Sample records for heaters direct heating

  1. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Request for Information

  2. ISSUANCE 2014-12-23: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule

  3. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rcul2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERSJune 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS*

  4. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the indirect increase in home heating (and the decrease inincrease the home’s heating load in the heating season (Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,

  5. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  6. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) Development2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiencyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  7. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) DevelopmentJ. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into The2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiency

  8. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  9. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Direct Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heater Test Procedures DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heater Test Procedures October 24, 2013 -...

  10. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  11. LOW COST HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER (HPWH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Vince C [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water heating accounts for the second largest portion of residential building energy consumption, after space conditioning. Existing HPWH products are a technical success, with demonstrated energy savings of 50% or more compared with standard electric resistance water heaters. However, current HPWHs available on the market cost an average of $1000 or more, which is too expensive for significant market penetration. What is needed is a method to reduce the first cost of HPWHs, so that the payback period will be reduced from 8 years to a period short enough for the market to accept this technology. A second problem with most existing HPWH products is the reliability issue associated with the pump and water loop needed to circulate cool water from the storage tank to the HPWH condenser. Existing integral HPWHs have the condenser wrapped around the water tank and thus avoid the pump and circulation issues but require a relatively complex and expensive manufacturing process. A more straightforward potentially less costly approach to the integral, single package HPWH design is to insert the condenser directly into the storage tank, or immersed direct heat exchanger (IDX). Initial development of an IDX HPWH met technical performance goals, achieving measured efficiencies or energy factors (EF) in excess of 1.79. In comparison conventional electric water heaters (EWH) have EFs of about 0.9. However, the initial approach required a 2.5" hole on top of the tank for insertion of the condenser - much larger than the standard openings typically provided. Interactions with water heater manufacturers indicated that the non standard hole size would likely lead to increased manufacturing costs (at least initially) and largely eliminate any cost advantage of the IDX approach. Recently we have been evaluating an approach to allow use of a standard tank hole size for insertion of the IDX condenser. Laboratory tests of a prototype have yielded an EF of 2.02.

  12. Performance improvement of direct- and indirect-fired heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sams, G.W.; Hunter, J.D.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating performance of direct and indirect heaters is discussed, and principles and guidelines that can be applied to effect improvements in efficiency are presented. This paper also discusses the associated heater efficiencies and several useful operating techniques to approach the maximum, steady-state heater efficiency. The techniques presented apply to all types of direct-and indirect-fired heaters: salt bath heaters, propane vaporizers, heater/treaters, production heaters, and glycol and amine regenerators.

  13. Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant...

  14. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

  15. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

  16. AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyurt, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

  17. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  18. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    blankets to electric hot water heaters in South Africa,” J.for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, andfor Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and

  19. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9HarveyWellnessFebruaryWater Heaters Heat

  20. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

  1. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  2. Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

  3. Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

  4. Georgia Power- Residential Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Georgia Power customers may be eligible for rebates up to $250 each toward the installation costs of a 50 gallon or greater solar water heater or heat pump water heater. The solar water heater or...

  5. THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the heat pump water heater

  6. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  7. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  8. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  9. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  10. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  11. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  12. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

  13. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an electric resistance storage water heater (ESWH) with tankof total electric storage water heater shipments in the nextelectric resistance storage water heaters. The rated storage

  14. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  15. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  16. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  17. Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

  18. A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS William P a heat pump water heater (HPWH). After developing the HPWH, a field-test plan was implemented whereby 20 evaluate this effect. #12;INTRODUCTION Domestic water heaters account for approximately 2.5 EJ (2.4 x 1015

  19. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  20. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  1. Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    ) Chemicals (223) 0.81xlO 15 81xl0 6 3) Pulp & Paper (8) 1.30xlO 15 2.2xI0 6 4) ~leta1s (32) O.07xlO 15 6.4x10 6 O.28xl0 15 308 291xl0 6 2.46xlO 15 Sec =Specific energy consumption * Calculated as %reduction in SEC - value 10TOR "OUSI.. SEi...Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers Ash Kumar, Pennzoil Company, Shreveport, Louisiana The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers...

  2. Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

  3. Heat pump water heater and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

  4. Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - Second Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the 1980s various attempts have been made to apply the efficiency of heat pumps to water heating. The products generated in the 80s and 90s were not successful, due in part to a lack of reliability and difficulties with installation and servicing. At the turn of the century, EnvironMaster International (EMI) produced a heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on a design developed by Arthur D. Little (ADL), with subsequent developmental assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ADL. This design was a drop-in replacement for conventional electric water heaters. In field and durability testing conducted by ORNL, it proved to be reliable and saved on average more than 50% of the energy used by the best conventional electric water heater. However, the retail price set by EMI was very high, and it failed in the market. ORNL was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. Several cost saving opportunities were found. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. After some experimentation, a prototype unit was built with a double-wall coil inserted into the tank. When tested it achieved an energy factor (EF) of 2.12 to 2.2 using DOE-specified test procedures. A.O. Smith contacted ORNL in May 2006 expressing their interest in the ORNL design. The prototype unit was shipped to A.O. Smith to be tested in their laboratory. After they completed their test, ORNL analyzed the raw test data provided by A.O. Smith and calculated the EF to be approximately 1.92. The electric resistance heating elements of a conventional electric water heater are typically retained in a heat pump water heater to provide auxiliary heating capacity in periods of high demand. A.O. Smith informed us that when they applied electric resistance backup heating, using the criterion that resistance heat would be applied whenever the upper thermostat saw water temperatures below the heater s nominal setpoint of 135oF, they found that the EF dropped to approximately 1.5. This is an extremely conservative criterion for backup resistance heating. In a field test of the previously mentioned EMI heat pump water heater, residential consumers found satisfactory performance when the criterion for use of electric resistance backup heating was the upper temperature dropping below the set point minus 27 degrees. Applying this less conservative criterion to the raw data from the original A.O. Smith EF tests indicates that electric resistance heating would never have come on during the test, and thus the EF would have remained in the vicinity of 1.9. A.O. Smith expressed concern about having an EF below 2, as that value triggers certain tax advantages and would assist in their marketing of the product. We believe that insertion of additional length of tubing plus a less conservative set point for electric resistance backup heating would remedy this concern. However, as of this writing, A.O. Smith has not decided to proceed with a commercial product.

  5. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  6. Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

    Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

  7. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

    1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  8. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  9. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) throughwater heaters, and heat pump water heaters are not typical.water heaters, heat pump water heater (HPWH) technology

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT HEATER SETTINGS TO PROVIDE SPATIALLY UNIFORM HEATING IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, David

    in foundries, baking ovens that cook food, infrared heating systems that cure painted surfaces, and rapidOPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT HEATER SETTINGS TO PROVIDE SPATIALLY UNIFORM HEATING IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES INVOLVING RADIANT HEATING K. J. Daun, J. R. Howell, and D. P. Morton Department of Mechanical

  11. Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - First Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Tomlinson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired)

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Until now the heat pump water heater (HPWH) has been a technical success but a market failure because of its high initial cost. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. ORNL was also tasked to verify the technical feasibility of the cost saving opportunities where necessary and appropriate. The objective was to retain most of the HPWH s energy saving performance while reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. Several cost saving opportunities were found. Immersing the HPWH condenser directly into the tank allowed the water-circulating pump to be eliminated and a standard electric resistance storage water heater to be used. In addition, designs could be based on refrigerator compressors. Standard water heaters and refrigerator compressors are both reliable, mass produced, and low cost. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water heater tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. The sleeve contour causes the bayonet-style condenser to helix while being pushed into the tank, enabling a condenser of sufficient heat transfer surface area to be inserted. Based on this design, ORNL fabricated the first laboratory prototype and completed preliminary laboratory tests in accordance with the DOE Simulated Use Test Procedure. Hardening during double-wall condenser fabrication was not overcome, so the prototype is single-walled with a liner. The prototype unit was found to have an energy factor of 2.02, verifying that the low-cost design retains most of the HPWH s energy saving performance. Industry involvement is being sought to resolve the fabrication issue and quantify progress on reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. This report provides information on the design, prototype construction, laboratory test data, and analyses of this HPWH.

  12. Direct fired heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  13. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  14. NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have the potential to significantly reduce energy use is a function of surrounding air temperature, humidity, hot water usage, and the logic controlling the heat pump

  15. Design, Stress Analysis and Operating Experience in Feedwater Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, K. P.; Libs, T.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of feedwater heaters has a direct bearing on the thermal efficiency of the plant. A typical feedwater heater may have three distinct regions of heat transfer, namely desuperheating, condensing and subcooling zones. The design...

  16. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  17. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Including. May,pump technology to extract heat from the surrounding air (air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs. Introduction A heat pump

  18. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  19. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

  20. NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

  1. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC (180�ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  2. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  3. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  4. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  5. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water heaters, heat-pump water heaters, and instantaneous (Wasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/New

  6. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  7. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    used for many years for space heating and cooling. It can be found in small and large products alike, such as window air conditioners used in homes through large rooftop units...

  8. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  9. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States.

  10. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  11. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  12. Performance Analysis of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Incorporating a Brazed-Plate Gas-cooler.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, PORTIA

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This study focuses on the experimental testing and numerical modeling of a 4.5 kW transcritical CO2 heat pump water heater at Queen’s University in the… (more)

  13. Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    and boilere. A number of methods can be I~loyed to recover heat. The moat COI8)D are by use of recuperative air preheat.'la, regenerative air preheate'la and economizers. Relative advantages and applicability of the three IDIthoda are discuased... be designed for any steam pres~ur~, including sup~rc.riti('al, "1. A wic1er range ur- dcs-ign::. LS . J. Hore eificient that a iire-tub~ unit. 4. They do not l~nd th~m5elves to cOul in~) o:;!lo:;!-? vated...

  14. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  15. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    flux datum per one droplet. No spatial or temporal heat flux information was given. Klassen et al. [12] and di Marzo et al. [13] were the first to use an infrared thermography technique to attempt to measure the spatially and temporally resolved... infrared thermography. Because of the aforementioned limitation of the IR thermography, measurements were only possible outside of the droplets. Michiyoshi and Makino [15] used a dual beam synchroscope to measure the variation of the heater supply...

  16. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  17. BOILING CRISIS:THEORY,SIMULATION,AND EXPERIMENTSBOILING CRISIS: THEORY, SIMULATION, AND EXPERIMENTS Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid heat carrier. We discuss the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolayev, Vadim S.

    that separates the liquid from the heater. Film boiling can be also observed in the kitchen by sprinkling water onto a hot frying pan. In spite of the large temperature of the heater (the pan) the water drops Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid heat carrier. We discuss

  18. Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park] [General Electric - Appliance Park

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

  19. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could sufficiently develop this technology to impact the water heater market in the near term.

  20. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  1. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and F. Southworh. 2004. Heat pump water heater technology:gas tankless water heaters, heat pump water heaters,heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well as

  2. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers should reinvest in R&D to lower the price of the units. The manufacturers should work with ''do-it-yourself'' (DIY) stores to facilitate introduction of th

  3. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experienceslarger market for heat pump water heaters (US Department offurnace or heat pump and electric water heater (26%; US

  4. Combustion air preheating for refinery heaters using plate-type heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinulescu, M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion air preheating by recovering heat from combustion gases is a cost effective method of increasing the overall thermal efficiency of the refining and petrochemical processes. This paper presents the advantages of the plate-type air preheaters made of smooth plates without extended surfaces. These exchangers provide a relatively high heat transfer coefficient at a relatively low pressure drop, resulting in a flexible and compact design. The air preheater design can easily be integrated into the heater design. Top mounting with natural draft becomes possible for many applications, eliminating the need for I.D. fan and expensive ductwork. The economical extent of heat recovery function of the fuel fired is presented based on practical experience. The use of porcelain enameled (glass coated) plates and of stainless steel materials allows the operation of the air preheater below the acidic and water dew point. Finally the paper presents the experience of the Canadian refineries and petrochemical plants with plate-type heat exchangers used for combustion air preheating.

  5. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  6. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

  7. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To evaluate the performance of central heat pump water heaters for multifamily applications, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California, for 16 months.

  8. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  10. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  11. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  12. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings evaluated three newly released heat pump water heater products in order to provide publicly available field data on these products.

  13. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  14. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Drop-In Heat Pump Water Heater, Oak Ridge National Lab.CA. Maxwell, J. 2004. Heat Pump Water Heater Economic Model.water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also

  15. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resistance and heat pump water heaters are not covered.other than commercial heat pump water heaters). 10CFR431.110

  16. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  17. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, ML); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  18. Auto-Calibration and Control Strategy Determination for a Variable-Speed Heat Pump Water Heater Using Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces applications of the GenOpt optimizer coupled with a vapor compression system model for auto-calibration and control strategy determination towards the development of a variable-speed ground-source heat pump water heating unit. The GenOpt optimizer can be linked with any simulation program using input and output text files. It effectively facilitates optimization runs. Using our GenOpt wrapper program, we can flexibly define objectives for optimizations, targets, and constraints. Those functionalities enable running extensive optimization cases for model calibration, configuration design and control strategy determination. In addition, we describe a methodology to improve prediction accuracy using functional calibration curves. Using the calibrated model, we investigated control strategies of the ground-source heat pump water heater, considering multiple control objectives, covering the entire operation range.

  19. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Star Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.2004. Heat pump water heater technology: Experiences ofmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  20. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experiences ofStar Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  1. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experiencesstar residential water heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renew- able

  2. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents theboth gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pumpliters) for gas storage water heaters and a maximum input

  3. Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exchangers used to transfer heat to tqe com- I bustion air are divided into two groups. IndiIlect ! heat exchangers called "regenerative" types an~ direct heat exchangers called "recuperative" types. In a regenerative air heater, heat is transferred i...~duced I draft, air preheat system. This system can ac~omodate either a regenerative or recuperative air heater and ! Fig. 5 - Heat recovery systems. 857 ESL-IE-80-04-157 Proceedings from the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX...

  4. A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J. (2012). Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based, presenting an energy-saving opportunity for homeowners. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  5. A Study on the Failure of Industrial Electric Heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chyu, M. C.

    The break down mechanism of a cylindrical electric heater is investigated by studying the uneven heating behavior of the heater by measuring the surface temperature variation of the heater when it is subjected to a boundary condition of constant...

  6. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Ginestra, Jean Charles (Richmond, TX)

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  7. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

  8. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and F. Southworh. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology:a larger market for heat pump water heaters (U.S. Departmentfurnace or heat pump and electric water heater (26%). (U.S.

  9. Heater head for Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M.A.; Emigh, S.G.

    1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a heater head for a Stirling engine comprising: a housing for enclosing the heater head with gas at a substantial elevated pressure; insulator means attached to the housing for insulating the heater head; inlet means attached to a regenerator in the housing for admission of relatively high pressure working fluid from the regenerator of a Stirling engine; a first annular heating wall in the housing attached to the inlet means for heating the working fluid; and, a second annular heating wall in the housing concentric with the first heating wall but of lesser diameters so that an annular space is formed between the first heating wall and the second heating wall for heating working fluid; and a third heating wall in the housing concentric with and smaller in diameter than the second heating wall forming the condensing area of a heat pipe between the second heating wall and the third heating wall.

