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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Anaerobic Digestion of Algae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...would be desirable to remove the algae from the lagoon effluent. Under...anaerobic digestion. Digestion of algae to provide a source of fuel is an attractive possibility...through the anaerobic digestion of algae to produce methane. Energy is...

C. G. Golueke; W. J. Oswald; H. B. Gotaas

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, pursuing alternative and renewable energy has become imperative from both practical and ethical standpoints production is just one of the many renewable energy alternatives out there. Defined as the digestion of Anaerobic Digestion 3.1. Municipal Waste Management 3.2. Climate Change Mitigation 3.2.1. Untreated

Iglesia, Enrique

3

Commercialization of Anaerobic Contact Process for Anaerobic Digestion of Algae.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The commercialization of anaerobic contact process for the digestion of algal biomass has been shown to be feasible on a technical and economic basis. The (more)

Andlay, Gunjan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Kinetic modeling and experimentation of anaerobic digestion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic digesters convert organic waste (agricultural and food waste, animal or human manure, and other organic waste), into energy (in the form of biogas or electricity). An added benefit to bio-digestion is a leftover ...

Rea, Jonathan (Jonathan E.)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Anaerobic Digestion Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Anaerobic Digestion Basics Anaerobic Digestion Basics Anaerobic Digestion Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:07pm Addthis Anaerobic digestion is a common technology in today's agriculture, municipal waste, and brewing industries. It uses bacteria to break down waste organic materials into methane and other gases, which can be used to produce electricity or heat. Methane and Anaerobic Bacteria Methane is a gas that contains molecules of methane with one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen (CH4). It is the major component of the natural gas used in many homes for cooking and heating. It is odorless, colorless, and yields about 1,000 British thermal units (Btu) [252 kilocalories (kcal)] of heat energy per cubic foot (0.028 cubic meters) when burned. Natural gas is a fossil fuel that was created eons ago by the anaerobic

6

Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Department of Environmental Management requires permits before the construction or expansion of biomass anaerobic digestion or gasification facilities.

7

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic sludge digestion Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

digestion Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic sludge digestion...

8

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic sludge digester Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

digester Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic sludge digester...

9

Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters Webinar | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters Webinar Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters Webinar Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters Webinar April 16, 2013 1:00PM MDT Webinar This free webinar will be held on April 16, 2013, from 1-2:15 p.m. Mountain Daylight Time. It will provide information on San Jose, California's, commercial-scale, high solids dry fermentation anaerobic digestion system, and the Forest County Potawatomi Community's anaerobic digester project. Implementing Anaerobic Digestion in San Jose's Integrated Processing Infrastructure This presentation will provide background on San Jose, California's, leading-edge program using the nation's first commercial-scale, high solids dry fermentation anaerobic digestion system to process commercial organics from more than 8,000 businesses in the city. Phase one of the Zero Waste

10

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

List of Anaerobic Digestion Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anaerobic Digestion Incentives Anaerobic Digestion Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 285 Anaerobic Digestion Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 285) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Residential Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Daylighting Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Landfill Gas Other Distributed Generation Technologies Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Solar Pool Heating Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Wind energy Yes Advanced Energy Job Stimulus Program (Ohio) Industry Recruitment/Support Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit State Government

12

Anaerobic Digestion Optimization for Enhanced Renewable Biomethane Production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The scope of this research project was to operate suspended growth, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) anaerobic digesters at the bench-scale level to evaluate improved (more)

Stover, Ted Ross

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion analysis Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

15

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digesters current Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

16

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion usa Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

17

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion final Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

18

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion performance Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

19

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically digested cattle Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

20

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion heat Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digesters treating Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

22

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digester treating Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

23

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophilic digestion Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

24

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digester performance Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

25

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion model Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

26

EA-1907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas 907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas EA-1907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas Summary This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by DOE and USDA to provide funding to Western Plains Energy, LLC (WPE) to construct, purchase equipment, and operate a new Biogas Anaerobic Digester at WPE's existing Ethanol Facility, located at 3022 County Road 18, Grinnell Township (Oakley), Gove County, Kansas. The proposed facility will include a receiving building, digester, and related infrastructure. Based on the analysis in USDA's Final EA and FONSI, DOE has determined that DOE's proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human or natural environment.

27

Design of an anaerobic digester in Quebec, Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.In response to the future Quebec, Canada regulations prohibiting landfilling of organic matter by 2020, EBI, a waste management company located near Montreal is considering constructing an anaerobic digester. This thesis ...

Bouaziz, Alexandre N. (Alexandre Nathanel)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

April 16, 2013 Webinar: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This webinar was held April 16, 2013, and provided information on San Jose, California's, commercial-scale, high solids dry fermentation anaerobic digestion system, and the Forest County Potawatomi...

29

Halophytic microalgae as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Anaerobic digestion can be employed to produce methane biogas from residual microalgae biomass derived from either a lipid based biofuel process or wastewater treatment. There is interest in using halophytic microalgae for biofuel production due to their potential robustness in large-scale open pond production. The anaerobic digestion of halophytic microalgae biomass would however be challenging due to the high salinities not typically experienced in anaerobic digestion scenarios. Halophytic microalgae biomass as a potential substrate feedstock for anaerobic digestion would have salinities in excess of 3.5%, which is typically found in marine environments. To investigate the anaerobic digestion of halophytic microalgae issue the first stage of the reported study focuses on the changes undertaken in the bacterial community associated with the anaerobic digestion of piggery effluent under increasing saline conditions, with the aim of establishing a saline tolerant anaerobic digestion inoculum capable of digesting feedstocks under high salinity conditions. Favourable results from this inoculum development study allowed the investigation of anaerobic digestion of halophytic microalgae. The reported results demonstrate that a saline tolerant inoculum was maintained. Subsequent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of the resulting halophytic bacterial community showed several halophytic methanogens. The inoculum was used to digest the halophytic microalgae. The resulting gas data showed that biogas production of 35853mL/g of volatile solids (VS) with a methane content of 544.3% methane was achieved at 7% salinity. The volume of biogas produced on a wet weight microalgae biomass basis was 12226 and 17525mL/g of halophytic microalgae biomass respectively (742.8wt.% moisture content). The conversion of carbon in the feedstock to methane achieved an efficiency of 26.4% and 46.6% at 3.4% and 7% salinity respectively. A halo-tolerant anaerobic digestion microbial community could be further optimized to complete the loop with nutrient recycle required with the production of halophytic microalgae based biofuels and potentially, hypersaline wastewater treatment applications.

Andrew Ward; Andy Ball; David Lewis

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Anaerobic batch co-digestion of Spartina alterniflora and potato  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The potential of mesophilic anaerobic batch digestion for the treatment of Spartina alterniflora, an invasive species widely distributed along Chinese coastlines, through co-digestion with readily biodegradable organics has been assessed. The accumulative biogas yield from S. alterniflora alone was 251 ml/g Total Solid (TS) (at 35C), at TS of 6%, co-digestion with 80% of S. alterniflora and 20% of potato representing 6% of TS, gave a biogas yield of 383 ml/g TS (at 35C). This is an increase of 52.5% compared with that obtained from digestion of pure S. alterniflora. In conclusion, using readily biodegradable potato as co-substrate of S. alterniflora can increase its anaerobic digestibility and biogas yield.

Jihong Li; Shiguan Yang; Zheng Zheng; Huamin Song; Zhuo Meng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate Total Incentive: $2 million (combined production and capacity incentives) Fixed Base + Capacity Incentive: varies, limited to the total maximum incentive of $2 million minus the applicable performance incentive Program Info Funding Source RPS surcharge; NYPA Expiration Date 01/31/2013 State New York Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Fixed Base Incentive: varies Capacity Incentive: varies Production Incentive: $0.025/kWh production payment for new systems for up

32

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion technology Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

technology on livestock farms... dioxide (EPA AgStar 2006). Benefits and Challenges of Biogas Technology Anaerobic digestion can convert... digester. Resources which ... Source:...

33

Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste?recycling Wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Food waste?recycling (FWR) wastewater was evaluated as feedstock for two?stage anaerobic digestion at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The FWR wastewater tested contained high concentrations of organic materials and had chemical oxygen demand (COD) >130 g/L and volatile solids (VS) >55 g/L. Two identical two?stage anaerobic digesters were operated to investigate the performance at six HRTs ranging from 1025 days. In the acidogenic reactor the total carbohydrate reduction efficiency and volatile fatty acid production dramatically decreased when acidogenic HRT was wastewater as feedstock.

Gyuseong Han; Seung Gu Shin; Juntaek Lim; Minho Jo; Seokhwan Hwang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters (text version)  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters," originally presented on April 16, 2013.

35

Anaerobic Co-Digestion on Dairies in Washington State  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as food-processing wastes) to increase biogas productivity, improve digester performance, and increase in manure and other feedstock to methane-rich biogas, a source of renewable energy (US-EPA 2006) (Figure 1-EPA 2005; US-EPA 2008). In addition to biogas, AD generates fiber and Figure 1. Overview of anaerobic

Collins, Gary S.

36

Anaerobic Co-digestion of Brown Water and Food Waste for Energy Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIM J.W. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Brown Water and Food Waste for Energy Recovery Jun Wei LIM waste (FW) and their mixture (MW) in batch digesters was evaluated under mesophilic conditions. BW waste. Keywords Anaerobic digestion; food waste; brown water; biogas; co-digestion INTRODUCTION

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

Sequential anaerobic/anaerobic digestion for enhanced sludge stabilization: comparison of the process performance for mixed and waste sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated as a promising alternative for enhanced sludge stabilization. In this paper, a feasibility ... the sequential digestion applied to real waste activated...

M. Concetta Tomei; Nicola Antonello Carozza

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

April 16, 2013 Webinar: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

April 16, 2013 Webinar: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters April 16, 2013 Webinar: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters April 16, 2013 Webinar: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters This webinar was held April 16, 2013, and provided information on San Jose, California's, commercial-scale, high solids dry fermentation anaerobic digestion system, and the Forest County Potawatomi Community's (FCPC) anaerobic digester project. Download the presentations below, watch the webinar (WMV 125 MB), or view the text version. Find more CommRE webinars. Implementing Anaerobic Digestion in San Jose's Integrated Processing Infrastructure This presentation provided background on San Jose, California's, leading-edge program using the nation's first commercial-scale, high solids dry fermentation anaerobic digestion system to process commercial organics

39

Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flask. Influent was added through a funnel in a rubber stopper in the top of the flask. The flask was kept in a water bath to maintain the optimum temperature of 32 C, 0 A liquid displacement system was used to collect the biogas and measure.... Biogas production was measured with a Rockwell No, 175 S Test Meter. Electrical energy input to the system was measured with a watt-hour meter. The energy required for digester heating was determined by the time required to expend the propane in sn...

Egg, Richard P

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

40

Biomethane production by anaerobic digestion of organic waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is a biological process that takes place naturally when bacteria break down organic matter in environments with or without oxygen. Controlled anaerobic digestion of organic waste in enclosed landfill will generate methane. Almost any organic material can be processed with AD, including waste paper and cardboard (of a grade that is too low to recycle because of food contamination), grass clippings, leftover food, industrial effluents, sewage and animal waste. AD produces biogas which is comprised of around 60% methane (CH4) and 40% carbon dioxide (CO2). This biogas can be used to generate heat or electricity and/or can be used as a vehicular fuel. If the intended use is for power generation the biogas must be scrubbed to remove a number of impurities. After conditioning the biogas can be used for onsite power generation, to heat homes or can be added to the national natural gas grid. In recent years several research groups have shown the possibility of upgrading the biogas for biomethane production [1]. This study will show the feasibility of integrating anaerobic digestion plant with onsite polymeric membrane purification system for conditioned biomethane production.

A. Molino; F. Nanna; Y. Ding; B. Bikson; G. Braccio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from Domestic Anaerobic Digesters Linked with Sustainable Sanitation in Rural China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from Domestic Anaerobic Digesters Linked with Sustainable Sanitation in Rural China ... (3) A key technology that may permit a switch from solid fuels to cleaner gaseous fuels in rural China is anaerobic digestion, where organic human and animal wastes are digested under anaerobic conditions generating biogas, composed primarily of methane (CH4), which can be sequestered and burned for cooking, heating, and lighting. ...

Radhika Dhingra; Erick R. Christensen; Yang Liu; Bo Zhong; Chang-Fu Wu; Michael G. Yost; Justin V. Remais

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

42

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion concept Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to methane. The anaerobic digestion consortium was introduced to high... M, and a biogas composition of 55%-60% methane. INTRODUCTION Economic evaluations of ... Source:...

43

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion program Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management ... Source: Liskiewicz,...

44

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic closed digester Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to methane. The anaerobic digestion consortium was introduced to high... M, and a biogas composition of 55%-60% methane. INTRODUCTION Economic evaluations of ... Source:...

45

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically digested sludge Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic ... Source: Liskiewicz, Maciej - Institut fr...

46

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion role Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

47

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digester sludge Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic ... Source: Liskiewicz, Maciej - Institut fr...

48

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically digested municipal Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: . Scrubbing the biogas with iron-impregnated wood chips has been used in anaerobic digesters in municipal......

49

A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community- A Case Study  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Presented by Jason Rieth, Industrial Construction Executive at Miron Construction at the April 16, 2013, Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters CommRE Webinar.

50

Treatment program of organic matter by anaerobic digestion and composting (PTMOBC) (Quebec, Canada)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Program for processing of organic matter by anaerobic digestion and composting (PTMOBC) provides financial assistance to municipalities and the private sector for the installation of...

51

Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.181:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21d of hydraulic retention time HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium.

Pognani Michele; DImporzano Giuliana; Minetti Carlo; Scotti Sergio; Adani Fabrizio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study Presented by Jason Rieth, P.E., LEED AP BD + C Industrial Construction Executive Miron Construction Co., Inc. 715.841.4029 | jason.rieth@miron-construction.com * Overview of the FCPC Renewable Generation Facility

53

Application of dried anaerobic digested sewage sludge as phenol biosorbent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Untreated anaerobically digested sewage sludge was used for the first time as a biosorbent for removing phenol from aqueous solution. Results showed that adsorption capacity was influenced by the pH of the aqueous solution with an observed maximum phenol removal at pH around 6-8. The adsorption equilibrium of phenolic compounds was obtained after almost two hours with an adsorption of approximately 90% of the phenolic compounds. A sorbent concentration of 1.8 g/L was found to insure the best removal percentage and the best sorbent capacity. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models have provided reasonable fittings for the data of phenol adsorption. The experimental data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the intraparticle diffusion model. The values of change in Gibbs free energy (?G), enthalpy (?H) and entropy (?S) were calculated. The thermodynamic study of adsorption process showed that the process was exothermic in nature.

