantial uncertainties. The values provide boundary conditions for nonlinear force- free modelling of active region magnetic fields. A method is presented for estimating values of $J_z$ taking into account uncertainties in vector magnetogram field values, and minimizing $J_z^2$ across the active region. The method is demonstrated using the boundary values of the field for a force-free twisted bipole, with the addition of noise at randomly chosen locations.

  4. Hardware model of a shipboard zonal electrical distribution system (ZEDS) : alternating current/direct current (AC/DC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tidd, Chad N. (Chad Norman)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hardware model of a shipboard electrical distribution system based on aspects of the DDG 51 Flight IIA, Arleigh Burke class, 60Hz Alternating Current (AC) and the future direct current (DC), zonal electrical distribution ...

  5. Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

  6. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  7. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rcul2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERSJune 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS*

  8. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil? Fired Residential Water Heaters. Berkeley Heights, Newof Residential Gas Water Heaters. Chicago, IL, Gas ApplianceDampers for Natural Draft Water Heaters: Technical Report.

  9. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil? Fired Residential Water Heaters. Berkeley Heights, Newof Residential Gas Water Heaters. Chicago, IL, Gas Appliancewas installed on the water heater and it was tested for

  10. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation Water Heaters and Hot Water DistributionLaboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distributionfor instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss

  11. Electric machine and current source inverter drive system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A drive system includes an electric machine and a current source inverter (CSI). This integration of an electric machine and an inverter uses the machine's field excitation coil for not only flux generation in the machine but also for the CSI inductor. This integration of the two technologies, namely the U machine motor and the CSI, opens a new chapter for the component function integration instead of the traditional integration by simply placing separate machine and inverter components in the same housing. Elimination of the CSI inductor adds to the CSI volumetric reduction of the capacitors and the elimination of PMs for the motor further improve the drive system cost, weight, and volume.

  12. Electrical Current from Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations in Nano-Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loïc Henriet; Andrew N. Jordan; Karyn Le Hur

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigate a quantum dot coupled to fermionic and bosonic environments, naturally occurring in electrical circuits. The fermionic environments consist of two electronic reservoir leads and the bosonic baths are either external impedances modeled as tunable transmission lines or LC resonators (single-mode cavities). The differing sizes of the zero-point fluctuations of the quantum vacuum break the spatial symmetry of the system if the quantum dot is coupled to two reservoirs or two junctions with different bosonic environments. We show how this permits the rectification of the electrical current in both non-resonant and resonant tunneling cases.

  13. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    replaced with heat pump water heaters (efficiency of 250%).electric storage water heaters and heat pumps as shown infor Electric Water Heaters and Heat Pumps End Use Elec WH HP

  14. The origin of net electric currents in solar active regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalmasse, K; Démoulin, P; Kliem, B; Török, T; Pariat, E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a recurring question in solar physics about whether or not electric currents are neutralized in active regions (ARs). This question was recently revisited using three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations of magnetic flux emergence into the solar atmosphere. Such simulations showed that flux emergence can generate a substantial net current in ARs. Another source of AR currents are photospheric horizontal flows. Our aim is to determine the conditions for the occurrence of net vs. neutralized currents with this second mechanism. Using 3D MHD simulations, we systematically impose line-tied, quasi-static, photospheric twisting and shearing motions to a bipolar potential magnetic field. We find that such flows: (1) produce both {\\it direct} and {\\it return} currents, (2) induce very weak compression currents - not observed in 2.5D - in the ambient field present in the close vicinity of the current-carrying field, and (3) can generate force-free magnetic fields with a net current...

  15. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

  16. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  17. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  18. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

  19. Submerged electricity generation plane with marine current-driven motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dehlsen, James G.P.; Dehlsen, James B.; Fleming, Alexander

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An underwater apparatus for generating electric power from ocean currents and deep water tides. A submersible platform including two or more power pods, each having a rotor with fixed-pitch blades, with drivetrains housed in pressure vessels that are connected by a transverse structure providing buoyancy, which can be a wing depressor, hydrofoil, truss, or faired tube. The platform is connected to anchors on the seafloor by forward mooring lines and a vertical mooring line that restricts the depth of the device in the water column. The platform operates using passive, rather than active, depth control. The wing depressor, along with rotor drag loads, ensures the platform seeks the desired operational current velocity. The rotors are directly coupled to a hydraulic pump that drives at least one constant-speed hydraulic-motor generator set and enables hydraulic braking. A fluidic bearing decouples non-torque rotor loads to the main shaft driving the hydraulic pumps.

  20. NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have the potential to significantly reduce energy use in homes compared to traditional electric resistance water heaters. Researchers at the National Renewable

  1. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Tichenor, Mark S. (San Diego, CA); Artau, Alexander (Humacao, PR)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  2. Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by Jerone Gagliano, director of Energy Engineering Performance Systems Development, about residential water heating technology and how to choose the right water heater.

  3. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  4. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  5. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  6. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I For the compact heater, the solar absorption rate equalsPERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M.PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M.

  7. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M.PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M.The Performance of Solar Water Heaters with Natu)""al

  8. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rculperformance of solar thermos i phon water heaters with heatSolar Jubilee, Phoenix, AZ, June 2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS

  9. Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

  10. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calibration 9.3. Water Heater Tank Volume and Thermocouplein Appendix 9.3, Water Heater Tank Volume and ThermocoupleGauge 0?160 psig Water Heater Tank Volume and Thermocouple

  11. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm Water Standard Water Heater Tank Hot Water The solarof average tank water temperature for a heater as a functiontank can also be accom- plished by natural convection. In the compact water heater,

  12. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M. Daneshyar. andOF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M. Daneshyar, tWarm Water Standard Water Heater Tank Hot Water The solar

  13. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  14. Electric Vehicle Manufacturing in Southern California: Current Developments, Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Allen J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power plants) that produce the electricity required to recharge EVs, given the fuel generat~tng mix of Southern California,

  15. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  16. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  17. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC)...

  18. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

  19. Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Sun, Xiao-Guang (Tempe, AZ)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

  20. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  1. Overview of current and future energy storage technologies for electric power applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514 3. Battery storage technologiesOverview of current and future energy storage technologies for electric power applications Ioannis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513 2. Flywheel storage technologies

  2. Webinar: Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recording and text version of the webinar titled "Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)," originally presented on June 24, 2014.

  3. Nuclear Plant Feedwater Heater Handbook. Volume 2. Design and procurement guidelines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.J.; Wells, T.G. Jr.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the second part of a three volume handbook covering closed feedwater heaters for nuclear electric power generating plants. This second volume covers the engineering, design, specification, bid, procurement, fabrication, installation and commissioning of the heater. 22 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Tuning The Laser Heater Undulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Zackary

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The laser heater undulator for the LCLS requires different tuning techniques than the main undulators. It is a pure permanent magnet (PPM) undulator, rather than the hybrid design of the main undulators. The PPM design allows analytic calculation of the undulator fields. The calculations let errors be introduced and correction techniques be derived. This note describes how the undulator was modelled, and the methods which were found to correct potential errors in the undulator. The laser heater undulator for the LCLS is a pure permanent magnet device requiring different tuning techniques than the main undulators. In this note, the laser heater undulator is modelled and tuning techniques to compensate various errors are derived.

  5. Critical issues and current views on teaching basic circuits and systems in electrical engineering education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    education Joos Vandewalle Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) Katholieke Universiteit Leuven B-3001, its impact in the electrical engineering education and in order to increase the intrinsic interestCritical issues and current views on teaching basic circuits and systems in electrical engineering

  6. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (R.D. #2, Box 101 E, North Troy, NY 12182)

    1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  7. Energy Conservation in Process Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagge, R. W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic concepts of air preheating as familiar from boiler plants can be used in process heaters. These systems are (1): - direct air preheaters a. recuperative b. regenerative indirect air preheating - air preheating with an outside hot stream... preheating system added to eXixting crude oil heater. 42 ESL-IE-82-04-08 Proceedings from the Fourth Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 4-7, 1982 Regenerative air preheaters The regenerative or the Ljungstrom air preheater...

  8. Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hawaii Energy, a third-party administered public benefits fund, provides incentives for energy efficiency and conservation to customers of the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and its subsidiaries,...

  9. Finite element analysis of a current density -electric eld formulation of Bean's model for superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Styles, Vanessa

    Finite element analysis of a current density - electric #12;eld formulation of Bean's model a current density-electric #12;eld formulation of Bean's model for the experimental set-up of a in#12;nitely. As observed by Bossavit, [4], Bean's critical state model can be formulated as a degenerate Stefan problem

  10. Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

  11. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Physically larger water heaters and water heaters capable ofwater heaters, heat-pump water heaters, and instantaneous (different types of water heaters and use them differently.

  12. alternating electric current: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  13. alternating current electrical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rays is used. Photovoltaics currently relies on three technologies. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are silicon-based. Thin-film cells use semi-conductor materials....

  14. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have storage tank water heaters, and 3 million householdsstorage water heater (ESWH) with tank and controls; and (2)water heaters could spill over into the more common tank

  15. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) DevelopmentJ. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into The2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiency

  16. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  17. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater...

  18. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) Development2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiencyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  19. Regenerative Boiler Feedwater Heater Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    O- REFEREWCE (,\\SI:: J CURRENT CASE I CHANGE INCR or DEeR 7JTAL FUEL M 10?E. BTU/HR 842.44 827. 9~ -14.50 .i) .. ft!::.::r COUPLED SHAFT P()I,oIER 8HP 4700 4700 0 TuTAl ELECTRICAL GENERATION 8AC... PRESSURE TURBINES CONDENSING TURBI HES 5TE...

  20. Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for warming field plots from 1 to 100 m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimball B. A.; Lewin K.; Conley, M. M.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To study the likely effects of global warming on open-field vegetation, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters are currently being used for low-stature (<1 m) plants in small ({le}3 m) plots. To address larger ecosystem scales, herein we show that excellent uniformity of the warming can be achieved using nested hexagonal and rectangular arrays. Energy costs depend on the overall efficiency (useable infrared energy on the plot per electrical energy in), which varies with the radiometric efficiency (infrared radiation out per electrical energy in) of the individual heaters and with the geometric efficiency (fraction of thermal radiation that falls on useable plot area) associated with the arrangement of the heaters in an array. Overall efficiency would be about 26% at 4 ms{sup -1} wind speed for a single hexagonal array over a 3-m-diameter plot and 67% for a 199-hexagon honeycomb array over a 100-m-diameter plot, thereby resulting in an economy of scale.

  1. Development and current status of electric double-layer capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morimoto, Takeshi; Hiratsuka, Kazuya; Sanada, Yasuhiro [Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Research Center; Kurihara, Kaname [ELNA Co., Ltd., Fujisawa (Japan)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) based on the charge storage at the interface between a high surface area carbon electrode and an electrolyte solution is widely used as maintenance-free power source for IC memories and microcomputers. New applications for electric double-layer capacitors have been proposed in recent years. The popularity of these devices is derived from their high energy density relative to conventional capacitors and their long cycle life and high power density relative to batteries. In this paper a classification and a characteristics of industrially produced Japanese small EDLCs are reviewed. Structure and performance of power capacitors under development as well as materials and performance of industrially produced small capacitors are discussed.

  2. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diagram 1: A Typical Tank Water Heater Source: http://California households. Tank water heaters stayed constant.the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results

  3. Device for conversion of electromagnetic radiation into electrical current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blakeslee, A.E.; Mitchell, K.W.

    1980-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnetic energy may be converted directly into electrical energy by a device comprising a sandwich of at least two semiconductor portions, each portion having a p-n junction with a characteristic energy gap, and the portions lattice matched to one another by an intervening superlattice structure. This superlattice acts to block propagation into the next deposited portion of those dislocation defects which can form due to lattice mismatch between adjacent portions.

  4. Numerical analysis of electric field formulations of the eddy current model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Rodolfo

    Numerical analysis of electric field formulations of the eddy current model Alfredo Berm´udez1 methods for the numeri- cal solution of the eddy current problem in a bounded conducting domain crossed): 78M10, 65N30 Key words Low-frequency harmonic Maxwell equations, eddy currents, finite elements

  5. Heater head for Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M.A.; Emigh, S.G.

    1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a heater head for a Stirling engine comprising: a housing for enclosing the heater head with gas at a substantial elevated pressure; insulator means attached to the housing for insulating the heater head; inlet means attached to a regenerator in the housing for admission of relatively high pressure working fluid from the regenerator of a Stirling engine; a first annular heating wall in the housing attached to the inlet means for heating the working fluid; and, a second annular heating wall in the housing concentric with the first heating wall but of lesser diameters so that an annular space is formed between the first heating wall and the second heating wall for heating working fluid; and a third heating wall in the housing concentric with and smaller in diameter than the second heating wall forming the condensing area of a heat pipe between the second heating wall and the third heating wall.

  6. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  7. East Central Electric Cooperative- Residential Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    East Central Electric Cooperative offers rebates to residential customers to install energy-efficient ground source heat pumps, electric water heaters, and appliances. To qualify for the rebate...

  8. The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

  9. The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

  10. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

  11. Electric field in hard superconductors with arbitrary cross section and general critical current law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majós, Antonio Badía

    Electric field in hard superconductors with arbitrary cross section and general critical current-28871 Alcala´ de Henares, Spain Received 18 February 2004; accepted 11 March 2004 The induced electric field E x during magnetic flux entry in superconductors with arbitrary cross section and general

  12. The electromagnetic fields and the radiation of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Lazar

    2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric and magnetic fields of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop are calculated using the Jefimenko equations. The radiation and the nonradiation parts of the electromagnetic fields are derived in the framework of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic fields. In this way, a new, exact, analytical solution of the Maxwell equation is found.