  10. Direct Gas Fired Air Heating For 40 to 50% Fuel Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Searcy, J. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the safety aspects of direct gas fired air heating, the most important qUe~tion is whether there would be a harmful build up of carbon monoxide within the building as a result of!the products of combustion being released directly into the air stream.... The unvented infrared heaterslhave long been proven safe from this standpoint. By looking at the fundamental chemistry of combustion! of natural gas, the direct gas-fired make-up air heaters can be shown to produce lower concentrationsII of carbon monoxide...

  11. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics for a New Type of Air Heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, H.; Fan, X.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is found that the integrated characteristics of heat transfer and flow friction increase with the hole's diameter at the same hole density (which is equal to the ratio of the hole's total area to the baffle's area), and the heat transfer rate increases...

  12. Combustion Air Preheat and Radiant Heat Transfer in Fired Heaters - A Graphical Method for Design and Operating Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grantom, R. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The installation of combustion air preheat is a widely used technique for improving the fuel efficiency of existing fired heaters and fired tubular reactors. By increasing adiabatic flame temperature, combustion air preheat increases radiant section...

  13. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    storage water: Heat Flow Cold Water Solar Tank Warm Water Standard Water Heaterstorage tank can also be accom- plished by natural convection. In the compact water heater,

  14. Ground heat exchanger design for direct geothermal energy systems .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COLLS, STUART

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Direct geothermal energy systems use the ground to heat and cool buildings. Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are the most widespread form of direct geothermal… (more)

  15. Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under...

  16. Geothermal direct heat applications program summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of geothermal energy for direct heat purposes by the private sector within the US has been quite limited to date. However, there is a large potential market for thermal energy in such areas as industrial processing, agribusiness, and space/water heating of commercial and residential buildings. Technical and economic information is needed to assist in identifying prospective direct heat users and to match their energy needs to specific geothermal reservoirs. Technological uncertainties and associated economic risks can influence the user's perception of profitability to the point of limiting private investment in geothermal direct applications. To stimulate development in the direct heat area, the Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy, issued two Program Opportunity Notices (PON's). These solicitations are part of DOE's national geothermal energy program plan, which has as its goal the near-term commercialization by the private sector of hydrothermal resources. Encouragement is being given to the private sector by DOE cost-sharing a portion of the front-end financial risk in a limited number of demonstration projects. The twenty-two projects summarized herein are direct results of the PON solicitations.

  17. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy multiplier Distribution losses Smart controls Wasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/

  18. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9HarveyWellnessFebruary

  19. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Drop-In Heat Pump Water Heater, Oak Ridge National Lab.Clear Seas Research. 2006. Water Heater Study. Plumbing andJ. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into the

  20. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas and electric storage water heaters, heat-pump watersmall gas-fired storage water heaters with a large burner.such as electric storage water heaters, the comparison of

  1. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  2. HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Let's start with a basic tenet: electric space heaters are less efficient than HVAC systems. I cannot replace my heating system with room heaters if I want to save money....

  3. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  4. Corium droplet size in direct containment heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For those light water reactor severe accident sequences in which molten corium is postulated to melt through the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head at elevated primary system pressure and enter the cavity region beneath the vessel, the flow of corium from the RPV will be followed by a sustained high-pressure blowdown of steam and hydrogen through the breach remaining in the vessel. The gases flowing from the breached vessel constitute a source of driving forces capable of dispersing corium from the cavity as droplets into other parts of the containment. An important issue is the fraction of the dispersed corium thermal and chemical energy which may be transferred directly to the containment atmosphere. An important determinant of the extent of direct containment heating is the size of the corium droplets which are dispersed into the containment atmosphere. An analysis is presented here of the mass median droplet sizes in the Argonne National Laboratory CWTI-13 and CWTI-14 reactor material-direct containment heating experiments as well as the Sandia National Laboratory SPIT-19 thermite test. The observed median droplet diameters are shown to be in good agreement with a correlation for the drop size in ordinary annular flow, and a droplet size prediction is carried out for the reactor system.

  5. High efficiency solar air heaters with novel built-in heat storage for use in a humidification-dehumidification desalination cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, Edward K

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared to solar water heaters, solar air heaters have received relatively little investigation and have resulted in few commercial products. However, in the context of a Humidification-Dehumidification (HD) Desalination ...

  6. Measured Impact on Space Conditioning Energy Use in a Residence Due to Operating a Heat Pump Water Heater inside the Conditioned Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact on space conditioning energy use due to operating a heat pump water heater (HPWH) inside the conditioned space is analyzed based on 2010-2011 data from a research house with simulated occupancy and hot water use controls. The 2700 ft2 (345 m2) house is located in Oak Ridge, TN (mixed-humid climate) and is equipped with a 50 gallon (189 l) HPWH that provided approximately 55 gallons/d (208 l/d) of hot water at 120 F (46 C) to the house during the test period. The HPWH has been operated every other week from December 2010 through November 2011 in two modes; a heat pump only mode, and a standard mode that utilizes 15355 Btu/hr (4500 W) resistance heating elements. The energy consumption of the air-source heat pump (ASHP) that provides space conditioning for the house is compared for the two HPWH operating modes with weather effects taken into account. Impacts during the heating and cooling seasons are compared.

  7. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  8. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat pump technologies where applicable models exist (electric water heaters,Heat Pumps for AC Electric Clothes Dryers Electric Secondary Space Heaters Dishwashers Electric Water Heaters (

  9. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL); Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature heat exchanger with a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  10. Geothermal Direct Heat Applications Program Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of the undefined risk in the development and use of geothermal energy as a thermal energy source, the Department of Energy Division of Geothermal Energy solicited competitive proposals for field experiments in the direct use of geothermal energy. Twenty-two proposals were selected for cost-shared funding with one additional project co-funded by the State of New Mexico. As expected, the critical parameter was developing a viable resource. So far, of the twenty resources drilled, fourteen have proved to be useful resources. These are: Boise, Idaho; Elko heating Company in Nevada; Pagosa Springs, Colorado; Philip School, Philip, South Dakota; St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota; Utah Roses near Salt Lake City; Utah State Prison, Utah; Warm Springs State Hospital, Montana; T-H-S Hospital, Marlin, Texas; Aquafarms International in the Cochella Valley, California; Klamath County YMCA and Klamath Falls in Oregon; Susanville, California and Monroe, utah. Monroe's 164 F and 600 gpm peak flow was inadequate for the planned project, but is expected to be used in a private development. Three wells encountered a resource insufficient for an economical project. These were Madison County at Rexburg, Idaho; Ore-Ida Foods at Ontario, Oregon and Holly Sugar at Brawley, California. Three projects have yet to confirm their resource. The Navarro College well in Corsicana, Texas is being tested; the Reno, Moana, Nevada well is being drilled and the El Centro, California well is scheduled to be drilled in January 1982. The agribusiness project at Kelly Hot Springs was terminated because a significant archeological find was encountered at the proposed site. The Diamond Ring Ranch in South Dakota, and the additional project, Carrie Tingley Hospital in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico both used existing wells. The projects that encountered viable resources have proceeded to design, construct, and in the most advanced projects, to operate geothermal systems for district heating, space heating, grain drying and aquaculture.

  11. Heat transfer from combustion gases to a single row of closely spaced tubes in a swirl crossflow Stirling engine heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankston, C.P.; Back, L.H.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an experimental program to determine the heat-transfer characteristics of a combustor and heat-exchange system in a hybrid solar receiver which utilizes a Stirling engine. The system consists of a swirl conbustor with a crossflow heat exchanger composed of a single row of 48 closely spaced curved tubes. In the present study, heat-transfer characteristics of the combustor/heat-exchanger system without a Stirling engine have been studied over a range of operating conditions and output levels using water as the working fluid. Non-dimensional heat-transfer coefficients based on total heat transfer have been obtained and are compared with available literature data. The results show significantly enhanced heat transfer for the present geometry and test conditions. Also, heat transfer along the length of the tubes is found to vary, the effect depending upon test condition.

  12. Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

  13. Geothermal direct heat applications program summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978, the Department of Energy Division of Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies initiated a program to accelerate the direct use of geothermal energy, in which 23 projects were selected. The projects, all in the western part of the US, cover the use of geothermal energy for space conditioning (heating and cooling) and agriculture (aquaculture and greenhouses). Initially, two projects were slated for industrial processing; however, because of lack of geothermal resources, these projects were terminated. Of the 23 projects, seven were successfully completed, ten are scheduled for completion by the end of 1983, and six were terminated for lack of resources. Each of the projects is being documented from its inception through planning, drilling, and resource confirmation, design, construction, and one year of monitoring. The information is being collected, evaluated, and will be reported. Several reports will be produced, including detailed topical reports on economics, institutional and regulatory problems, engineering, and a summary final report. To monitor progress and provide a forum for exchange of information while the program is progressing, semiannual or annual review meetings have been held with all project directors and lead engineers for the past four years. This is the sixth meeting in that series. Several of the projects which have been terminated are not included this year. Overall, the program has been very successful. Valuable information has been gathered. problems have been encountered and resolved concerning technical, regulatory, and institutional constraints. Most projects have been proven to be economical with acceptable pay-back periods. Although some technical problems have emerged, they were resolved with existing off-the-shelf technologies and equipment. The risks involved in drilling for the resource, the regulatory constraints, the high cost of finance, and large front-end cost remain the key obstacles to the broad development of geothermal direct use applications.

  14. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  15. Variation of direct-heat geothermal economics with project size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Struhsacker, D.W.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparision of the economics of large, intermediate, and small direct-heat goethermal projects is presented. An attempt is made to define which types of direct-heat geothermal projects are most cost-efficient and produce the most energy for the least amount of money. The potential energy contribution of fourteen different sizes of direct heat projects is used to determine the number of projects of a given size required to produce 1 Quad of energy. The cost of developing 1 Quad of direct-heat geothermal energy from large, intermediate, and small projects is compared to the cost of 1 Quad of energy from conventional sources. The engineering and resource parameters controlling project size are defined. The development of large-scale projects is stressed as the way in which direct-heat geothermal energy can make the most significant contribution to the nation's energy requirements. (MJF)

  16. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  17. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  18. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  19. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  20. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Storage Water Heater.draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper waswater heater, gas-fired storage water heater, flue damper,

  1. Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    for space heating. 14. Do not use space heaters or any other electric appliance around water. 15Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with temperature and heat. The use of electric space heaters as a temporary measure is permitted

  2. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - air heater duct Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15542 Fuel-Fired Radiant Heaters - RESERVED 15543 Fuel-Fired Unit Heaters... Electric Heating Cables -RESERVED 15785 Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Units - RESERVED 15815 Metal Ducts...

  4. Is your electric process heater safe?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiras, C.S.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 35 years, electric process heaters (EPHs) have been used to heat flowing fluids in different sectors of the energy industry: oil and gas exploration and production, refineries, petrochemical plants, pipeline compression facilities and power-generation plants. EPHs offer several advantages over fired heaters and shell-and-tube exchangers, which have been around for many years, including: smaller size, lighter weight, cleaner operation, lower capital costs, lower maintenance costs, no emissions or leakage, better control and improved safety. However, while many industrial standards have addressed safety concerns of fired heaters and shell-and-tube exchangers (API, TEMA, NFPA, OSHA and NEC), no standards address EPHs. The paper presents a list of questions that plant operators need to ask about the safety of their electric process heaters. The answers are also given.

  5. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Input Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1. Tankthe house. Supply pipe – this is the water heater inlet pipewith refills the water heater with cold water Note: The TANK

  6. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    residential gas-fired storage water heater was modeled underin a typical residential storage water heater that meets thereplace a gas-fired storage water heater with a conventional

  7. Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Rate...

  8. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of Energy 601Department ofEnergy PHEVAbengoaAbsocold:

  9. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications.

  10. Thermal performance of direct contact heat exchangers for mixed hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.; Coswami, D.Y.; Demuth, O.J.; Mines, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a physical and a mathematical model for evaluating the tray efficiencies for a direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX). The model is then used to determine the efficiencies for tests conducted on a 60kW sieve tray DCHX as heat is transferred from a geofluid (brine) to a working fluid (mixed hydrocarbons). It is assumed that there are three distinct regions in the column based on the state of the working fluid, as follows: Region I - Preheating with no vaporization; Region II - Preheating with moderate vaporization; and Region III - Major vaporization. The boundaries of these regions can be determined from the experimental data. In the model, mass balance and energy balance is written for a tray ''N'' in each of these regions. Finally, the ''tray efficiency'' or ''heat transfer'' effectiveness of the tray is calculated based on the definition that it is the ratio of the actual heat transfer to the maximum possible, thermodynamically.

  11. Phase change material storage heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goswami, D. Yogi (Gainesville, FL); Hsieh, Chung K. (Gainesville, FL); Jotshi, Chand K. (Gainesville, FL); Klausner, James F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  12. Explosives tester with heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  13. Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); DeRossi, Raymond S. (Amsterdam, NY); Mullins, Lawrence E. (Middle Grove, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a prober assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

  14. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil? Fired Residential Water Heaters. Berkeley Heights, Newof Residential Gas Water Heaters. Chicago, IL, Gas ApplianceDampers for Natural Draft Water Heaters: Technical Report.

  15. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-fired Storage Water Heater .. 418 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heaters Small Gas Storage Water Heater Market The objective of

  16. Thermal analysis of directly buried conduit heat-distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.B.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The calculations of heat losses and temperature field for directly buried conduit heat distribution systems were performed using the finite element computer programs. The finite element analysis solved two-dimensional, steady-state heat transfer problems involving two insulated parallel pipes encased in the same conduit casing and in separate casings, and the surrounding earth. Descriptions of the theoretical basis, computational scheme, and the data input and outputs of the developed computer programs are presented. Numerical calculations were carried out for predicting the temperature distributions within the existing high temperature hot water distribution system and two insulated pipes covered in the same metallic conduit and the surrounding soil. The predicted results generally agree with the experimental data obtained at the test site.

  17. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between multiple organizations performing their part in the test.

  18. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Heaters Jim Lutz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory January 25, 2011 The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - air heater experiment Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air heat... exchanger Two dc power supplies; power supply for running the cooling fan Thermocouples, heaters, load Source: Braun, Paul - Department of Materials...

  20. Geothermal Direct-Heat Utilization Assistance - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Lund

    1999-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Geo-Heat Center provided (1) direct-use technical assistance, (2) research, and (3) information dissemination on geothermal energy over an 8 1/2 year period. The center published a quarterly bulletin, developed a web site and maintained a technical library. Staff members made 145 oral presentations, published 170 technical papers, completed 28 applied research projects, and gave 108 tours of local geothermal installations to 500 persons.

  1. Incremental cooling load determination for passive direct gain heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, P.W.; Mahone, D.; Fuller, W.; Gruber, J.; Kammerud, R.; Place, W.; Andersson, B.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the applicability of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) full load compressor hour method for predicting the cooling load increase in a residence, attributable to direct gain passive heating systems. The NAHB method predictions are compared with the results of 200 hour-by-hour simulations using BLAST and the two methods show reasonable agreement. The degree of agreement and the limitations of the NAHB method are discussed.

  2. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  3. Water Heating Requirements – Overview Page 5-1 5. Water Heating Requirements 5.1 Overview 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    . Electric heat pump water heaters, however, are closer to the efficiency of typical gas systems, because

  4. Energy Conservation in Process Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagge, R. W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENERGY CONSERVATION IN PROCESS HEATERS Roger l~. Bagge Neste Engineering Porvoo, Finland ABSTRACT OPTIMIZATION OF EMER~Y USE Energy savings in refinery and petrochemical fired heaters can basically be achieved in two ways: Thru optimization...