Alaa H. Hawari

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Anaerobic digestion of glycerol and co-digestion of glycerol and pig manure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The potential of glycerol obtained from transesterification of waste cooking oil as a main carbon source for biogas production was investigated. The glycerol was highly contaminated with oils and fats and was pretreated with sulfuric acid. Using a carbon source of glucose as a control, we compared biogas production from the acid-treated glycerol in a synthetic medium and the acid-treated glycerol mixed with pig manure. The anaerobic digestion of acid-treated glycerol with supplement in a synthetic medium was found to be satisfactory at organic loading rates (OLR) between 1.3, 1.6 and 2.6g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L?1 d?1. The maximum methane yield of 0.32L at Standard temperature and pressure (STP) g?1 COD removal was achieved at an OLR of 1.6g CODL?1 d?1 and the methane content was 54% on an average. At a higher organic loading rate of 5.4g CODL?1 d?1, the propionic acid to acetic acid ratio was higher than the critical threshold limit for metabolic imbalance. Anaerobic digestion of acid-treated glycerol with pig manure was also investigated at the COD ratio of 80:20 (glycerol:pig manure). The anaerobic digestion of acid-treated glycerol with pig manure was found to be satisfactory at organic loading rates between 1.3, 1.7, 2.9 and 5.0g CODL?1 d?1 in terms of COD reduction (>80%) and methane content of (62% on an average). However, the biogas production rate was found to significantly decrease at the highest load. The maximum methane yield of 0.24L STPg?1 COD removal was achieved at an OLR of 1.3g CODL?1 d?1.

Sasikarn Nuchdang; Chantaraporn Phalakornkule

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

Frank J. Hartz; Rob Taylor; Grant Davies

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

Floodplain Assessment for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Floodplain Assessment for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility at the University of California, Davis in Yolo County, California, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy website.

57

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion held Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

anaerobic digestion held Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu Biogas Casebook Summary: 1 www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu Biogas Casebook: NYS On-farm...

58

Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Biomass Program perspective on anaerobic digestion and fuel cell integratin at biorefineries. Presented by Brian Duff, DOE Biomass Program, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

59

Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria ...

Zaks, David P. M.

60

Experimental evaluation of anaerobic digestion for coffee wastewater treatment and its biomethane recovery potential  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of anaerobic digestion (AD) as an eco-friendly technology for coffee wastewater (CWW) management. First, we have characterized the CWW and found that...

A. Beyene; D. Yemane; T. Addis

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Anaerobic digestion of wool scouring wastewater in a digester operated semi-continuously for biomass retention  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An anaerobic digester, operated semi-continuously in order to retain high concentrations of biomass in the digester, was used to treat wool scouring wastewater. At a space load of 99 kg COD m?3 day ?1 (hydraulic retention time, 28 days) >56% of the COD and >47% of the grease were removed. At these efficiencies, this rate was estimated to be at least 253 times greater than that which would be achieved in a continuously stirred digester. Preliminary studies of enzymatic pretreatment of the scouring effluent showed that significantly improved treatment rates and/or efficiencies could be achievedi.e. >70% removal of both the COD and grease at a space load of 12 kg COD m?3 day?1. It is unlikely that any substancial levels of flocculation would develop in this system and it is expected that the moderate use of polyelectrolytes would be required to help maintain the VSS concentration in the reactor.

R.G. Cail; J.P. Barford; R. Lichacz

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Nitrification of centrate from dewatering of anaerobically digested sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrification of anaerobically digested sludge centrate was studied in bench-scale suspended growth and fixed film enhanced suspended growth systems at temperatures of 10.5-28.5C and pH values of 6.0-9.1. Nitrification followed zero-order kinetics in both systems, and ammonia removals in excess of 99% were observed. The temperature dependency of the suspended growth nitrification rate observed under not fully acclimated biomass conditions at pH between 6.8 and 8.5, was expressed as kT = k20?T-20where k20 and ? were found to be 0.34 mg NH3-N/MLVSS-d and 1.033, respectively. The nitrification rate in the fixed film enhanced suspended growth system involving styrofoam pads ranged from 0.11 to 0.13 mg NH3-N/mg MLVSS-d at temperatures of 21.5-25C and pH values of 7.8-8.6. The process contained suspended solids in the range of 10-20 mg/l.

M. Kawsar Ali; C.G. Marquez; J. Fillos; V. Diyamandoglu; L.A. Carrio

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste for energy production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of anaerobic reactors treating OFMSW (organic fraction of municipal solid waste), especially in terms (more)

Nayono, Satoto Endar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Economic implications of anaerobic digesters on dairy farms in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-selling price, digesters are less economically feasible than current waste management strategies, lagoons, even after considering potential environmental penalties. However, selling electricity and capturing by-product heat for cost savings makes the digester...

Jackson, Randy Scott, Jr.

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

65

Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Intermediate-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion system operational development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. Operation of the anaerobic digestion process at high solids reduces the level of process water and thereby the size and capital costs for the digester system. In addition, by virtue of the lack of available water, the microbial catalysts are more productive in feedstock polymer hydrolysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. Information gained from laboratory-scale digester research was used to develop die intermediate-scale digester system. This system represents a 50-fold scale-up of the original digester system and includes continuous feed addition and computer monitoring and control. During the first 1.15 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements -- which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using the NREL high-solids digester design -- are detailed in this report.

Rivard, C.J.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Optimizing the Operation of a Two-Phase Anaerobic Digestion System Digesting Grass Silage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methane Yields from Grass Biomethane Digesters ... biomethane potential test ... biomethane potential test ...

Abdul-Sattar Nizami; Jerry D. Murphy

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

68

A systemic approach for dimensioning and designing anaerobic bio-digestion/energy generation biomass supply networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Anaerobic bio-digestion/energy generation complexes using animal waste raw materials represent an important component of renewable energy initiatives and policies worldwide, and are significant contributors to broaden sustainability efforts. In such projects bio-power feasibility depends heavily on generation complex access to biomass which is of costly transportation. As a result, an important component of renewable energy planning is the optimization of a logistics system to guarantee low-cost access to animal waste. This access is a function of local characteristics including number and geographic location of organic waste sources, operating and maintenance costs of the generation facility, energy prices, and marginal contribution of biomass collected and delivered to the anaerobic bio-digestion unit. Because biomass exhibits high transportation costs per unit of energy ultimately generated, and because different types of biomass have different biogas-generating properties, design of the supply logistics system can be the determinant factor towards economic viability of energy generation from an anaerobic bio-digestion plant. Indeed, to address this problem it is helpful to consider the farms, the logistics system, the anaerobic bio-digestion plant, and the generation plant as subsystems in an integrated system. Additionally, the existence of an outlet for manure may allow farmers to significantly raise boundaries of one constraint they face, namely disposing of animal waste, therefore permitting increases in farm production capacity. This paper suggests and outlines a systematic methodology to address the design of such systems.

Joo Neiva de Figueiredo; Srgio Fernando Mayerle

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft-glassy materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft confronted with a dramatically increasing flow of sewage sludge. To improve treatment efficiency, process reliable flow properties to simulate the process, this work is an attempt to approach sludge rheological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model N1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Anaerobic Digestion Model N°1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater Carlos García-Diéguez 1 , Olivier Bernard 2 , Enrique Roca 1, * 1 USC ­ PRODES for winery effluent wastewater. A new reduced stoichiometric matrix was identified and the kinetic parameters

Boyer, Edmond

71

Biochar Produced from Anaerobically Digested Fiber Reduces Phosphorus...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dairy lagoons. The ADF was collected from a plugged flow digester, air-dried to <8% water content, and pelletized. Biochar was produced by slow pyrolysis in a barrel retort....

72

Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: An overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24192mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively.

B. Ruiz; X. Flotats

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Quantification of Gordona amarae Strains in Foaming Activated Sludge and Anaerobic Digester Systems with Oligonucleotide Hybridization Probes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hierarchic classification system, Actinobacteria...hybridization probes for studies of ruminal microbial...pseudomonads. A taxonomic study. . Stratton H...ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. . Wheeler D. Rule A. . Zheng...microbial ecology studies. . Quantification...anaerobic digester systems with oligonucleotide...

M. Fiorella de los Reyes; Francis L. de los Reyes III; Mark Hernandez; Lutgarde Raskin

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Ultrasonic sludge disintegration for enhanced methane production in anaerobic digestion: effects of sludge hydrolysis efficiency and hydraulic retention time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrolysis of waste activated sludge (WAS) has been regarded as the rate limiting step of anaerobic sludge digestion. Therefore, in this study, the ... effect of ultrasound and hydraulic residence time during sludge

Dong-Jin Kim; Jonghak Lee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic digestion of food waste and sewage sludge treated using various pretreatment technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic co-digestion with sewage sludge using pretreatment technologies and food waste. We studied the effects of various pretreatment methods (thermal...

Seungjin Kim; Kwangkeun Choi; Jong-Oh Kim; Jinwook Chung

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anaerobic digesters (ADs) can produce renewable energy from livestock manure, prevent the release of methane, and reduce air and water pollution, and digested manure can be applied to crops as a fertilizer. ... Comprehensive inclusion of the GHG mitigation benefits and low-carbon energy generation of AD projects within a federal climate and energy policy would further enhance prospects for new projects. ... Arthurson, V.Closing the Global Energy and Nutrient Cycles through Application of Biogas Residue to Agricultural Land - Potential Benefits and Drawbacks Energies 2009, 2 ( 2) 226 242 ...

David P. M. Zaks; Niven Winchester; Christopher J. Kucharik; Carol C. Barford; Sergey Paltsev; John M. Reilly

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion to Increase the Net Energy Balance of Corn Grain Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion to Increase the Net Energy Balance of Corn Grain Ethanol ... However, the calculation did not include the energetic costs to physically replace the evaporator with the integrated digester system (this will be a relatively small fraction of the energy input because the percentage of energy input per unit of ethanol energy output for construction of the entire conventional dry mill is 0.2% (4)); the improved quality in animal feed (DDG vs DDGS); nor the available waste heat from circumventing thin stillage evaporation. ...

Matthew T. Agler; Marcelo L. Garcia; Eric S. Lee; Martha Schlicher; Largus T. Angenent

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

78

DOE/EA-1624: Environmental Assessment for Auburn Landfill Gas Electric Generators and Anaerobic Digester Energy Facilities (December 2008)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Auburn Landfill Gas Electric Generators and Auburn Landfill Gas Electric Generators and Anaerobic Digester Energy Facilities Auburn, New York Final Environmental Assessment DOE/EA-1624 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory January 2009 INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK AUBURN LANDFILL GAS ELECTRIC GENERATORS AND ANAEROBIC DIGESTER ELECTRIC FACILITIES FINAL EA DOE/EA-1624 i Table of Contents 1.0 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 BACKGROUND............................................................................................................................................... 2 1.2 PURPOSE AND NEED ...................................................................................................................................... 4

79

A new temperature controlled digester for anaerobic digestion for biogas production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various types of insulating composite materials were used on ceramic digesters for the control of temperature. Maintenance of temperature is highlighted in this paper. The above types of digesters can adequately control the temperature, especially in the winter season. The results of extensive experimental and theoretical studies have been cited in this paper. This work is beneficial for those plants which are generally in higher altitude stations with low atmospheric temperature, like Leh (India). These types of digesters were found to be very useful for the production of biogas, especially from aquatic biomass like water hyacinth.

Upama Misra; Sanjay Singh; Amarika Singh; G.N. Pandey

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

A network design model for biomass to energy supply chains with anaerobic digestion systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Development and implementation of renewable energy systems, as a part of the solution to the worldwide increasing energy consumption, have been considered as emerging areas to offer an alternative to the traditional energy systems with limited fossil fuel resources and to challenge environmental problems caused by them. Biomass is one of the alternative energy resources and agricultural, animal and industrial organic wastes can be treated as biomass feedstock in biomass to energy conversion systems. This study aims to develop an effective supply chain network design model for the production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of biomass. In this regard, a mixed integer linear programming model is developed to determine the most appropriate locations for the biogas plants and biomass storages. Besides the strategic decisions such as determining the numbers, capacities and locations of biogas plants and biomass storages, the biomass supply and product distribution decisions can also be made by this model. Mainly, waste biomass is considered as feedstock to be digested in anaerobic digestion facilities. To explore the viability of the proposed model, computational experiments are performed on a real-world problem. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to account for the uncertainties in the input data to the decision problem.

?ebnem Y?lmaz Balaman; Hasan Selim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Temporal variation in methanogen communities of four different full-scale anaerobic digesters treating food waste-recycling wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Methanogen communities were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing in four different full-scale anaerobic digesters treating food waste-recycling wastewater. Seasonal samples were collected for 2years, and 24 samples were available for microbial analysis from a plug flow thermophilic (PT) digester, a continuously-stirred tank thermophilic (CT) digester, an upflow anerobic sludge blanket mesophilic (UM) digester, and a continuously-stirred tank mesophilic (CM) digester. Methanoculleus, Methanobacterium, Methanothermobacter, and Methanosaeta were revealed to be key methanogens in full-scale anaerobic digestion process treating food waste-recycling wastewater. In the PT digester, Methanoculleus was dominant (96.8%). In the CT digester, Methanoculleus was dominant (95.4%) during the first year of operation, but the dominant genus was shifted to Methanothermobacter (98.5%) due to pH increase. In the UM digester, Methanosaeta was dominant (87.2%). In the CM digester, Methanoculleus was constantly dominant (74.8%) except during CM5 when Methanosaeta was dominant (62.6%) due to the low residual acetate concentration (0.1g/L).

Joonyeob Lee; Byungchul Hwang; Taewoan Koo; Seung Gu Shin; Woong Kim; Seokhwan Hwang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Decomposition of Fresh and Anaerobically Digested Plant Biomass in Soil1 K. K. MOORHEAD, D. A, GRAETZ, AND K. R. REDDY2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

information deals with land ap- plication of anaerobically digested sewage sludge, and on- ly limited data such as plant biomass, sewage sludge, or animal wastes is used to generate CH4 and stabilized organic waste, or preferably utilized, in an environmentally safe manner. Disposal of the anaerobically digested sludge by land

Florida, University of

83

Electricity Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Household Organic Waste in Ontario: Techno-Economic and GHG Emission Analyses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electricity Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Household Organic Waste in Ontario: Techno-Economic and GHG Emission Analyses ... The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and economics of electricity generation through anaerobic digestion (AD) of household source-separated organic waste (HSSOW) are investigated within the FiT program. ... AD can potentially provide considerable GHG emission reductions (up to 1 t CO2eq/t HSSOW) at relatively low to moderate cost (-$35 to 160/t CO2eq) by displacing fossil electricity and preventing the emission of landfill gas. ...