  13. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  14. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  15. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

  16. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

  17. Current Generated Harmonics and Their Effect Upon Electrical Industrial Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, H. R.; Rogge, D. S.

    of the nonlinear loads with respect to that system. The distortion increases as the percentage of nonlinear loads increases. (2) PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED WITH HARMONICS High Neutral Conductor Currcnts Perhaps the dominant harmonic problem encountered... in commercial facilities and some industrial plants has been the overheating of neutral conductors of 3-phase, 4-wire branch and feeder distribution systems. In a balanced, 3-phase, 4-wire wye system with phase-to-ncutral linear loads, the neutral current...

  18. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study on Eco-Design of Water Heaters, Van Holstein en Kemnaheater. Eco-design of Water Heaters and Methodology studyboth storage-type water heaters and tankless water heaters.

  19. Powering Your Water Heater Using Solar Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Daniel

    2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a detailed overview of my research on solar water heating. Solar water heaters may be used to either supplement or even replace a standard water heater. In addition to being environmentally friendly, solar heaters can save a homeowner...

  20. Tankless Electric Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014,ZaleskiThis Decision considersTable 1: Points ofGinnyTheIllustration of

  1. Storage Electric Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Site EnvironmentalEnergySafelyVirtualStephanie Price Stephanie PriceStoller Prime

  2. Generation of longitudinal electric current by the transversal electromagnetic field in collisional plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latyshev, A V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From kinetic Vlasov equation for collisional plasmas distribution function is received in square-law approximation on size of electromagnetic field. The formula for calculation electric current is deduced at any temperature (any degree of degeneration electronic gas). This formula contains one-dimension quadrature. It is shown, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This longitudinal current is perpendicular to the known transversal classical current, received at the linear analysis. When frequency of collisions tends to zero, all received results for collisional plasma pass in known corresponding formulas for collisionless plasma. The case of small values of wave number is considered. It is shown, that the received quantity of longitudinal current at tendency of frequency of collisions to zero also passes in known corresponding expression of current for collisionless plasmas. Graphic comparison of dimensionless size of current is spen...

  3. On the Influence of Weak Magnetic and Electric Fields on the Fluctuations of Ionic Electric Currents in Blood Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakirjon Kanokov; Juern W. P. Schmelzer; Avazbek K. Nasirov

    2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of a variety of existing experimental data leads to the conclusion on the existence of a resonance mechanism allowing weak magnetic fields to affect biological processes. These fields may either be static magnetic fields comparable in magnitude with the magnetic field of the earth or weak ultra-low frequency time-dependent fields. So far, a generally accepted theoretical model allowing one to understand the effect of magnetic and electric fields on biological processes is not available. By this reason, it is not clear which characteristics of the fields, like magnetic and electric field strength, frequency of change of the field, shape of the electromagnetic wave, the duration of the magnetic or electric influence or some particular combination of them, are responsible for the biological effect. In the present analysis it is shown that external time-independent magnetic fields may cause a resonance amplification of ionic electric currents in biological tissues and, in particular, in the vasculature system due to a Brownian motion of charges. These resonance electric currents may cause necrotic changes in the tissues or blood circulation and in this way significantly affect the biological organism. The magnitude of the magnetic fields leading to resonance effects is estimated, it is shown that it depends significantly on the radius of the blood capillaries.

  4. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menotti, James Louis (Dickinson, TX)

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  5. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  6. Marine Tidal Current Electric Power Generation Technology: State of the Art and Current Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    resurgence in development of renewable ocean energy technology. Therefore, several demonstration projects appreciated as a vast renewable energy source. The energy is stored in oceans partly as thermal energy, partly categories: wave energy, marine and tidal current energy, ocean thermal energy, energy from salinity

  7. The Effect of Electric Fields In A Classic Introductory Physics Treatment of Eddy Current Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. J. Salzman; John Robert Burke; Susan M. Lea

    2006-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple model of eddy currents in which current is computed solely from magnetic forces acting on electrons proves accessible to introductory students and gives a good qualitative account of eddy current forces. However, this model cannot be complete; it ignores the electric fields that drive current outside regions of significant magnetic field. In this paper we show how to extend the model to obtain a boundary value problem for current density. Solution of this problem in polar coordinates shows that the electric field significantly affects the quantitative results and presents an exercise suitable for upper division students. We apply elliptic cylindrical coordinates to generalize the result and offer an exercise useful for teaching graduate students how to use non-standard coordinate systems.

  8. The distribution of the electric current in a watt-balance coil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasso, Carlo Paolo; Mana, Giovanni

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the watt balance experiment, separate measurements of the Lorentz and electromotive forces in a coil in a radial magnetic field enable a virtual comparison between mechanical and electric powers to be carried out, which lead to an accurate measurement of the Planck constant. This paper investigates the effect of a spatially inhomogeneous distribution of the electric current in the coil due to the higher or lower resistance of the outer or inner paths.

  9. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  10. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well asmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  11. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renewablespace heaters, and solar water heaters, as well as other

  12. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water heaters, heat-pump water heaters, and instantaneous (Wasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/New

  13. 1. SOME RESULTS FROM A FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THERMO-MECHANICAL LOADING OF A ROCKMASS WHEN HEATERS ARE EMPLACED IN THE ROCK. II. THE APPLICATION OF FIELD DATA FROM HEATER EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED AT STRIPA, SWEDEN TO PARAMETERS FOR REPOSITORY DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hood, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12). Electrical Heaters for Thermo-mechanical Tests at theA FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THERMO-MECHANICAL LOADING OF A ROCKthose predicted by linear thermo- elastic theory, then the

  14. Joint used for coupling long heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menottie, James Louis

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for coupling ends of elongated heaters and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include two elongated heaters with an end portion of one heater abutted or near to an end portion of the other heater and a core coupling material. The core coupling material may extend between the two elongated heaters. The elongated heaters may include cores and at least one conductor substantially concentrically surrounds the cores. The cores may have a lower melting point than the conductors. At least one end portion of the conductor may have a beveled edge. The gap formed by the beveled edge may be filled with a coupling material for coupling the one or more conductors. One end portion of at least one core may have a recessed opening and the core coupling material may be partially inside the recessed opening.

  15. A performance correlation of horizontal solar heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopffarth, Wilford Hugo

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SYMBOLS BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX 53 56 58 Data 59 LIST OF FIGURES F igure s I. Infrared Spectrum Transmission of Tedlar I I. Spectral Transmission of Tedlar and Glass I I I. Transmittance ? Absorption Characteristics of Page 16 16 Solar Heaters... by radiation and convection through the upper sections of the solar heater. In order to utilize this correlation along with the transmittance ? absorption product of a parti- cular solar heater for accurate scale-up calculations, one must not change certain...

  16. Laser Heater and seeded Free Electron Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dattoli, G; Sabia, E

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we consider the effect of laser heater on a seeded Free Electron Laser. We develop a model embedding the effect of the energy modulation induced by the heater with those due to the seeding. The present analysis is compatible with the experimental results obtained at FERMI displaying secondary maxima with increasing heater intensity. The treatment developed in the paper confirms and extends previous analyses and put in evidence further effects which can be tested in future experiments.

  17. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 085310 (2012) Spin-polarized electric currents in diluted magnetic semiconductor heterostructures induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganichev, Sergey

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the study of spin-polarized electric currents in diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) quantum wells in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are currently discussed as a key issue for the developmentPHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 085310 (2012) Spin-polarized electric currents in diluted magnetic

  18. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  19. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  20. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  1. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow from low-mass collectors to the solar preheat tank isANALYSIS [Collectors I For the compact heater, the solar

  2. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in developing a realistic degradation term for tankless water heatersstep (water draw event) in the simulation. Instantaneous Gas Water Heater

  3. Ozark Border Electric Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ozark Border Electric Cooperative has made rebates available to residential members for the installation of energy efficient geothermal and air source heat pumps, electric water heaters, and room...

  4. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  5. Hybrid single-electron transistor as a source of quantized electric current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    system is that hybrid tunnel junctions suppress tunnelling in an energy range determined by the gapLETTERS Hybrid single-electron transistor as a source of quantized electric current JUKKA P. PEKOLA of a hybrid normal-metal­ superconductor turnstile in the form of a one-island single- electron transistor

  6. Abstract Our current computer and electrical engineering practices are insufficient to assure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Shiu-Kai

    Abstract ­ Our current computer and electrical engineering practices are insufficient to assure solving, cyber leadership and technical communication. We discuss a portion of the curriculum usedAfee attribute losses of up to a trillion dollars to these breaches [6]. The cost of security breaches have

  7. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between multiple organizations performing their part in the test.

  8. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  9. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  10. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  11. Multiple pole electromagnetic propulsion system with separated ballistic guidance and electrical current contact surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sims, Jr., James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electromagnetic propulsion system is disclosed having separate rails for ballistic guidance and for carrying current. In this system, one or more pairs of ballistic guidance rails are provided, with each ballistic guidance rail having a pair of current carrying rails joined to it to form a combined rail. Each combined rail is separated electrically from adjacent combined rails by electrically insulating blocks. Each of the current carrying rails in a given combined rail pair have the same electrical polarity, and the polarities alternate between adjacent combined rails. Armatures contact current carrying rails to complete the circuit to generate the accelerating Lorentz force on the armatures. Bore riders on the sabot and/or projectile are in contact with the ballistic guide rails. Separation of the current carrying and ballistic guidance functions increases resistance of the system to rail movement and bending, as well as reduced wear/damage to the rails. In further embodiments, a circumferential over wrap providing compressive force on the rails further increases resistance of the system to rail movement and bending.

  12. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    price for a condensing commercial water heater is $1,579.For condensing commercial water heaters with a thermalFound products for water heater in any product field and gas

  13. Enhancement of crystal homogeneity of protein crystals under application of an external alternating current electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koizumi, H.; Uda, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Nozawa, J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Tachibana, M. [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0027 (Japan); Kojima, K. [Department of Education, Yokohama Soei University, 1 Miho-tyou, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-0015 (Japan)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction rocking-curve measurements were performed on tetragonal hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme crystals grown with and without the application of an external alternating current (AC) electric field. The crystal quality was assessed by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for each rocking curve. For two-dimensional maps of the FWHMs measured on the 440 and the 12 12 0 reflection, the crystal homogeneity was improved under application of an external electric field at 1 MHz, compared with that without. In particular, the significant improvement of the crystal homogeneity was observed for the 12 12 0 reflection.

  14. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study on Eco-Design of Water Heaters, Van Holstein en Kemnaon Eco-Design of Water Heaters”, Task 5 Report, DefinitionTesting of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance. Davis

  15. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gas Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for gas storage...

  16. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States...

  17. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks.heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks.

  18. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal...

  19. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resistance and heat pump water heaters are not covered.other than commercial heat pump water heaters). 10CFR431.110

  20. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study on Eco-Design of Water Heaters, Van Holstein en Kemnaand Assessment” in Water Heating Rulemaking TechnicalG. Smith, Tankless Gas Water Heaters: Oregon Market Status,

  1. Mixed normal-superconducting states in the presence of strong electric currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaniv Almog; Bernard Helffer; Xing-Bin Pan

    2015-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Ginzburg-Landau equations in the presence of large electric currents, that are smaller than the critical current where the normal state losses its stability. For steady-state solutions in the large $\\kappa$ limit, we prove that the superconductivity order parameter is exponentially small in a significant part of the domain, and small in the rest of it. Similar results are obtained for the time-dependent problem, in continuation of the paper by the two first authors [3]. We conclude by obtaining some weaker results, albeit similar, for steady-state solutions in the large domain limit.

  2. Harmonic effects of solar geomagnetically induced currents on the electrical distribution system in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Kasturi, S. [MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States); Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most previous analysis on the effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) on electric utility systems has steady-state phenomena, with the main interest in the generator step-up transformer and the off-site power system. This paper begins to investigate the possible effects that a GIC event might have on the power plant itself, by examining the harmonic distortion that could exist at various voltage levels in the on-site distribution system.

  3. Harmonic effects of solar geomagnetically induced currents on the electrical distribution system in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, D.P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)); Kasturi, S. (MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States)); Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most previous analysis on the effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) on electric utility systems has steady-state phenomena, with the main interest in the generator step-up transformer and the off-site power system. This paper begins to investigate the possible effects that a GIC event might have on the power plant itself, by examining the harmonic distortion that could exist at various voltage levels in the on-site distribution system.

  4. Fault Characterization using Induced Electric Currents Presumed to Undergo Anomalous Diffusion in Mason, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Blaine Cullen

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FAULT CHARACTERIZATION USING INDUCED ELECTRIC CURRENTS PRESUMED TO UNDERGO ANOMALOUS DIFFUSION IN MASON, TEXAS A Thesis by BLAINE CULLEN MURPHY Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Blaine Cullen Murphy ABSTRACT A tensorial (9-component) controlled source electromagnetic survey over an oblique slip fault in Mason County, Texas was acquired and the data were analyzed in order to characterize the structure of the fault and observe...