  5. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  6. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  7. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

  8. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1984-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable porportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005/sup 0/C at a flow rate of 50 cm/sup 3//sec with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  9. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable proportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005.degree. C. at a flow rate of 50 cm.sup.3 /second with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  10. Market penetration analysis for direct heat geothermal energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, R.J.; Nelson, R.A.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is concerned with the estimation of the National geothermal market potential and penetration in direct heat applications for residences and certain industry segments. An important aspect of this study is that the analysis considers both known and anticipated goethermal resources. This allows for an estimation of the longer-range potential for geothermal applications. Thus the approach and results of this study provide new insights and valuable information not obtained from more limited, site-specific types of analyses. Estimates made in this study track geothermal market potential and projected penetration from the present to the year 2020. Private sector commercialization of geothermal energy over this period requires assistance in the identification of markets and market sizes, potential users, and appropriate technical applications.

  11. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the CFR as being storage water heaters, instantaneous watersupply boilers. Storage water heater means a water heaterAppliance Gas storage water heaters Definition a water

  12. INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-03 Pool And Spa Heating Systems (Page 1 of 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Enforcement Agency: Permit Number: 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 Pool and Spa Heating Systems for outdoor pools or spas that have a heat pump or gas heater. 3. Pool system has directional inletsINSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-03 Pool And Spa Heating Systems (Page 1 of 2) Site Address

  13. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  14. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  15. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  16. Testing and analysis of the Semiscale Mod-1 heater rod design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, T.K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of electrically heated nuclear fuel rod simulators in the Semiscale Program is traced from a historical viewpoint. The design of the Semiscale Mod-1 electrical heater rod and core simulator is discussed. Heater rod thermal response during transient thermal-hydraulic depressurization experiments conducted in the Mod-1 system, and analysis techniques and tests conducted to help quantify heater rod characteristics and behavior are presented.

  17. INTEGRATED CO2 HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS FOR SPACE HEATING AND HOT WATER HEATING IN LOW-ENERGY HOUSES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    designed as stand-alone systems, i.e. a heat pump water heater (HPWH) in combination with separate units

  18. Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHAPTER 9 Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells G. Lu & C, including two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport. We explain how the better understanding

  19. Direct Refrigeration from Heat Recovery Using 2-Stage Absorption Chillers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hufford, P. E.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the cost of some fossil fuels has moderated, the importance of energy conservation by heat recovery has not diminished. The application of waste heat generated steam to produce chilled water is not new. However, there is a newly developed...

  20. MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M. Daneshyar. andOF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M. Daneshyar, tWarm Water Standard Water Heater Tank Hot Water The solar

  1. The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    display the distribution of water heater models by fee typeelectric and gas-fired water heaters, respectively. DeliveryDistribution of Electric Water Heaters by Fee Type Figure B-

  2. Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

  3. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution relied heavily on computational fluid dynamic predictions of design alternatives. The final design features modular separate radiant cells, each with one and two-side fired vertical tubes. The convection section configuration is vertical tube banks enclosed in the radiant channels. Commercial modular plate air preheaters are used. The predicted performance for the integrated advanced heater and Callidus burner is 95 percent efficiency with 9 ppm NOx emissions firing natural gas, and 12 ppm firing refinery gas. The total erected cost is less than a conventional heater with combustion air preheat.

  4. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report summarizes geothermal activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the second quarter of FY-95. It describes 92 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research activities are summarized on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low temperature resource assessment and ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct heat Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  5. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC)...

  6. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - additional direct heat Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transfer. The specific design is directed toward the cooling of a prototypical optoelectronic... SUPERCOOLER FOR HIGH HEAT FLUX COOLING IN OPTOELECTRONIC PACKAGES Walter W....

  8. Water Heating Requirements Overview Page 5-1 5 Water Heating Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    units with tank volumes of 40 to 50 gallons. Standby loss associated with the center flue gas storage energy use. Whereas natural gas, (liquefied petroleum gas), LPG or oil can be burned directly to heat code from 2008 are listed below: Instantaneous (or tankless) water heaters including gas, oil, small

  9. Environmental Assessment: geothermal direct heat project, Marlin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal action addressed by this Environmental Assessment (EA) is joint funding the retrofitting of a heating and hot water system in a hospital at Marlin, Texas, with a geothermal preheat system. The project will be located within the existing hospital boiler room. One supply well was drilled in an existing adjacent parking lot. It was necessary to drill the well prior to completion of this environmental assessment in order to confirm the reservoir and to obtain fluids for analysis in order to assess the environmental effects of fluid disposal. Fluid from operation will be disposed of by discharging it directly into existing street drains, which will carry the fluid to Park Lake and eventually the Brazos River. Fluid disposal activities are regulated by the Texas Railroad Commission. The local geology is determined by past displacements in the East Texas Basin. Boundaries are marked by the Balcones and the Mexia-Talco fault systems. All important water-bearing formations are in the cretaceous sedimentary rocks and are slightly to highly saline. Geothermal fluids are produced from the Trinity Group; they range from approximately 3600 to 4000 ppM TDS. Temperatures are expected to be above 64/sup 0/C (147/sup 0/F). Surface water flows southeastward as a part of the Brazos River Basin. The nearest perennial stream is the Brazos River 5.6 km (3.5 miles) away, to which surface fluids will eventually discharge. Environmental impacts of construction were small because of the existing structures and paved areas. Construction run-off and geothermal flow-test fluid passed through a small pond in the city park, lowering its water quality, at least temporarily. Construction noise was not out of character with existing noises around the hospital.

  10. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  11. DETAILED LOOP MODEL (DLM) ANALYSIS OF LIQUID SOLAR THERMOSIPHONS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a Collector- Cum-Storage Type of ar Water Heater, 11 SolarSolar Water Heater of the Combined Collector and Storagethermosiphon water heaters with heat exchangers in storage

  12. DPF heater attachment mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust filter system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A fastener limits expansion movement of the heating element relative to the PF.

  13. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D, and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center. It describes 95 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with goethermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics, and resources. Research activities are summarized on geothermal district heating system cost evaluation and silica waste utilization project. Outreach activities include publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, goethermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  14. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  15. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a third quarter 1994 report of activities of the Geo-Heat Center of Oregon Institute of Technology. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat applications. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources, and equipment. Research is also being conducted on failures of vertical lineshaft turbines in geothermal wells.

  16. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (R.D. #2, Box 101 E, North Troy, NY 12182)

    1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  17. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  18. Energy Recovery By Direct Contact Gas-Liquid Heat Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Bravo, J. L.

    -09-48 Proceedings from the Tenth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, September 13-15, 1988 passes to the atmosphere. The heated liquid moves through a closed circuit to tubular exchangers where its heat is transferred to a working fluid... are available, For sieve trays, mass transfer efficiency sources have been tabulated by Chan and Fair (1984), 267 ESL-IE-88-09-48 Proceedings from the Tenth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, September 13-15, 1988 When only mass...

  19. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the stored water compared to the heat content of the water (water heaters with storage tanks) Cycling losses - the loss of heat as the water circulates through a water heater...

  20. Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    works well with all types of water heaters, especially with demand and solar water heaters. Drain-water heat exchangers can recover heat from the hot water used in showers,...

  1. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-97. It describes 174 contracts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  2. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Geo-Heat Center provides technical assistance on geothermal direct heat applications to developers, consultants and the public which could include: data and information on low-temperature (< 1500 C) resources, space and district heating, geothermal heat pumps, greenhouses, aquaculture, industrial processes and other technologies. This assistance could include preliminary engineering feasibility studies, review of direct-use project plans, assistance in project material and equipment selection, analysis and solutions of project operating problems, and information on resources and utilization. The following are brief descriptions of technical assistance provided during the second quarter of the program.

  3. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater...

  4. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  5. Dehumidifying water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Drawings and specifications are included for the system to heat water for the swimming pool and dehumidify the building of the Glen Cove YMCA. An overview is presented of the Nautica product used in this system. (MHR)

  6. EA-1774: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the adoption of amended energy conservation standards as required by The Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended) for direct heating equipment,...

  7. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project to develop direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating, a process which is meant to eliminate traditional, intermediate steelmaking steps.

  8. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietip sheetK-4In 2013 many autoThisTheDecember 29, 2014Standardized

  9. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd:June 2015 <Ones |Laboratory, June 2011TO0CNG and3, 2015CO2CO

  10. Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado.

  11. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters May 2, 2012 - 6:47pm Addthis Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. How...

  12. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-97 (July--September 1997). It describes 213 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps, geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, acquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, and industrial applications. Research activities include the completion of a Comprehensive Greenhouse Developer Package. Work accomplished on the revision of the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook are discussed. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 3), dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses, and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  13. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, January - March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the second quarter of FY-97. It describes 176 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on well pumping in commercial groundwater heat pump systems. A memorandum of understanding between the GHC and EIA is described. Work accomplishments on the Guidebook are discussed. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  14. Calculating Fired Heater Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.; Ritter, E. L.

    bills. A review of the Heat Loss and Input/Output methods of efficiency analyses is presented, along with a discussion of their relative accuracy. Examples cited include refinery mixed fuel gas, coal, and chemical recovery fueled applications, using.... 75 percent excess 02 (dry basis) -- a respectable operation. Eva luate boi ler effieiency when burning mixed refinery gas (at an oil refinery), coa1 (at a central power station) and black liquor (at a paper mill). The practical definition of LHV...

  15. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, andWater heaters ..17   Potential savings from rental housing unit water heater

  16. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  17. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  18. Improving Fired Heater Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shriver, J. E.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gravity, mass energy or volumetric energy can be obtained from AGA Reports #3 and #5. The equations are: energYmass = 20350 + 1970/G ? (H 2 /inert corrections) energYvolumetric = 1571.5G + 144 ? (H2/inert corrections) Where: G specific gravity... 604 ESL-IE-83-04-96 Proceedings from the Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference Volume II, Houston, TX, April 17-20, 1983 energYmass = Htu/lb fhese main equations illustrate that when the H.H.V. (high heating value) of a gas can be energ...

  19. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Heat Exchanger Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LabHeat Exchanger Development Heat Exchanger Development Planned Heat Exchanger Test Loop Capabilities Heat Exchanger 1 500 kW Heaters (Elec.) 500 kW Gas Cooler Unbalanced flows...

  1. Stability analysis of direct contact heat exchangers subject to system perturbations. Final report, Task 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, H.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes a project summary, copies of two papers resulting from the work and the Ph.D. Dissertation of Dr. Mehdi Golafshani entitled, ''Stability of a Direct Contact Heat Exchanger''. Specifically, the work deals with the operational stability of a spray column type heat exchanger subject to disturbances typical of those which can occur for geothermal applications. A computer program was developed to solve the one-dimensional transient two-phase flow problem and it was applied to the design of a spray column. The operation and design of the East Mesa 500kW/sub e/ direct contactor was assessed. It is shown that the heat transfer is governed by the internal resistance of the dispersed phase. In fact, the performance is well-represented by diffusion of heat within the drops. 5 refs.

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption-sorption heat pumps Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Corporation Auxiliary - Heat pump water heater 50... -gal tank, electric auxiliary heating Multiple operating modes: heat pump, hybrid and standard... and Ventilation Systems...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption-type heat pumps Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Corporation Auxiliary - Heat pump water heater 50... -gal tank, electric auxiliary heating Multiple operating modes: heat pump, hybrid and standard... and Ventilation Systems...

  4. Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pescatore

    2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize the design for manufacturing. This work included the initiation of a large field testing program (over 125 units) and an in-depth reliability program intended to minimize the risks associated with a new product introduction. At the time of this report, A.O. Smith plans to introduce this product to the marketplace in the early 2006 time period.

  5. CenterPoint Energy- Residential Gas Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CenterPoint Energy offers gas heating and water heating equipment rebates to its residential customers. Eligible equipment includes furnaces, back-up furnace systems, hydronic heaters, storage...

  6. Research and Development of Information on Geothermal Direct Heat Application Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hederman, William F., Jr.; Cohen, Laura A.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first annual report of ICF's geothermal R&D project for the Department of Energy's Idaho Operations Office. The overall objective of this project is to compile, analyze, and report on data from geothermal direct heat application projects. Ultimately, this research should convey the information developed through DOE's and Program Opportunity Notice (PON) activities as well as through other pioneering geothermal direct heat application projects to audiences which can use the early results in new, independent initiatives. A key audience is potential geothermal investors.

  7. Massively-Parallel Direct Numerical Simulation of Gas Turbine Endwall Film-Cooling Conjugate Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meador, Charles Michael

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    MASSIVELY-PARALLEL DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF GAS TURBINE ENDWALL FILM-COOLING CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER A Thesis by CHARLES MICHAEL MEADOR Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2010 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MASSIVELY-PARALLEL DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF GAS TURBINE ENDWALL FILM-COOLING CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER A Thesis by CHARLES MICHAEL MEADOR Submitted to the O ce of Graduate...

  8. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menotti, James Louis (Dickinson, TX)

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  9. Preliminary Modeling, Testing and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Thornton, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional storage-tank water heaters, because thermal losses to the environment are much less. Although standard test results are available to compare tankless heaters with storage tank heaters, actual savings depend on the draw details because energy to heat up the internal mass depends on the time since the last draw. To allow accurate efficiency estimates under any assumed draw pattern, a one-node model with heat exchanger mass is posed here. Key model parameters were determined from test data. Burner efficiency showed inconsistency between the two data sets analyzed. Model calculations show that efficiency with a realistic draw pattern is {approx}8% lower than that resulting from using only large {approx}40 liter draws, as specified in standard water-heater tests. The model is also used to indicate that adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater ameliorates unacceptable oscillations that tankless with feedback control can experience with pre-heated water too hot for the minimum burner setting. The added tank also eliminates problematic low-flow cut-out and hot-water-delay, but it will slightly decrease efficiency. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal protocols for parameter extraction.

  10. Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady; Michael Patrick (Oak Ridge, TN), Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno (Oak Ridge, TN), Vitek; John Michael (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

  11. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    directly replace the existing forced air furnace and water heater, and consist of a high efficiency water heater or boiler and an optimized hydronic air handler. The air handlers...

  12. A Comparison of Direct Heating During Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation in Ex Vivo Liver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreano, Anita; Brace, Christopher L., E-mail: clbrace@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude and spatial distribution of temperature elevations when using 480 kHz RF and 2.45 GHz microwave energy in ex vivo liver models. A total of 60 heating cycles (20 s at 90 W) were performed in normal, RF-ablated, and microwave-ablated liver tissues (n = 10 RF and n = 10 microwave in each tissue type). Heating cycles were performed using a 480-kHz generator and 3-cm cooled-tip electrode (RF) or a 2.45-GHz generator and 14-gauge monopole (microwave) and were designed to isolate direct heating from each energy type. Tissue temperatures were measured by using fiberoptic thermosensors 5, 10, and 15 mm radially from the ablation applicator at the depth of maximal heating. Power delivered, sensor location, heating rates, and maximal temperatures were compared using mixed effects regression models. No significant differences were noted in mean power delivered or thermosensor locations between RF and microwave heating groups (P > 0.05). Microwaves produced significantly more rapid heating than RF at 5, 10, and 15 mm in normal tissue (3.0 vs. 0.73, 0.85 vs. 0.21, and 0.17 vs. 0.09 Degree-Sign C/s; P < 0.05); and at 5 and 10 mm in ablated tissues (2.3 {+-} 1.4 vs. 0.7 {+-} 0.3, 0.5 {+-} 0.3 vs. 0.2 {+-} 0 Degree-Sign C/s, P < 0.05). The radial depth of heating was {approx}5 mm greater for microwaves than RF. Direct heating obtained with 2.45-GHz microwave energy using a single needle-like applicator is faster and covers a larger volume of tissue than 480-kHz RF energy.