David Sanscartier; Heather L. MacLean; Bradley Saville

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

84

Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to biogas. Model calibration was conducted using data from invitro fermentation of the proximal colon (TIM-2), and, amongst others, supplemented with the bio kinetics of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) fermentation. The impact of water and solutes absorption by the host was also included. Hydrolysis constants of carbohydrates and proteins were estimated based on total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia production invitro. Model validation was established using an independent dataset of a different invitro model: an invitro three-stage continuous culture system. The in silico model was shown to provide quantitative insight in the microbial community structure in terms of functional groups, and the substrate and product fluxes between these groups as well as the host, as a function of the substrate composition, pH and the solids residence time (SRT). The model confirms the experimental observation that methanogens are washed out at low pH or low SRT-values. The in silico model is proposed as useful tool in the design of experimental setups for invitro experiments by giving insight in fermentation processes in the proximal human colon.

Anne Marieke Motelica-Wagenaar; Arjen Nauta; Ellen G.H.M. van den Heuvel; Robbert Kleerebezem

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application, indicating greater microbial activity in amended soil and reflecting the lower stability of this OM source, compared to the other, anaerobic digestate types, which showed no consistent effects on MBN compared to the control. Thus, the overall net release of digestate N in different soil types was not regulated by N transfer into the soil microbial biomass, but was determined primarily by digestate properties and the capacity of the soil type to process and turnover digestate N. In contrast to the sandy soil types, where nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations increased during incubation, there was an absence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} accumulation in the silty clay soil amended with LTAD and DMADMSW. This provided indirect evidence for denitrification activity and the gaseous loss of N, and the associated increased risk of greenhouse gas emissions under certain conditions of labile C supply and/or digestate physical structure in fine-textured soil types. The significance and influence of the interaction between soil type and digestate stability and physical properties on denitrification processes in digestate-amended soils require urgent investigation to ensure management practices are appropriate to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from land applied biowastes.

Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

RECIPIENT:WA Department of Commerce STATE: WA PROJECT Van Dyk Dairy Anaerobic Digester  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of5 of5 RECIPIENT:WA Department of Commerce STATE: WA PROJECT Van Dyk Dairy Anaerobic Digester TITLE: Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number cm Number DE-EE0000139 GF0-10-604 Based on my review oftbe information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA CompUance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.1A), I have made the foUowing determination: cx, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: A9 Information gathering (including, but not limited to, literature surveys, inventories, audits), data analysis (including computer modeling), document preparation (such as conceptual design or feasibility studies, analytical energy supply and demand studies), and dissemination (including, but not limited to, document mailings, publication, and distribution;

87

A model of anaerobic digestion for biogas production using Abel equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a nonlinear mathematical model for the study of anaerobic digestion processes. We decompose the original system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations into subsystems. For these subsystems we prove existence of lower and upper solutions in reverse order for one of the va\\-ria\\-bles. The upper and lower solutions are constructed in analytical form. Furthermore, the upper solutions of subsystem for feeding bacteria are related with solutions of Abel equations of the first kind. Using numerical and theoretical arguments we examine how to obtain upper and lower solutions approximated to the numerical solution of the system. In this work we establish special techniques of lower-upper solution, which includes reverse order for non monotone systems, in contrast to the techniques used by H.L. Smith and P. Waltman on their monograph.

Primitivo B. Acosta-Humnez; Maximiliano Machado-Higuera; Alexander V. Sinitsyn

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

88

Influence of bed materials on methanogenic characteristics and immobilized microbes in anaerobic digester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports and discusses the effects of bed materials on the performance of methanogenic fluidized bed reactors with acetic acid as the sole organic substrate. Four bed materials (carbon filter, rock wool, loofah sponge and polyurethane foam) were evaluated and compared for their methanogenic characteristics and immobilized microbes. The present results indicated that the characteristics of the bed materials for immobilization had a significant influence on the methane production. The loofah sponge and polyurethane foam were suggested to be suitable for the bed material in anaerobic digestion. The best methane yield was obtained from the loofah reactor among the four kinds of bed materials. The main cellular morphologies present in the biofilms of the four different materials on the colonization were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The microphotographs indicated that the biofilm was primarily composed of coccus, diplococci-shaped Methanosarcina-like cells, long rods of Methanobacterium and coccobacillus of Methanobrevibacter-like bacteria. The morphologies observed from the microscopic analysis indicated that the different bed materials could provide specific conditions for the adherence of distinct microorganism types. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis was conducted to compare the immobilized archaeal population. The results of the 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis indicated that the major immobilized methanogens were Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina mazei in all the bed materials. A similar clone distribution was observed with the loofah sponge and the carbon felt.

Yingnan Yang; Chika Tada; Md Shohidullah Miah; Kenichiro Tsukahara; Tatsuo Yagishita; Shigeki Sawayama

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

A comprehensive microbial insight into two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste-recycling wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microbial community structures were assessed in a two-stage anaerobic digestion system treating food waste-recycling wastewater. The reactors were operated for 390d at 10 different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 25 to 4d. Stable operation was achieved with the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 73.085.9% at organic loading rate of up to 35.6g COD/Ld. Performance of the acidogenic reactors, however, changed significantly during operation. This change coincided with transition of the bacterial community from one dominated by Aeriscardovia- and Lactobacillus amylovorus-related species to one dominated by Lactobacillus acetotolerans- and Lactobacillus kefiri-like organisms. In methanogenic reactors, the microbial community structures also changed at this stage along with the shift from Methanoculleus- to Methanosarcina-like organisms. This trend was confirmed by the non-metric multidimensional scaling joint plot of microbial shifts along with performance parameters. These results indicated that the overall process performance was relatively stable compared to the dynamic changes in the microbial structures and the acidogenic performance.

Seung Gu Shin; Gyuseong Han; Juntaek Lim; Changsoo Lee; Seokhwan Hwang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermal pretreated sludge: Role of microbial community structure and correlation with process performances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment coupled with Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (TAD) for Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) treatment is a promising combination to improve biodegradation kinetics during stabilization. However, to date there is a limited knowledge of the anaerobic biomass composition and its impact on TAD process performances. In this study, the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities selected in two semi-continuous anaerobic digesters, fed with untreated and thermal pretreated sludge, were investigated. The systems were operated for 250 days at different organic loading rate. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses allowed us to identify the majority of bacterial and archaeal populations. Proteolytic Coprothermobacter spp. and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter spp. living in strict syntrophic association were found to dominate in TAD process. The establishment of a syntrophic proteolytic pathway was favoured by the high temperature of the process and enhanced by the thermal pretreatment of the feeding sludge. Proteolytic activity, alone or with thermal pretreatment, occurred during TAD as proven by increasing concentration of soluble ammonia and soluble COD (sCOD) during the process. However, the availability of a readily biodegradable substrate due to pretreatment allowed to significant sCOD removals (more than 55%) corresponding to higher biogas production in the reactor fed with thermal pretreated sludge. Microbial population dynamics analysed by FISH showed that Coprothermobacter and Methanothermobacter immediately established a stable syntrophic association in the reactor fed with pretreated sludge in line with the overall improved TAD performances observed under these conditions.

M.C. Gagliano; C.M. Braguglia; A. Gianico; G. Mininni; K. Nakamura; S. Rossetti

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting and Anaerobic Digestion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting in conventional, on-farm lagoons does not result in any significant reduction of antimicrobial resistance. Animal digestion and composting at mesophilic or moderate temperature significantly reduced the antimicrobial

Jones, Michelle

92

Improved Anaerobic Digestion by the Addition of Paper Tube Residuals: Pretreatment, Stabilizing, and Synergetic Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pretreatments with steam explosion were performed on the paper tubes and evaluated by batch assays measuring the biomethane potential. ... 3.1 Biomethane Potential of Untreated and Treated Paper Tubes: Batch Assays ... The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of steam pretreatment on the biomethane potential of biofibers from digested manure. ...

Anna Teghammar; Maria del Pilar Castillo; Johnny Ascue; Claes Niklasson; Ilona Srvri Horvth

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

93

Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

Trzcinski, Antoine P., E-mail: a.trzcinski05@ic.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Stuckey, David C., E-mail: d.stuckey@ic.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

Chanakya, H.N. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)], E-mail: chanakya@astra.iisc.ernet.in; Sharma, Isha [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Ramachandra, T.V. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Modelling the energy performance of a farm-scale cellulose to ethanol process with on-site cellulase production and anaerobic digestion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A farm-scale process for converting wheat straw to ethanol was modelled to assess its energy performance. The process incorporates the on-site production of crude unprocessed liquid cellulase produced via solid-state fermentation, and the anaerobic digestion of process residues to supply heat and electricity. Results include energy yield ratios from 6 to 9, reductions of 8090 % in the energy required to produce and transport the cellulase compared to commercial preparations, and a net surplus of on-site heat and electricity. From these improvements in process efficiency, environmental benefits follow.

Mitchell Lever

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Waste-to-wheel analysis of anaerobic-digestion-based renewable natural gas pathways with the GREET model.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2009, manure management accounted for 2,356 Gg or 107 billion standard cubic ft of methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions in the United States, equivalent to 0.5% of U.S. natural gas (NG) consumption. Owing to the high global warming potential of methane, capturing and utilizing this methane source could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The extent of that reduction depends on several factors - most notably, how much of this manure-based methane can be captured, how much GHG is produced in the course of converting it to vehicular fuel, and how much GHG was produced by the fossil fuel it might displace. A life-cycle analysis was conducted to quantify these factors and, in so doing, assess the impact of converting methane from animal manure into renewable NG (RNG) and utilizing the gas in vehicles. Several manure-based RNG pathways were characterized in the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model, and their fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions were compared to petroleum-based pathways as well as to conventional fossil NG pathways. Results show that despite increased total energy use, both fossil fuel use and GHG emissions decline for most RNG pathways as compared with fossil NG and petroleum. However, GHG emissions for RNG pathways are highly dependent on the specifics of the reference case, as well as on the process energy emissions and methane conversion factors assumed for the RNG pathways. The most critical factors are the share of flared controllable CH{sub 4} and the quantity of CH{sub 4} lost during NG extraction in the reference case, the magnitude of N{sub 2}O lost in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and in AD residue, and the amount of carbon sequestered in AD residue. In many cases, data for these parameters are limited and uncertain. Therefore, more research is needed to gain a better understanding of the range and magnitude of environmental benefits from converting animal manure to RNG via AD.

Han, J.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems)

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

98

Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food manufacturing waste for renewable energy generation in New York State.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Anaerobic digestion is a microbiological process that converts biodegradable organic material into biogas, consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. Anaerobic digestion technologies have been (more)

Wu, Yen-Chin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The effect of algae species on biodiesel and biogas production observed by using a data model combines algae cultivation with an anaerobic digestion (ACAD) and a biodiesel process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The influence of an algae species based on the biodiesel yield was investigated by using a combined plant model from the literature. The model has six different processes: algal cultivation, the flocculation and separation process, biodiesel production, anaerobic digestion, scrubbing, and combined heat and power (CHP). The data model in the literature was operated with the values for Chlorella vulgaris. To investigate the roles of the algae species on the biodiesel yield in the model, two different algae species, Nannochloropsis sp. and Haematococcus pluvialis, were selected. Depending on the data from these algae in the literature, three different scenarios were modeled in the study. The model shows that all of the scenarios for biodiesel production can be totally independent of an external energy supply. Energy estimations for all of the applications scenarios show that the system produces more energy than the amount that is required for the processing operation.

Zehra Sapci; John Morken

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES USING ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED AND WETOXIDISED MANURE AS NUTRIENT AND WATER SUPPLY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gasses, great interest has arisen in production of biofuels. The idea of combining biogas and bioethanol and water in industry is a rather expensive medium. The remaining liquid after the biogas process is waste to pollution of ground waters. Furthermore the biogas process does not kill all pathogens. Anaerobically

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal for a mid-size city  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with wastewater sludge, wood ash, coal ash, lime-kiln dust, and/or limestone quarry dust to improve the profile systems [Block & Goldstein 2000]. Anaerobic composting is not well used in the U.S until now [Goldstein of the process, the methane gas ("cleaner energy") and harvesting materials from MSW to #12;either recycle

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

102

Which is the preferable biogas utilisation technology for anaerobic digestion of agricultural crops in Ireland: Biogas to CHP or biomethane as a transport fuel?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The utilisation of anaerobic digestion to produce biogas as an energy source is a mature technology in many European countries but is yet to be developed in Ireland. In 2009, the EU issued the Renewable Energy Source Directive 2009/28/EC which requires a 20% share of renewable energy sources (heat and electricity) in final energy consumption for all member states, respectively, including a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The introduction of biogas to produce power and electricity in the form of CHP technology and biomethane as a transport fuel can help Ireland achieve the mandatory targets set by the directive. The key focus of the paper is to determine the optimum small to medium scale biogas technology and the impact the introduction of that technology infrastructure will have on renewable energy targets for Ireland. In terms of feedstock, agricultural sources such as energy crops and slurry offer a sustainable input to the anaerobic digestion process. The crop rotations under consideration consist of different arrangements of grass silage, maize silage and barley. Grass silage is found to be the most suitable crop for biogas energy production while biogas upgrading to biomethane as a transport fuel has the optimum technology potential in Ireland. To fuel a car operating on biomethane, 0.22ha of grass land is required annually. Full scale national development of 5% of the area under grass in Ireland will contribute 11.4% of renewable energy to the total final transport energy demand by 2020, surpassing the target set by the Renewable Energy Source Directive 2009/28/EC.

D. Goulding; N. Power

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Convective heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Convective heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic 2-methylnaphthalene degradation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: that can be degraded by bacteria. Biogas: the gas produced by anaerobic bacteria in the anaerobic digestion... at Virginia...

106

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic acidification broth Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

broth produced in the biomass... is expected to undergo anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. This biogas will serve as the primary source... be produced during the anaerobic...

107

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic filter ufaf-subsurface Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and power application. All four DG systems were operated on-site using either landfill gas or anaerobic... . Common opportunity fuels are anaerobic digester gas, landfill gas,...