  5. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  6. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  7. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and F. Southworh. 2004. Heat pump water heater technology:gas tankless water heaters, heat pump water heaters,heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well as

  8. GENERATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN THE CHROMOSPHERE VIA NEUTRAL-ION DRAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnoselskikh, V. [LPC2E, CNRS-University of Orleans, 3A Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Vekstein, G. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hudson, H. S.; Bale, S. D.; Abbett, W. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the generation of electric currents in the solar chromosphere where the ionization level is typically low. We show that ambient electrons become magnetized even for weak magnetic fields (30 G); that is, their gyrofrequency becomes larger than the collision frequency while ion motions continue to be dominated by ion-neutral collisions. Under such conditions, ions are dragged by neutrals, and the magnetic field acts as if it is frozen-in to the dynamics of the neutral gas. However, magnetized electrons drift under the action of the electric and magnetic fields induced in the reference frame of ions moving with the neutral gas. We find that this relative motion of electrons and ions results in the generation of quite intense electric currents. The dissipation of these currents leads to resistive electron heating and efficient gas ionization. Ionization by electron-neutral impact does not alter the dynamics of the heavy particles; thus, the gas turbulent motions continue even when the plasma becomes fully ionized, and resistive dissipation continues to heat electrons and ions. This heating process is so efficient that it can result in typical temperature increases with altitude as large as 0.1-0.3 eV km{sup -1}. We conclude that this process can play a major role in the heating of the chromosphere and corona.

  9. Analysis, Dimensioning and Robust Control of Shunt Active Filter for Harmonic Currents Compensation in Electrical Mains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilli, Andrea; Conficoni, Christian

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this chapter some results related to Shunt Active Filters (SAFs) and obtained by the authors and some coauthors are reported. SAFs are complex power electronics equipments adopted to compensate for cur-rent harmonic pollution in electric mains, due to nonlinear loads. By using a proper "floating" capacitor as energy reservoir, the SAF purpose is to inject in the line grid currents canceling the polluting har-monics. Control algorithms play a key role for such devices and, in general, in many power electronics applications. Moreover, systems theory is crucial, since it is the mathematical tool that enables a deep understanding of the involved dynamics of such systems, allowing a correct dimensioning, beside an effective control. As a matter of facts, current injection objective can be straightforwardly formulated as an output tracking control problem. In this fashion, the structural and insidious marginally-stable internal/zero dynamics of SAFs can be immediately highlighted and characterized in terms of si...

  10. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  12. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Kasturi, S. [MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States)] [MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant`s electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant`s protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well.

  13. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Ginestra, Jean Charles (Richmond, TX)

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  14. How Control Improvements Save Process Heater Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukelow, S. G.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , including instrumentation and controls. This provides an incentive for improving existing installations, especially for process heaters as compared to boilers. Control systems which optimize combustion air while improving other performance attributes...

  15. How Control Improvements Save Process Heater Fuel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukelow, S. G.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , including instrumentation and controls. This provides an incentive for improving existing installations, especially for process heaters as compared to boilers. Control systems which optimize combustion air while improving other performance attributes...

  16. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  17. The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Olson, and Stuart Chaitkin (LBNL). We also want to thank ourand Mithra Moezzi, also of LBNL. This work was supported byLBNL – 44749 The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

  18. Grays Harbor PUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a rebate program for the installation of solar water heaters. Rebates of $600 are available for the installation of solar collectors of 40 square...

  19. A New Approach to Optimizing Fired Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Optimizing the heater operation will prolong heater life and reduce NOx emissions. INTRODUCTION Petroleum Refining is the most energy intensive industry in the USA and accounts for 7.5% of the total energy consumption in the country. Energy... in the refining industry is around 7.1 Quadrillion Btu/year. Petroleum refining relies heavily on refining by- products as energy sources. About 6% of the petroleum is used as fuel. The situation is very similar in the Petrochemical and Fertilizer Industry...

  20. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  1. Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... million BTU ? These levels can be achieved by Ultra Low NOx burners or FGR in boilers. ? Primary products of combustion ? Carbon dioxide ? Water vapors ? Oxygen ? Nitrogen ? Trace compounds NOx emissions ? NOx or Oxides of Nitrogen have...

  2. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  3. Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  4. Phase change material storage heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goswami, D. Yogi (Gainesville, FL); Hsieh, Chung K. (Gainesville, FL); Jotshi, Chand K. (Gainesville, FL); Klausner, James F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  5. 6. Electric current is delivered to a television set at a specified voltage. The power delivered to the television is the energy per charge (voltage) multiplied by the charge per time (current) as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kioussis, Nicholas

    .1 10 m 4 4 2.1 A 6.9 m L L D V V IR I I A I LD - - × = = = = = = × 29. An electric heater - - = - - = - - = 3. (b) Now apply Ohm's Law to 1R to find 1I : 1 12.0 V 0.55 A 22 I= = 4. Repeat step 3 to find 2I : 2 12.0 V 0.18 A 67 I= = 5. Repeat step 3 to find 3I : 3 12.0 V 0.16 A 77 I= = 6. (c) Since 1 ,R I

  6. A graphical method for determining electrical conductivity of ionic solutions by direct current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Harold Navayne

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~or Sub)est& CheuAstrg A ORAPHICAL NETHGD FOR DETEBNXNINO ELECTRICAL CONDUCTXVITX OF IONXC SOLUTXONS NX DIRECT CURRENT A Thed. e C A V C CI N g 0 0 C C Approved as 4o style and oontmt by~ ( of Coed, ttee Head of Departaent or Stadent... t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 12 Ae PtSPktll4LOll df ?ll1dVAdld ~ ~ e ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t 12 Ee APP4TAld &SR PXOIORFQ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 3 Ce Phkdd I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ e ~ ~ ~ 16 1 ~ AppoF44IN ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o...

  7. Electric Kettle Takes Down Microwave in Final Round of #EnergyFaceoff...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Buchanan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three Microwave or electric kettle, which appliance...

  8. Universal electric current of interacting resonant-level models with asymmetric interactions: An extension of the Landauer formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akinori Nishino; Naomichi Hatano; Gonzalo Ordonez

    2015-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the electron transport in open quantum-dot systems described by the interacting resonant-level models with Coulomb interactions. We consider the situation in which the quantum dot is connected to the left and right leads asymmetrically. We exactly construct many-electron scattering eigenstates for the two-lead system, where two-body bound states appear as a consequence of one-body resonances and the Coulomb interactions. By using an extension of the Landauer formula, we calculate the average electric current for the system under bias voltages in the first order of the interaction parameters. Through a renormalization-group technique, we arrive at the universal electric current, where we observe the suppression of the electric current for large bias voltages, i.e., negative differential conductance. We find that the suppressed electric current is restored by the asymmetry of the system parameters.

  9. Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park] [General Electric - Appliance Park

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

  10. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Star Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.2004. Heat pump water heater technology: Experiences ofmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  11. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experiences ofStar Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  12. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experiencesstar residential water heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renew- able

  13. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asCalifornia. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation modeldifferently. TANK calculates conditions in the water heater

  14. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Star Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.gas furnaces and water heaters in US new constructioncondensing furnace and water heater and the pay-back period

  15. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    condensing furnaces and water heaters and power-vent waterstar residential water heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renew- able

  16. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. The principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the integrated WHD, and creating programs that embrace first-cost and life-cycle cost principles.

  17. Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75-80K and 4.5K temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Negm, Yehia (Braintree, MA); Zimmerman, George O. (South Hamilton, MA); Powers, Jr., Robert E. (East Boston, MA); McConeghy, Randy J. (Waxahachie, TX); Kaplan, Alvaro (Brookline, MA)

    1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K. and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizationl arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained.

  18. Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75--80K and 4. 5K temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Negm, Y.; Zimmerman, G.O.; Powers, R.E. Jr.; McConeghy, R.J.; Kaplan, A.

    1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizational arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained. 12 figures.

  19. Heat Transfer -2 A long copper wire is used to carry an electric current and has an electrical resistance of 0.4 ohm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Heat Transfer - 2 A long copper wire is used to carry an electric current and has an electrical and the insulation reaching 90 0 C. You may neglect heat transfer to the air during this process, but justify conductivity k = 300 W/m-0 C Density = 8900 kg/m3 Specific heat capacity Cp = 380 J/kg-0 C a) (10 pts) Draw

  20. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  1. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  2. FROM: Keith Dennis, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    standards for large (>55 gallon) residential electric storage water heaters used in demand response and thermal energy storage programs (Docket No. EERE-2012-BT-STD-0022). In...

  3. Central New Mexico Electric Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Central New Mexico Electric Cooperative (CNMEC) provides an incentive for its residential members to purchase energy efficient water heaters, clothes washers, dishwashers, refrigerators, and...

  4. Yellowstone Valley Electric Cooperative- Residential/Commercial Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Yellowstone Valley Electric Cooperative offers rebates to residential and commercial members for purchasing energy efficient add-on heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, water heaters, dishwashers...

  5. Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

  6. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of StaffingStorage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15,

  7. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Drop-In Heat Pump Water Heater, Oak Ridge National Lab.CA. Maxwell, J. 2004. Heat Pump Water Heater Economic Model.water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also

  8. HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    oil-filled space heater when we're only using one room. That has me wondering: is it more energy- and cost-efficient to use a space heater for 8-10 hours while keeping the...

  9. Improved Combustion Efficiencies - Control Systems for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varma, A. C.; Prengle, H. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study of the importance and applications of modern combustion control systems for retrofitting existing boilers and heaters to increase combustion efficiency. Conventional heater control and its deficiencies...

  10. Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant...

  11. Design, Stress Analysis and Operating Experience in Feedwater Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, K. P.; Libs, T.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of feedwater heaters has a direct bearing on the thermal efficiency of the plant. A typical feedwater heater may have three distinct regions of heat transfer, namely desuperheating, condensing and subcooling zones. The design...

  12. Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant...

  13. Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a mature applied technology, the largest obstacle to the promotion of the solar water heater is the high initial investment that makes an impact on consumers' choices. The initial investment and maintenance cost of the solar water heater...

  14. Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a mature applied technology, the largest obstacle to the promotion of the solar water heater is the high initial investment that makes an impact on consumers' choices. The initial investment and maintenance cost of the solar water heater...

  15. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A household can receive a maximum of two solar water heater rebates. Rebate amounts vary slightly based upon installed equipment. Rebates will be $1,250 for solar water heaters with an OG-300 rat...

  16. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

  17. ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the Next Five Years ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the...

  18. TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each...

  19. TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local...

  20. TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right' Water Heater Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each...

  1. Kirkwood Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kirkwood Electric offers rebates to its residential customers who install energy-efficient heat pumps and electric hot water heaters in their new and existing homes. Customers will be given a...

  2. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

  3. THEORETICAL TEMPERATURE FIELDS FOR THE STRIPA HEATER PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step" nature of the radial profiles for Experiment 2 arising from the delayed turn-on of the peripheral heaters.

  4. Life cycle assessment of buildings technologies: High-efficiency commercial lighting and residential water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, S.L.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study the life cycle emissions and energy use are estimated for two types of energy technologies. The first technology evaluated is the sulfur lamp, a high-efficiency lighting system under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Fusion Lighting, the inventor of the technology. The sulfur lamp is compared with conventional metal halide high-intensity discharge lighting systems. The second technology comparison is between standard-efficiency and high-efficiency gas and electric water heaters. In both cases the life cycle energy use and emissions are presented for the production of an equivalent level of service by each of the technologies. For both analyses, the energy use and emissions from the operation of the equipment are found to dominate the life cycle profile. The life cycle emissions for the water heating systems are much more complicated. The four systems compared include standard- and high-efficiency gas water heaters, standard electric resistance water heaters, and heat pump water heaters.

  5. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  6. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resistance storage water heater with tank and controls;tank size and thermostat set point of the water heater, and

  7. Curvature and torsion effects in electric current-carrying twisted solar loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica-IF-UERJ, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Rio de Janeiro, RJ Maracana, CEP 20550-013 Brazil (Brazil)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Riemannian geometry of the electric current-carrying solar loops is obtained from a thin tube approximation of twisted magnetic flux tubes. The Frenet torsion and curvature affect the electron drift speed of the electrons of the current along the toroidal direction of the tube. The twist of the tube is computed and it is shown that twist is maximum at the surface of the tube and minimum at the tube axis. This acts as inertia effects to the electron drift. The higher the torsion of the tube axis the smaller is the velocity along the direction of the tube. This effect is similar to the one obtained by Tyspin et al. [Physics of Plasmas, 5, 3385 (1998)] in the case of toroidal devices with curvature and torsion. Here the simple geometrical effects are enough to slow down the currents and no viscosity in the fluid is taken into account. A slight compressibility of the plasma flow is due to the twist of the tube. As applications of these ideas, it is shown that torsion effects are not enough to accelerate electrons up to relativistic energies, and the torsion is computed in the case of the force-free loop. The value of torsion is used to compute the electron acceleration in two distinct cases. The first is the case when the Riemann loop suffers the action of a dc electric sub-Dreicer field, where the magnetic field is direct along the magnetic loop, and the loop moves along the orthogonal direction to the loop as in vortex filaments. In this case, the acceleration is shown to be of the order of 10{sup -17} cm s{sup -2} for a solar torsion of the order of 10{sup -4} cm{sup -1}. The second case is for the curvature drift contribution, where torsion is also present. In this case we show that torsion is not present in the velocity drift but just in the electron acceleration. Though these values are extremely low, they can be improved by considering small loops lowering the radius of the loop which, here, was taken as 600 km. Curvature drift acceleration is also estimated as 100 cm s{sup -2}.