  13. NREL and Industry Advance Low-Cost Solar Water Heating R&D (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL and Rhotech develop cost-effective solar water heating prototype to rival natural gas water heater market.

  14. Development and Field Testing of a Hybrid Water Heating and Dehumidification Appliance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aaron K. Ball; Chip Ferguson; William Mcdaniel

    standard system is replaced by a Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH), the performance can be increased by 140

  15. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the exhaust steam in an indirect condenser and rejects heatSteam Feedwater Heaters* - Installed Cost of the Dry-Cooling Tower and Condenser* -steam feedwater heaters Feedwater (50BoK, 14.5 MPa) I nd irect condenser

  16. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-98 (October--December 1997). It describes 216 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps and material for high school debates, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, electric power and snow melting. Research activities include work on model construction specifications of lineshaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, a comprehensive aquaculture developer package and revisions to the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 4) which was devoted entirely to geothermal activities in South Dakota, dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  17. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  18. Joint used for coupling long heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menottie, James Louis

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for coupling ends of elongated heaters and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include two elongated heaters with an end portion of one heater abutted or near to an end portion of the other heater and a core coupling material. The core coupling material may extend between the two elongated heaters. The elongated heaters may include cores and at least one conductor substantially concentrically surrounds the cores. The cores may have a lower melting point than the conductors. At least one end portion of the conductor may have a beveled edge. The gap formed by the beveled edge may be filled with a coupling material for coupling the one or more conductors. One end portion of at least one core may have a recessed opening and the core coupling material may be partially inside the recessed opening.

  19. Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

  20. 1 CO2 Heat Pump System for Space Heating and Hot Water Heating in Low-Energy Houses and Passive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designed as a stand-alone system, i.e. a heat pump water heater in combination with a separate unit for

  1. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Compared to those water heaters, heat pump water heating systems can supply much more heat just with the same amount of electric input used for electric water heaters. The ASHPWH absorbs heat from the ambient- 1 - 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR

  2. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  3. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  4. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  5. Direct nuclear heating measurements and analyses for structural materials induced by deuterium-tritium neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Maekawa, F.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Kumar, A.; Youssef, M.Z.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear heat deposition rates in the structural components of a fusion reactor have been measured directly with a microcalorimeter incorporated with an intense deuterium-tritium (D- T) neutron source, the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the framework of the JAERI/U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) collaborative program on fusion neutronics. Heat deposition rates at positions up to 200 mm of depth in a Type 304 stainless steel assembly bombarded with D-T neutrons were measured along with single probe experiments. The measured heating rates were compared with comprehensive calculations in order to verify the adequacy of the currently available database relevant to the nuclear heating. In general, calculations with data of JENDL-3 and ENDL-85 libraries gave good agreement with experiments for all single probe materials, whereas RMCCS, based on ENDF/B-V, suffered from unreasonable overestimation in the heating number. It was demonstrated that the nuclear/thermal coupled calculation is a powerful tool to analyze the time-dependent temperature change due to the heat transfer in the probe materials. The analysis for the Type 304 stainless steel assembly, based on JENDL-3, demonstrated that the calculation, in general, was in good agreement with the measurement up to 200 mm of depth along the central axis of the assembly. 31 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ,gas water heater and electrical water heater in Guangzhou was compared and the Annual Cost Calculation Method (ACCM)was introduced to explain the remarkable economic benefits. The social benefits of the solar water heater were introduced from a scientific...

  7. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    price for a condensing commercial water heater is $1,579.For condensing commercial water heaters with a thermalFound products for water heater in any product field and gas

  8. Directed motion generated by heat bath nonlinearly driven by external noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jyotipratim Ray Chaudhuri; Debashis Barik; Suman Kumar Banik

    2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the system heat bath approach where the bath is nonlinearly modulated by an external Gaussian random force, we propose a new microscopic model to study directed motion in the overdamped limit for a nonequilibrium open system. Making use of the coupling between the heat bath and the external modulation as a small perturbation we construct a Langevin equation with multiplicative noise and space dependent dissipation and the corresponding Fokker-Planck-Smoluchowski equation in the overdamped limit. We examine the thermodynamic consistency condition and explore the possibility of observing a phase induced current as a consequence of state dependent diffusion and, necessarily, nonlinear driving of the heat bath by the external noise.

  9. Diurnal heat storage in direct-gain passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Neeper, D.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a simplified method for predicting temperature swings in direct-gain buildings. It is called the DHC method due to the use of a diurnal heat capacity (DHC). Diurnal heat capacity is a measure of the effective amount of heat stored during a sunny day and then released at night - the typical 24-hour diurnal cycle. This enables prediction of the maximum temperature swings experienced in the building and can be calculated using a single 24-hour harmonic. The advantage is that closed-form analytic solutions can be obtained for a variety of simple and layered-wall configurations. Higher harmonic components are accounted for by a correction factor. The method is suitable for us by hand or on a programmable calculator.

  10. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study on Eco-Design of Water Heaters, Van Holstein en Kemnaon Eco-Design of Water Heaters”, Task 5 Report, DefinitionTesting of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance. Davis

  11. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than standard storage water heaters [2]. However, they aredown for both storage-type water heaters and tankless water1]. The typical water heater storage tank wastes energy to

  12. Radiant Barrier Performance during the Heating Season

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

    with identical Fan Coil Units (FCU), digital thermostats and electric resistance heaters. Both heaters were identical and rated at 4100 Btu/hr. These heaters were directly connected to the thermostats and to watt-hour counters and watt-meters. The watt...

  13. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on New FVIR Water Heaters." Retrieved 04/17/2009, 2009, fromAir Conditioners, Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment,Air Conditioners, Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment,

  14. Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Weatherization Assistance Program Pilot Projects Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar On Feb. 22, 2011, Jerone Gagliano,...

  15. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for gas storage...

  16. Electrically heated DPF start-up strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine has a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates in the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates. Heat generated by combustion of particulates in the heater induces combustion of particulates within the DPF. A control module selectively enables current flow to the electrical heater for an initial period of a DPF regeneration cycle, and limits exhaust flow while the electrical heater is heating to a predetermined soot combustion temperature.

  17. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL); Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  18. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system is described in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  19. Preliminary Modeling, Testing, and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's gas tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional gas storage tank water heaters, but savings depends on the draw pattern. A one-node model incorporating heat exchanger mass is used to address this and other issues. Key model parameters are determined from least-squares regression on short-term data, including burner efficiency, thermal capacitance, and thermal loss coefficient. The calibrated model agrees with data to ~5% on Qgas, with temperature RMS deviation of ~4..deg..C. Efficiency with a standard realistic draw is 71%, compared to 81% predicted from standard energy-factors. Adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater solves issues of oscillations with solar pre-heat, low-flow and hot-water-delay issues. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal data protocols for model parameter extraction.

  20. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1996--September 1996. Federal Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-96. It describes 152 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - auxiliary heating Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Panels Summary: Heating System Preheat - Solar thermal 80-gal tank, electric auxiliary heating Active, indirect forced... heater w digital control panel Source:...

  2. Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

    2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

  3. Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J; Coico, Patrick A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling apparatus for an electronics rack is provided which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures and a tube. The heat exchanger, which is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of distinct, coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and a coolant outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

  4. Integral finned heater and cooler for stirling engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A piston and cylinder for a Stirling engine and the like having top and bottom meshing or nesting finned conical surfaces to provide large surface areas in close proximity to the working gas for good thermal (addition and subtraction of heat) exchange to the working gas and elimination of the usual heater and cooler dead volume. The piston fins at the hot end of the cylinder are perforated to permit the gas to pass into the piston interior and through a regenerator contained therein.

  5. Heat transfer analysis in Stirling engine heat input system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, W.; Kim, S. [LG Electronics Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Living System Lab.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major factor in commercialization of Stirling engine is mass productivity, and the heat input system including tubular heater is one of the obstacles to mass production because of its complexity in shape and difficulty in manufacturing, which resulted from using oxidation-resistant, low-creep alloys which are not easy to machine and weld. Therefore a heater heat exchanger which is very simple in shape and easy to make has been devised, and a burner system appropriate to this heater also has been developed. In this paper specially devised heat input system which includes a heater shell shaped like U-cup and a flame tube located in the heater shell is analyzed in point of heat transfer processes to find optimum heat transfer. To enhance the heat transfer from the flame tube to the heater shell wall, it is required that the flame tube diameter be enlarged as close to the heater shell diameter as possible, and the flame tube temperature be raised as high as possible. But the enlargement of the flame tube diameter should be restricted by the state of combustion affected by hydraulic resistance of combustion gas, and the boost of the flame tube temperature should be considered carefully in the aspects of the flame tube`s service life.

  6. Realized and Projected Impacts of U.S. Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Commercial Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    input capacity and the home heating load. For water heatersHeaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,

  7. Proceedings: Heat exchanger workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer processes are of controlling importance in the operation of a thermal power plant. Heat exchangers are major cost items and are an important source of problems causing poor power plant availability and performance. A workshop to examine the improvements that can be made to heat exchangers was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on June 10-11, 1986, in Palo Alto, California. This workshop was attended by 25 engineers and scientists representing EPRI-member utilities and EPRI consultants. A forum was provided for discussions related to the design, operation and maintenance of utility heat transfer equipment. The specific objectives were to identify research directions that could significantly improve heat exchanger performance, reliability and life cycle economics. Since there is a great diversity of utility heat transfer equipment in use, this workshop addressed two equipment categories: Boiler Feedwater Heaters (FWH) and Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG). The workshop was divided into the following panel sessions: functional design, mechanical design, operation, suggested research topics, and prioritization. Each panel session began with short presentations by experts on the subject and followed by discussions by the attendees. This report documents the proceedings of the workshop and contains recommendations of potentially valuable areas of research and development. 4 figs.

  8. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  9. Hydrothermal research and development assessment. Task Force report: projections for direct-heat applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low and moderate temperature hydrothermal resources suitable for direct-heat applications have been identified in 37 states. The extent to which three resources might be used over the next 20 years were evaluated and the probable impact of Federal programs on hydrothermal resource utilization was assessed. The use types that comprise the bulk of the market were determined. Representative firms and municipalities were interviewed to determine their willingness to use hydrothermal energy, and to determine the investment decision criteria that would influence their actions. (MHR)

  10. Effects of fiber direction on heat conduction in unidirectionally aligned fiber composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Havis, Clark Reagan

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composites, " Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 46, pp. 563-567. 44 APPENDIX A NOMENCI ATURE 2G A A d If k k?k, Iy kf km k?k, k? k?, y, k? kgs~ k~v~ kss i, m) B qs 9cai~ q~s S T W s&p~s /f 'y lF V Vf im r fiber spacing... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF FIBER DIRECTION ON HEAT CONDUCTION IN UNIDIRECTIONALLY ALIGNED FIBER COMPOSITES A Thesis CLARK REAGAN HAVIS Approved as to style and content by: G. P. Peterson...

  11. The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Olson, and Stuart Chaitkin (LBNL). We also want to thank ourand Mithra Moezzi, also of LBNL. This work was supported byLBNL – 44749 The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

  12. Grays Harbor PUD- Solar Water Heater Loan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a low-interest loan program (currently 4.0%) for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans are available for the installation of solar...

  13. Grays Harbor PUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a rebate program for the installation of solar water heaters. Rebates of $600 are available for the installation of solar collectors of 40 square...

  14. Approved Space Heaters In order to ensure that all space heaters meet current safety guidelines, the University Fire Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holsinger, Kent

    EHS 1/2012 Approved Space Heaters In order to ensure that all space heaters meet current safety approved a limited selection of space heaters for use within the University, which are available at Central Stores. The following Space Heaters are approved for use in University of Connecticut buildings provided

  15. Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    -6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... it is essential to estimate accurately baseline NOx emissions. ? This will establish each units current compliance status. ? Emissions ? Current excess air level ? Carbon monoxide ? Combustibles ? NOx corrected to 3% 02 314 ESL-IE-00-04-46 Proceedings...

  16. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  17. Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb and heat sink grease respectively). The dynamics of thermal effects is also presented. PACS 42.55.Xi (Diode-pumped in a diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG crystal, using a calibrated infrared camera, with a 60-µm spatial resolution

  18. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nichols, R.T. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Containment Technology Test Facility (CTTF) and the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories are used to perform scaled experiments that simulate High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) phenomena on the containment load. High-temperature, chemically reactive melt (thermite) is ejected by high-pressure steam into a scale model of a reactor cavity. Debris is entrained by the steam blowdown into a containment model where specific phenomena, such as the effect of subcompartment structures, prototypic air/steam/hydrogen atmospheres, and hydrogen generation and combustion, can be studied. Four Integral Effects Tests (IETs) have been performed with scale models of the Surry NPP to investigate DCH phenomena. The 1/61{sup th} scale Integral Effects Tests (IET-9, IET-10, and IET-11) were conducted in CTRF, which is a 1/6{sup th} scale model of the Surry reactor containment building (RCB). The 1/10{sup th} scale IET test (IET-12) was performed in the Surtsey vessel, which had been configured as a 1/10{sup th} scale Surry RCB. Scale models were constructed in each of the facilities of the Surry structures, including the reactor pressure vessel, reactor support skirt, control rod drive missile shield, biological shield wall, cavity, instrument tunnel, residual heat removal platform and heat exchangers, seal table room and seal table, operating deck, and crane wall. This report describes these experiments and gives the results.

  19. CONTAIN code analyses of direct containment heating (DCH) experiments: Model assessment and phenomenological interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Tadios, E.L.; Washington, K.E.

    1995-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Models for direct containment heating (DCH) in the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis have been reviewed and a standard input prescription for their use has been defined. The code has been exercised against a large subset of the available DCH data base. Generally good agreement with the experimental results for containment pressurization ({Delta}P) and hydrogen generation has been obtained. Extensive sensitivity studies have been performed which permit assessment of many of the strengths and weaknesses of specific model features. These include models for debris transport and trapping, DCH heat transfer and chemistry, atmosphere-structure heat transfer, interactions between nonairborne debris and blowdown steam, potential effects of debris-water interactions, and hydrogen combustion under DCH conditions. Containment compartmentalization is an important DCH mitigator in the calculations, in agreement with experimental results. The CONTAIN model includes partially parametric treatments for some processes that are not well understood. The importance of the associated uncertainties depends upon the details of the DCH scenario being analyzed. Recommended sensitivity studies are summarized that allow the user to obtain a reasonable estimate of the uncertainties in the calculated results.