108

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic carbon degradation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12;13 degradable (E... monitoring system for the anaerobic process, based on headspace gas chromatography. Submitted. Paper III Boe... on the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1...

109

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic work capacity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: lost some of its biogas production potential. Anaerobic digesters work best when the digestion pro... at...

110

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic waste water Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Recovery Jun Wei LIM... waste. Keywords Anaerobic digestion; food waste; brown water; biogas; co-digestion INTRODUCTION... of brown water and food ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique,...

111

Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Heaters Showerheads Residential Weatherization Performance Tested Comfort Systems Ductless Heat Pumps New Construction Residential Marketing Toolkit Retail Sales...

112

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic feiii-reducer rhodoferax Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and agricultural wastewater, includ- ing methanogenic anaerobic digestion, biological hydro- gen production... material in industrial and agricultural wastewater Methanogenic...

113

Inactivation of poliovirus in digested sludge.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Inactivation of poliovirus in digested sludge. R L Ward C S Ashley The effect of anaerobically digested sludge on poliovirus during incubation at temperatures...Although virus was fully recoverable from sludge, its infectivity decreased in proportion...

R L Ward; C S Ashley

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Selecting a new water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial digestion methods Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... (oxygen free) digestion of organic matter whereby the organic matter is converted...

116

E-Print Network 3.0 - animal manure digestion Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with other organic wastes. Co-digestion has the primary advan- tage... to generate biogas from animal manure. Some com- mon anaerobic digester configurations used on farms...

117

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic betaproteobacterium georgfuchsia...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

118

Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Efficiency Homes Water Heating Swimming Pool Heaters Swimming Pool Heaters July 10, 2014 Gas Swimming Pool Heaters Selecting the right kind of swimming pool heater...

119

Grouped exposed metal heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Impacts of Triclosan on Anaerobic Community Structures, Function, and Antimicrobial Resistance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Impacts of Triclosan on Anaerobic Community Structures, Function, and Antimicrobial Resistance ... Triclosan is a widespread antimicrobial agent that accumulates in anaerobic digesters used to treat the residual solids generated at municipal wastewater treatment plants; there is very little information, however, about how triclosan impacts microbial communities in anaerobic digesters. ... We investigated how triclosan impacts the community structure, function and antimicrobial resistance genes in lab-scale anaerobic digesters. ...

Patrick J. McNamara; Timothy M. LaPara; Paige J. Novak

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

aerobic sludge digestion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of organic wastes) and digestion (anaerobic treatment of organic wastes combined with biogas production) are important waste management strategies with increasing significance...

122

Explosives tester with heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

123

Department of Energy - Swimming Pool Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

736189 en Gas Swimming Pool Heaters http:energy.govenergysaverarticlesgas-swimming-pool-heaters heaters" class"title-link">

124

The Study of Two Stages Anaerobic Digestion Application and Suitable Bio-Film as an Effort to Improve Bio-Gas Productivity from Jatropha Curcas Linn Capsule Husk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The conversion program from kerosene to LPG in Indonesia has positive impact on saving budget of fuel subsidized. However, the program does not only depend on LPG supply from overseas but also inadvisable related to the LPG availability in the world. Bio-gas is renewable energy which categorized as modern cooking oil. This gaseous bio- fuel is feasible in Indonesia due to plenty of bio-gas resources such as bio-mass and waste, simple technology, supporting tropical climate on bio-gas process, no food competition on material supply, minimizing global warming, reducing water pollution and producing organic fertilizer. Some series of study are conducted on dried Jatropha curcas Linn. capsule husk (JCL-CH) as bio-gas feedstock. The objective of the study is to create technology for managing JCL integrally according to bio-refinery principle. This paper will present two studies, JCL-CH performance in single stage digester compared with two stages digester in laboratory and palm fiber compared with glass wool as bio-film/bio-carrier in methanogenesis reactor. The studies were conducted in Research Laboratory PT. Bumimas Ekapersada, Bekasi, West Java from March until May 2012. A liter of glass bottle as digester, arranged in Randomized Complete Design, three replications per treatment placed in 32C water bath. The bio-gas feedstock was put continuously with Organic Loading Rate OLR or concentration 1: 12 in single stage compared with 1: 12 and 1: 8 in two stages. The observed parameters were pH, temperature, bio-gas volume, methane concentration, volatile solid and acetic acid concentration. Bio-gas volume was measured by water displacement method and methane concentration was measured by gas chromatography. T-test was used for statistical analysis. The studies showed that two stages digester more efficient since it can increase methane concentration and bio-gas volume/gram VS. The bio-gas volume increase 63.83% in OLR 1: 8. Glass wool was more effective as bio-film carrier compared with palm fiber.

Praptiningsih G. Adinurani; Tony Liwang; Salafudin; Leopold O. Nelwan; Yosephianus Sakri; Satriyo K. Wahono; Roy Hendroko

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidogenic anaerobic reactor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: anaerobic digestion in the inlet of the pre-treatment zone of a plug-flow biogas reactor for biomass... -flow anaerobic reactor for domestic organic waste treatment...

126

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biogas reactors Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biogas reactors Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic biogas reactors Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Anaerobic Co-digestion of...

127

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic carbon metabolism Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 Two-Phase Production of H2CH4 Mixtures An anaerobic digestion process to produce hydrogen and methane (CH4) in Summary: Two-Phase Production of H2CH4 Mixtures An anaerobic...

128

Floating solar pool heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A floating solar heater for swimming pools is disclosed which includes a top cover, a vertical outer side wall with inclined inner side wall segments connected thereto, an outside rim and a bottom wall. The inner side wall segments are octagonal, coated with light reflective material, and aid in reflecting the sun's rays to heat the space inside the walls formed by the cover which dead air space also provides for floatation of the heater. The bottom wall is heated by direct sun inpingement and by the air in contact with it and is formed of a material having high heat conductivity.

McCluskey, J.E.

1981-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

129

Portable Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Portable Heaters Portable Heaters Portable Heaters November 26, 2013 - 2:41pm Addthis Portable heaters can be an efficient way to supplement inadequate heating. | Photo courtesy iStockphoto.com Portable heaters can be an efficient way to supplement inadequate heating. | Photo courtesy iStockphoto.com What does this mean for me? A portable heater is a good choice if you have a space that requires supplemental heating or is infrequently occupied. You should carefully follow all the manufacturer's installation and operation instructions. Small space heaters are typically used when the main heating system is inadequate or when central heating is too costly to install or operate. In some cases, small space heaters can be less expensive to use if you only want to heat one room or supplement inadequate heating in one room. They

130

Energy Conservation in Process Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY CONSERVATION IN PROCESS HEATERS Roger l~. Bagge Neste Engineering Porvoo, Finland ABSTRACT OPTIMIZATION OF EMER~Y USE Energy savings in refinery and petrochemical fired heaters can basically be achieved in two ways: Thru optimization...

Bagge, R. W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

132

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

133

Dehumidifying water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The indoor swimming pool at the Glen Cove YMCA in Glen Cove, New York, has been selected for the dehumidification/water heating system demonstration project. This report provides the specifications for this system which includes a dehumidifier/air handler, condenser/water heater, and outdoor condenser. Current progress underway includes construction, vendor selection, and control system selection. (SM)

Stark, W.

1991-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic mixed microflora Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic chloroethene-dehalogenating activity...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

136

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic continuously stirred Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

or thermophilic... ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

137

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic process effects Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

based on headspace gas chromatography. Submitted. Paper III Boe... . 12;12;4 2. The biogas process Anaerobic digestion is a multi-step biological process where... . The...

138

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic psychrophilic enrichment Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic reactor systems Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sources of organic matter... -processing wastes, and industrial wastes. A typical biogas system consists of manure collection, anaerobic digestion... and carbon credits. The...

140

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic stirred sequencing-batch Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fitness markers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

142

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically corroding iron Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: . Scrubbing the biogas with iron-impregnated wood chips has been used in anaerobic digesters in municipal......

143

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic mesophilic granular Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

144

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic chlorophenol-degrading community...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

145

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic conditions model Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

146

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic interval training Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

147

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic soil slurry Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aberystwyth Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 2 Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas from Separated slurry Summary: scenarios. In fact, anaerobic digestion of animal...

148

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fixed bed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

149

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophiles annual Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic reactor star Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

overview of anaero- Summary: dioxide (EPA AgStar 2006). Benefits and Challenges of Biogas Technology Anaerobic digestion can convert... at Virginia Tech. Most of the discussion...

151

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic contact reactor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically growing xylose-utilizing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacterial community Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic baffled reactor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

155

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic gac reactor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

156

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophiles progress Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

due to various... returns from energy and byproduct sales. Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, biogas, cooperatives, carbon Source: Laughlin, Robert B. - Department of Physics, Stanford...

157

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bioreactor landfills Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

D... from a Full Scale Anaerobic Digester Supernatant at the City of Penticton Advanced Wastewater Treatment Source: Laval, Bernard - Department of Civil Engineering, University...

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biodegradation potential Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(VS) could be stabilized during three months of batch... , pyrolysis, and biological gaSification by anaerobic digestion have been in vestigated. Due to the very......

159

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic upflow column Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

were hermetically sealed. Only the filter was heated... , pyrolysis, and biological gaSification by anaerobic digestion have been in vestigated. Due to the very... heterogeneous...

160

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic conditions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically induced small Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

162

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic benzene communities Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic ammonia oxidation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

164

Investigation of microalgae cultivation and anaerobic codigestion of algae and sewage sludge for wastewater treatment facilities.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The main goals of this research are to investigate the anaerobic digestibility of algae and to investigate the effects of growth media on the growth (more)

Wang, Meng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic digestion process Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technologies ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 9 www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu Biogas Casebook Summary: of gas handling equipment for an anaerobic digester system....

167

Batch Test for Assessing the Mineralization of 14C-Radiolabeled Compounds under Realistic Anaerobic Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmentally realistic concentrations of test chemicals were incubated with anaerobic digester sludge in sealed vessels at 35 C. ... Major anoxic environments include anaerobic digesters, septic tanks, organically enriched sediments, flooded soils, and landfills. ... Another rolled piece of copper screen was inserted into this end, and a pea-size piece of quartz wool was inserted into both ends. ...

Barbara A. Nuck; Thomas W. Federle

1996-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

168

Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about theeconomics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

169

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

171

Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC)...

172

Tankless Gas Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tankless Gas Water Heaters Tankless Gas Water Heaters Standardized Templates for Reporting Test Results tanklessgaswaterheaterv12.xlsx More Documents & Publications Heat Pump...

173

Commercial Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heaters Commercial Water Heaters Standardized DOE Testing Templates commercialwaterheater v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers...

174

Storage Gas Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Storage Gas Water Heaters Storage Gas Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance...

175

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Standardized Templates for Reporting Test Results heatpumpwaterheaterv1.7.xlsx More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water...

176

Ruminant digestion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ruminant digestion Ruminant digestion Name: hignell Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How long it takes for the digestive process to work in a ruminant? With the various chambers and would digestion take longer than in other mammals? Replies: A friend in animal nutrition is looking up an exact figure, but as he does, here are a few guidelines: Time of digestion largely depends on the type of food an animal ingests: CARNIVORES: short, uncomplicated digestive systems. They eat very high on the food chain (other animals), which provide food stuff which is relatively easy to digest. Hence, rapid digestion. OMNIVORES: medium length, medium complex digestive systems. We eat at all levels of the food chain, and so need a balanced system. Medium time of digestion (roughly 2-10 hours per meal, depending on proportions of carbohydrates, fats, proteins).

177

Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cyanide analysis for many wastes. In the presence of...and nitrile polymer industries generate over three...cyanide-con- taining waste annually (31). Treatment...copper and zinc plating wastes on sludge digestion...Treatment of coal gasification wastewater with anaerobic...

R D Fallon; D A Cooper; R Speece; M Henson

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and maintenance 44 4. Utilisation of Biogas 49 4.1 Biogas storage 49 4.1.1 Low-pressure storage systems 49 4.1.2 Medium-pressure storage 52 4.1.3 High-pressure storage 52 4.2 Biogas flares 53 4.3 Conditioning of biogas 53 4.3.1 Dewatering 54 4.3.2 Desulphurisation (removal of H2 S) 55 4.3.3 Removal of CO2 57 4.4 Biogas

Wehrli, Bernhard

179

Anaerobic Digestion (AD): not only methane  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-C: Beyond Biofuels Larry Baresi, Professor of Biology, California State University, Northridge

180

Methods for forming long subsurface heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

Kim, Dong Sub

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Heater head for stirling engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

Corey, John A. (R.D. #2, Box 101 E, North Troy, NY 12182)

1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

182

RCM Digesters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RCM Digesters RCM Digesters Jump to: navigation, search Name RCM Digesters Place Berkeley, California Zip CA 94704 Product Manufactures anaerobic manure digesters which process animal waste into biogas. Coordinates 38.748315°, -90.334929° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.748315,"lon":-90.334929,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

183

Digestion Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blank in Bulletin] BULLETIN NO. 291 FEBRUARY, 1922 DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS This is the sixth bulletin in a series whose object is to ascertain the Aceding value of Texas feeding stuffs by means of digestion experiments. Previous bulletins... The productive values and the values for digestible protein in t Bulletin have been calculated from the results of digestion esperiine? with sheep. The method of conducting the experiments is described Bulletins Nos. 147 and 166 of this Station. The production...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1922-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heaters Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters May 4, 2012 - 5:21pm Addthis A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient than conventional electric storage water heaters. Heat pump water heaters work in locations that remain in the 40º-90ºF range year-round. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore, they can be two to

185

Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Small space heaters, also called portable heaters, are typically used when the main heating system is inadequate or when central heating is too costly to install or operate. Space heater capacities generally range between 10,000 Btu to 40,000 Btu per hour. Common fuels used for this purpose are electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene. Although most space heaters rely on convection (the circulation of air in a room), some rely on radiant heating; that is, they emit infrared radiation that directly heats up objects and people that are within their line of sight. Combustion Space Heaters Space heaters are classified as vented and unvented, or "vent free." Unvented combustion units are not recommended for inside use, as they

186

Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater...

187

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) Development2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiencyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

A performance correlation of horizontal solar heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The solar heaters are shown tn Figure VI, page 31 30 Figure VI Horizontal Solar Heaters ~GLAZING AND FRAME ~~ POLYETHYLENE HEATERS THERMAL IN S U LA T I N 8 CELLS THERMOCOUPLES HORIZONTAL TABLE TOP THERMOCOUPLES COPPER LEADS TO CONTROL... The solar heaters are shown tn Figure VI, page 31 30 Figure VI Horizontal Solar Heaters ~GLAZING AND FRAME ~~ POLYETHYLENE HEATERS THERMAL IN S U LA T I N 8 CELLS THERMOCOUPLES HORIZONTAL TABLE TOP THERMOCOUPLES COPPER LEADS TO CONTROL...