  8. Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  9. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  10. General Physics II Exam 1 -Chs. 16,17,18 -Electric Fields, Potential, Current Feb. 8, 2010 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysin, Gary

    General Physics II Exam 1 - Chs. 16,17,18 - Electric Fields, Potential, Current Feb. 8, 2010 Name. These charges produce an electric field in the surrounding region. a) (6) Find the x & y components of the electric field E at point A. b) (6) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at point A. c

  11. Dynamics of Electric Currents, Magnetic Field Topology and Helioseismic Response of a Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharykin, I N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar flare on July 30, 2011 was of a modest X-ray class (M9.3), but it made a strong photospheric impact and produced a "sunquake," observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). In addition to the helioseismic waves (also observed with the SDO/AIA instrument), the flare caused a large expanding area of white-light emission and was accompanied by substantial restructuring of magnetic fields, leading to the rapid formation of a sunspot structure in the flare region. The flare produced no significant hard X-ray emission and no coronal mass ejection. This indicates that the flare energy release was mostly confined to the lower atmosphere. The absence of significant coronal mass ejection rules out magnetic rope eruption as a mechanism of helioseismic waves. We discuss the connectivity of the flare energy release with the electric currents dynamics and show the potential importance of high-speed plasma flows in the lower solar atmosphere during the flare e...

  12. Response to ``Comment on `Parallel electric fields in the upward current region of the aurora: Numerical solutions'''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    of H is largely conserved. Our article identifies several areas where a dynamic simulation is needed , decidedly the opposite argument used in his abstract fully dynamic simulations are needed for the lowestResponse to ``Comment on `Parallel electric fields in the upward current region of the aurora

  13. Fuzzy-Based Electric Current Dependency on an MR Damper Model Javier A. Ruiz-Cabrera, Ruben Morales-Menendez,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , the first step in designing a control strategy for a suspension system is, usually, modelling the behaviorFuzzy-Based Electric Current Dependency on an MR Damper Model Javier A. Ruiz-Cabrera, Ruben Morales to develop a model for the system. The present research is centered on proposing and analyzing a fuzzy

  14. Existence and stability of superconducting solutions for the Ginzburg-Landau equations in the presence of weak electric currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaniv Almog; Leonid Berlyand; Dmitry Golovaty; Itai Shafrir

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For a reduced Ginzburg-Landau model in which the magnetic field is neglected, we prove, for weak electric currents, the existence of a steady-state solution in a vicinity of the purely superconducting state. We further show that this solution is linearly stable.

  15. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA); McDermott, Wayne T. (Allentown, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  16. A performance correlation of horizontal solar heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopffarth, Wilford Hugo

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PERFORMANCE CORRELATION OF HORIZONTAL SOLAR HEATERS A Thesis by WILFORD HUGO GOPFFARTH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1964... Major Subject: Chemical Engineering ABSTRACT The purpose of this work was to determine design parameters for flat plastic covered solar collectors. First, the transmittance ? absorp- tion product as a function of the angle of incidence was determined...

  17. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  18. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers should reinvest in R&D to lower the price of the units. The manufacturers should work with ''do-it-yourself'' (DIY) stores to facilitate introduction of th

  19. Recommended practice for fire protection for electric generating plants and high voltage direct current converter stations. 2005 ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard outlines fire safety recommendations for gas, oil, coal, and alternative fuel electric generating plants including high voltage direct current converter stations and combustion turbine units greater than 7500 hp used for electric generation. Provisions apply to both new and existing plants. The document provides fire prevention and fire protection recommendations for the: safety of construction and operating personnel; physical integrity of plant components; and continuity of plant operations. The 2005 edition includes revisions and new art that clarify existing provisions. 5 annexes.

  20. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  1. Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); DeRossi, Raymond S. (Amsterdam, NY); Mullins, Lawrence E. (Middle Grove, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a prober assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

  2. Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - Second Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the 1980s various attempts have been made to apply the efficiency of heat pumps to water heating. The products generated in the 80s and 90s were not successful, due in part to a lack of reliability and difficulties with installation and servicing. At the turn of the century, EnvironMaster International (EMI) produced a heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on a design developed by Arthur D. Little (ADL), with subsequent developmental assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ADL. This design was a drop-in replacement for conventional electric water heaters. In field and durability testing conducted by ORNL, it proved to be reliable and saved on average more than 50% of the energy used by the best conventional electric water heater. However, the retail price set by EMI was very high, and it failed in the market. ORNL was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. Several cost saving opportunities were found. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. After some experimentation, a prototype unit was built with a double-wall coil inserted into the tank. When tested it achieved an energy factor (EF) of 2.12 to 2.2 using DOE-specified test procedures. A.O. Smith contacted ORNL in May 2006 expressing their interest in the ORNL design. The prototype unit was shipped to A.O. Smith to be tested in their laboratory. After they completed their test, ORNL analyzed the raw test data provided by A.O. Smith and calculated the EF to be approximately 1.92. The electric resistance heating elements of a conventional electric water heater are typically retained in a heat pump water heater to provide auxiliary heating capacity in periods of high demand. A.O. Smith informed us that when they applied electric resistance backup heating, using the criterion that resistance heat would be applied whenever the upper thermostat saw water temperatures below the heater s nominal setpoint of 135oF, they found that the EF dropped to approximately 1.5. This is an extremely conservative criterion for backup resistance heating. In a field test of the previously mentioned EMI heat pump water heater, residential consumers found satisfactory performance when the criterion for use of electric resistance backup heating was the upper temperature dropping below the set point minus 27 degrees. Applying this less conservative criterion to the raw data from the original A.O. Smith EF tests indicates that electric resistance heating would never have come on during the test, and thus the EF would have remained in the vicinity of 1.9. A.O. Smith expressed concern about having an EF below 2, as that value triggers certain tax advantages and would assist in their marketing of the product. We believe that insertion of additional length of tubing plus a less conservative set point for electric resistance backup heating would remedy this concern. However, as of this writing, A.O. Smith has not decided to proceed with a commercial product.

  3. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  4. Rotary electrical contact device and method for providing current to and/or from a rotating member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Examples of rotary electrical connectors include a first pair and a second pair of opposing sheaves coupled together by intersecting first shaft connecting the first pair of opposing sheaves and a second shaft connecting the second pair of opposing sheaves, and at least partially electrically conductive belt disposed about respective perimeters of the first pair and second pair of opposing sheaves and adapted to remain in contact with at least a portion of the respective perimeters of the sheaves during motion of said sheaves. In example devices, one of the plurality of sheaves may remain stationary during operation of the device while the remaining sheaves rotate and/or orbit around a center axis of the stationary sheave, the device being configured to couple current between a stationary power source and a rotating member through the electrically conductive belt.

  5. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions from Residential Water Heaters Table of Contents46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentally50 Table 11. Published information for water heater

  6. Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test Procedures for Water Heaters; Final Rule," FederalTesting of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance," DavisInc. , "T-K2 Instantaneous Water Heater Installation Manual

  7. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    testing storage water heaters, water was drawn either prioris located behind the water heater and samples before thelocated behind the water heater and sample emissions prior

  8. Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Products: Test Procedures for Water Heaters; Final Rule,"Testing of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance," DavisInc. , "T-K2 Instantaneous Water Heater Installation Manual

  9. An electrical network model for computing current distribution in a spirally wound lithium ion cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patnaik, Somani

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium ion batteries are the most viable option for electric vehicles but they still have significant limitations. Safety of these batteries is one of the concerns that need to be addressed when they are used in mainstream ...

  10. Current Legal and Institutional Frameworks for Investing in Lower Carbon Electricity in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, X; Reiner, David; Neuhoff, Karsten

    ), which is a state-owned and state-controlled enterprise, is the largest electric power planning and engineering corporation in China, having undertaken the survey and design of 60% of power generation and delivery projects in China (CPECC, 2007... 15 generation. To support the plan, policies such as ‘replacing small units by large units’ and ‘regulations on managing renewable power’ have been put forward. In principle, financing lower carbon electricity including higher efficiency coal...

  11. Gas Turbine Fired Heater Integration: Achieve Significant Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iaquaniello, G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Faster payout will result if gas turbine exhaust is used as combustion air for fired heaters. Here are economic examples and system design considerations....

  12. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the indirect increase in home heating (and the decrease inincrease the home’s heating load in the heating season (Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,

  13. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

  14. AN EDDY CURRENT PROBLEM IN TERMS OF A TIME-PRIMITIVE OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD WITH NON-LOCAL SOURCE CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Rodolfo

    AN EDDY CURRENT PROBLEM IN TERMS OF A TIME-PRIMITIVE OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD WITH NON-LOCAL SOURCE Abstract. The aim of this paper is to analyze a formulation of the eddy current problem in terms of a time and phrases: Eddy current problems, time-dependent electromagnetic problems, input current intensities

  15. Effects of electrical voltage/current on farm animals: How to detect and remedy problems. Agriculture handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefcourt, A.M.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The handbook examines (1) the history of stray voltage/current problems on farms, (2) the physical and electrical sources of stray voltage/current phenomena, (3) the physiological and behavioral bases for losses in milk production, (4) methods for identifying and detecting stray voltage/current problems, (5) methods for mitigating such problems, and (6) areas where further research may be warranted. While the primary emphasis is on cattle and dairy farms, the theories and procedures discussed are completely relevant to all types of livestock and livestock housing facilities. Recommendations are made for action levels and concerning mitigation techniques. The fundamental conclusion of the handbook is that stray voltages/currents can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  16. On the possibility of highlevel transient coronal mass ejectioninduced ionospheric current coupling to electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Jamesina J.

    and recent magnetometer measurements, both of which indicate the existence of such rapid ionospheric current mechanisms involving the (long timescale) induction of geomagnetically induced currents, which heavily depend to warrant measurements of rapid ionospheric current fluctuations at timescales much shorter than considered

  17. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

    1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  18. Controlling the set of carbon-fiber embedded cement with electric current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J.

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for promoting cement or concrete set on demand for concrete that has been chemically retarded by adding carbon fiber to the concrete, which enables it to become electrically conductive, sodium tartrate retardant, and copper sulfate which forms a copper tartrate complex in alkaline concrete mixes. Using electricity, the concrete mix anodically converts the retarding tartrate to an insoluble polyester polymer. The carbon fibers act as a continuous anode surface with a counter electrode wire embedded in the mix. Upon energizing, the retarding effect of tartrate is defeated by formation of the polyester polymer through condensation esterification thereby allowing the normal set to proceed unimpeded.

  19. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States.

  20. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asEvaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embeddedwater to be drawn from a water heater to meet a schedule of

  1. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    associated with the EU water heater test procedure loadEU test procedure for water heaters. Load No. Delivered Max.period to allow the water heater to adjust completely to

  2. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    test procedures for solar water heaters characterizes systemWasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/Newwater_heaters/Annex_IV_8July08 International Organization for Standardization, "Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 9459-4 Solar

  3. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of water heaters and hot water storage tanks of June 2010,for water heaters and hot water storage tanks, and of theof water heaters and hot water storage tanks," 2010. http://

  4. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for water heaters includes maintenance for draining the tankgas water heaters could spill over into the more common tankwater heater includes the cost of changes to the heat exchanger and the tank.

  5. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1990s. For a specified water heater and a given amount andLBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asEvaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded

  6. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Drop-In Heat Pump Water Heater, Oak Ridge National Lab.Clear Seas Research. 2006. Water Heater Study. Plumbing andJ. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into the

  7. Georgia Power- Residential Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Georgia Power customers may be eligible for rebates up to $250 each toward the installation costs of a 50 gallon or greater solar water heater or heat pump water heater. The solar water heater or...

  8. PRELIMINARY THERMAL AND THERMOMECHANICAL MODELING FOR THE NEAR SURFACE TEST FACILITY HEATER EXPERIMENTS AT HANFORD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chan, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    m from the central heater, distinct steps can be recognizedof the central heater is best described as a series of stepsequential step loading, an array of four secondary heaters

  9. Design and Commissioning Plan for a Laser Heater for FERMI@elettra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zholents, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    injector into the laser heater. Step 6): Measure electronStep 3): Use steering magnets upstream to the laser heater andthrough the laser heater at all. Step 11): Use a fast

  10. HEATER TEST PLANNING FOR THE NEAR SURFACE TEST FACILITY AT THE HANFORD RESERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DuBois, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    m from the central heater, distinct steps can be recognizedof sequential step loading, the secondary heaters will beof the central heater is best described as a series of step

  11. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013DepartmentEnterpriseDepartment of Energy

  12. Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM - Building Americaof EnergyAhorre

  13. Acceleration of electric current-carrying string loop near a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arman Tursunov; Martin Kološ; Zden?k Stuchlík; Bobomurat Ahmedov

    2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the acceleration of an electric current-carrying and axially-symmetric string loop initially oscillating in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole embedded in an external asymptotically uniform magnetic field. The plane of the string loop is orthogonal to the magnetic field lines and the acceleration of the string loop occurs due to the transmutation effect turning in the deep gravitational field the internal energy of the oscillating strings to the energy of their translational motion along the axis given by the symmetry of the black hole spacetime and the magnetic field. We restrict our attention to the motion of string loop with energy high enough, when it can overcome the gravitational attraction and escape to infinity. We demonstrate that for the current-carrying string loop the transmutation effect is enhanced by the contribution of the interaction between the electric current of the string loop and the external magnetic field and we give conditions that have to be fulfilled for an efficient acceleration. The Schwarzschild black hole combined with the strong external magnetic field can accelerate the current-carrying string loop up to the velocities close to the speed of light $v \\sim c$. Therefore, the string loop transmutation effect can potentially well serve as an explanation for acceleration of highly relativistic jets observed in microquasars and active galactic nuclei.

  14. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  15. Electrical conductivity and current-voltage characteristics of alumina with or without neutron and electron irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howlader, Matiar R

    irradiation. Radiation induced conductivity (RIC) was observed for all speci- mens under neutron and electron of the leading candidates for insula- tor and radiofrequency window/feedthrough applica- tions in magnetic fusion of alumina. Radiation induced conductivity (RIC) and radiation induced electrical de- gradation (RIED

  16. Electric Power Board- Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electric Power Board provides a financial incentive for residential customers to replace old water heaters with new ones which meet the [http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards...