  20. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  1. A direct steam heat option for hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual process for producing a gasifiable slurry from raw municipal solid waste (MSW) using direct steam heating is outlined. The process is based on the hydrothermal decomposition of the organic matter in the MSW, which requires the MSW to be heated to 300-350{degrees}C in the presence of water. A process model is developed and it is shown, based on preliminary estimates of the hydrothermal reaction stoichiometry, that a process using multiple pressure vessels, which allows recovery of waste heat, results in a process capable of producing a product slurry having a 40 wt % solids content with no waste water emissions. Results for a variety of process options and process parameters are presented. It is shown that the addition of auxiliary feedstock to the gasifier, along with the MSW derived slurry, results in more efficient gasification. It is estimated that 2.6 kmol/s of hydrogen can be produced from 30 kg/s (2600 tonne/day) of MSW and 16 kg/s of heavy oil. Without the additional feedstock, heavy oil in this case, only 0.49 kmol/s of hydrogen would be produced.

  2. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The objectives associated with this goal were to (a) generate a solid base of technical, marketing, economic, and policy data, (b) develop energy, environmental, and economic targets, (c) more definitively assess opportunities and barriers, (d) accumulate knowledge and experience for defining direction for the next phase of development, and (e) promote learning and training of students.

  3. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

  4. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

  5. Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American homes. View the video. Addthis Related Articles Geothermal Energy Featured on NBC's Today Show Building America Update - January 15, 2015 Heat Pump Water Heater Basics...

  6. austenitic heat resisting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C-dynamical system 160 THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: 12;THE...

  7. Lightning Dock Geothermal Space Heating Project: Lightning Dock...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geothermal greenhouse and home heating systems, which consisted of pumping geothermal water and steam through passive steam heaters, and convert the systems to one using modern...

  8. Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

    2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing ‘dirty’ fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes – both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

  9. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  10. Eliminating air heater plugging and corrosion caused by SCR/SNCR systems for NOx control on coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guffre, J. [Paragon Airheater Technologies (United States)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a typical coal-fired power plant the rotary regenerative air heater is responsible for 5-10% of the boiler's total efficiency. The three biggest threats to air heater performance deterioration are corrosion of the heat exchange surfaces, plugging, and air heater leakage through the seals. The article concentrates on the vastly increased level of corrosion and plugging issues associated with installing selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems for controlling nitrogen oxide emissions. Some injected ammonia in the SCR process reacts with SO{sub 2} to form ammonium sulphate and bisulphate (ABS) which is deposited on the air heater element surfaces. This can be overcome by applying coatings, using corrosion-resistant steels, reconfiguring the air heaters to a two layer design, improving air heater blowers, improving technologies for removing ammonia 'slip' before it enters the air heater, and using new catalysts that reduce the oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. 4 figs.

  11. High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, the HAARP heater is the most powerful ionospheric heater, with 3.6GW of effective power using HF heating, Cyclones and localized heating Fran De Aquino Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S

  12. One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    advances to commercialize stand-alone electric heat-pump storage hot water heaters. These systems offer design uses multiple systems and fuels to provide thermal services, the emerging generation of heat to experience this change as air-source heat-pump water heaters deliver obvious energy savings over electric

  13. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency andSurvey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency andby electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers),

  14. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fixed Electric Storage Water Heaters, South African Nationalinternational electric storage water heater test proceduresefficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines

  15. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify forgas furnace and gas storage water heater. This study focusesis predominantly storage water heaters. Regionally, gas-

  16. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  17. Accelerated Life Structural Benchmark Testing for a Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, David L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Kantzos, Pete T. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    For proposed long-duration NASA Space Science missions, the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Infinia Corporation, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110-watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110). A structurally significant limit state for the SRG110 heater head component is creep deformation induced at high material temperature and low stress level. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and a wealth of creep data is available for the Inconel 718 material of construction. However, the specified atypical thin heater head material is fine-grained with a heat treatment that limits precipitate growth, and little creep property data for this microstructure is available in the literature. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply a multiaxial stress state on the component, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, an extensive experimental investigation is ongoing to aid in accurately assessing the durability of the SRG110 heater head. This investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head-like pressure vessels at design temperature with stress levels ranging from approximately the design stress to several times that. This paper presents experimental results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for four higher-stress, accelerated life tests. Analysts are using these results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the SRG110 heater head.

  18. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design was then implemented on a prototype heater that was being developed simultaneously with the controller development. (The prototype's geometry and components are based on a currently marketed heater, but several improvements have been made.) The MPC's temperature control performance was a vast improvement over the existing controller. With a benchmark for superior control performance established, five additional control methods were tested. One problem with MPC control is that it was found to be extremely difficult to implement in a TWH, so that it is unlikely to be widely adopted by manufacturers. Therefore the five additional control methods were selected based on their simplicity; each could be implemented by a typical manufacturer. It was found that one of these methods performed as well as MPC, or even better under many circumstances. This method uses a Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward algorithm that was developed for this project. Due to its simplicity and excellent performance this method was selected as the controller of choice. A final higher-capacity prototype heater that uses Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward control was constructed. This prototype has many improvements over the currently marketed heaters: (1) excellent control; (2) a modular design that allows for different capacity heaters to be built easily; (3) built-in fault detection and diagnosis; (4) a secondary remote user-interface; and (5) a TRIAC switching algorithm that will minimize 'flicker factor'. The design and engineering of this prototype unit will allow it to be built without an increase in cost, compared with the currently marketed heater. A design rendering of the new product is shown below. It will be launched with a new marketing campaign by Keltech in early 2009.

  19. Large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride cathode structure having predetermined emission profile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Gordon, Keith C. (Berkeley, CA); Kippenham, Dean O. (Castro Valley, CA); Purgalis, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Moussa, David (San Francisco, CA); Williams, Malcom D. (Danville, CA); Wilde, Stephen B. (Pleasant Hill, CA); West, Mark W. (Albany, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride (LaB.sub.6) cathode system (10) is disclosed. The system comprises a LaB.sub.6 cathode element (11) generally circular in shape about a central axis. The cathode element (11) has a head (21) with an upper substantially planar emission surface (23), and a lower downwardly and an intermediate body portion (26) which diminishes in cross-section from the head (21) towards the base (22) of the cathode element (11). A central rod (14) is connected to the base (22) of the cathode element (11) and extends along the central axis. Plural upstanding spring fingers (37) are urged against an outer peripheral contact surface (24) of the head end (21) to provide a mechanical and electrical connection to the cathode element (11).

  20. Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles and grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosse, Kyle L. [University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Dorgan, Vincent E. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign; Estrada, David [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign; Wood, Joshua D. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign; Vlassiouk, Ivan V [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Lyding, Joseph W [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign; King, William P. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign; Pop, Eric [Stanford University

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We directly measure the nanometer-scale temperature rise at wrinkles and grain boundaries (GBs) in functioning graphene devices by scanning Joule expansion microscopy with 50 nm spatial and 0.2K temperature resolution. We observe a small temperature increase at select wrinkles and a large (100 K) temperature increase at GBs between coalesced hexagonal grains. Comparisons of measurements with device simulations estimate the GB resistivity (8 150 X lm) among the lowest reported for graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. An analytical model is developed, showing that GBs can experience highly localized resistive heating and temperature rise, most likely affecting the reliability of graphene devices. Our studies provide an unprecedented view of thermal effects surrounding nanoscale defects in nanomaterials such as graphene.

  1. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  2. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar heated and cooled buildings. Final report, January 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while thare is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system.

  3. Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cawley, R.

    heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks. INTRODUCTION A need for descriptors to evaluate systems that condition space and heat domestic water has been recognized for several... added to and used by the water from the desuperheated refrigerant - heat normally provided by the electric water heater's resistance elements. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT The system considered for this study is best described by U.S. Patent No. 4...

  4. Nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate direct containment heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tutu, Narinder K. (Manorville, NY); Ginsberg, Theodore (East Setauket, NY); Klages, John R. (Mattituck, NY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light water nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate the extent of direct containment heating of the reactor containment building. The structure includes a retention chamber for retaining molten core material away from the upper regions of the reactor containment building when a severe accident causes the bottom of the pressure vessel of the reactor to fail and discharge such molten material under high pressure through the reactor cavity into the retention chamber. In combination with the melt-retention chamber there is provided a passageway that includes molten core droplet deflector vanes and has gas vent means in its upper surface, which means are operable to deflect molten core droplets into the retention chamber while allowing high pressure steam and gases to be vented into the upper regions of the containment building. A plurality of platforms are mounted within the passageway and the melt-retention structure to direct the flow of molten core material and help retain it within the melt-retention chamber. In addition, ribs are mounted at spaced positions on the floor of the melt-retention chamber, and grid means are positioned at the entrance side of the retention chamber. The grid means develop gas back pressure that helps separate the molten core droplets from discharged high pressure steam and gases, thereby forcing the steam and gases to vent into the upper regions of the reactor containment building.

  5. Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

  6. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hr) 2. Pilot Input Rate (Btu/hr) 3. Excess Air (%) 4. Off-atm) 14. Higher Heating Value (Btu/SCF) 1028.0 15. SpecificProtection Tubes R (hr*ft2*F/Btu)? Fitting Emissivity SCREEN

  7. Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater October 8, 2010 - 12:51pm Addthis L.L. Beans flagship store sees...

  8. Nuclear Plant Feedwater Heater Handbook. Volume 1. Primer. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.J.; Wells, T.G. Jr.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the first part of a three volume handbook covering closed feedwater heaters for electric power generating plants. This volume is a primer to the subject of feedwater heaters and their integration into the plant. 24 refs.

  9. Burbank Water and Power- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Burbank Water and Power is providing incentives for the purchase of solar water heaters. Incentives are only available to residential customers with electric water heaters. There is a limit of one...

  10. Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (U.S. Virgin Islands)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Virgin Islands Energy Office currently offers rebates to residents for purchasing solar water heaters from local vendors. The program will cover residential, solar water heaters of 120 gallons...

  11. TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each...

  12. TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local...

  13. TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right' Water Heater Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each...

  14. Life cycle assessment of buildings technologies: High-efficiency commercial lighting and residential water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, S.L.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study the life cycle emissions and energy use are estimated for two types of energy technologies. The first technology evaluated is the sulfur lamp, a high-efficiency lighting system under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Fusion Lighting, the inventor of the technology. The sulfur lamp is compared with conventional metal halide high-intensity discharge lighting systems. The second technology comparison is between standard-efficiency and high-efficiency gas and electric water heaters. In both cases the life cycle energy use and emissions are presented for the production of an equivalent level of service by each of the technologies. For both analyses, the energy use and emissions from the operation of the equipment are found to dominate the life cycle profile. The life cycle emissions for the water heating systems are much more complicated. The four systems compared include standard- and high-efficiency gas water heaters, standard electric resistance water heaters, and heat pump water heaters.

  15. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flue natural gas storage water heaters. Battelle developedthe water in a storage water heater is cooling off and

  16. Direct Electron Heating Observed by Fast Waves in ICRF Range on a Low-Density Low Temperature Tokamak ADITYA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, K.; Kulkarni, S.; Rathi, D.; Varia, A.; Jadav, H.; Parmar, K.; Kadia, B.; Joshi, R.; Srinivas, Y.; Singh, R.; Kumar, S.; Dani, S.; Gayatri, A.; Yogi, R.; Singh, M.; Joisa, Y.; Rao, C.; Kumar, S.; Jha, R.; Manchanda, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast wave electron heating experiments are carried out on Aditya tokamak [R = 0.75 m, a = 0.25m,Bt = 0.75T,ne{approx}1-3E13/cc,Te{approx}250eV] with the help of indigenously developed 200 kW, 20-40 MHz RF heating system. Significant direct electron heating is observed by fast waves in hydrogen plasma with prompt rise in electron temperature with application of RF power and it increases linearly with RF power. A corresponding increase in plasma beta and hence increase in stored diamagnetic energy is also observed in presence of RF. We observe an improvement of energy confinement time from 2-4msec during ohmic heating phase to 3-6msec in RF heating phase. This improvement is within the ohmic confinement regime for the present experiments. The impurity radiation and electron density do not escalate significantly with RF power. The direct electron heating by fast wave in Aditya is also predicted by ion cyclotron resonance heating code TORIC.

  17. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F SSalesOE0000652Grow YourPerformance AuditPerformance of a Heat

  18. UW -Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems 1 1-D Heat Flow Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taya, Minoru

    : Calibrate Seebeck Coefficient for TFTC(Thin Film Thermocouples) x y Heater (70°C) Water (19°C) #12;UW ANSYS Simulation Used Data Water Temp. 2 Measured Temp. (Channel 14, 15) Heater size Assumption. Factor 2.258 #12;UW - Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems 3 2-D Heat Flow Measurement x y Heater

  19. Manual for the thermal and hydraulic design of direct contact spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, H.R.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for us in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  20. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in Zion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yan, H.; Theofanous, T.G. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the first step in the resolution of the Direct Containment Heating (DCH) issue for the Zion Nuclear Power Plant using the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). This report includes the definition of a probabilistic framework that decomposes the DCH problem into three probability density functions that reflect the most uncertain initial conditions (UO{sub 2} mass, zirconium oxidation fraction, and steel mass). Uncertainties in the initial conditions are significant, but our quantification approach is based on establishing reasonable bounds that are not unnecessarily conservative. To this end, we also make use of the ROAAM ideas of enveloping scenarios and ``splintering.`` Two causal relations (CRs) are used in this framework: CR1 is a model that calculates the peak pressure in the containment as a function of the initial conditions, and CR2 is a model that returns the frequency of containment failure as a function of pressure within the containment. Uncertainty in CR1 is accounted for by the use of two independently developed phenomenological models, the Convection Limited Containment Heating (CLCH) model and the Two-Cell Equilibrium (TCE) model, and by probabilistically distributing the key parameter in both, which is the ratio of the melt entrainment time to the system blowdown time constant. The two phenomenological models have been compared with an extensive database including recent integral simulations at two different physical scales. The containment load distributions do not intersect the containment strength (fragility) curve in any significant way, resulting in containment failure probabilities less than 10{sup {minus}3} for all scenarios considered. Sensitivity analyses did not show any areas of large sensitivity.

  1. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diagram 1: A Typical Tank Water Heater Source: http://to-unit comparisons of tank versus tankless water heaters.Energy Use MJ/(unit*year) Tank Tankless MJ/(unit*year) Tank

  2. Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  3. MELCOR 1.8.2 Assessment: IET direct containment heating tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze several of the IET direct containment heating experiments done at 1:10 linear scale in the Surtsey test facility at Sandia and at 1:40 linear scale in the corium-water thermal interactions (CWTI) COREXIT test facility at Argonne National Laboratory. These MELCOR calculations were done as an open post-test study, with both the experimental data and CONTAIN results available to guide the selection of code input. Basecase MELCOR results are compared to test data in order to evaluate the new HPME DCH model recently added in MELCOR version 1.8.2. The effect of various user-input parameters in the HPME model, which define both the initial debris source and the subsequent debris interaction, were investigated in sensitivity studies. In addition, several other non-default input modelling changes involving other MELCOR code packages were required in our IET assessment analyses in order to reproduce the observed experiment behavior. Several calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in our DCH IET assessment analyses.