Gopffarth, Wilford Hugo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

190

Heater head for Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a heater head for a Stirling engine comprising: a housing for enclosing the heater head with gas at a substantial elevated pressure; insulator means attached to the housing for insulating the heater head; inlet means attached to a regenerator in the housing for admission of relatively high pressure working fluid from the regenerator of a Stirling engine; a first annular heating wall in the housing attached to the inlet means for heating the working fluid; and, a second annular heating wall in the housing concentric with the first heating wall but of lesser diameters so that an annular space is formed between the first heating wall and the second heating wall for heating working fluid; and a third heating wall in the housing concentric with and smaller in diameter than the second heating wall forming the condensing area of a heat pipe between the second heating wall and the third heating wall.

White, M.A.; Emigh, S.G.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

191

Solar heater for swimming pools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solar heater for swimming pools is provided having one or more heating panels installable on a roof or the like and arranged to discharge into a pool equipped with an apron without need for disturbing or obstructing the apron. This is accomplished by the provision of an elevated bistable dumper adjacent the perimeter of the apron having a dispensing spout normally inclined upwardly but pivoting at intervals to discharge into the pool across the apron without obstructing it. Water to be heated is diverted from the pool filtering system to the solar heater via a pressure regulator and a solar responsive flow control.

Babcock, H.W.

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

192

Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15, 2012 - 6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Conventional storage water heaters remain the most popular type of water heating system for the home. Here you'll find basic information about how storage water heaters work; what criteria to use when selecting the right model; and some installation, maintenance, and safety tips. How They Work A single-family storage water heater offers a ready reservoir -- from 20 to

193

An internal winding high temperature heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An internal winding high temperature heater ... General principles are outlined for the construction of compact heaters that are suitable for heating small containers or reaction vessels at constant temperature and up to about 1000 C. ...

A. J. Delbouille; E. G. Derouane

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Energy conversion by an electric space heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By means of measuring the temperature of the air blown by an electric space heater one can show students that the air is heated at a rate approximately equal to the rated wattage of the heater.

Willem H. van den Berg

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype
Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab...

196

Oil and Gas Air Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Heating technologies for energy efficiency Vol.III-1-2 Oil and Gas Air Heaters1 Guangxiao Kou Hanqing Wang Jiemin Zhou Doctoral Ph.D Ph.D Candidate Professor Professor Hunan University of Technology Hunan...

Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Community-Scale Anaerobic  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Community-Scale Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters (text version) Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters (text version) Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters," originally presented on April 16, 2013. Operator: The broadcast is now starting. All attendees are in listen-only mode. Sarah Busche: Good afternoon, everyone, and welcome to today's webinar sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. I'm Sarah Busche, and I'm here with Devin Egan, and we're broadcasting live from a very snowy National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Thank you so much for joining us today. We're going to give folks a few minutes to call in and log on, but while we wait Devin will go over some logistics, and then we'll get started with

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biological reactors Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Environment & Resources Online monitoring and control Summary: . 12;12;4 2. The biogas process Anaerobic digestion is a multi-step biological process where... H drop (<6)...

199

Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Swimming Pool Heaters Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 6:03pm Addthis An example of a solar pool heater. An example of a solar pool heater. You can significantly reduce swimming pool heating costs by installing a solar pool heater. They're cost competitive with both gas and heat pump pool heaters, and they have very low annual operating costs. Actually, solar pool heating is the most cost-effective use of solar energy in many climates. How They Work Most solar pool heating systems include the following: A solar collector -- the device through which pool water is circulated to be heated by the sun A filter -- removes debris before water is pumped through the collector A pump -- circulates water through the filter and collector and back to the pool A flow control valve -- automatic or manual device that diverts pool

200

Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate collector is connected to a tank called a solar storage/backup water heater by two pipes. One of these pipes runs through a cylindrical pump into the bottom of the tank, where it becomes a coil called a double-wall heat exchanger. This coil runs up through the tank and out again to the flat plate collector. Antifreeze fluid runs only through this collector loop. Two pipes run out the top of the water heater tank; one is a cold water supply into the tank, and the other sends hot water to the house. Solar water heaters use the sun's heat to provide hot water for a home or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 6:03pm Addthis An example of a solar pool heater. An example of a solar pool heater. You can significantly reduce swimming pool heating costs by installing a solar pool heater. They're cost competitive with both gas and heat pump pool heaters, and they have very low annual operating costs. Actually, solar pool heating is the most cost-effective use of solar energy in many climates. How They Work Most solar pool heating systems include the following: A solar collector -- the device through which pool water is circulated to be heated by the sun A filter -- removes debris before water is pumped through the collector A pump -- circulates water through the filter and collector and back to the pool

202

Methane Digester Loan Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Methane Digester Loan Program Methane Digester Loan Program Methane Digester Loan Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate RFA can provide up to $250,000 of loan principal Program Info Funding Source Minnesota Rural Finance Authority (RFA) State Minnesota Program Type State Loan Program Rebate Amount RFA participation limited to 45% of loan principal Provider Minnesota Department of Agriculture Established in 1998, the Minnesota Dept. of Agriculture Methane Digester Loan Program helps livestock producers install on-farm anaerobic digesters used for the production of electricity by providing zero-interest loans to eligible borrowers. The loan program is part of the Rural Finance Authority (RFA) revolving loan fund, through which farmers can receive financial aid

203

Welding shield for coupling heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

Menotti, James Louis (Dickinson, TX)

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

204

Regenerative Boiler Feedwater Heater Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REGENERATIVE BOILER FEEDWATER HEATER ECONOMICS William L. Viar, PE waterland, Viar & Associates, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware ABSTRACT The basic Rankine Vapor Cycle has been r,~peatedly modified to improve efficiency. Always, the objective....g., first and second laws of thermodynamics) have improved and contributed to the evolution. The demands for larger systems with higher performance have been persistent. Progress i ve changes in the app1icat ion of the fundamental Rankine cycle have...

Viar, W. L.

205

Design and study of a risk management criterion for an unstable anaerobic wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and study of a risk management criterion for an unstable anaerobic wastewater treatment an unstable biological process used for wastewater treat- ment. This anaerobic digestion ecosystem can have popular bioprocess (Angelidaki et al., 2003) that treats wastewater and at the same time produces energy

Bernard, Olivier

206

Performance improvement of direct- and indirect-fired heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operating performance of direct and indirect heaters is discussed, and principles and guidelines that can be applied to effect improvements in efficiency are presented. This paper also discusses the associated heater efficiencies and several useful operating techniques to approach the maximum, steady-state heater efficiency. The techniques presented apply to all types of direct-and indirect-fired heaters: salt bath heaters, propane vaporizers, heater/treaters, production heaters, and glycol and amine regenerators.

Sams, G.W.; Hunter, J.D.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

Brady; Michael Patrick (Oak Ridge, TN), Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno (Oak Ridge, TN), Vitek; John Michael (Oak Ridge, TN)

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

208

CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

None

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

209

CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

210

CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

None

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

211

Parallel heater system for subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

212

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

213

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Digestion Simulations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Digestion Simulations Digestion Simulations Name: Lisa Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: My 5th grade students are beginning an experiment next week and their hypothesis involves edibility(edibleness?). Is there a way to replicate the stomach in, say, a bottle?? Are there ways to test for edibleness(?) without actually ingesting the experiment yourself? Replies: I would not recommend the idea of a bottle stomach. The stomach digests only proteins anyway with HCl [pH 1.0] which is very, very strong acid that will burn seriously if in contact with skin. The intestine is just as much responsible for digestion of lipids [bile], carbohydrates and remaining proteins using enzymes, many of these you do not want to be handling, let alone purchase. As a high school teacher, I have lab exercises dealing with digestion, but I can not recommend any of these unless you are set up with a functional science laboratory and all the safety equipment necessary.

215

A Study on the Failure of Industrial Electric Heater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The break down mechanism of a cylindrical electric heater is investigated by studying the uneven heating behavior of the heater by measuring the surface temperature variation of the heater when it is subjected to a boundary condition of constant...

Chyu, M. C.

216

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: EnergyA Specification for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For many buildings that do not require space cooling, non-centralized equipment such as unit heaters provide space heating to building occupants. Unit heaters are a major source of energy use nationally, accounting for nearly 18% of primary space heating energy use for commercial buildings, and most prominently appear in warehouses, distribution centers, loading docks, etc.

218

Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

219

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

John R. Gallagher

2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heater Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Diagram of absorption heat...

222

Ex Parte Memorandum on Grid-Enabled Water Heaters | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

with DOE representatives regarding water heater standards and thermal storage and demand response programs. DOE exparte memo100213 Grid-EnabledWaterHeaterAmendment More...

223

Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and...

224

Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Weatherization Assistance Program Pilot Projects Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar On Feb. 22, 2011, Jerone Gagliano,...

225

Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for gas storage...

226

Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electric and Gas Water Heaters Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and or efficiency level. INPUT...

227

Optimization Online - Digest Archive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization Online Digest Archive. Subscribe to the digest. ... Online is supported by the Mathematical Optmization Society. Mathematical Optimization Society.

228

DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Water Heater and Certain Commercial Water Heater Test Procedures  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for residential water heaters and certain commercial water heaters.

229

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters May 2, 2012 - 6:47pm Addthis Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. How does it work? Tankless water heaters deliver hot water as it is needed, eliminating the need for storage tanks. Tankless water heaters, also known as demand-type or instantaneous water heaters, provide hot water only as it is needed. They don't produce the standby energy losses associated with storage water heaters, which can save you money. Here you'll find basic information about how they work, whether a tankless water heater might be right for your home, and what criteria to use when selecting the right model. Check out the Energy Saver 101: Water Heating infographic to learn if a tankless water heater is right for you.

230

Tankless Water Heaters: Do They Really Work?  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tankless Water Heaters: Do They Tankless Water Heaters: Do They Really Work? Center for Energy and Environment, NorthernSTAR, Ben Schoenbauer Context * Domestic Water Heating is the next big residential energy in efficiency. - Space heating loads are being reduced - Largest peak load in almost all homes is water heating - Annual water heating load is larger than annual space heating load in many homes - Most DHW equipment is inefficiency 50-60% Technical Approach * TWHs and condensing TWHs have significant energy savings potential - Do these ratings relate to real world performance? - How do TWHs compare to standard water heaters? - What performance/install issues do they have? * 10 home 26 water heater alternating mode field study was conducted Recommended Guidance * In situations where economics are

231

Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters May 7, 2012 - 9:52am Addthis Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use -- sunshine -- is free. How They Work Solar water heating systems include storage tanks and solar collectors. There are two types of solar water heating systems: active, which have circulating pumps and controls, and passive, which don't. Active Solar Water Heating Systems There are two types of active solar water heating systems: Direct circulation systems Pumps circulate household water through the collectors and into the home. They work well in climates where it rarely freezes. Indirect circulation systems

232

Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

heaters heaters Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)[1] Solar Water Heater One of the most cost-effective ways to include renewable technologies into a building is by incorporating solar hot water. A typical residential solar water-heating system reduces the need for conventional water heating by about two-thirds. It minimizes the expense of electricity or fossil fuel to heat the water and reduces the associated environmental impacts. Solar Water Heating for Buildings Most solar water-heating systems for buildings have two main parts: (1) a solar collector and (2) a storage tank. The most common collector used in solar hot water systems is the flat-plate collector. Solar water heaters use the sun to heat either water

233

Heater head for a Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

Darooka, D.K.

1988-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

234

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

235

Heat Pump Water Heaters Demonstration Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Demonstration Project Building America Stakeholder Meeting Ron Domitrovic Ammi Amarnath 3/1/2012 Austin, TX 2 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. HPWH Field Demonstration: Research Objectives * Assess heat pump water heater technology by measuring efficiency. * Provide credible data on the performance and reliability of heat pump water heaters. * Assess user satisfaction in a residential setting. 3 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Demonstration Host Utilities Target: 40 Units per Utility Installed and Potential Sites by Climate Zone Source: Department of Energy (DOE), Building America climate regions 4 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Installation Locations-Southern Company Region

236

Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Ginestra, Jean Charles (Richmond, TX)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

237

Phase change material storage heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

Goswami, D. Yogi (Gainesville, FL); Hsieh, Chung K. (Gainesville, FL); Jotshi, Chand K. (Gainesville, FL); Klausner, James F. (Gainesville, FL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

239

Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... it is essential to estimate accurately baseline NOx emissions. ? This will establish each units current compliance status. ? Emissions ? Current excess air level ? Carbon monoxide ? Combustibles ? NOx corrected to 3% 02 314 ESL-IE-00-04-46 Proceedings...

Garg, A.

240

Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater May 29, 2012 - 7:16pm Addthis Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® A properly sized water heater will meet your household's hot water needs while operating more efficiently. Therefore, before purchasing a water heater, make sure it's the correct size. Here you'll find information about how to size these systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems -- including some heat pump systems, and tankless coil and indirect water heaters -- consult a qualified contractor.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater August 29, 2012 - 7:30pm Addthis Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When selecting a new water heater for your home, choose a water heating system that will not only provide enough hot water but also that will do so energy efficiently, saving you money. This includes considering the different types of water heaters available and determining the right size and fuel source for your home. Check out the Energy Saver 101: Water Heating infographic to learn more about the different types of water heaters and how to select the right model for your home. Types of Water Heaters It's a good idea to know the different types of water heaters available

242

Production of methane gas from organic fraction municipal solid waste (OFMSW) via anaerobic process: application methodology for the Malaysian condition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid waste management in Malaysia is confronted with many problems, including low collection coverage, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, crude open dumping and burning without air and water pollution control systems, inadequate legal provisions and resource constraints. These problems have various effects on the development of the solid waste management system in Malaysia. Anaerobic digestion has been suggested as an alternative method for removing high concentrations of organic waste. In this study, two types of anaerobic digesters which are Simulated Landfill Bioreactor (SLBR) and Anaerobic Solid-Liquid (ASL) reactor were proposed. The reactors were operated at a temperature 60C, analysed for biogas production and volatile fatty acid.