  17. Berkeley Electric Cooperative- Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Berkeley Electric Cooperative (BEC) offers several rebates to residential customers for energy efficiency upgrades. The H2O Advantage Water Heater Rebate Program offers a rebate of up to $300 for...

  18. Paradox of Peroxy Defects and Positive Holes in Rocks Part II: Outflow of Electric Currents from Stressed Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoville, John; Freund, Friedemann

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the electrical properties of rocks is of fundamental interest. We report on currents generated when stresses are applied. Loading the center of gabbro tiles, 30x30x0.9 cm$^3$, across a 5 cm diameter piston, leads to positive currents flowing from the center to the unstressed edges. Changing the constant rate of loading over 5 orders of magnitude from 0.2 kPa/s to 20 MPa/s produces positive currents, which start to flow already at low stress levels, rock-forming minerals. The peroxy break-up leads to positive holes h$^{\\bullet}$, i.e. electronic states associated with O$^-$ in a matrix of O$^{2-}$, plus electrons, e'. Propagating...

  19. Current:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp -KWatertowni5W 95.5x-L* d!Qwner contacted n

  20. Current:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp -KWatertowni5W 95.5x-L* d!Qwner contacted

  1. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heaterds, solar water heaters, combined solar space/watermarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewableheaters, combined space heating and water heating appliances 3 , solar

  2. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

  3. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appliance_standards/residential/water_ pool_heaters_prelim_Star (2008). Energy star residential water heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

  4. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heater by stepping through time using variable size time steps.heater is in standby, not doing much, TANK will take larger and larger steps.

  5. Current shunting and formation of stationary shock waves during electric explosions of metal wires in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanenkov, G. V.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Barishpol'tsev, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of experiments on the generation of shock waves during electric explosions of fine copper and tungsten wires in air are analyzed. The generation mechanism of stationary shock wave by a plasma piston formed during the shunting breakdown of the electrode gap in the course of a wire explosion is investigated. The role of structural elements of such discharges, such as the core, corona, and wire environment, is analyzed.

  6. Current-driven Domain Wall Dynamics And Its Electric Signature In Ferromagnetic Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yang

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study current-induced domain wall dynamics in a thin ferromagnetic nanowire. We derive the effective equations of domain wall motion, which depend on the wire geometry and material parameters. We describe the procedure to determine...

  7. Measuring Joule heating and strain induced by electrical current with Moire interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Bicheng; Basaran, Cemal [Electronic Packaging Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, 102 Ketter Hall, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study proposes a new method to locate and measure the temperature of the hot spots caused by Joule Heating by measuring the free thermal expansion in-plane strain. It is demonstrated that the hotspot caused by the Joule heating in a thin metal film/plate structure can be measured by Phase shifting Moire interferometry with continuous wavelet transform (PSMI/CWT) at the microscopic scale. A demonstration on a copper film is conducted to verify the theory under different current densities. A correlation between the current density and strain in two orthogonal directions (one in the direction of the current flow) is proposed. The method can also be used for the measurement of the Joule heating in the microscopic solid structures in the electronic packaging devices. It is shown that a linear relationship exists between current density squared and normal strains.

  8. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    you nay give us will be greatly uppreckted. VPry truly your23, 9. IX. Sin0j3, Mtinager lclectronics and Nuclear Physics Dept. omh , WESTINGHOUSE-THE NAT KING IN ELECTRICITY...

  9. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  10. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  11. A weak-value model for virtual particles supplying the electric current in graphene: the minimal conductivity and the Schwinger mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazuhiro Yokota; Nobuyuki Imoto

    2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a model for the electric current in graphene in which electric carriers are supplied by virtual particles allowed by the uncertainty relations. The process to make a virtual particle real is described by a weak value of a group velocity: the velocity is requisite for the electric field to give the virtual particle the appropriate changes of both energy and momentum. With the weak value, we approximately estimate the electric current, considering the ballistic transport of the electric carriers. The current shows the quasi-Ohimic with the minimal conductivity of the order of e^2/h per channel. Crossing a certain ballistic time scale, it is brought to obey the Schwinger mechanism.

  12. Introduction to structural solutions by electrical analogies using an alternating current network calculator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumberg, Randolph

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V x x 139. 5 x 0. 0004 0. 0558 inches A A E 41 TABLE XIII STRESSES AND DEFLECTIONS GF THE STATICALLY INDETERMINATE TRUSS OF FIG, 9 COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND MEASURED VALUES AREA OF MEMBER 1 IS 1/10 AREA OF OTHER MEMBERS Member Si, ress...' ANALOGOUS ELECTR ICAL CIRCUIT 14 ' 58 6 4$ 46 51 58 50 57 49 I 56 4 8 - 2. 0 4mperes '8 TABLE I STRESSES ARD DEFLECT IOMS OF THE STATICALLY DETERMINATE TRUSS OF FIG. 3 CALCULATED VALUES Member Length in Feet A S Area Stress...

  13. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  14. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  15. Recent developments and future directions Coherently controlled electrical currents at surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of ultrashort current pulses at surfaces. Two phase-locked laser pulses with carrier frequencies a and a/2 of the electrons due to vibronic or electronic excitation within the junction can be neglected. In this regime e­ Metal Sample Excitations Pulses =90° Time­Delayt PhotoemissionPulse Photoelectrons 0.0 0.5 1

  16. ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT HELICITY IN ACTIVE REGIONS ON THE BASIS OF VECTOR MAGNETOGRAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    can suggest that the build up of large­scale currents in an active region due to small­scale of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China Abstract. The problem of (dc) magnetic field energy build up in the solar seemingly can occur in any active region, the energy build up mechanism must be easy accessible for all

  17. Abstract--Currently, there is a national push for a smarter electric grid, one that is more controllable and flexible. The full

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferris, Michael C.

    controllable and flexible. The full control of transmission assets are not currently built into electric network optimization models. Optimal transmission switching is a straightforward way to leverage grid. Previous papers have shown that optimizing the network topology improves the dispatch of electrical

  18. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution relied heavily on computational fluid dynamic predictions of design alternatives. The final design features modular separate radiant cells, each with one and two-side fired vertical tubes. The convection section configuration is vertical tube banks enclosed in the radiant channels. Commercial modular plate air preheaters are used. The predicted performance for the integrated advanced heater and Callidus burner is 95 percent efficiency with 9 ppm NOx emissions firing natural gas, and 12 ppm firing refinery gas. The total erected cost is less than a conventional heater with combustion air preheat.

  19. Variable power distribution for zoned regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN; Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with multiple zones, an electric heater and a control module. The electrical heater includes heater segments, which each correspond with a respective one of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and is proximate with the PM filter. The control module selectively applies a first energy level to a first one of the zones via a first one of the heater segments to initiate regeneration in the first zone. The control module also selectively applies a second energy level that is less than the first energy level to a second one of the zones via a second one of the heater segments to initiate regeneration in the second zone.

  20. GAMMA RADIATION INTERACTS WITH MELANIN TO ALTER ITS OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL AND RESULTS IN ELECTRIC CURRENT PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turick, C.; Ekechukwu, A.; Milliken, C.

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of melanin pigments in organisms is implicated in radioprotection and in some cases, enhanced growth in the presence of high levels of ionizing radiation. An understanding of this phenomenon will be useful in the design of radioprotective materials. However, the protective mechanism of microbial melanin in ionizing radiation fields has not yet been elucidated. Here we demonstrate through the electrochemical techniques of chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry that microbial melanin is continuously oxidized in the presence of gamma radiation. Our findings establish that ionizing radiation interacts with melanin to alter its oxidation-reduction potential. Sustained oxidation resulted in electric current production and was most pronounced in the presence of a reductant, which extended the redox cycling capacity of melanin. This work is the first to establish that gamma radiation alters the oxidation-reduction behavior of melanin, resulting in electric current production. The significance of the work is that it provides the first step in understanding the initial interactions between melanin and ionizing radiation taking place and offers some insight for production of biomimetic radioprotective materials.

  1. Consistent Definitions of Flux and Electric and Magnetic Current in Abelian Projected SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard W. Haymaker; Takayuki Matsuki

    2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the use of a lattice U(1) Ward-Takahashi identity, one can find a precise definition of flux and electric four-current that does not rely on the continuum limit. The magnetic four-current defined for example by the DeGrand-Toussaint construction introduces order a^2 errors in the field distributions. We advocate using a single definition of flux in order to be consistent with both the electric and magnetic Maxwell's equations at any lattice spacing. In a U(1) theory the monopoles are slightly smeared by this choice, i.e. are no longer associated with a single lattice cube. In Abelian projected SU(2) the consistent definition suggests further modifications. For simulations in the scaling window, we do not foresee large changes in the standard analysis of the dual Abrikosov vortex in the maximal Abelian gauge because the order a^2 corrections have small fluctuations and tend to cancel out. However in other gauges, the consequences of our definitions could lead to large effects which may help in understanding the choice of gauge. We also examine the effect of truncating all monopoles except for the dominant cluster on the profile of the dual Abrikosov vortex.

  2. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy multiplier Distribution losses Smart controls Wasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/

  3. Commercial Gas Water Heaters, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance and purchasing specifications for commercial gas water heaters under the FEMP-designated product program.

  4. Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a new water heater for your efficient and save you money. Consider the different types of water heaters available and determine the right size and fuel source for your home. Types of Water Heaters It's a good idea to know the different

  5. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  6. Mechanism of direct current electrical charge conduction in p-toluenesulfonate doped polypyrrole/carbon composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Amit [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Chemistry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Rajiv K.; Singh, Hari K.; Singh, Ramadhar, E-mail: ramadhar@mail.nplindia.org [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Department of Chemistry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Polypyrrole/carbon (PPy/C) composites have been synthesized using varying concentration of p-toluenesulfonate (pTS) dopant by surface initiated in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization. The synthesis and influence of pTS on the structure of the PPy/C composites are confirmed by Fourier transform infrared studies and the morphological features have been examined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, employed to examine the surface composition and doping level of these composites, confirms the anionic doping into the polymer backbone. Electron spin resonance measurement has been carried out on these samples to identify the nature of the charge carriers and their concentration at different doping levels. The dc electrical conductivity of these composites has been measured in the temperature range ?10–305?K. The observed results have been analyzed in the framework of existing theoretical models. Different Mott's parameters, such as characteristic temperature (T{sub 0}), density of states at the Fermi level (N(E{sub F})), average hopping distance (R), and average hopping energy (W), evaluated from dc conductivity data supports the applicability of Mott's three dimensional variable range hopping mechanism in this system.

  7. Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

  8. Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

  9. A Gas-Fired Heat Pipe Zone Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar...

  10. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers residential customers rebates for installing a ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater. Rebates are based on the size of the system; MMU offers $20 per...

  11. Making Water Heaters More Efficient | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Heaters More Efficient Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on...

  12. Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor the installation.

  13. A Gas-Fired Heat Pipe Zone Heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar...

  14. air heater experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S.; Yang, J. 2006-01-01 66 THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: 12;THE...

  15. active heater control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jrgen 2013-01-01 63 THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: 12;THE...

  16. aircraft heaters xxviii: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yakovlev, D G 2014-01-01 29 THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: 12;THE...

  17. arc heater production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the use of this type of product in order to reduce climate emissions. Key words: heat pump water heater, natural refrigerant, CO2, COP 1. unknown authors 35 Circular-Arc...

  18. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  19. A comprehensive review of market research on solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghent, P.; Keller, C.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the second report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. The objective of this task is to identify key elements in previous studies on the marketing of solar water heaters in the new home industry. This review includes studies performed by FOCUS Marketing Services, the National Association of Home Builders Research Center, Symmetrics Marketing Corporation, and the California Energy Commission.

  20. Gas Turbine Fired Heater Integration: Achieve Significant Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iaquaniello, G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    GAS TURBINE FIRED HEATER INTEGRATION: ACHIEVE SIGNIFICANT ENERGY SAVINGS G. Iaquaniello**, P. Pietrogrande* *KTI Corp., Research and Development Division, Monrovia, California **KTI SpA, Rome, Italy ABSTRAer Faster payout will result if gas... turbine exhaust is used as combustion air for fired heaters. Here are economic examples and system design considera-, tions. INTRODUCT ION Heat and power cogeneration is a potentially rewarding tecnique for achieving savings when applied to process...

  1. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  2. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  3. Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grozdanov, Sašo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition betwee...

  4. Dynamics of electrical double layer formation in room-temperature ionic liquids under constant-current charging conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Xikai [ORNL] [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhao, Hui [University of Nevada, Las Vegas] [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL] [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [Clemson University] [Clemson University

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report detailed simulation results on the formation dynamics of an electrical double layer (EDL) inside an electrochemical cell featuring room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) enclosed between two planar electrodes. Under relatively small charging currents, the evolution of cell potential during charging can be suitably predicted by the Landau-Ginzburg-type continuum model proposed recently (M. Z. Bazant, B. D. Storey, and A. A. Kornyshev, Phys. Rev. Lett., 106, 046102, 2011). Under very large charging currents, the cell potential shows pronounced oscillation during the initial stage of charging, a feature not captured by the continuum model. Such oscillation originates from the sequential growth of the ionic space charge layers near the electrode surface, allowing the evolution of EDLs in RTILs with time, an atomistic process difficult to visualize experimentally, to be studied by analyzing the cell potential under constant current charging conditions. While the continuum model cannot predict the potential oscillation under such far-from-equilibrium charging conditions, it can nevertheless qualitatively capture the growth of cell potential during the later stage of charging. Improving the continuum model by introducing frequency-dependent dielectric constant and density-dependent ion diffusion coefficients may help to further extend the applicability of the model. Keywords: ionic

  5. Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sašo Grozdanov; Janos Polonyi

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition between the hydrodynamical regime of an ideal gas, defined in this work, and the hydrodynamical regime in phenomenological hydrodynamics, which is normally used for the description of interacting gases.