  4. Depressurization as an accident management strategy to minimize the consequences of direct containment heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, D.J.; Golden, D.W.; Chambers, R.; Miller, J.D.; Hallbert, B.P.; Dobbe, C.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have identified severe accidents for nuclear power plants that have the potential to cause failure of the containment through direct containment heating (DCH). Prevention of DCH or mitigation of its effects may be possible using accident management strategies that intentionally depressurize the reactor coolant system (RCS). The effectiveness of intentional depressurization during a station blackout TMLB' sequence was evaluated considering the phenomenological behavior, hardware performance, and operational performance. Phenomenological behavior was calculated using the SCDAP/RELAP5 severe accident analysis code. Two strategies to mitigate DCH by depressurization of the RCS were considered. One strategy, called early depressurization, assumed that the reactor head vent and pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) were latched open at steam generator dryout. The second strategy, called late depression, assumed that the head vent and PORVs were latched open at a core exit temperature of {approximately}922 K (1200{degree}F). Depressurization of the RCS to a low value that may mitigate DCH was predicted prior to reactor pressure vessel breach for both early and late depressurization. The strategy of late depressurization is preferred over early depressurization because there are greater opportunities to recover plant functions prior to core damage and because failure uncertainties are lessened. 22 refs., 38 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program quarterly project progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the third quarter of FY98 (April--June, 1998). It describes 231 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with included requests for general information including material for high school and university students, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, spacing heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, snow melting and electric power. Research activities include work on model construction specifications for line shaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, and a comprehensive aquaculture developers package. A brochure on Geothermal Energy in Klamath County was developed for state and local tourism use. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 19, No. 2) with articles on research at the Geo-Heat Center, sustainability of geothermal resources, injection well drilling in Boise, ID and a greenhouse project in the Azores. Other outreach activities include dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisitions and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  6. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    which, in the case of home heating appliances, could resultHeaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,

  7. Radiation Tolerant Programmable Power Supply for the LHC Beam Screen Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casas, J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the next LHC run, it is required to install 200W of heating capacity per LHC beam screen heater to regenerate the beam screen by desorption of gas trapped on its walls. In the LHC, there are 272 beam screen heaters and the associated electronics limit presently the heating capacity to 25W. Those electronics are, for the most part, installed inside the LHC tunnel and exposed to its radiation environment. This paper describes the development of a new programmable power supply card that will be integrated into the existing LHC radiation tolerant electronic infrastructure used by the cryogenic system. Radiation tests were undertaken to qualify a power switch capable of coping with the 230Vrms grid voltage and an analog signal multiplexer; these components are required respectively for satisfying the higher power requirements and for reducing the overall cost by using a single analog to digital converter to sample all the signals.

  8. EA-1774: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Standards: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters

  9. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report consists of brief summaries of the activities of the Geo-Heat Center during the report period. Technical assistance was given to requests from 20 states in the following applications: space and district heating; geothermal heat pumps; greenhouses; aquaculture; industrial plants; electric power; resource/well; equipment; and resort/spa. Research and development activities progressed on (1) compilation of data on low-temperature resources and (2) evaluation of groundwater vs. ground-coupled heat pumps. Also summarized are technology transfer activities and geothermal progress monitoring activities.

  10. MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT TRANSFER TO HELIUM II AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IN A CONFINED GEOMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, R.P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    groove and a thermometer (Lake Shore Cryotronics "carbonis measured with a thermometer (of the same type as on thethe heated surface. Thermometer read out and heater control

  11. Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

  12. How Control Improvements Save Process Heater Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukelow, S. G.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such use can be expected. Process Heater Combustion Control Systems The recommended approach today differs only in detail from a combustion control system installed on a process heater in 1946 at Shell Oil Co., Wood River Refinery. In their 1948 paper... Net + 15% Excess Natural Gas 7.18 7.88 9.06 ., (l000 Btu) Refinery Gas 7.21 7.84 9.02 (l600 Btu) Fuel Oil No. 6 7.31 7.75 8.91 (18,000 Btu) Coal 7.56 7.79 8.96 (11,500 Btu) 184 ESL-IE-79-04-20 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy...

  13. Application of high temperature air heaters to advanced power generation cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, T R [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)] [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Boss, W H; Chapman, J N [Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Space Inst.] [Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Space Inst.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developments in ceramic composite materials open up the possibility of recuperative air heaters heating air to temperatures well above the feasible with metal tubes. A high temperature air heater (HTAH) has long been recognized as a requirement for the most efficient MHD plants in order to reach high combustor flame temperatures. The application of gas turbines in coal-fired plants of all types has been impeded because of the problems in cleaning exhaust gas sufficiently to avoid damage to the turbine. With a possibility of a HTAH, such plants may become feasible on the basis of air turbine cycles, in which air is compressed and heated in the HTAH before being applied to turbine. The heat exchanger eliminates the need for the hot gas cleanup system. The performance improvement potential of advanced cycles with HTAH application including the air turbine cycle in several variations such as the DOE program on ``Coal-Fired Air Furnace Combined Cycle...,`` variations originated by the authors, and the MHD combined cycle are presented. The status of development of ceramic air heater technology is included.

  14. A performance correlation of horizontal solar heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopffarth, Wilford Hugo

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PERFORMANCE CORRELATION OF HORIZONTAL SOLAR HEATERS A Thesis by WILFORD HUGO GOPFFARTH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1964... Major Subject: Chemical Engineering ABSTRACT The purpose of this work was to determine design parameters for flat plastic covered solar collectors. First, the transmittance ? absorp- tion product as a function of the angle of incidence was determined...

  15. Ashland Electric Utility- Bright Way to Heat Water Loan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers a solar water heating program to residential electric customers who currently use an electric water heater. Under "The Bright Way to Heat Water...

  16. Ashland Electric Utility- Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers a solar water heating program to its residential electric customers who currently use an electric water heater. Under "The Bright Way to Heat Water...

  17. TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Rating Residential Water Heaters. Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE,for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, andthe Energy Consumption of Water Heaters. Title 10 Code of

  18. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Domestic Electric Storage Water Heater (DESWH) Test Methodsand Renewable Energy (2000). Water Heater Energy StandardsAir Conditioners, Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment,

  19. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE: INDICATORS OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE AND EFFICIENCY PART ONE: THE DATA BASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water heaters are either with storage or without, andElectric water heaters are only large devices with storage,water heating systems (direct heaters, independant storage

  20. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Austin, M. E. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Diem, S. J.; Kaufman, M. C.; Ryan, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Torino (Italy); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Turco, F. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ?2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  1. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Appliance type Standard technology DC-internal best technology Lighting Incandescent, fluorescent, LED Incandescent Electronic Heating Heater Electric resistance Cooling Motor (& compressor,

  2. Power, Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattson, Jonathan Michael Stearns

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Power, Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling BY Jonathan Michael Stearns Mattson Submitted to the graduate degree program..., Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling BY Jonathan Michael Stearns Mattson...

  3. First Results of the LCLS Laser-Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emma, P; Boyce, R.F.; Brachmann, A.; Carr, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Edstrom, S.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Levashov, Y.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Poling, B.; Ratner, D.; Spampinati, S.; /SLAC

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is an x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project that has just achieved its first lasing at 1.5 {angstrom} radiation wavelength. The very bright electron beam required to drive this FEL is susceptible to a microbunching instability in the magnetic bunch compressors that may increase the slice energy spread beyond the FEL tolerance. To control the slice energy spread and to suppress the microbunching instability, a laser heater (LH) system is installed in the LCLS injector area at 135 MeV, right before the RF deflector that is used for the time-resolved electron diagnostics. This unique component is used to add a small level of intrinsic energy spread to the electron beam in order to Landau damp the microbunching instability before it potentially breaks up the high brightness electron beam. The system was fully installed and tested in the fall of 2008, and effects of heating on the electron beam and the x-ray FEL were studied during the 2009 commissioning period. The laser heater system is composed of a 4-dipole chicane; a 9-period, planar, permanent-magnet, adjustable-gap undulator at the center of the chicane; one OTR screen on each side of the undulator for electron/laser spatial alignment; and an IR laser (up to 15-MW power) which co-propagates with the electron beam inside the undulator generating a 758-nm energy modulation along the bunch. The final two dipoles of the 4-dipole chicane time-smear this modulation leaving only a thermal-like intrinsic energy spread within the bunch. Table 1 lists the main parameters for this system. The very bright electron beam required for an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL), such as the LCLS, is susceptible to a microbunching instability in the magnetic bunch compressors, prior to the FEL undulator. The uncorrelated electron energy spread in the LCLS can be increased by an order of magnitude to provide strong Landau damping against the instability without degrading the FEL performance. To this end, a 'laser-heater' system has been installed in the LCLS injector, which modulates the energy of a 135-MeV electron bunch with an IR laser beam in a short undulator, enclosed within a four-dipole chicane. The last half of the chicane time-smears the energy modulation leaving an effective thermal energy spread increase. We present the first commissioning results of this system, its operational issues, its impact on the microbunching instability, and finally its effect on the FEL performance.

  4. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on the following R&D activities: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Other activities are reported on technical assistance, technology transfer, and the geothermal progress monitor.

  5. Direct nuclear heating measurements and analyses for plasma-facing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Youssef, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental measurement of nuclear heating rates was carried out in a simulated D-T fusion neutron environment from 1989 through 1992 under the U.S. DOE/JAERI collaborative program at the Fusion Neutronics Source Facility. Small probes of materials were irradiated in close vicinity of a rotating target. A sophisticated microcalorimetric technique was developed for on-line measurements of local nuclear heating in a mixed neutron plus photon field. Measurements with probes of graphite, titanium, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and lead are presented. These measurements have been analyzed using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP and various heating number/kerma factor libraries. The ratio of calculated to experimental (C/E) heating rates shows a large deviation from 1 for all the materials except tungsten. For example, C/E`s for graphite range from 1.14 ({delta} = 10%) to 1.36 (10%) for various kerma factor libraries. Uncertainty estimates on total nuclear heating using a sensitivity approach are presented. Interestingly, C/E data for all libraries and materials can be consolidated to obtain a probability density distribution of C/E`s that very much resembles a Gaussian distribution centered at 1.04. The concept of `quality factor` is defined and elaborated so as to take cognizance of observed uncertainties on prediction of nuclear heating for all the nine materials. 45 refs., 69 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions from Residential Water Heaters Table of Contents46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentally50 Table 11. Published information for water heater

  7. Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test Procedures for Water Heaters; Final Rule," FederalTesting of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance," DavisInc. , "T-K2 Instantaneous Water Heater Installation Manual

  8. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  9. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

  10. Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , regenerative air preheaters and economizers. Relative advantages and applicability of the three methods are discussed. Analytical methods and correlations are presented which enable determination of size of unit, capital cost and operating cost for each...

  11. Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling in EnergyPlus (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.; Christensen, C.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes NREL's development of a HPWH model for use in hourly building energy simulation programs, such as BEopt; this presentation was given at the Building America Stakeholder meeting on March 1, 2012, in Austin, Texas.

  12. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    expense (i.e. , from a less energy efficient design toa more energy efficient design) to the decrease in annual

  13. A Gas-Fired Heat Pipe Zone Heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in this table were obtained from the 1983 Qas Rel~earch Inrtitute Baseline Projection Data Book. 4verage Resldentlal Gas Prlces ($/Wtu) (1982 do1 lars) New England Middle Atlantlc South Atlantlc East North Central West North Central East South Central... West South Central kuntaln #I Mountaln I2 Paclflc #I Paclf lc 12 The conservation factor may be exprerred as lABLEm Gas Research lnstltute Fuel lnflatlon Estlmates natural Gas 1- ~2 1983-1990 1990-ZMO Nc* England 1.7 2.1 Mlddle Atlantlc 2.1 2...

  14. Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »Exchange Visitors ProgramEnergyGasDeployment |ExchangersHomes

  15. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Codesthe Natural Resources Defenseon SmartAbsorption

  16. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9HarveyWellnessFebruary Period:

  17. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into The Weatherization Assistance Program, May 2003. D&Rand DOE’s weatherization assistance program (Kelso 2003),

  18. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartment of EnergyLANDSCAPE OF LOCAL ENERGY PROGRAMSof Energy

  19. Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of EnergyAdministrative Records Schedule 1

  20. Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing Zirconia Nanoparticles asSecondCareerFebruary 2005Energy Saver 101:

  1. Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartmentEnergyHydrokinetic EnergyIssuesPowerofAdvance

  2. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartmentfor EngineeringDepartment ofBoilersDataHotofFurnacesEnergyof

  3. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »Exchange Visitors ProgramEnergyGas Swimming Pool Heaters Gas

  4. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Where We Are Directions The Bradbury Science Museum is located at 1350 Central Avenue Los Alamos, NM 87544 Los Alamos (elevation 7,355 feet) is perched high atop the...

  5. ELECTRICAL HEATERS FOR THERMO-MECHANICAL TESTS AT THE STRIPA MINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burleigh, R.H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5.5 Dewatering Pump 6. ELECTRICAL HEATER CONTROL SYSTEMS 6.1water influx ABSTRACT Electrical heaters were installed atcanister) which houses the electrical heater elements; c. d.

  6. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asEvaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embeddedwater to be drawn from a water heater to meet a schedule of

  7. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    associated with the EU water heater test procedure loadEU test procedure for water heaters. Load No. Delivered Max.period to allow the water heater to adjust completely to

  8. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing aAs shown in Table 2, storage water heaters in single-familya gas furnace and a gas storage water heater. This market is

  9. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing aAs shown in Table 2, storage water heaters in single-familya gas furnace and a gas storage water heater. This market is

  10. The impact of water flow configuration on crystallisation in LiBr/H2O absorption water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium Bromide (LiBr) strong solution entering the absorber tends to crystallise when the absorber temperature is increased for a fixed evaporating pressure. This is considered the key technical barrier for the development of a LiBr absorption heat pump water heater. There are several approaches to avoid the crystallisation problem, such as chemical crystallisation inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement and thermodynamic cycle modification. This paper investigates and compares two flow configurations of LiBr absorption heat pump water heater to evaluate the allowable operating conditions for each. The simulation results indicated that introducing the process water through the absorber first results in lower absorber temperature and hence less tendency for crystallisation.

  11. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical assistance was provided to 60 requests from 19 states. R&D progress is reported on: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Two presentations and one tour were conducted, and three technical papers were prepared. The Geothermal Progress Monitor reported: USGS Forum on Mineral Resources, Renewable Energy Tax Credits Not Working as Congress Intended, Geothermal Industry Tells House Panel, Newberry Pilot Project, and Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources in Nevada.

  12. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appliance_standards/residential/water_ pool_heaters_prelim_Star (2008). Energy star residential water heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

  13. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

  14. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this scheme for operating TANK with HWSim is successful.LBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asCalifornia. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model

  15. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  16. Acoustically Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. W. Douglas; M. K. Smith; A. Glezer

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An acoustic field is used to increase the critical heat flux (CHF) of a flat-boiling-heat-transfer surface. The increase is a result of the acoustic effects on the vapor bubbles. Experiments are performed to explore the effects of an acoustic field on vapor bubbles in the vicinity of a rigid-heated wall. Work includes the construction of a novel heater used to produce a single vapor bubble of a prescribed size and at a prescribed location on a flatboiling surface for better study of an individual vapor bubble's reaction to the acoustic field. Work also includes application of the results from the single-bubble heater to a calibrated-copper heater used for quantifying the improvements in CHF.

  17. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

  18. Measuring the Costs and Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits of Nationwide Geothermal Heat Pump Deployment and The Potential Employment, Energy, and Environmental Impacts of Direct Use Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To measure the costs and economic; social; and environmental benefits of nationwide geothermal heat pump (GHP) deployment; and To survey selected states as to their potential employment; energy use and savings; and environmental impact for direct use applications.