Irnis Azura Zakarya; Ismail Abustan; Norli Ismail; Mohd Suffian Yusoff

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Digestion time  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Digestion time Digestion time Name: Don Mancosh Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I have always given the rule of thumb in class that material we eat is with us for about 24 hours before exiting the body. The question arises about the time value of liquids. Getting a big coke prior to a 3 hour drive generally means that there will be a stop along the way. Is there a generalization made about liquids in the body similar to the one for solid food? Replies: A physician would give a better answer, but I hazard this: the only liquids which people consume (deliberately) in significant quantities are water, ethyl alcohol and various oils. Water and alcohol are absorbed on a time scale of seconds to minutes through the mouth, stomach and digestive tract. The oils are huge molecules, so I'd guess like any other greasy food they get absorbed in the upper digestive tract. Some of them, perhaps the longest and most nonpolar, are not absorbed at all --- cf. the old-time remedy of mineral oil for constipation --- so there should be some average time-before-what's-left-is-excreted such as you're looking for, and my (wild) guess is that it would not differ substantially from that for food. You can define an average lifetime in the body for alcohol, since the natural level is zero. Rough guidelines are widespread in the context of drunk driving laws. But this is not really possible for water. One's body is normally full up to the brim with water, and there's no way for the body to distinguish between water molecules recently absorbed and molecules that've been moping around since the Beatles split up. Thus the water entering the toilet bowl after the pit stop is not in general the same water as was in the big coke. If you were to consider for water just the average time between drinking and peeing, it would seem to depend strongly on how well hydrated the body was before the drink, and how much was drunk. During sustained heavy exertion in the sun and dry air one can easily drink a pint of water an hour without peeing at all. On the other hand, if one is willing to drink enough water fast enough, so as to establish a high excess of body water one can pee 8 ounces 15 minutes or less after drinking 8 ounces.

244

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters May 16, 2013 - 7:21pm Addthis An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. How does it work? Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use your home's heating system to heat water. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's space heating system to heat water. They're part of what's called integrated or combination water and space heating systems. How They Work A tankless coil water heater provides hot water on demand without a tank. When a hot water faucet is turned on, water is heated as it flows through a heating coil or heat exchanger installed in a main furnace or boiler. Tankless coil water heaters are most efficient during cold months when the heating system is used regularly but can be an inefficient choice for many

245

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of a tankless coil water heater. The heater is box-shaped, and has two pipes sticking out one end: one a cold water inlet, and one a hot water outlet. These pipes lead into the heater to a cylindrical coil called a heat exchanger. Long tubes surrounding the heat exchanger are labeled the heated water jacket. At the bottom of the box is a row of small flames, called the boiler heat source. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home or building's space heating system to heat water as part of an integrated or combination water and space heating system. How Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Work A tankless coil water heater uses a heating coil or heat exchanger

246

Optimization Online - Digest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Complete the form below to subscribe to the free Optimization Online Digest. ... Type your e-mail address to unsubscribe from the Optimization Online Digest.

247

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency andSurvey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency andby electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers),

Johnson, Alissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Systems and methods for making heaters are described herein. At least one heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The heater provides a first amount of heat at a lower temperature. The heater may provide a second reduced amount of heat when the heater reaches a selected temperature, or enters a selected temperature range, at which the ferromagnetic conductor undergoes a phase transformation.

Vitek, John Michael [Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Michael Patrick [Oak Ridge, TN

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

249

MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

Carlson, A.W.; Chait, I.L.; Saari, D.P.; Marksberry, C.L.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Improving Anaerobic Codigestion of Corn Stover Using Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignin of the corn stover was measured according to the Laboratory Analytical Procedures (LAP) established by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). ... The methane yield per gram of corn stover is an important parameter to estimate the net energy production of the corn stover digestion. ... This means that NaOH pretreatment is an effective way to obtain higher net energy production through anaerobic codigestion of corn stover. ...

Zhaoyang You; Taoyuan Wei; Jay J. Cheng

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

251

Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

water heaters water heaters (Redirected from - Solar Hot Water) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)[1] Solar Water Heater One of the most cost-effective ways to include renewable technologies into a building is by incorporating solar hot water. A typical residential solar water-heating system reduces the need for conventional water heating by about two-thirds. It minimizes the expense of electricity or fossil fuel to heat the water and reduces the associated environmental impacts. Solar Water Heating for Buildings Most solar water-heating systems for buildings have two main parts: (1) a solar collector and (2) a storage tank. The most common collector used in solar hot water systems is the

252

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Armin Rudd Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas 2 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas More builder's wanting to use gas-fired tankless water heaters, and with solar pre-heat  Endless hot water  Helps HERS Index  Space saving 2 3 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas Problem with elevated TWH inlet temperature 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Maximum Inlet Temperature (F) DHW flow rate (gpm) Maximum TWH inlet temperature to stay below 125 F delivered temperature, with 15 kBtu/h minimum firing rate Typical shower temperature 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting

253

Solar Water Heater Rebate | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Water Heater Rebate Solar Water Heater Rebate Solar Water Heater Rebate < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Hawaii Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Residential Solar Water Heating: $1,000 upfront, or Residential Solar Water Heating Interest Loan Buy-Down: $1,000 Residential Solar Attic Fans: $50 Commercial: $250 per 12,000 Btu/hr derated capacity Provider Hawaii Energy Hawaii Energy, a third-party administered public benefits fund, provides incentives for energy efficiency and conservation to customers of the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and its subsidiaries, Maui Electric Company (MECO) and Hawaii Electric Light Company (HELCO). This incentive is available for installations on the islands of Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, Lanai and

254

Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HVAC and Water Heater HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Appliances Research

255

Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

256

Design, Stress Analysis and Operating Experience in Feedwater Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The performance of feedwater heaters has a direct bearing on the thermal efficiency of the plant. A typical feedwater heater may have three distinct regions of heat transfer, namely desuperheating, condensing and subcooling zones. The design...

Singh, K. P.; Libs, T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each...

258

TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local...

259

Making Water Heaters More Efficient | GE Global Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Heaters More Efficient Making Water Heaters More Efficient Jigar Shah 2013.11.13 As children, many of us grow up wanting to make some sort of lasting positive impact on...

260

NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

262

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diagram 1: A Typical Tank Water Heater Source: http://to-unit comparisons of tank versus tankless water heaters.Energy Use MJ/(unit*year) Tank Tankless MJ/(unit*year) Tank

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distribution of heavy metals and other toxicants betweenaccumulation and toxicity resulting from heavy metals suchthe marine algae. Toxicity resulting from heavy metal uptake

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

time constant algal heat of combustion (6 Kcal/gm) dilutionSource: temperature, heat of combustion, and the depth at

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flow from an on-site steam turbine to raise the kelp to 45Ca 1200 Kw electric steam turbine/generator system. CapitalFinally, the waste steam stream from the turbine is used to

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

at biorefineries. Presented by Brian Duff, DOE Biomass Program, at the NRELDOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado....

267

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuel for the boiler is sludge which is The potential residuals derived from the pressing of shredded algae.

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design Parameters Marine Biomass Production Sea Farmof Various Types of Biomass . Biomethanation Parameters.Proceedings, Fuels from Biomass Symposium. University of

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

commercial farm. A biomass energy farm must cover a largeof Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Wastes, Washington,Biomass Yield Energy Content Upwelling

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Municipal Solid Waste-Sewage Sludge. b 4.15 SCF CH 4 / cu ftUP I j methane 31.5 scf sludge 18.61b water 161b Btu/scfsewer 65.3 lb ( 7.9 gal) sludge ash 1.74 lb stack emissions

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

relationships are necessary. ª 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Land application the opportunity to put sewage sludge, which otherwise needs to be disposed of, towards beneficial use such as crop, enteric viruses and Salmonella spp. Land application of Class B biosolids, which require only reduction

272

Microbial Ecology of Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion. Final Report  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

This grant supported research on methanogenic archaea. The two major areas that were supported were conversion of acetic acid to methane and nitrogen fixation by Methanosarcina. Among the achievements of this research were the isolation of novel methanogenic cultures, elucidation of the pathways from acetate to methane, description of a specific DNA-binding complex in nitrogen fixing methanogens, and demonstration of an alternative nitrogenase in Methanosarcina.

Zinder, Stephen H.

2000-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Anaerobic Digestion in California Dairies: Electricty Generation or Biomethane Upgrading.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??California is worldwide one of the major Green House Gas emitter due to a large use of fossil fuels in power generation and transportation. The (more)

Bandini, Francesco

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wind, and bottom conditions that repre- sent a potential large farm site, but do not reach the extremes

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

An Overview of the New Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An Overview of the New Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards An Overview of the New Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Date: April 26, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 DOE issued new standards for residential water heaters last month that will save an estimated 2.6 quads of energy over 30 years. For most product sizes sold, the new standards can be met with modest changes, such as adding more insulation to today's conventional tank-style water heaters. For the most common size electric water heater (50 gallons), the standards will save 4 percent, while for the most common size gas water heater (40 gallons), the new standards will save 3 percent. However, for the biggest products (those with over 55 gallons in storage capacity, which is about 9% and 4% of the electric and gas storage water heater markets, respectively), the new

277

TVA Partner Utilities - Energy Right' Water Heater Program | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Right' Water Heater Program Right&#039; Water Heater Program TVA Partner Utilities - Energy Right' Water Heater Program < Back Eligibility Installer/Contractor Residential Utility Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Member utility water heater rebate programs can range from $25 to total cost. Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Efficient Water Heater: $50 from TVA Provider Tennessee Valley Authority The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each installation. Power Companies may pass these incentives on to customers. Customers should contact their local power company to see what programs are

278

Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $1,500 Provider Rebates Burbank Water and Power is providing incentives for the purchase of solar water heaters. Incentives are only available to residential customers with electric water heaters. There is a limit of one solar water heater per year per property. Applicants must provide access to their residence for a pre-inspection to verify the existing use of an electric water heater. Customers must comply with all code and permit requirements. More

279

Advanced refinery process heater. Annual report, October 1983-September 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Activity during the first year of this project has focused on the conceptual design of the prototype heater and on the development of a custom-designed Pyrocore ceramic fiber burner for the heater. Three different concepts for the prototype heater have been produced, one of them modeled after a vertical cylindrical design and the other two resembling box-type heaters. All three concepts take advantage of the Pyrocore burner's flameless characteristic to make the heater more compact. Concerning the development of the burners, two different geometries were considered. Subscale prototypes of each type of burner were fabricated and tested. The more successful burners used actively-cooled edges to maintain the integrity of the gas-tight seals. Work on this project in the second year will include the design and fabrication of the 10 MMBtu/hr prototype heater, using the most feasible heater and burner designs developed during the first year.

Schreiber, R.J.; Gotterba, J.A.; Minden, A.C.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation Jeff Maguire, Lieko Earle, and Chuck Booten National Renewable Energy Laboratory C.E. Hancock Mountain Energy Partnership Produced under direction of the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under Interagency Agreement CRD-05-168 and Task No WR49.3000. Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52234 October 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

Akyurt, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Cryostat including heater to heat a target  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

1990-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

283

Market Digest: Natural Gas  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration's Natural Gas Market Digest provides information and analyses on all aspects of natural gas markets.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Methane from Anaerobic Fermentation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...removal rate; and recycling. Many studies have...di-gestion is utilized for wastewater stabili-zation...processes are used in some wastewater treatment plants...sludge is separated for recycling from the digester effluent...percent meth-ane. Many wastewater treatment plants in...

Donald L. Klass

1984-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

285

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

286

Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Program Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Free high efficiency water Heater; $200 installation fee Water heater and timer with normal installation: $2.50 credit for 10 years Timer only: $200 cash payment and $2.50 credit for 10 years New construction contract home: $250 Provider Aiken Electric Cooperative Aiken Electric Cooperative offers residential members rebates for installing high-efficiency electric water heaters and/or timers in their homes. Customers have four rebate options:

287

Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Georgia) Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Georgia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Existing Homes Solar Water Heater: $750 New Homes Solar Water Heater: $1,250 - $1,500 Provider Coweta-Fayette Electric Membership Corporation Coweta-Fayette Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) provides electric and natural gas service to 58,000 customers in Georgia's Coweta, Fayette, Meriwether, Heard, Troop and Fulton counties. Currently, Coweta-Fayette EMC offers rebates on solar water heaters from $750 up to $1,500 as part of the Touchstone Energy Home Program. Solar

288

The Trials and Tribulations of Testing Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Trials and Tribulations of Testing Water Heaters The Trials and Tribulations of Testing Water Heaters Speaker(s): James Lutz Date: August 14, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn During our work on efficiency standards for electric water heaters, we discovered significant discrepancies between the rated and tested efficiencies of the highest rated electric resistance water heaters. For high efficiency electric resistance water heaters with an Energy Factor above .92, the heat losses are so small that minor flaws in the tank or obscure problems in the test procedure become more apparent. This seminar reports on our investigation into the causes of inconsistent results obtained during testing of high efficiency electric resistance water heaters at different test labs. We discovered some reasons for the

289

Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $500 Provider Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Association Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Association (Linn County RECA) is a member-owned cooperative. To encourage energy efficiency, Linn County offers a number of rebates to commercial, residential, and agricultural customers. Owners of both new construction and existing buildings are eligible for a $500 rebate for solar water heaters. The water heaters must have an auxiliary tank of at least 40 gallons and the solar water heater

290

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heater: up to $275 Heat Pump Replacement: $400 Provider Rock Hill Utilities Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed above. If both the water heater and heat pump are purchased then the customer may qualify for the Great Rate program. The Great Rate program will add a 25% discount to a

291

Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

292

Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

293

Mechanisms in anaerobic bioflocculation of wool scouring effluent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The emulsified grease in wool scouring effluent (WSE) was demonstrably removed by bioflocculation under anaerobic conditions. The addition of anaerobic bacteria from biogas digestion to WSE resulted in grease reduction of 6080% from the supernatant. Since no significant net grease (supernatant plus sludge) reduction was observed in this system, the grease emulsion from the liquid phase is simply settled by gravity into the sludge phase. However, sterilized sludge did not cause this effect, indicating that bacterial metabolic activity was responsible for the bioflocculation. It was also found that such microbes can successfully survive and multiply in WSE, as a result, the development of a continuous process is possible. The process required a short gentle mixing period of approx. 15 min enable the the sludge to completely contact with WSE, and a longer settling period of 24 days to provide an appropriate time for the microbes to destabilize wool grease emulsion and settle to the sludge phase.