  6. Physics II Exam 2 -Chs. 18A,19,20 -Electric Current, Magnetic Field Feb. 23, 2009 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysin, Gary

    Physics II Exam 2 - Chs. 18A,19,20 - Electric Current, Magnetic Field Feb. 23, 2009 Name Rec. Instr-hours, the quantity 850 amp-hours must be a. power. b. energy. c. current. d. charge. b) (4) Give 850 amp-hours in SI

  7. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for PAH emissions. The PAHs from tank water heaters in theIncreased Tankless Water Usage: PAHs Heavy Metals to WaterIncreased Tankless Water Usage: VOCs PAHs Heavy Metals to

  8. Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative-Residential Energy Resource Conservation Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ERC loans are available only for replacement items, not for new homes. Loans of up to $5,000 are available for heat pumps, electric water heaters, and other electric heating products.  Weatheriza...

  9. Electric Springs A new Smart Grid Technology Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Cheong

    electronics system. · · It can be embedded in an electric appliance such as electric water heater-scale wind and solar power generation · . 7 #12;Future power systems adopt "distributed" power generation (Wind and Solar Power). · ( ). · Electric Springs do not need communication and, collectively

  10. Trico Electric Cooperative- SunWatts Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the SunWatts Program, Trico Electric Cooperative offers residential and business customers a rebate for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar water heaters. The up-front rebate for...

  11. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating and Space Heating Water heater intensities and electric equipment marketheating intensities per region (North and Transition) were also taken from that study, along with conditioned floor space and equipment market

  12. Butler Rural Electric Cooperative- Residential Rebate Program (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Butler Rural Electric Cooperative provides rebates for geothermal heat pumps, dual fuel heating systems, and water heaters. A $1,200 rebate is available to residential members that install a new...

  13. Comparison of experimental and simulated thermal ratings of drain-back solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, J.H.; Carlson, W.T.; Duff, W.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States)); Schaefer, P.J.; Beckman, W.A.; Klein, S.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Short-term experimental tests of drain-back solar water heaters are compared to ratings obtained using TRNSYS to determine if computer simulations can effectively replace laboratory thermal ratings of solar domestic hot water heating systems. The effectiveness of TRNSYS in predicting changes in rating due to limited changes in collector area, collector flow rate, recirculation flow rate, storage tank volume, and storage tank design is validated to within [plus minus]10 percent. Storage tank design is varied by using a stratification manifold in place of the standard drop tube. Variations in other component sizes and operating factors are based on current industry standards.

  14. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling CorpNew 1325.8.Enaineer District2, jDCX

  15. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiency of Household Appliances in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heaters, electric water heaters, and solar water heaters.by electric water heaters (31.3%), and solar water heaters (

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

  17. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  18. Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than consumers with tank-type water heaters. There is a pre-of water from a tank-type water heater is at the temperaturetankless water heaters are more efficient that tank-type

  19. Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exchangers used to transfer heat to tqe com- I bustion air are divided into two groups. IndiIlect ! heat exchangers called "regenerative" types an~ direct heat exchangers called "recuperative" types. In a regenerative air heater, heat is transferred i...~duced I draft, air preheat system. This system can ac~omodate either a regenerative or recuperative air heater and ! Fig. 5 - Heat recovery systems. 857 ESL-IE-80-04-157 Proceedings from the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX...

  20. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    test procedures for solar water heaters characterizes systemWasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/Newheaters/Annex_IV_8July08 International Organization for Standardization, "Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 9459-4 Solar

  1. Evaluation of a Current Source Active Power Filter to Reduce the DC Bus Capacitor in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    system, additional heat, audible noise, mechanical stress, and vibration [1]. DC bus harmonic current- powered three-phase inverter is used to drive the traction motor. Due to the switching behavior combustion engine, electric motor, and energy storage device (for example, batteries and ultracapacitors

  2. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the ability to improve control of an olefins furnace (via CO-trim) that resulted in significant energy savings and lower emissions such as NOx and other greenhouse gases. The cost to retrofit measurements on an existing olefins furnace was found to be very attractive, with an estimated payback achieved in 4 months or less.

  3. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an {open_quotes}upsized{close_quotes} condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  4. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an [open quotes]upsized[close quotes] condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  5. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could sufficiently develop this technology to impact the water heater market in the near term.

  6. Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - First Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Tomlinson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired)

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Until now the heat pump water heater (HPWH) has been a technical success but a market failure because of its high initial cost. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. ORNL was also tasked to verify the technical feasibility of the cost saving opportunities where necessary and appropriate. The objective was to retain most of the HPWH s energy saving performance while reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. Several cost saving opportunities were found. Immersing the HPWH condenser directly into the tank allowed the water-circulating pump to be eliminated and a standard electric resistance storage water heater to be used. In addition, designs could be based on refrigerator compressors. Standard water heaters and refrigerator compressors are both reliable, mass produced, and low cost. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water heater tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. The sleeve contour causes the bayonet-style condenser to helix while being pushed into the tank, enabling a condenser of sufficient heat transfer surface area to be inserted. Based on this design, ORNL fabricated the first laboratory prototype and completed preliminary laboratory tests in accordance with the DOE Simulated Use Test Procedure. Hardening during double-wall condenser fabrication was not overcome, so the prototype is single-walled with a liner. The prototype unit was found to have an energy factor of 2.02, verifying that the low-cost design retains most of the HPWH s energy saving performance. Industry involvement is being sought to resolve the fabrication issue and quantify progress on reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. This report provides information on the design, prototype construction, laboratory test data, and analyses of this HPWH.

  7. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

  8. THERMAL AND THERMOMECHANICAL DATA FROM IN SITU HEATER EXPERIMENTS AT STRIPA, SWEDEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relay Multiplexer Extenaometers - Heater Monitors - Signal Condition SlnglePole 7.4 Hz Channel Filters USBM Gauges- Overvoltage Protection

  9. Sensitivity analysis for joint inversion of ground-penetrating radar and thermal-hydrological data from a large-scale underground heater test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalsky, M.B.; Birkholzer, J.; Peterson, J.; Finsterle, S.; Mukhopadhya y, S.; Tsang, Y.T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    first step toward comprehensive inversion of the heater testfirst step toward a full inversion of the heater test data,

  10. Residential energy-tax-credit eligibility: a case study for the heat-pump water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohn, S M; Cardell, N S

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Described are the methodology and results of an analysis to determine the eligibility of an energy-efficient item for the residential energy-tax credit. Although energy credits are granted only on a national basis, an attempt to determine the tax-credit eligibility for an item such as the heat-pump water heater (HPWH) analyzing national data is inappropriate. The tax-credit eligibility of the HPWH is evaluated for the ten federal regions to take into consideration the regional differences of: (1) HPWH annual efficiency, (2) existing water heater stocks by fuel type, (3) electricity, fuel oil, and natural-gas price variations, and (4) electric-utility oil and gas use for electricity generation. A computer model of consumer choice of HPWH selection as well as a computer code evaluating the economics of tax-credit eligibility on a regional basis were developed as analytical tools for this study. The analysis in this report demonstrates that the HPWH meets an important criteria for eligibility by the Treasury Department for an energy tax credit (nationally, the estimated dollar value of savings of oil and gas over the lifetime of those HPWH's sold during 1981 to 1985 due to the tax credit exceeds the revenue loss to the treasury). A natural-gas price-deregulation scenario is one of two fuel scenarios that are evaluated using the equipment choice and tax-credit models. These two cases show the amounts of oil and gas saved by additional HPWH units sold (due to the tax credit during 1981 to 1985 (range from 13.9 to 23.1 million barrels of oil equivalent over the lifetime of the equipment.

  11. Integrated exhaust and electrically heated particulate filter regeneration systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes multiple zones. An electrical heater includes heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A post-fuel injection system injects fuel into at least one of a cylinder of an engine and an exhaust system. A control module is configured to operate in a first mode that includes activating the electrical heater to heat exhaust of the engine. The control module is also configured to operate in a second mode that includes activating the post-injection system to heat the exhaust. The control module selectively operates in at least one of the first mode and the second mode.

  12. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water heater includes the cost of changes to the heat exchanger and the tank.water heaters, included in options 3 and 6, are not yet available for residential storage-tankand water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and limited availability of power-vent and condensing storage-tank

  13. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water heater includes the cost of changes to the heat exchanger and the tank.water heaters, included in Options 3 and 6, are not yet available for residential storage tankand water heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and limited availability of power vent and condensing storage-tank

  14. Restoration of Refinery Heaters Using the Technique of Prefabricated Ceramic Fiber Lined Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sento, H. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery heater fuel requirements often represent 50% of a units operating cost. A one percent change in the efficiency of a heater firing 100 MBtu/hr amounts to more than $25,000 per year. Heater efficiency is influenced by casing hot spots, air...

  15. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER (2} (3) (21 icense in and to any copyright covering the drticle. This paper describes a high-efficiency water heater which uses a design approach quite different from the conventional center-flue water heater. While high

  16. A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS William P a heat pump water heater (HPWH). After developing the HPWH, a field-test plan was implemented whereby 20 evaluate this effect. #12;INTRODUCTION Domestic water heaters account for approximately 2.5 EJ (2.4 x 1015

  17. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  18. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  19. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  20. Marketing and promoting solar water heaters to home builders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, C.; Ghent, P.

    1999-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. This report outlines suggested marketing communication materials and other promotional tools focused on selling products to the new home builder. Information relevant to promoting products to the new home buyer is also included.

  1. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  2. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  3. Current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsuno, Takashi, E-mail: e1417@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional current collapse imaging of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device was achieved by optical electric field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG measurements can detect the electric field produced by carriers trapped in the on-state of the device, which leads to current collapse. Immediately after (e.g., 1, 100, or 800??s) the completion of drain-stress voltage (200?V) in the off-state, the second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 2??m from the gate edge on the drain electrode. The SH signal intensity became weak with time, which suggests that the trapped carriers are emitted from the trap sites. The SH signal location supports the well-known virtual gate model for current collapse.

  4. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  5. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  6. Abstract--Currently, there are multiple national directives that call for the development of a smarter electrical grid. This

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    of the electric transmission grid. The USA Energy Policy Act of 2005, Sec.1223.a.5, includes: "encourage of a smarter electrical grid. This includes, but is not limited to, the development of advanced transmission a smarter, more flexible transmission grid. Index Terms--Power system economics, power system reliability

  7. General Physics II Exam 1 -Chs. 1619 -Electric Fields, Potential, Current Feb. 14, 2011 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysin, Gary

    styrofoam ball? a. It has a negative net charge b. It has zero net charge. c. It has positive net charge. d at finite x where the electric field is zero. c) (8) Determine the magnitude of the net electric field. Its net charge changes when then rods are placed near it. 2. (6) An excess charge of -88 pC is placed

  8. Induced Currents, Eddy Currents and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    Lecture 11 Induced Currents, Eddy Currents and Maxwell's Equations 1 Faraday Disk Dynamo F = q Eddy Currents We have learnt that changing magnetic fields can induce electric fields in conductors 108 ms-1 16 #12;In this lecture and the next Eddy Currents: We have covered Sect. 29

  9. Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In AreCommercial Buildings?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie; Brown, Richard; Busch, John; Pinckard, Margaret; Roberson, Judy

    2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Evidenceof electric plug loads in commercial buildings isvisible everyday: space heaters, portable fans, and the IT technician'stwo monitors connected to one PC. The Energy Information Administrationestimates that office and miscellaneous equipment together will consume2.18 quads in 2006, nearly 50 percent of U.S. commercial electricity use.Although the importance of commercial plug loads is documented, its verynature (diverse product types, products not installed when buildinginitially constructed, and products often hidden in closets) makes itdifficult to accurately count and categorize the end use.We auditedsixteen buildings in three cities (San Francisco, Atlanta, Pittsburgh)including office, medical and education building types. We inventoriedthe number and types of office and miscellaneous electric equipment aswell as estimated total energy consumption due to these product types. Intotal, we audited approximately 4,000 units of office equipment and 6,000units of miscellaneous equipment and covered a diverse range of productsranging from electric pencil sharpeners with a unit energy consumption(UEC) of 1 kWh/yr to a kiln with a UEC of 7,000 kWh/yr. Our paperpresents a summary of the density and type of plug load equipment foundas well as the estimated total energy consumption of the equipment.Additionally, we present equipment trends observed and provide insightsto how policy makers can target energy efficiency for this growing enduse.

  10. Current-induced electrical self-oscillations across out-of-plane threshold switches based on VO{sub 2} layers integrated in crossbars geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, A.; Leroy, J.; Crunteanu, A., E-mail: aurelian.crunteanu@xlim.fr [XLIM Research Institute UMR 7252, CNRS/University of Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Orlianges, J.-C. [SPCTS UMR 7513, CNRS/University of Limoges, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically activated metal-insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) is widely studied from both fundamental and practical points of view. It can give valuable insights on the currently controversial phase transition mechanism in this material and, at the same time, allows the development of original MIT-based electronic devices. Electrically triggered insulator-metal transitions are demonstrated in novel out-of-plane, metal-oxide-metal type devices integrating a VO{sub 2} thin film, upon applying moderate threshold voltages. It is shown that the current-voltage characteristics of such devices present clear negative differential resistance effects supporting the onset of continuous, current-driven phase oscillations across the vanadium dioxide material. The frequencies of these self-sustained oscillations are ranging from 90 to 300?kHz and they may be tuned by adjusting the injected current. A phenomenological model of the device and its command circuit is developed, and allows to extract the analytical expressions of the oscillation frequencies and to simulate the electrical oscillatory phenomena developed across the VO{sub 2} material. Such out-of-plane devices may further contribute to the general understanding of the driving mechanism in metal-insulator transition materials and devices, a prerequisite to promising applications in high speed/high frequency networks of oscillatory or resistive memories circuits.