  19. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  20. The PARSEC computer code for analysis of direct containment heating by dispersed debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiphase flow and heat transfer, coupled Lagrangian and Eulerian computer program, PARSEC, has been developed to predict the heatup of a gas atmosphere resulting from the gas-driven dispersal of high temperature debris droplets/particles as well as the associated formation of aerosol by the oxidation enhanced vaporization of metal from the surfaces of the droplets, oxidation of reactive debris constituents, and generation of hydrogen. Predictions of the code and the fundamental modeling incorporated therein are in good agreement with available data on the essentially unimpeded dispersal of high temperature melts involving reactor materials in the Argonne CWTI-13 and CWTI-14 experiments as well as iron-alumina thermite in the Sandia DCH-1 test.

  1. Clark Public Utilities- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clark Public Utilities offers a rebate of $500 to customers who install a solar water heating system. Customers must own the residence or business where the solar water heating system is installed...

  2. Kosciusko REMC- Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kosciusko REMC offers rebates (as bill credits) to residential members for the purchase and installation of high efficiency air-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, and electric water heaters....

  3. Commercial Gas Water Heaters, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance and purchasing specifications for commercial gas water heaters under the FEMP-designated product program.

  4. Electrical noise characteristics of a doped silicon microcantilever heater-thermometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William P.

    Electrical noise characteristics of a doped silicon microcantilever heater-thermometer Elise A with resistive heater-thermometers,10­13 there is a lack of published reports on the electrical noise silicon heater- thermometer cantilevers.12 However, a key difference is that doped silicon heater-thermometers

  5. Energy-efficient water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

  6. An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.

    The production and reliability performance of Steam Process Heaters can be significantly affected by the condensate drainage design that is employed. There are currently a variety of drainage options which can be confusing to a system designer who...

  7. Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor the installation.

  8. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  9. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers residential customers rebates for installing a ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater. Rebates are based on the size of the system; MMU offers $20 per...

  10. Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation- Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blue Ridge Mountain EMC and TVA, its power supplier, offer the Energy Right and In Home Energy Evaluation programs to qualified members. To qualify for water heater rebates provided by the Energy...

  11. Experimental Research of an Active Solar Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, X.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system are discussed in this paper. Based on the design, construction, testing and economic analysis of a demonstration project with the solar heating system, this paper discusses how to connect the solar energy collector with the electricity heater...

  12. Going Ductless with Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    during the hot muggy Washington, D.C., summers. Baseboard electric heaters provided heating in winter. Before a lot of you post your sympathies in the comments, let me say this:...

  13. Determination of pool boiling Critical Heat Flux enhancement in nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Bao H. (Bao Hoai)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluids are engineered colloids composed of nano-size particles dispersed in common fluids such as water or refrigerants. Using an electrically controlled wire heater, pool boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of Alumina ...

  14. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by DOE's Building America program, this webinar will focus on the effective use of central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) and control systems to reduce the energy use in hot water distribution.

  15. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  16. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Idaho)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  17. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Oregon)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  18. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Washington)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  19. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX)

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  20. Gas Turbine Fired Heater Integration: Achieve Significant Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iaquaniello, G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    GAS TURBINE FIRED HEATER INTEGRATION: ACHIEVE SIGNIFICANT ENERGY SAVINGS G. Iaquaniello**, P. Pietrogrande* *KTI Corp., Research and Development Division, Monrovia, California **KTI SpA, Rome, Italy ABSTRAer Faster payout will result if gas... as in steam turbines. A specific example of how cogeneration can work in this way is in the integration of a gas turbine with a fired heater as shown in Figure 2. Electrical or mechanical power is delivered by the gas turbine while the exhaust combustion...

  1. Heat Pipe Solar Receiver Development Activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, D.R.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past decade, Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in the development of receivers to transfer energy from the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator to the heater tubes of a Stirling engine. Through the isothermal evaporation and condensation of sodium. a heat-pipe receiver can efficiently transfer energy to an engine's working fluid and compensate for irregularities in the flux distribution that is delivered by the concentrator. The operation of the heat pipe is completely passive because the liquid sodium is distributed over the solar-heated surface by capillary pumping provided by a wick structure. Tests have shown that using a heat pipe can boost the system performance by twenty percent when compared to directly illuminating the engine heater tubes. Designing heat pipe solar receivers has presented several challenges. The relatively large area ({approximately}0.2 m{sup 2}) of the receiver surface makes it difficult to design a wick that can continuously provide liquid sodium to all regions of the heated surface. Selecting a wick structure with smaller pores will improve capillary pumping capabilities of the wick, but the small pores will restrict the flow of liquid and generate high pressure drops. Selecting a wick that is comprised of very tine filaments can increase the permeability of the wick and thereby reduce flow losses, however, the fine wick structure is more susceptible to corrosion and mechanical damage. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the issues encountered in the design of heat pipe solar receivers and solutions to problems that have arisen. Topics include: flow characterization in the receiver, the design of wick systems. the minimization of corrosion and dissolution of metals in sodium systems. and the prevention of mechanical failure in high porosity wick structures.

  2. Multi-ported, internally recuperated burners for direct flame impingement heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasi, Hamid A. (Naperville, IL); Kurek, Harry (Dyer, IN); Chudnovsky, Yaroslav (Skokie, IL); Lisienko, Vladimir G. (Ekaterinburg, RU); Malikov, German K. (Ekaterinburg, RU)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct flame impingement method and apparatus employing at least one multi-ported, internally recuperated burner. The burner includes an innermost coaxial conduit having a first fluid inlet end and a first fluid outlet end, an outermost coaxial conduit disposed around the innermost coaxial conduit and having a combustion products outlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a combustion products inlet end proximate the first fluid outlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit, and a coaxial intermediate conduit disposed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit, whereby a second fluid annular region is formed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the intermediate coaxial conduit and a combustion products annular region is formed between the intermediate coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit. The intermediate coaxial conduit has a second fluid inlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a second fluid outlet end proximate the combustion products inlet end of the outermost coaxial conduit.

  3. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Storage Water Heater .point for modeling storage water heaters. The algorithmsfired, natural draft storage water heater. Figure 1 shows a

  4. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  5. Direct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape,PhysicsDileepDirac Charge Dynamcs inDirect

  6. Heat Exchanger With Internal Pin Elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerstmann, Joseph (Framingham, MA); Hannon, Charles L. (Arlington, MA)

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger/heater comprising a tubular member having a fluid inlet end, a fluid outlet end and plurality of pins secured to the interior wall of the tube. Various embodiments additionally comprise a blocking member disposed concentrically inside the pins, such as a core plug or a baffle array. Also disclosed is a vapor generator employing an internally pinned tube, and a fluid-heater/heat-exchanger utilizing an outer jacket tube and fluid-side baffle elements, as well as methods for heating a fluid using an internally pinned tube.

  7. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  8. Milestone Report #2: Direct Evaporator Leak and Flammability Analysis Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct evaporator is a simplified heat exchange system for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) that generates electricity from a gas turbine exhaust stream. Typically, the heat of the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to the ORC by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. In this project, the goal is to design a direct evaporator where the working fluid is evaporated in the exhaust gas heat exchanger. By eliminating one of the heat exchangers and the intermediate oil loop, the overall ORC system cost can be reduced by approximately 15%. However, placing a heat exchanger operating with a flammable hydrocarbon working fluid directly in the hot exhaust gas stream presents potential safety risks. The purpose of the analyses presented in this report is to assess the flammability of the selected working fluid in the hot exhaust gas stream stemming from a potential leak in the evaporator. Ignition delay time for cyclopentane at temperatures and pressure corresponding to direct evaporator operation was obtained for several equivalence ratios. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis of a pinhole leak scenario are given.

  9. SMUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Solar Domestic Hot Water Program provides rebates and/or loan financing to customers who install solar water heating systems. The amount of the...

  10. Dehumidifying water heater. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Drawings and specifications are included for the system to heat water for the swimming pool and dehumidify the building of the Glen Cove YMCA. An overview is presented of the Nautica product used in this system. (MHR)

  11. Salem Electric- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salem Electric residential customers with electric water heating are eligible for a $600 rebate through Salem's Bright Way program. A program brochure with details is available on the program...

  12. Low to moderate temperature nanolaminate heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, J. Del (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hau-Riege, Stefan (Fremont, CA); Walton, Chris (Oakland, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A low to moderate temperature heat source comprising a high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures wherein the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is positioned between two thin pieces to form a close contact sheath. In one embodiment the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is a nanolaminate multilayer foil of reactive materials that produces a heating level of less than 200.degree. C.

  13. Development of minimum efficiency standards for large capacity air conditioners, and commercial water heaters, refrigerators, and freezers. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, P.S.; Rettberg, R.J.; Erickson, R.C.; Toor, J.S.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission has promulgated appliance energy efficiency standards and energy conservation standards for new construction with the objective of reducing energy consumption in the State of California. The following appliance categories are specifically addressed: large capacity air conditioners; commercial water heaters; and commercial refrigerators and freezers. The tasks that have been performed include: an energy use pattern study for the subject equipment; an examination of the size distribution of commercial air conditioning equipment; an examination of the different types of commercial air conditioning systems; an evaluation of the effectiveness of economizers in reducing commercial air conditioning system energy consumption in California; an examination of the effects of oversizing commercial air conditioners; a detailed study of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; an evaluation of the economic feasibility of utilizing air conditioner waste heat to heat water; an assessment of the applicability of existing test procedures for small water heaters to large water heaters; and a brief investigation of the marketing and distribution systems for air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. Results of the efforts are described.

  14. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. The principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the integrated WHD, and creating programs that embrace first-cost and life-cycle cost principles.

  15. Simulation of energy use in residential water heating systems Carolyn Dianarose Schneyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    around BC: Kamloops, Victoria and Williams Lake. Electric and gas-fired tank water heaters of various The resulting data is presented from a variety of angles, including the relative impacts of water heater ratingSimulation of energy use in residential water heating systems by Carolyn Dianarose Schneyer B

  16. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

  18. Single Channel Testing for Characterization of the Direct Gas Cooled Reactor and the SAFE-100 Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg-Sitton, S.M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Propulsion Research Center, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Kapernick, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Godfroy, T.J. [Propulsion Research Center, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2004-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been designed to characterize the coolant gas flow in two space reactor concepts that are currently under investigation by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory: the direct-drive gas-cooled reactor (DDG) and the SAFE-100 heatpipe-cooled reactor (HPR). For the DDG concept, initial tests have been completed to measure pressure drop versus flow rate for a prototypic core flow channel, with gas exiting to atmospheric pressure conditions. The experimental results of the completed DDG tests presented in this paper validate the predicted results to within a reasonable margin of error. These tests have resulted in a re-design of the flow annulus to reduce the pressure drop. Subsequent tests will be conducted with the re-designed flow channel and with the outlet pressure held at 150 psi (1 MPa). Design of a similar test for a nominal flow channel in the HPR heat exchanger (HPR-HX) has been completed and hardware is currently being assembled for testing this channel at 150 psi. When completed, these test programs will provide the data necessary to validate calculated flow performance for these reactor concepts (pressure drop and film temperature rise)

  19. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar-heated and -cooled buildings. Final report, January 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The procedure used was to obtain experimental performance data from a solar system using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions, develop a simulation model for the system, validate the model using the data, apply the model in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year, and estimate the life-cycle cost of the system for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

  20. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  1. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  2. Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During #EnergyFaceoff...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three November 19, 2014...

  3. Nuclear Plant Feedwater Heater Handbook. Volume 3. Operation and maintenance guidelines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.J.; Hardy, C.D. Jr.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the third part of a three-volume handbook covering closed feedwater heaters for nuclear electric power generating plants. This third volume covers the operation and maintenance of closed feedwater heaters. 11 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentallyfor interchangeability experiments for storage water heaterfor experiments with storage water heater AW01. 53

  5. Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

    2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

  6. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  7. Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

  8. Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance and purchasing specifications for whole-home gas water heaters under the FEMP-designated product program.

  9. Restoration of Refinery Heaters Using the Technique of Prefabricated Ceramic Fiber Lined Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sento, H. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery heater fuel requirements often represent 50% of a units operating cost. A one percent change in the efficiency of a heater firing 100 MBtu/hr amounts to more than $25,000 per year. Heater efficiency is influenced by casing hot spots, air...

  10. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER (2} (3) (21 icense in and to any copyright covering the drticle. This paper describes a high-efficiency water heater which uses a design approach quite different from the conventional center-flue water heater. While high

  11. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  12. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, T.F.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  13. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  14. Integrated exhaust and electrically heated particulate filter regeneration systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes multiple zones. An electrical heater includes heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A post-fuel injection system injects fuel into at least one of a cylinder of an engine and an exhaust system. A control module is configured to operate in a first mode that includes activating the electrical heater to heat exhaust of the engine. The control module is also configured to operate in a second mode that includes activating the post-injection system to heat the exhaust. The control module selectively operates in at least one of the first mode and the second mode.

  15. Energy, Exergy and Uncertainty Analyses of the Thermal Response Test for a Ground Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Shayea, Naser Abdul-Rahman

    exchanger, Ground coupled heat pump Corresponding author, Tel.: +1-617-308-7214, Fax: +1-617-253-3484, E calibration DAS data acquisition system g ground H heater loss1 losses from the heating section loss2 losses heating and cooling, water heating, crop drying, agricultural greenhouses, etc. In vertical U

  16. Computer simulations for direct conversion of the HF electromagnetic wave into the upper hybrid wave in ionospheric heating experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Computer simulations for direct conversion of the HF electromagnetic wave into the upper hybrid emissions (SEE). A direct conversion process is proposed as an excitation mech- anism of the upper hybrid, 1996) The electrostatic waves at the UH resonance were assumed to be excited via ``direct conversion

  17. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Heaters 7.0 Glossary of Abbreviations AGA American Gas Association ANSI American National Standards

  18. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, MIchael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peak Saver Program: Home heating/cooling system purchase/heaters Direct heating equipment Mobile home furnaces Medium

  19. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  20. Solar energy for domestic use in southern Brazil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedenberg, Ola

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Almost all the domestic water in Brazil is heated with an electrical heater directly by the end consumer. A typical heater has an effect… (more)

  1. Secretary Chu Announces More Stringent Appliance Standards for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heaters, pool heaters and direct heating equipment such as gas fireplaces - will reduce air pollution, prevent the release of harmful nitrogen oxides and mercury, and avoid...

  2. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  3. EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to adopt energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential air conditioners and heat pumps, as required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.)