Wipa Lapsirikul; Goen Ho; Ralf Cord-Ruwisch

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Advanced refinery process heater. Final report, (October 1983-September 1988)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A prototype refinery process heater was designed, built and successfully tested, demonstrating the improvements available to heater design through the use of Zone-Controlled Pyrocore radiant gas burners. The 10 MMBtu/hr rated heater released 17 ppm NOx (corrected to 3% oxygen) under full load operation, the lowest NOx emissions technically and commercially achieved in this type of equipment without the use of post-combustion flue-gas processing. Operating with 400F combustion air preheat and a 500F process fluid outlet temperature, the heater achieved overall thermal efficiencies of 92.8% on a LHV basis due in part to the significantly improved performance of the radiant heat exchange section. The radiant burners used in the heater have been proven in performance and reliability, and have also been shown to be applicable to both new heater designs and retrofits into existing heaters. The improved radiant performance of the heater and the use of 'flameless' radiant burners eliminates tube burn-out failures in both the radiant and convective tube coils, further improving the reliability of equipment based on this design. Three separate U.S. Patents have been issued covering the heater design and the use of Zone-Controlled Pyrocore burners in this application.

Minden, A.C.; Buckley, G.G.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

Hudon, K.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with thetwo technologies: (1) an electric resistance storage watertransfers heat from the electric resistance element to the

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

Moujaes, S.F.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Georgia Power- Residential Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate (Georgia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Georgia Power customers may be eligible for rebates up to $250 each toward the installation costs of a 50 gallon or greater solar water heater or heat pump water heater. The solar water heater or...

299

ELECTRICAL HEATERS FOR THERMO-MECHANICAL TESTS AT THE STRIPA MINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5.5 Dewatering Pump 6. ELECTRICAL HEATER CONTROL SYSTEMS 6.1water influx ABSTRACT Electrical heaters were installed atcanister) which houses the electrical heater elements; c. d.

Burleigh, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Solar pool heaters: The simplest use of active solar energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar pool heating is the most attractive solar water heating market today, because most pool heaters pay back their purchase price in lower utility bills in two to three years. This article describes why solar pool heaters are popular and their design, operation, and return on investment. 1 fig.

Sheinkopf, K. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $75 Provider Tri-County Electric Cooperative Tri-County Electric Cooperative offers a $75 rebate on the purchase of energy-efficient electric water heaters. The rebate is valid for new or replacement units which have an Energy Factor Rating of 0.90 or higher. The minimum tank size is 40 gallons, with a minimum 4,500 watt heating element. For validation purposes, a copy of the sales or installation receipt must accompany the [http://www.tcectexas.com/Forms/water%20heater%20rebate%20form.pdf

302

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $600 Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 0.01 per BTU output Provider Clay Electric Co-op Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per system, or $600. Eligible solar water heaters can be either passive or active systems. The proposed solar system must meet Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) specifications and be installed by a contractor certified to install solar water heating

303

Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Swimming Pool Heaters Swimming Pool Heaters Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 1:49pm Addthis How a heat pump works. How a heat pump works. How They Work Heat pumps use electricity to capture heat and move it from one place to another. They don't generate heat. As the pool pump circulates the swimming pool's water, the water drawn from the pool passes through a filter and the heat pump heater. The heat pump heater has a fan that draws in the outside air and directs it over the evaporator coil. Liquid refrigerant within the evaporator coil absorbs the heat from the outside air and becomes a gas. The warm gas in the coil then passes through the compressor. The compressor increases the heat, creating a very hot gas that then passes through the condenser. The condenser transfers the heat from the hot gas to the cooler pool water circulating

304

Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Date: March 22, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn This presentation describes the analysis of the costs of increased energy efficiency for residential water heaters. Here, we focus on the cost and efficiency data for electric and gas-fired water heaters. This data formed the basis of the Technical Support Document for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Final Rule on Water Heaters. The engineering analysis uses computer simulation models to investigate the efficiency improvements due to design options and combinations thereof. The analysis covers four polyurethane foam insulation types based on non-ozone-depleting substances as blowing

305

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Demand Water Heater Basics Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is shown. Cold water flows in one end of a pipe, flows through and around several curved pipes over the heating elements, and out the other end as hot water. Beneath the heating unit, a typical sink setup is shown. The sink has two pipes coming out the bottom, one for the hot water line and one for the cold water line. Both pipes lead to the heating unit, which is installed in close proximity to the area of hot water use, and is connected to a power source (110 or 220 volts). Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as

306

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is shown. Cold water flows in one end of a pipe, flows through and around several curved pipes over the heating elements, and out the other end as hot water. Beneath the heating unit, a typical sink setup is shown. The sink has two pipes coming out the bottom, one for the hot water line and one for the cold water line. Both pipes lead to the heating unit, which is installed in close proximity to the area of hot water use, and is connected to a power source (110 or 220 volts). Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as

307

Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $500 Provider Clark PUD Clark Public Utilities offers a rebate of $500 to customers who install a solar water heating system. Customers must own the residence or business where the solar water heating system is installed and must have an electric water heater. In addition, Clark Public Utilities offers a [http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=WA29F&re=1&ee=1 loan program] for eligible solar water heater equipment. For additional information, call Energy Services at (360) 992-3355.

308

Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this scheme for operating TANK with HWSim is successful.LBNL # Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model asCalifornia. Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and PoolConservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

searc searc e er tra A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Re h Institut of the Univ sity of Cen l Florida searc e er tra Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Laboratory House Building America Technical Update 2013 ACI National Home Performance Conference April 29- 30 , 2013 Carlos J. Colon carlos@fsec.ucf.edu A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Re h Institut of the Univ sity of Cen l Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Hot Water Systems (HWS) Laboratory FSEC Grounds, Florida (east coast) 2009 -Present (Currently fourth testing rotation) FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida

312

Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance Title The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-47352 Year of Publication 2001 Authors Lekov, Alexander B., James D. Lutz, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, and James E. McMahon Document Number LBNL-47352 Date Published January 12 Abstract The National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consider amendments to the energy conservation standards to increase energy efficiency in residential water heaters. A driving force affecting efficiency is the ozone-depletion regulation regarding blowing agents for insulation in all water heater fuel types. This paper presents results of cost and efficiency impacts of three potential blowing agents. Residential water heaters are typically insulated with polyurethane foam in the space between the tank and the jacket. Currently, water heater manufacturers use HCFC-141b, an ozone-depleting substance, as a blowing agent. After 2003, as a result of the Montreal Protocol (1993), manufacturers must use blowing agents that do not deplete the ozone layer. The analysis presented in this paper considers three replacement candidates, HFC-245fa, HFC-134a, and cyclopentane by comparing their efficiency and cost effectiveness when applied to water heater insulation. This analysis used computer simulation models and other analytical methods to investigate the efficiency improvements due to different design options, when alternative blowing agents are applied. The calculations were based on the DOE test procedure for residential water heaters. The analysis used average manufacturer, retailer, and installer costs to calculate the total consumer costs. Consumer operating expenses were calculated based on modeled energy consumption under test procedure conditions and U.S. average energy prices. With this information, a cost-efficiency relationship was developed to show the average manufacturer and consumer cost to achieve increased efficiency.

314

Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation - Water Heater Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation - Water Heater Rebate Program Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation - Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Ventilation Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Georgia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount In-Home Energy Evaluation Program Windows: $500 Duct Repair: $500 Rehabilitation Work: $250 HVAC Replacement: $250/unit HVAC Tune-up: $150/unit Insulation: $500 Water Heater and Pipe Insulation: $50 Air Sealing: $500 Energy Right Program

315

Turkey vs. human digestion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Turkey vs. human digestion Turkey vs. human digestion Name: wallyb Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: How is the digestive system of turkeys different from that of humans? Replies: Hmmm.. been a while since I had sophomore biology, so I can't completely answer this one, but I can say a few things. One, since turkeys are birds, and birds as a general rule have not had teeth for several million years at least, the turkey needs a way to mash up its food -- thus, the crop, which is essentially like another stomach: the turkey (and many other birds, for that matter) swallows small stones which serve in lieu of teeth, mashing up food via muscular action in the crop, from whence the "chewed" food moves on into the rest of the digestive tract. As for any other differences, I'll have to leave that to someone else with more ornithological experience...

316

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the heat pump water heater

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

318

Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

used must be currently UL (Underwriters Laboratory) approved. 4. Approved space heaters must be fan driven. Space heaters with heated coils are not permitted. 5. Space heaters must have a thermostat that shuts unit off when a certain temperature is reached. 6. Space heaters must have a tip-over shutdown

de Lijser, Peter

319

Electrical noise characteristics of a doped silicon microcantilever heater-thermometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical noise characteristics of a doped silicon microcantilever heater-thermometer Elise A with resistive heater-thermometers,10­13 there is a lack of published reports on the electrical noise silicon heater- thermometer cantilevers.12 However, a key difference is that doped silicon heater-thermometers

King, William P.

320

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heaters and the Economy Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy July 11, 2012 - 11:59am Addthis Ernie Tucker Editor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory These are the days of hot sun and mortgage refinance frenzy. Somehow, they've both combined in my mind to make me ponder the economics of a solar water heater. Because the sun's been beating down on our garden hose, the initial flush of water can be very hot. The warm spray reminded me of the times on camping trips when we'd bring along a portable solar shower -- essentially a black plastic bag with a tube and shower nozzle -- for bathing. While not an endless supply (perhaps 10 gallons), it was a very enjoyable luxury. Of course, it assumes that there's plenty of sunshine, but if so -- voila -- a warm and sudsy campsite clean-up is possible.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $600 Provider Grays Harbor PUD Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a rebate program for the installation of solar water heaters. Rebates of $600 are available for the installation of solar collectors of 40 square feet or more. Only customers who currently use electricity for hot water are eligible. This rebate is available on a case-by-case basis, so you must contact the utility in order to take advantage of it. Customers may choose a [http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=WA09F&re=1&ee=1

322

List of Water Heaters Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heaters Incentives Heaters Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 973 Water Heaters Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-973) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility Nonprofit Schools State Government Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Water Heaters Commercial Cooking Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Room Air Conditioners Yes AEP Public Service Company of Oklahoma - Residential Efficiency Rebate Program (Oklahoma) Utility Rebate Program Oklahoma Residential Building Insulation

323

Covered Product Category: Gas Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Gas Storage Water Heaters Gas Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Gas Storage Water Heaters October 7, 2013 - 10:43am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

324

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy July 11, 2012 - 11:59am Addthis Ernie Tucker Editor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory These are the days of hot sun and mortgage refinance frenzy. Somehow, they've both combined in my mind to make me ponder the economics of a solar water heater. Because the sun's been beating down on our garden hose, the initial flush of water can be very hot. The warm spray reminded me of the times on camping trips when we'd bring along a portable solar shower -- essentially a black plastic bag with a tube and shower nozzle -- for bathing. While not an endless supply (perhaps 10 gallons), it was a very enjoyable luxury. Of course, it assumes that there's plenty of sunshine, but if so -- voila -- a

325

Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Loan | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Water Heater Loan Solar Water Heater Loan Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Loan < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate not specified Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount not specified Provider Grays Harbor PUD Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a low-interest loan program (currently 4.0%) for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans are available for the installation of solar collectors of 40 square feet or more. The loans are provided through local lenders, with interest subsidized by the PUD. Only customers who currently use electricity for hot water are eligible. Pre-approval is required for this loan and loan amounts are determined on a case-by-case basis.

326

New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $0.265/kWh Provider New Braunfels Utilities New Braunfels Utilities offers a rebate for residential customers who purchase and install solar water heating systems on eligible homes. A rebate of the equivalent of $0.265 per kWh is available to these customers. The maximum rebate amount is $900 for participating customers. Applicants must have an active residential electric service account with NBU in order to be eligible. Solar water heaters must preheat water for an electric

327

FS: heat pump water heaters | The Better Buildings Alliance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Food Service » Install a heat pump Food Service » Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specificat Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specification The Food Service team developed a Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater Specification that can be used to reduce water heating energy by 70%. An older, electric resistance water heater (operated in a building with a hot water demand of 500 gallons a day) can cost more than $3,500 each year

328

Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

Kumar, A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Split system CO2 heat pump water heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Split-system-CO2-heat-pump-water-heaters- Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE...

330

An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The production and reliability performance of Steam Process Heaters can be significantly affected by the condensate drainage design that is employed. There are currently a variety of drainage options which can be confusing to a system designer who...

Risko, J. R.

331

Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A webinar by Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor the installation.

332

New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

333

Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technology is now available to increase heater efficiencies to 92 percent and more. By 1980, this technology will be field proven and corrosion and reliability problems identified and resolved. Recent studies have shown that a minimum efficiency...

Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers residential customers rebates for installing a ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater. Rebates are based on the size of the system; MMU offers $20 per...

335

Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

Vinegar; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

336

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater May 30, 2012 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR What does this mean for me? Solar water heaters cost more to purchase and install but may save you money in the long run. Estimate the annual operating costs and compare several solar water heaters to determine whether it is worth investing in a more efficient system. Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can

337

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater May 30, 2012 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR What does this mean for me? Solar water heaters cost more to purchase and install but may save you money in the long run. Estimate the annual operating costs and compare several solar water heaters to determine whether it is worth investing in a more efficient system. Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can

338

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our work focuses on the use of microorganisms to recover petroleum hydrocarbons that remain entrapped after current recovery technologies reach their economic limit. Capillary forces between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are largely responsible for trapping the hydrocarbons in the pores of the rock and large reductions in the interfacial tension between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (1-3, 10, 11). Microorganisms produce a variety of biosurfactants (4), several of which generate the ultra low interfacial tensions needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (4, 5, 8). In particular, the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 reduces the interfacial tension between hydrocarbon and aqueous phases to very low levels (<0.016 mN/m) (8) (9). B. mojavensis JF-2 grows under the environmental conditions found in many oil reservoirs, i. e., anaerobic, NaCl concentrations up to 80 g l{sup -1}, and temperatures up to 45 C (6, 7), making it ideally suited for in situ applications. However, anaerobic growth of B. mojavensis JF-2 was inconsistent and difficult to replicate, which limited its use for in situ applications. Our initial studies revealed that enzymatic digests, such as Proteose Peptone, were required for anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2. Subsequent purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose Peptone resulted in the identification of the growth-enhancing factor as DNA or deoxyribonucleosides. The addition of salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, E. coli DNA or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to Medium E all supported anaerobic growth of JF-2. Further, we found that JF-2 required all four deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadeonosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine) for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. DNA was not used as a sole energy source; sucrose was required for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production in DNA-supplemented Medium E. In addition to DNA or deoxyribonucleosides, nitrate, amino acids and vitamins were all required for anaerobic growth of JF-2. Bacillus mojavensisT (ABO21191), Bacillus mojavensis, strain ROB2 also required DNA or deoxyribonucleosides for anaerobic growth. The improved anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 was a prerequisite for studies that will lead to improved anaerobic biosurfactant production.