  11. Comparison of the Radially Produced Electric-Field Shear Effects Analyzed from End-Loss Current and Central-Cell Soft X-Ray Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirata, M. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, M. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kohagura, J. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Numakura, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yokoyama, N. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tokioka, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Fukai, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tomii, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Miyake, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kiminami, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kondoh, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Miyoshi, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant effects of sheared transverse electric fields in plasmas on both turbulent fluctuations and drift waves are experimentally demonstrated with improvement in plasma confinement for the first time in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. Here, electron-cyclotron heatings (ECH) for ion-confining potential formation are applied in association with a significant rise in the absolute value of the central-cell potential and the resulting formation of a strong shear of electric fields of the order of 10 kV/m2 in the radial direction of the plasma column (dEr/dr). The central-cell line density increases during ECH in association with decreasing fluctuations. Various fluctuation diagnostics, in particular, the frequency analyses of end-loss ion currents and central soft x-ray brightness, show the consistent features. This encourages the usefulness of potentials and radial electric-field shear for confinement improvements.

  12. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Heaters 7.0 Glossary of Abbreviations AGA American Gas Association ANSI American National Standards

  13. Suppression of electric and magnetic fluctuations and improvement of confinement due to current profile modification by biased electrode in Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Debjyoti; Pal, Rabindranath [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, Prabal K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvement of plasma confinement is achieved in normal q{sub a} discharges of SINP-tokamak by introducing a biased electrode inside the last closed flux surface. All the important features of high confinement mode are observed biasing the electrode negatively with respect to the vacuum vessel. Arrays of electric and magnetic probes introduced in the edge plasma region reveal suppression of electric and magnetic fluctuations over distinct frequency ranges as well as modification of the toroidal current profile due to biasing. Further analysis identifies the electrostatic fluctuations to be due to drift mode and the magnetic fluctuations may be of slow compressional Alfven waves. Both get suppressed due to current profile modification during biasing, hence leading to the improvement of plasma confinement.

  14. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  15. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, T.F.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  16. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeIdle Reduction WeightRebate -5 20054 Share22 Water Heater

  18. Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current...

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  20. MEMS Hotplates with TiN as a Heater Material J.F. Creemer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    MEMS Hotplates with TiN as a Heater Material J.F. Creemer1 , W. van der Vlist2 , C.R. de Boer2 , H investigated as a heater material for hotplates and microreactors. TiN is CMOS compatible, and has a higher melting point (2950 ºC) than conventional heaters of Pt and poly-Si. For the first time, TiN is tested

  1. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  2. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL FROM THE TONE-BURST EDDY CURRENT THERMOGRAPHY (TBET) TIME-TEMPERATURE DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biju, N.; Ganesan, N.; Krishnamurthy, C. V.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan [Centre for Nondestructive Evaluation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras (India)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, an inversion method is proposed to determine simultaneously the electrical and thermal properties of a given isotropic material from the time-temperature data obtained from the Tone-Burst Eddy current Thermography (TBET). A multi-physics forward model for computing the surface temperature data was used in a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based inversion technique to determine the material properties such as electrical conductivity (sigma), thermal conductivity (k), density (rho), and specific heat (C{sub p}) simultaneously. Different trials were carried out initially with simulated temperature data (with and without noise). A typical case of inversion of anisotropic material properties using a 2D finite element model is also discussed.

  3. Study on reduction in electric field, charged voltage, ion current and ion density under HVDC transmission lines by parallel shield wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amano, Y.; Sunaga, Y.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An important problem in the design and operation of HVDC transmission lines is to reduce electrical field effects such as ion flow electrification of objects, electric field, ion current and ion density at ground level in the vicinity of HVDC lines. Several models of shield wire were tested with the Shiobara HVDC test line. The models contain typical stranded wires that are generally used to reduce field effects at ground level, neutral conductors placed at lower parts of the DC line, and an ''earth corona model'' to cancel positive or negative ions intentionally by generating ions having opposite polarity to ions flowing into the wire. This report describes the experimental results of the effects of these shield wires and a method to predict shielding effects.

  4. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters.

  5. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Heaters Jim Lutz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory January 25, 2011 The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards

  6. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water heaters in US new construction market Alex B. Lekov &single-family home construction rep- resents a significantequipment. In the new construction market, the choice of

  7. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiences of residential consumers and utilities. OakStar (2008). Energy Star Residential Water Heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

  8. Mountain Association for Community Economic Development- Solar Water Heater Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Kentucky Solar Partnership (KSP) and the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED) partner to offer low interest loans for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans...

  9. Excitation in low-current discharges and breakdown in He at low pressures and very high electric field to gas density ratios E/N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jelenkovic, B.M.; Phelps, A.V. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 75, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate optical emission from low-current discharges in He at very high electric field to gas density ratios E/N between parallel plate electrodes. We also determine the electrical breakdown and the voltage-current behavior at low currents. The E/N are 300 Td to 9 kTd (1 Td=10{sup -21} V m{sup 2}) at pressures times electrode separations p{sub 0}d from 3 to 0.9 Torr cm. Absolute optical emission probabilities versus distance are determined for the 501.6 nm line (3 {sup 1}P{yields}2 {sup 1}S) and for the 587.6 nm line (3 {sup 3}D{yields}2 {sup 3}P) by reference to Boltzmann calculations at our lowest E/N and to published pressure dependent electron beam experiments. At E/N below 1 kTd, the emission follows the exponential growth of the electron density, while at above 7 kTd heavy particle excitation is evident near the cathode. Collisional transfer of excitation from the singlet to the triplet system dominates the 587.6 nm excitation. Comparisons of models with experiments show the importance of excitation and of electron production at the cathode by fast He atoms produced by charge transfer collisions of He{sup +} with He. The breakdown voltage versus p{sub 0}d is multivalued for p{sub 0}d{approx}1.5 Torr cm. At currents below 100 {mu}A and our lower E/N, the discharge voltage decreases linearly with current as expected for an increasing electron yield with ion energy and E/N at the cathode.

  10. Bond length and electric current oscillation of long linear carbon chains: Density functional theory, MpB model, and quantum spin transport studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oeiras, R. Y.; Silva, E. Z. da [Institute of Physics “Gleb Wataghin”, University of Campinas-Unicamp, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)] [Institute of Physics “Gleb Wataghin”, University of Campinas-Unicamp, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon linear atomic chains attached to graphene have experimentally been produced. Motivated by these results, we study the nature of the carbon bonds in these nanowires and how it affects their electrical properties. In the present study we investigate chains with different numbers of atoms and we observe that nanowires with odd number of atoms present a distinct behavior than the ones with even numbers. Using graphene nanoribbons as leads, we identify differences in the quantum transport of the chains with the consequence that even and odd numbered chains have low and high electrical conduction, respectively. We also noted a dependence of current with the wire size. We study this unexpected behavior using a combination of first principles calculations and simple models based on chemical bond theory. From our studies, the electrons of carbon nanowires present a quasi-free electron behavior and this explains qualitatively the high electrical conduction and the bond lengths with unexpected values for the case of odd nanowires. Our study also allows the understanding of the electric conduction dependence with the number of atoms and their parity in the chain. In the case of odd number chains a proposed ?-bond (MpB) model describes unsaturated carbons that introduce a mobile ?-bond that changes dramatically the structure and transport properties of these wires. Our results indicate that the nature of bonds plays the main role in the oscillation of quantum electrical conduction for chains with even and odd number of atoms and also that nanowires bonded to graphene nanoribbons behave as a quasi-free electron system, suggesting that this behavior is general and it could also remain if the chains are bonded to other materials.

  11. Edison Electric Institute Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) and the current electricity landscape.

  12. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  13. Integral finned heater and cooler for stirling engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A piston and cylinder for a Stirling engine and the like having top and bottom meshing or nesting finned conical surfaces to provide large surface areas in close proximity to the working gas for good thermal (addition and subtraction of heat) exchange to the working gas and elimination of the usual heater and cooler dead volume. The piston fins at the hot end of the cylinder are perforated to permit the gas to pass into the piston interior and through a regenerator contained therein.

  14. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund3 Outlook forSDPPPSizing a New Water Heater Sizing

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeIdle Reduction WeightRebate -5 20054 Share22 Water Heater Stock

  16. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeIdle Reduction WeightRebate -5 20054 Share22 Water Heater Stock3

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeIdle Reduction WeightRebate -5 20054 Share22 Water Heater5 Water

  18. Process Heater for Stoichiometric Combustion Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ Report Presentation:in the U.S. by 2030,PNNL-23227Items atHeater for

  19. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  20. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no locations that intersect national trails. Source data did not indicate any planned transmission lines or pipelines in Hawaii. A map atlas provides more detailed mapping of the topics investigated in this study, and the accompanying GIS database provides the baseline information for further investigating locations of interest. In many cases the locations of proposed transmission lines are not accurately mapped (or a specific route may not yet be determined), and accordingly the specific crossing locations are speculative. However since both national trails and electrical transmission lines are long linear systems, the characteristics of the crossings reported in this study are expected to be similar to both observed characteristics of the existing infrastructure provided in this report, and of the new infrastructure if these proposed projects are built. More focused study of these siting challenges is expected to mitigate some of potential impacts by choosing routes that minimize or eliminate them. The current study primarily addresses a set of screening-level characterizations that provide insights into how the National Trail System may influence the siting of energy transport facilities in the states identified under Section 368(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. As such, it initializes gathering and beginning analysis of the primary environmental and energy data, and maps the contextual relationships between an important national environmental asset and how this asset intersects with energy planning activities. Thus the current study sets the stage for more in-depth analyses and data development activities that begin to solve key transmission siting constraints. Our recommendations for future work incorporate two major areas: (1) database development and analytics and (2) modeling and scenario analysis for energy planning. These recommendations provide a path forward to address key issues originally developed under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 that are now being carried forward under the President’s Climate Action Plan.

  1. Analysis of patuxent estuarine currents in the vicinity of the Chalk Point Steam Electric Station. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polgar, T.T.; Ross, R.N.; Lacey, G.K.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tidal and nontidal flows in the Patuxent River, between Trueman Point and Benedict Bridge, are described, using time series analysis methods on continuously recording current meter data. The measurements were made in July and August 1978; the entire study area falls within the mesohaline region of the estuary. The results of the analyses indicate that currents in the study area are driven predominantly by semi-diurnal tidal forcing and by wind patterns. Freshwater input into the estuary accounts for the maintenance of vertical density gradients and shears, but it plays a relatively minor role in the estuarine transport processes.

  2. Abstract-In this study, imaging of electrical current density in conducting objects, which contain nuclear magnetic resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eyüboðlu, Murat

    nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) active nuclei is planned using 0.15T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI at each cycle within the object. The applied current pulse creates a measurable magnetic flux density. The component of magnetic flux density parallel to the main magnetic field accumulates an additional phase

  3. Electrical stator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA); Olich, Eugene E. (Aptos, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical stator of an electromagnetic pump includes first and second spaced apart coils each having input and output terminals for carrying electrical current. An elongate electrical connector extends between the first and second coils and has first and second opposite ends. The connector ends include respective slots receiving therein respective ones of the coil terminals to define respective first and second joints. Each of the joints includes a braze filler fixedly joining the connector ends to the respective coil terminals for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  4. Coweta-Fayette EMC- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coweta-Fayette Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) provides electric and natural gas service to 58,000 customers in Georgia's Coweta, Fayette, Meriwether, Heard, Troop and Fulton counties.

  5. TiN for MEMS hotplate heaters J.F. Creemer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    TiN for MEMS hotplate heaters J.F. Creemer1 , P.M. Sarro2 , M. Laros2 , H. Schellevis2 , L, DIMES, ECTM, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, Netherlands. Summary: Low-stress TiN has been investigated is required to protect the TiN against oxidation. Keywords: TiN thin films, micro heater, hot plate 1

  6. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. (2006). The CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater as a NewCurrent electric heat-pump water heaters achieve an energy> 1500). CO 2 heat-pump water heaters are becoming common in

  7. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Request for Information

  8. Electrical Demand Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppelheimer, D. M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the reservoir. Util i ties have iiting for a number of years. d a rebate for reducing their When the utility needs to shed is sent to turn off one or mnre mer's electric water heater or equipment. wges have enticed more and more same strategies... an increased need for demand 1 imiting. As building zone size is reduced, total instal led tonnage increases due to inversfty. Each compressor is cycled by a space thermostat. There is no control system to limit the number of compressors running at any...

  9. Analysis of highly-efficient electric residential HPWHs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A scoping level analysis was conducted to identify electric HPWH concepts that have the potential to achieve or exceed 30% source energy savings compared to a gas tankless water heater (GTWH) representative of the type represented in version 0.9.5.2 beta of the BEopt software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis was limited to evaluation of options to improve the energy efficiency of electric HPWH product designs currently on the market in the US. The report first defines the baseline GTWH system and determines its efficiency (source-energy-based adjusted or derated EF of ~0.71). High efficiency components (compressors, pumps, fans, heat exchangers, etc.) were identified and applied to current US HPWH products and analyzed to determine the viability of reaching the target EF. The target site-based energy factor (EF) required for an electric HPWH necessary to provide 30% source energy savings compared to the GTWH baseline unit is then determined to be ~3.19.