  4. RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASIMONTE CARLO METHODS \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI­MONTE CARLO METHODS \\Lambda A. Kersch 1 W. Morokoff 2 A accuracy modeling of the radiative heat transfer from the heater to the wafer. Figure 1 shows the draft Carlo simulation is often used to solve radiative transfer problems where complex physical phenomena

  5. Plancher solaire direct mixte \\`a double r\\'eseau en habitat bioclimatique - Conception et bilan thermique r\\'eel. Double direct solar floor heating in boclimatic habitation - Design and real energetical balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Larochelambert, Thierry

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a new direct solar floor heating technique with double heating network wich allows simultaneous use of solar and supply energy. Its main purpose is to store and to diffuse the whole available solar energy while regulating supply energy by physical means without using computer controlled technology. This solar system has been tested in real user conditions inside a bioclimatic house to study the interaction of non-inertial and passive walls on the solar productivity. Daily, monthly and annual energy balances were drawn up over three years and completed by real-time measurements of several physical on-site parameters. As a result the expected properties of this technique were improved. The use of per-hour solar productivity, saved primary energy and corrected solar covering ratio is recommended to analyze the performances of this plant and to allow more refined comparisons with other solar systems

  6. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  7. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  8. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, John W. (Sag Harbor, NY)

    1983-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  9. MEMS Hotplates with TiN as a Heater Material J.F. Creemer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    MEMS Hotplates with TiN as a Heater Material J.F. Creemer1 , W. van der Vlist2 , C.R. de Boer2 , H investigated as a heater material for hotplates and microreactors. TiN is CMOS compatible, and has a higher melting point (2950 ºC) than conventional heaters of Pt and poly-Si. For the first time, TiN is tested

  10. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - active heater control Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    suborder Scombroidei have independently Summary: event when the activity of the SERCA pumps was reduced. RNase protection assays revealed that heater... be under neural control....

  12. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiences of residential consumers and utilities. OakStar (2008). Energy Star Residential Water Heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

  13. Development of solar air heaters & thermal energy storage system for drying applications in food processing industries.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreekumar, A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??In the present work, the author has designed and developed all types of solar air heaters called porous and nonporous collectors. The developed solar air… (more)

  14. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters.

  15. HEATER TEST PLANNING FOR THE NEAR SURFACE TEST FACILITY AT THE HANFORD RESERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DuBois, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heater Experiment at Hanford. Berkeley, Lawre ;e BerkeleyTest Facility, Hole DC-11, Hanford Reservation. Prepared forof Gable Mountain Basalt Cores, Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

  16. Mountain Association for Community Economic Development- Solar Water Heater Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Kentucky Solar Partnership (KSP) and the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED) partner to offer low interest loans for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans...

  17. Accepted Manuscript Title: A critical approach to the determination of optimal heat rejection pressure in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . A commercial refrigeration plant and a heat pump water heater were finally simulated to verify their energy. Keywords: CO2, Transcritical cycle, Optimisation, Refrigeration, Heat pump, Gas cooler. Nomenclature CAccepted Manuscript Title: A critical approach to the determination of optimal heat rejection

  18. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume I. A. Introduction and executive summary. B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The orbiter and probe portions of the NASA Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Nuclear Projects (OSNP) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulate mission failures or malfunctions occur, which would result in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events.

  19. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  20. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water

  1. Creep failure of cracking heater at a petrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Batahgy, A. [Welding Research Department, Central, Metallurgical R and D Institute, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: elbatahgy@yahoo.com; Zaghloul, B. [Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, P.O. Box: 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    After two and half years of operation, a bend tube in a cracking heater at an ethylene plant failed due to creep cracking. Creep damage occurred as a result of metallurgical instability including coarsening of carbides that caused softening and initiation of voids or wedge-type intergranular cracks. This was accelerated due to increasing inner surface temperature during decoking process. Thermal fatigue contributed to the failure as a result of temperature variations due to several shutdown-startup operations. To minimize such failure in futures, periodic inspection to monitor crack formation was scheduled. Nondestructive tests including dye penetrant test for surface cracking and radiographic test for internal crack were implemented.

  2. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock

  3. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock3

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock34

  5. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural122 Water Heater Stock345

  6. Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing acidic gas to a subsurface formation is described herein. The method may include providing heat from one or more heaters to a portion of a subsurface formation; producing fluids that include one or more acidic gases from the formation using a heat treatment process. At least a portion of one of the acidic gases may be introduced into the formation, or into another formation, through one or more wellbores at a pressure below a lithostatic pressure of the formation in which the acidic gas is introduced.

  7. Method of fabricating a heat exchanger for Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, V.D.

    1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchange assembly and method for making same is disclosed which is useful for Stirling engine heater head constructions. The assembly is comprised entirely of a low cost extrudable material, such as silicon, which when fused in a carburizing furnace provides a rigid highly durable ceramic. Heater tubes are arranged within a chamber, the tubes carry ambient pressure high temperature combusted gases and the chamber containing high pressure lower temperature working gases about the exterior of each tube. Heat exchange can additionally be improved by increasing the exterior surface area of each tube relative to the interior surface thereof.

  8. Projected Regional Impacts of Appliance Efficiency Standards for the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, J.G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Conditioners, Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment,according to the type of water heater used in the home.Gas Room Central HP Water heater Showers Faucets Furnace X X

  9. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  10. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  11. Eleana near-surface heater experiment final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lappin, A R; Thomas, R K; McVey, D F

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a near-surface heater experiment operated at a depth of 23 m in argillite within the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test geometrically simulated emplacement of a single canister of High-Level Waste (HLW) and was operated at a power level of 2.5 kW for 21 days, followed by 3.8 kW to 250 days, when the power was turned off. Below 85 to 100{sup 0}C, there was good agreement between modeled and measured thermal results in the rock and in the emplacement hole, except for transient transport of water in the heater hole. Above 100{sup 0}C, modeled and measured thermal results increasingly diverged, indicating that the in-situ rock-mass thermal conductivity decreased as a result of dehydration more than expected on the basis of matrix properties. Correlation of thermomechanical modeling and field results suggests that this decrease was caused by strong coupling of thermal and mechanical behavior of the argillite at elevated temperatures. No hole-wall decrepitation was observed in the experiment; this fact and the codrrelation of modeled and measured results at lower temperatures indicate that there is no a priori reason to eliminate argillaceous rocks from further consideration as a host rock for nuclear wastes.

  12. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumer/your_home/water_ heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12980heating is a large source of energy use in California homes.heating is the third largest source of energy use in homes [

  13. Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bernard (Houston, TX); Hale, Arthur Herman (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation may include providing heat to a first hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a first heater located in an opening in the formation. The opening and the first heater may have a horizontal or inclined portion located in the first hydrocarbon layer and at least one connecting portion extending between the horizontal or inclined portion and the surface. Isolation material is placed in the opening such that the isolation material partially isolates the layer in which the horizontal or inclined portion of the first heater is located. An additional horizontal or inclined opening portion that extends from at least one of the connecting portions of the opening is formed in a second hydrocarbon layer. A second heater to provide heat the second hydrocarbon formation is placed in the additional substantially horizontal opening portion.

  14. Tankless water heaters fill the bill at fast-food restaurants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article explains why Kentucky Fried Chicken has installed a PH-24 water heater. The tankless water heater meets the restaurant's criteria for space spacing, flow rates, certification and availability, and money saving efficiency. This article describes the system and its advantages.

  15. TiN for MEMS hotplate heaters J.F. Creemer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    TiN for MEMS hotplate heaters J.F. Creemer1 , P.M. Sarro2 , M. Laros2 , H. Schellevis2 , L, DIMES, ECTM, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, Netherlands. Summary: Low-stress TiN has been investigated is required to protect the TiN against oxidation. Keywords: TiN thin films, micro heater, hot plate 1

  16. Nuclear Plant Feedwater Heater Handbook. Volume 2. Design and procurement guidelines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.J.; Wells, T.G. Jr.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the second part of a three volume handbook covering closed feedwater heaters for nuclear electric power generating plants. This second volume covers the engineering, design, specification, bid, procurement, fabrication, installation and commissioning of the heater. 22 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the water heater's annual operation costs but also its size and energy efficiency. Natural gas, oil or tank water heater operates by releasing hot water from the top of the tank when the hot water tap is turned on. The hot water is released into the hot water line. As the hot water leaves the tank, cold

  18. PRELIMINARY THERMAL AND THERMOMECH-ANICAL MODELING FOR THE NEAR SURFACE TEST FACILITY HEATER EXPERIMANTS AT HANFORD: Appendix D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heater Experiments at Hanford V O L U M E II (Appendix D) TENG-48 and for Rockwell Hanford Operations — a Department ofFACILITY HEATER EXPERIMENTS AT HANFORD Volume 2 (Appendix D)

  19. Liquid metal heat exchanger for efficient heating of soils and geologic formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Wesolowski, David J. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for efficient heating of subterranean earth includes a well-casing that has an inner wall and an outer wall. A heater is disposed within the inner wall and is operable within a preselected operating temperature range. A heat transfer metal is disposed within the outer wall and without the inner wall, and is characterized by a melting point temperature lower than the preselected operating temperature range and a boiling point temperature higher than the preselected operating temperature range.

  20. DIRECT CONTACT HEAT EXCHANGER 10 kW POWER LOOP. SECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. SECTION 2: TEST SERIES NO. 1. SECTION 3; TEST SERIES NO. 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, Barber-Nicholas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Exchangers to Geothermal Power Production Cycles",Heat Exchanger to Geothermal Power Production Cycles",4057702. o m SUMMARY The geothermal power loop was modified

  1. PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP W. D. C. Richards and W. L. Auxer General Electric Company Space Division King of Prussia, Pa. ABSTRACT A heat activated heat pump (HAHP for space heating since it directly utilizes the engine waste heat in addition to the energy obtained

  2. An energy equivalency analysis of trade-offs between thermal efficiency and standby loss requirements for commercial gas service water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaram, S.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Keller, J.M.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Standing Standard Project Committee 90.1 has approved an addendum (90.lb) to ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989. The addendum specifies an increase in the minimum thermal efficiency requirement (from 77% to 78%), accompanied by an easing of the standby loss requirements, for commercial gas-fired service water heaters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed an energy equivalency analysis to assess the impact of trade-offs between the improved thermal efficiency and the less stringent standby loss requirements. The analysis objective was to estimate whether the energy savings during firing would offset the increased energy losses during standby periods. The primary focus of this report is to summarize the major results of the analysis and provide a recommendation for minimum energy-efficiency commercial gas-fired service water heaters. Limitations to the availability of detailed performance and energy-use data for these commercial water heaters are also pointed out.

  3. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robbat, Jr., Albert (Andover, MA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  4. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  5. Optimal arrangement of structural and functional parts in a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gertzos, K.P.; Caouris, Y.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Parameters that affect the efficiency of a flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) are examined experimentally and numerically. This specific ICSSWH contains water that is not refreshed. The service water is heated indirectly through an immersed heat exchanger (HE) in contact with the front and back major surfaces. A forced convection mechanism consisting of a pump that brings the storage water into motion by recirculation is used for heat transfer intensification. The two major (front and back) flat plate surfaces need to be well interconnected so that they are not deformed by the weight of the contained water and the exerted high-pressure. Two main factors that influence the performance are optimized: the position and size of the recirculation ports and the arrangement and size of the interconnecting fins. Both factors are explored to maximize the velocity flow field of the recirculated storage water. Consequently, the heat transfer rate between the two water circuits is maintained at high levels. Various 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are developed using the FLUENT package. An experimental model, made by Plexiglas, is used for the visualization of the flow field. Flow velocities are measured using a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. The optimal arrangement increases the mean storage water velocity by 65% and raises the outlet temperatures up to 8 C. (author)

  6. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer in Confined Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    on pool boiling. In the study, confinement was achieved by placing a flat plate over heated surface. The flat plate has a hole in the middle, and there is a gap between the flat plate and the heater. The diameters of hole are 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm; the gap...

  7. Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

    The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options...

  8. Solar water heating technical support. Technical report for November 1997--April 1998 and final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, J.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report covers the time period November 1, 1997 through April 30, 1998, and also summarizes the project as the final report. The topics of the report include certification of solar collectors for water heating systems, modeling and testing of solar collectors and gas water heater backup systems, ratings of collectors for specific climates, and solar pool heating systems.

  9. ThermalEngineeringLaboratory,VanderbiltUniversity Convection Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in Commercial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    EngineeringLaboratory,VanderbiltUniversity Experimental Setup Straight Tube Setup Constant Temperature Bath Parastaltic Pump Nanofluid Reservoir Heated.91 od di Commercial System Setup Heater Insulation Water block 4/10 #12;Thermal gain across the heated tube for the DI-water and the 0.5% nanofluid · Greater temperature gain in the 1

  10. An Analysis Method for Operations of Hot Water Heaters by Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaha, M.; Takahashi, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Authors tried to apply an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to estimation of state of building systems. The systems used in this study were gas combustion water heaters. Empirical equations to estimate gas consumption from measureble properies...

  11. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

  12. Gibson Electric Membership Corporation- Residential Energy Efficient Water Heater Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gibson Electric Membership Corporation provides loans to its residential customers to finance new, energy efficient water heaters. The loans are interest-free and can be paid off in as many as 3...

  13. Tri-County Electric Cooperative- Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tri-County Electric Cooperative offers a $75 rebate on the purchase of energy-efficient electric water heaters. The rebate is valid for new or replacement units which have an Energy Factor Rating...

  14. Direct contact heat exchanger performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, E. F.

    1981-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the final performance result of a DCHE is the cost of the net electricity produced, the best performance cannot be achieved without optimizing the components of the system as well as the whole system. Thus collection and analysis of data on the internal performance of the column assists in optimizing the operation of the particular column as well as in suggesting ways for improving the operation and design of future columns.

  15. THEORETICAL TEMPERATURE FIELDS FOR THE STRIPA HEATER PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ture fields around heat sources in rock may well differand rock behavior immediately around individual sources ofthe finite line source solution for the rock temperature is

  16. Orlando Utilities Commission- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) offers residential electric customers a point-of-sale rebate of $1,000 for new solar water heating systems.

  17. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in the Surtsey Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Blanchat, T.K.; Griffith, R.O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nichols, R.T. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Surtsey Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to perform scaled experiments that simulate hypothetical high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effect of specific phenomena associated with direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load, such as the effect of physical scale, prototypic subcompartment structures, water in the cavity, and hydrogen generation and combustion. In the Integral Effects Test (IET) series, 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion NPP structures were constructed in the Surtsey vessel. The RPV was modeled with a steel pressure vessel that had a hemispherical bottom head, which had a 4-cm hole in the bottom head that simulated the final ablated hole that would be formed by ejection of an instrument guide tube in a severe NPP accident. Iron/alumina/chromium thermite was used to simulate molten corium that would accumulate on the bottom head of an actual RPV. The chemically reactive melt simulant was ejected by high-pressure steam from the RPV model into the scaled reactor cavity. Debris was then entrained through the instrument tunnel into the subcompartment structures and the upper dome of the simulated reactor containment building. The results of the IET experiments are given in this report.

  18. Energy Data Sourcebook for the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, T.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,Manufactured Homes) National (Washington DC) Heating Coolingis electric heating in single family homes, which is 50

  19. Advanced Petrochemical Process Heating with the Pyrocore Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krill, W. V.; Minden, A. C.; Donaldson, L. W. Jr.

    natural gas or refinery process gas and designed to take full advantage of the Pyrocore burner's radiant heat transfer characteristics. This will result in a process heater with design and performance attributes that will be attractive to users...ADVANCED PETROCHEMICAL PROCESS HEATING WITH THE PYROCORE BURNER WAYNE V. KRILL ANDREW C. MINDEN LESLIE W. DONALDSON, JR. Vice President Project Engineer Manager, Process Systems Research Alzeta Corporation Alzeta Corporation Gas Research...

  20. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietip sheetK-4In 2013 many autoThisTheDecember 29, 2014