  10. First Results of the LCLS Laser-Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emma, P; Boyce, R.F.; Brachmann, A.; Carr, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Edstrom, S.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Levashov, Y.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Poling, B.; Ratner, D.; Spampinati, S.; /SLAC

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is an x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project that has just achieved its first lasing at 1.5 {angstrom} radiation wavelength. The very bright electron beam required to drive this FEL is susceptible to a microbunching instability in the magnetic bunch compressors that may increase the slice energy spread beyond the FEL tolerance. To control the slice energy spread and to suppress the microbunching instability, a laser heater (LH) system is installed in the LCLS injector area at 135 MeV, right before the RF deflector that is used for the time-resolved electron diagnostics. This unique component is used to add a small level of intrinsic energy spread to the electron beam in order to Landau damp the microbunching instability before it potentially breaks up the high brightness electron beam. The system was fully installed and tested in the fall of 2008, and effects of heating on the electron beam and the x-ray FEL were studied during the 2009 commissioning period. The laser heater system is composed of a 4-dipole chicane; a 9-period, planar, permanent-magnet, adjustable-gap undulator at the center of the chicane; one OTR screen on each side of the undulator for electron/laser spatial alignment; and an IR laser (up to 15-MW power) which co-propagates with the electron beam inside the undulator generating a 758-nm energy modulation along the bunch. The final two dipoles of the 4-dipole chicane time-smear this modulation leaving only a thermal-like intrinsic energy spread within the bunch. Table 1 lists the main parameters for this system. The very bright electron beam required for an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL), such as the LCLS, is susceptible to a microbunching instability in the magnetic bunch compressors, prior to the FEL undulator. The uncorrelated electron energy spread in the LCLS can be increased by an order of magnitude to provide strong Landau damping against the instability without degrading the FEL performance. To this end, a 'laser-heater' system has been installed in the LCLS injector, which modulates the energy of a 135-MeV electron bunch with an IR laser beam in a short undulator, enclosed within a four-dipole chicane. The last half of the chicane time-smears the energy modulation leaving an effective thermal energy spread increase. We present the first commissioning results of this system, its operational issues, its impact on the microbunching instability, and finally its effect on the FEL performance.

  11. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces isthe total furnace electricity consumption and are primarilyto calculate the electricity consumption during cooling

  12. Development of a technique for ex-reactor heating of electrodes and for obtaining voltage-current characteristics of multi-cell thermionic fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalandarishvili, A.G.; Mailov, G.M.; Igumnov, B.N.; Bisko, V.A. [I.N. Vekua Sukhumi Inst. for Physics and Engineering, Tbilisi (Georgia)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of development of a technique for ex-reactor heating with simultaneous recording of voltage-current characteristics of multi-cell thermionic fuel elements (TFE). Heating pulses were applied to electrodes of a thermionic energy converter (TIC), and between these pulses in the antiphase to them there were applied shorter pulses. The TIC emitter was heated by energy of an electric current flowing from the collector (back current heating). Comparison of TIC voltage-current characteristics, obtained for direct (using electric heater) and back current (current from the collector) heating, shows that for the same conditions they differ only slightly. Significant difference may be observed in the case of different profiles along the collector working surface. Results are given of the investigation of multi-cell thermionic fuel assemblies conducted using this technique. The developed technique of the TFE diagnostics can be successfully employed to assess the device quality. Pre-loop testing of multi-cell TFE by the method of back currents allows for cost effective and expeditious thermovacuum treatment of the TFE on thermal stands and for checking of its serviceability prior to its mounting into an irradiation loop or reactor-converter, enables improvements to the TFE design, monitoring of its electric parameters, for example, after vibration testing, and TFE accelerated testing in the most arduous conditions (thermocycling, loss of vacuum, etc.).

  13. Flow boiling enhancement on a horizontal heater using carbon nanotube coatings N. Singh, V. Sathyamurthy, W. Peterson, J. Arendt, D. Banerjee *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    with embedded cartridge heaters and K-type thermocouples. De-ion- ized (DI) water was used as the test fluidFlow boiling enhancement on a horizontal heater using carbon nanotube coatings N. Singh, V flux on a horizontal heater that is heated from below. The horizontal heater consists of either a bare

  14. Evolution of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heaters Electric water heaters Water heater heat exchangersDemand/instantaneous water heaters Water heater replacement/drives Water conservation Water heaters Windows Exit signs

  15. Structures, electrical properties, and leakage current behaviors of un-doped and Mn-doped lead-free ferroelectric K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lingyan, E-mail: l.y.wang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ren, Wei, E-mail: l.y.wang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Shi, Peng; Wu, Xiaoqing [Electronic Material Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-free ferroelectric un-doped and doped K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} (KNN) films with different amounts of manganese (Mn) were prepared by a chemical solution deposition method. The thicknesses of all films are about 1.6??m. Their phase, microstructure, leakage current behavior, and electrical properties were investigated. With increasing the amounts of Mn, the crystallinity became worse. Fortunately, the electrical properties were improved due to the decreased leakage current density after Mn-doping. The study on leakage behaviors shows that the dominant conduction mechanism at low electric field in the un-doped KNN film is ohmic mode and that at high electric field is space-charge-limited and Pool-Frenkel emission. After Mn doping, the dominant conduction mechanism at high electric field of KNN films changed single space-charge-limited. However, the introduction of higher amount of Mn into the KNN film would lead to a changed conduction mechanism from space-charge-limited to ohmic mode. Consequently, there exists an optimal amount of Mn doping of 2.0?mol.?%. The 2.0?mol.?% Mn doped KNN film shows the lowest leakage current density and the best electrical properties. With the secondary ion mass spectroscopies and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, the homogeneous distribution in the KNN films and entrance of Mn element in the lattice of KNN perovskite structure were also confirmed.

  16. An Analysis Method for Operations of Hot Water Heaters by Artificial Neural Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaha, M.; Takahashi, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Authors tried to apply an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to estimation of state of building systems. The systems used in this study were gas combustion water heaters. Empirical equations to estimate gas consumption from measureble properies...

  17. Ultrathin Polyimide-Stainless Steel Heater for Vacuum System Bake-out

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathjen, Christian; Henrist, Bernard; Kölemeijer, Wilhelmus; Libera, Bruno; Lutkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space constraints in several normal conducting magnets of the LHC required the development of a dedicated permanent heater for vacuum chamber bake-out. The new heater consists of stainless steel bands inside layers of polyimide. The overall heater thickness is about 0.3 mm. The low magnetic permeability is suitable for applications in magnetic fields. The material combination allows for temperatures high enough to activate a NEG coating. Fabrication is performed in consecutive steps of tape wrapping. Automation makes high volume production at low costs possible. About 800 m of warm vacuum system of the long straight sections of the LHC will be equipped with the new heater. This paper covers experience gained at CERN from studies up to industrialization.

  18. An Analysis Method for Operations of Hot Water Heaters by Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaha, M.; Takahashi, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Authors tried to apply an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to estimation of state of building systems. The systems used in this study were gas combustion water heaters. Empirical equations to estimate gas consumption from measureble properies...

  19. Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

    Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

  20. Orlando Utilities Commission- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) offers residential electric customers a point-of-sale rebate of $1,000 for new solar water heating systems.

  1. Heat pump water heater and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

  2. Development of a fluidized bed air heater. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development and design of a coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) air heater is described. Clean air at low pressure is heated by passing it through tubes placed in the bed of the combustor. The purpose of the program was to develop coal-fired equipment that could provide clean hot air for industrial process applications. Development was carried out using two AFBC test units. The first had a bed of 2.25 ft/sup 2/ and the second a bed of 18 ft/sup 2/. The latter incorporated full-scale components applicable to a system of 28 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr output. Approximately 180 runs for a total of 2000 hours of operation were made. The delivered air temperature was 800/sup 0/F with heat exchanger tubes operated at 1300/sup 0/F. Results of the test program and a description of the design concepts are presented. A heating system design was carried out for a specific manufacturing plant located in Minnesota. The system would furnish hot air at 800/sup 0/F and hot water at 250/sup 0/F for process and space heating needs. Results of this design study are summarized. 56 figs., 26 tabs.

  3. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 44, NO. 8, AUGUST 2008 2021 Modeling of Eddy-Current Loss of Electrical Machines and Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    of Electrical Machines and Transformers Operated by Pulsewidth-Modulated Inverters Ruifang Liu1;2, Chris

  5. Attention CEPS Students: General Dynamics-Electric Boat (EB) is currently looking to hire over 150 Engineers (December 2012 and May

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohl, Karsten

    positions, however, you must submit your information on-line. We hire a BS in: Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering) will come up. The Electric Boat employment website has valuable information about the company@gdeb.com D435, Propulsor Engineering Electric Boat Corporation UNH Mechanical Engineering, Class of '07 #12;

  6. The self-consistent parallel electric field due to electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence in downward auroral-current regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasperse, John R.; Basu, Bamandas [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731 (United States); Lund, Eric J. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Grossbard, Neil [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical processes that determine the self-consistent electric field (E{sub ||}) parallel to the magnetic field have been an unresolved problem in magnetospheric physics for over 40 years. Recently, a new multimoment fluid theory was developed for inhomogeneous, nonuniformly magnetized plasma in the guiding-center and gyrotropic approximation that includes the effect of electrostatic, turbulent, wave-particle interactions (see Jasperse et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 072903 (2006); ibid.13, 112902 (2006)]). In the present paper and its companion paper [Jasperse et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 062903 (2010)], which are intended as sequels to the earlier work, a fundamental model for downward, magnetic field-aligned (Birkeland) currents for quasisteady conditions is presented. The model includes the production of electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence in the long-range potential region by an electron, bump-on-tail-driven ion-cyclotron instability. Anomalous momentum transfer (anomalous resistivity) by itself is found to produce a very small contribution to E{sub ||}; however, the presence of electrostatic, ion-cyclotron turbulence has a very large effect on the altitude dependence of the entire quasisteady solution. Anomalous energy transfer (anomalous heating and cooling) modifies the density, drift, and temperature altitude profiles and hence the generalized parallel-pressure gradients and mirror forces in the electron and ion momentum-balance equations. As a result, |E{sub ||}| is enhanced by nearly a factor of 40 compared to its value when turbulence is absent. The space-averaged potential increase associated with the strong double layer at the bottom of the downward-current sheet is estimated using the FAST satellite data and the multimoment fluid theory.

  7. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Covary, and Xia, “Energy Efficiency Country Study: Republicand Energy, “Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic ofin support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance

  8. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IN SOUTH AFRICA The 1998 White Paper on Energy Policy (on the Energy Policy of the Republic of South Africa. ” Dec-

  9. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resistance heating, this technology provides greaterheat pump technology to improve water heating efficiencytechnology offers a dramatic improvement in overall water heating

  10. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    actively implementing demand side management, after a seriesblackouts in 2008. Demand side management programs are now

  11. ELECTRICAL HEATERS FOR THERMO-MECHANICAL TESTS AT THE STRIPA MINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burleigh, R.H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    which simulate the heat loads from waste con­ tainers. Thea single waste container, and to provide a heat load of upheat flux expected from canisters containing nuclear waste.

  12. Electric Blanket vs. Space Heater: #EnergyFaceoff Round 3 Heats Up |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6:Energy Eighth Annual National

  13. Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register /of Energy 3 BTOWebinarSupplies;Ice MachinesEnergy

  14. Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During #EnergyFaceoff Round

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJunetrack graphics4DimitriJune 30,NEW! EnergyIndustry Bring

  15. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  16. Accelerated Life Structural Benchmark Testing for a Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, David L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Kantzos, Pete T. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    For proposed long-duration NASA Space Science missions, the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Infinia Corporation, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110-watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110). A structurally significant limit state for the SRG110 heater head component is creep deformation induced at high material temperature and low stress level. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and a wealth of creep data is available for the Inconel 718 material of construction. However, the specified atypical thin heater head material is fine-grained with a heat treatment that limits precipitate growth, and little creep property data for this microstructure is available in the literature. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply a multiaxial stress state on the component, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, an extensive experimental investigation is ongoing to aid in accurately assessing the durability of the SRG110 heater head. This investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head-like pressure vessels at design temperature with stress levels ranging from approximately the design stress to several times that. This paper presents experimental results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for four higher-stress, accelerated life tests. Analysts are using these results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the SRG110 heater head.

  17. Resistance heater for use in a glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routt, K.R.; Porter, M.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A resistance heating element that includes: a resistance heating medium of a mixture of electrically conductive and insulative particles in powdered form mixed together in predetermined proportions to achieve a given resistivity; a hollow outer electrode surrounding the resistance heating medium; and an inner electrode coaxially disposed within said outer electrode. In its preferred embodiments, the electrically conductive powder is selected from the group consisting essentially of graphite, Inconel alloy, molybdenum, nichrome alloy and stainless steel, while the insulator powder is silicon dioxide or alumina. The resistance heating element, being resistant to damage from mechanical shock and corrosion at elevated temperatures, is used in a glass melter.

  18. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  19. LABORATORY VI ELECTRICITY FROM MAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY VI ELECTRICITY FROM MAGNETISM Lab VI - 1 In the previous problems you explored the magnetic field and its effect on moving charges. You also saw how electric currents could create magnetic can give rise to electric currents. This is the effect that allows the generation of electricity

  20. Pyroelectric current measurements on PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 epitaxial layers B. Bhatia,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William P.

    , microfabricated heater, or modulated laser, and the pyroelectric current is measured from a microelectrode measurement accuracy can be higher than for temperature changes that are step changes, pulses, or ramps, since