M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Title Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-45618 Year of Publication 2000 Authors Lekov, Alexander B., James D. Lutz, Xiaomin Liu, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, and James E. McMahon Document Number LBNL-45618 Date Published May 4 Abstract Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential water heater energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a water heater and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers are significant. At the efficiency level examined in this paper, 35% of households with electric water heaters experience LCC savings, with an average savings of $106, while 4% show LCC losses, with an average loss of $40 compared to a pre-standard LCC average of $2,565. The remainder of the population (61%) are largely unaffected.

340

Reading Comprehension - Digestion and Nutrition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Digestion and Nutrition Digestion and Nutrition 1. The pouchlike muscular organ that secretes acids and digestive enzymes is the _________ stomach esophagus intestines . 2. _________ saliva enzymes chime is the watery material that results form digestion in the stomach. 3. Iron, potassium, and iodine are _________ vitamins minerals amino acids . 4. The human body is about 60 percent _________ salt water nutrients . 5. The teeth break down food by _________ chemical digestion mechanical digestion . 6. _________ Teeth Your tongue Saliva in the mouth helps to chemically digest food. 7. _________ Mechanical digestion Chemical digestion takes place in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine with the help of chemicals called _________ amino acids vitamins enzymes . 8. Proteins are made up of smaller building blocks called _________

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Anxiety and Digestion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Anxiety and Digestion Anxiety and Digestion Name: Donna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Explain how anxiety may be responsible for slowing down the process of digestion Replies: Your body really has 2 nervous systems. One is the peripheral nervous system that controls how you move and think etc. the other is called the autonomic (not automatic) nervous system It controls all of your everyday functions such as your heart, your blood vessel diameter and your digestive system, etc. There are 2 divisions of the ANS. One is called the parasympathetic and the other is the sympathetic. The parasympathetic is your everyday division, and is usually in control. When you come upon a stressful or dangerous situation, your sympathetic division takes over. It gets you ready to "fight or flee". Some parts of your body are put on alert. Your blood vessels constrict in some areas and dilate in others to get blood flowing to areas that will help you in a dangerous situation and to get glucose (fuel) to those areas quickly. Your heart starts to beat faster to send blood to those areas quicker, your pupils dilate. Other parts of your body are put on hold; those that aren't needed in a danger situation. Your digestive system is one that is put on hold. When you are under stress, your body doesn't know whether you are in danger or not but acts like it is. So if you are under constant stress, your digestive system is affected.

342

Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...saline habitats such as solar salterns, which may...organic carbon and energy sources. The anaerobic...Lake Assal (East Africa), Na+ 27 28 OLLIVIER...bacterium (47) from a solar saltern (Haloanaerobacter...diversity of carbon and energy sources used by currently...

B Ollivier; P Caumette; J L Garcia; R A Mah

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heater Basics Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a larger one on the bottom. In the top chamber are a fan, a cylindrical compressor, and an evaporator that runs along the inside of the chamber. Jutting out from the exterior of the bottom chamber is a temperature and pressure relief valve. This valve has a tube called a hot water outlet attached to the top. Below the valve is the upper thermostat, a small square outside the cylinder that is attached to a curved tube inside the heater. Resistance elements run from the upper thermostat to the similarly shaped lower thermostat. Below the lower thermostat is a drain valve with a cold water inlet attached to the top. Inside the cylinder is an anode, a series of thin tubes running through the bottom chamber to a coiled tube called a condenser. Insulation runs along the inside of the cylinder.

344

Performance characteristics of solar air heater with surface mounted obstacles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The performance of conventional solar air heaters (SAHs) can be improved by providing obstacles on the heated wall (i.e. on the absorber plate). Experiments have been performed to collect heat transfer and flow-friction data from an air heater duct with delta-shaped obstacles mounted on the absorber surface and having an aspect ratio 6:1 resembling the conditions close to the solar air heaters. This study encompassed for the range of Reynolds number (Re) from 2100 to 30,000, relative obstacle height (e/H) from 0.25 to 0.75, relative obstacle longitudinal pitch (Pl/e) from 3/2 to 11/2, relative obstacle transverse pitch (Pt/b) from 1 to 7/3 and the angle of incidence (?) varied from 30 to 90. The thermo-hydraulic performance characteristics of SAH have been compared with the previous published works and the optimum range of the geometries have been explored for the better performance of such air-heaters compared to the other designs of solar air heaters.

Adisu Bekele; Manish Mishra; Sushanta Dutta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000mgO2kgVS?1h?1. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins).

Fulvia Tambone; Laura Terruzzi; Barbara Scaglia; Fabrizio Adani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

PalladianDigest Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PalladianDigest CONNECT. EMPOWER. GROW. Tackling Transportation Challenges Nebraska has been a vital link in the nation's transportation system since the days when carts, wagons to University of Nebraska­Lincoln research. That's fine with UNL transportation researchers, said Larry Rilett

Farritor, Shane

347

SMUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Solar Water Heater Rebate Program SMUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 500 - 1,500 per system, depending on energy savings Provider Sacramento Municipal Utility District The Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Solar Domestic Hot Water Program provides rebates and/or loan financing to customers who install solar water heating systems. The amount of the rebate depends on how much electricity the system will offset annually: * 800 - 1,399 kWh: $500 * 1,400 - 2,199 kWh: $1,000 * 2,200 kWh or greater: $1,500 . All solar water-heating units must meet standards set by the Solar Rating

348

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters Title FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5514E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Lutz, James D. Subsidiary Authors Energy Analysis Department Document Number LBNL-5514E Pagination 8 Date Published April 1 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley ISBN Number LBNL-5514E Abstract None Notes This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State, and Community Programs, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Attachment Size PDF 240.22 KB Google Scholar BibTex RIS RTF XML Alternate URL: http://eetd.lbl.gov/node/50317

349

Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Addthis Project Level medium Energy Savings $20-$45 annually Time to Complete 1.5 hours Overall Cost $30 Insulate your hot water tank to save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/glennebo Insulate your hot water tank to save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/glennebo Just like insulating your walls or roof, insulating your hot water tank is an easy and inexpensive way to improve energy efficiency and save you money each month. If your water tank is new, it is likely already insulated. If you have an older hot water tank, check to see if it has insulation with an R-value of at least 24. If not, consider insulating your water tank, which

350

Experimental study of integrated collector storage solar water heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heaters (ICSSWH) have been designed, constructed and experimentally studied in comparison to a Flat Plate Thermosiphonic Unit (FPTU). Each of the ICS experimental models consists of one cylindrical tank horizontally mounted in a stationary symmetrical Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) reflector trough. The main objective is the design and construction of low cost solar water heaters with improved thermal performance and lower possible depths. The experimental models can be mounted on horizontal as well as on inclined roofs by adopting the lowest possible depth. The results show that these solar devices perform more than effectively all year long. This could contribute significantly on the development of ICS type solar water heaters.

M. Souliotis; D. Chemisana; Y.G. Caouris; Y. Tripanagnostopoulos

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater October 8, 2010 - 12:51pm Addthis L.L. Bean’s flagship store sees nearly 3 million visitors each year. The store now uses solar-heated water for showers, restrooms and two cafes. | Photo courtesy of L.L. Bean | L.L. Bean's flagship store sees nearly 3 million visitors each year. The store now uses solar-heated water for showers, restrooms and two cafes. | Photo courtesy of L.L. Bean | Lindsay Gsell L.L. Bean is known for its outdoor apparel- jackets, backpacks and cozy winter sweaters. However, the company does more than just dress for the outdoors, it also works to protect and preserve it. For nearly 100 years, L.L. Bean has been committed to environmental conservation and

352

Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable porportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005/sup 0/C at a flow rate of 50 cm/sup 3//sec with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

1984-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

353

Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable proportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005.degree. C. at a flow rate of 50 cm.sup.3 /second with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

355

HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review ...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy This...

356

Electric Blanket vs. Space Heater: #EnergyFaceoff Round 3 Heats...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Blanket vs. Space Heater: EnergyFaceoff Round 3 Heats Up Electric Blanket vs. Space Heater: EnergyFaceoff Round 3 Heats Up November 17, 2014 - 9:49am Q&A Which appliance do you...

357

Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During #EnergyFaceoff...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three November 19, 2014...

358

Numerical analysis of thermal-hydrological conditions in the single heater test at Yucca Mountain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single Heater Test at Yucca Mountain, LBNL-39789, E.O. LawSingle Heater Test at Yucca Mountain Jens T. Birkholzer andwaste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heating phase of the

Birkholzer, Jens T.; Tsang, Yvonne W.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 {+-} 13.87 mL/g TS{sub added} was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 {+-} 11.01 mL/g TS{sub added} and methane yield of 259.35 {+-} 13.85 mL/g TS{sub added} were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

Chen Guangyin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zheng Zheng, E-mail: zzhenghj@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang Shiguan [National Engineering Laboratory of Biomass Power Generation Equipment, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Fang Caixia; Zou Xingxing; Luo Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Modeling and Test-and-Rate Methods for Innovative Thermosiphon Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conference paper regarding research in modeling and test-and-rate methods for thermosiphon solar domestic water heaters.

Burch, J.; Shoukas, G.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

362

Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On top of the tank are two thin pipes; one pipe is the hot water outlet, and the other is the cold water inlet. A large pipe in the middle is called a vent pipe. A pressure/temperature relief valve is also on top of the tank and is connected to an open pipe that runs down the side of the tank. Another valve near the bottom of the outside of the tank is the thermostat and gas valve. A cutout shows the parts inside the tank, which include a large tube called a flue tube/heat exchanger. Inside this tube is a jagged insert called a flue baffle. Beside the flue tube/heat exchanger is a thin tube called the anode rod. At the bottom of the tank is a gas burner, and beneath the burner are combustion air openings.

363

Silicon microbench heater elements for packaging opto-electronic devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Examples are presented of the application of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s expertise in photonics packaging. Several examples of packaged devices will be described. Particular attention is given to silicon microbenches incorporating heaters and their use in semiconductor optical amplifier fiber pigtailing and packaging.

Combs, R.; Keiser, P.; Kleint, K.; Pocha, M.; Patterson, F.; Strand, O.T.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

365

Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP sets Federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

366

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

370

Novel Column Heater for Fast Capillary Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......expected advantage of radial heating with the coaxial heater...with other "coated" heating elements, differences...Louisiana light crude oil; 3 m 0.1 mm phenyl...expansion coefficient, and price imposed substantial practical...existing standard column heating technology. Thus, chromatographic......

E.U. Ehrmann; H.P. Dharmasena; K. Carney; E.B. Overton

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Restoration of Refinery Heaters Using the Technique of Prefabricated Ceramic Fiber Lined Panels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinery heater fuel requirements often represent 50% of a units operating cost. A one percent change in the efficiency of a heater firing 100 MBtu/hr amounts to more than $25,000 per year. Heater efficiency is influenced by casing hot spots, air...

Sento, H. D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize the design for manufacturing. This work included the initiation of a large field testing program (over 125 units) and an in-depth reliability program intended to minimize the risks associated with a new product introduction. At the time of this report, A.O. Smith plans to introduce this product to the marketplace in the early 2006 time period.

Peter Pescatore

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

373

Potential digestibilities and digestion kinetics of forage cell wall components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LITERATURE REVIEW. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES. Chemical Analysis Colorimetric Determinations Statistical Evaluation. 10 13 15 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 16 V Characteristics of Forage Kinetics of Cell Wall Digestion SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS... and both of these variables appear to be the result of several dynamic processes. The amount of structural carbohydrates, the main constituents of the fibrous cell wall, ruminants can digest appears to be limited by the potential digestibility...

Tauskey, William Henry

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Anaerobic utilization of essential oils bydenitrifying bacteria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plant volatile organic compounds are a major carbonsource in nature. We studied the degradability ofthese substances by anaerobic microorganisms inenrichment cultures with representative essential oilsas organ...

Jens Harder

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Placing technology : examining the emerging use of solar water heaters in Oaxaca, Mexico: Examining the emerging use of solar water heaters in Oaxaca, Mexico.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study is an examination of the (broadly envisioned) process that has led to the emerging use of solar water heaters in Oaxaca de Jua?rez, (more)

Shannon, Steven Jacob

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

378

Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Based Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

379

Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas-Fired Absorption Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

380

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Performance Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Prepared under Task Nos. WTN9.1000, ARRB.2204 Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Model calibration and validation for OFMSW and sewage sludge co-digestion reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: > Disintegration is the limiting step of the anaerobic co-digestion process. > Disintegration kinetic constant does not depend on the waste particle size. > Disintegration kinetic constant depends only on the waste nature and composition. > The model calibration can be performed on organic waste of any particle size. - Abstract: A mathematical model has recently been proposed by the authors to simulate the biochemical processes that prevail in a co-digestion reactor fed with sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. This model is based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1 of the International Water Association, which has been extended to include the co-digestion processes, using surface-based kinetics to model the organic waste disintegration and conversion to carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. When organic waste solids are present in the reactor influent, the disintegration process is the rate-limiting step of the overall co-digestion process. The main advantage of the proposed modeling approach is that the kinetic constant of such a process does not depend on the waste particle size distribution (PSD) and rather depends only on the nature and composition of the waste particles. The model calibration aimed to assess the kinetic constant of the disintegration process can therefore be conducted using organic waste samples of any PSD, and the resulting value will be suitable for all the organic wastes of the same nature as the investigated samples, independently of their PSD. This assumption was proven in this study by biomethane potential experiments that were conducted on organic waste samples with different particle sizes. The results of these experiments were used to calibrate and validate the mathematical model, resulting in a good agreement between the simulated and observed data for any investigated particle size of the solid waste. This study confirms the strength of the proposed model and calibration procedure, which can thus be used to assess the treatment efficiency and predict the methane production of full-scale digesters.

Esposito, G., E-mail: giovanni.esposito@unicas.it [Department of Mechanics, Structures and Environmental Engineering, University of Cassino, via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Frunzo, L., E-mail: luigi.frunzo@unina.it [Department of Mathematics and Applications Renato Caccioppoli, University of Naples Federico II, via Cintia, Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Panico, A., E-mail: anpanico@unina.it [Department of Hydraulic, Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy); Pirozzi, F., E-mail: francesco.pirozzi@unina.it [Department of Hydraulic, Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-12-2 1 Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters Shangli Shan Dandan Wang Ruixiang Wang Master Master Professor Beijing...) [21] Wang sui-lin . Affection on fin-and-tube Heat Exchanger's Properties by non azeotropic mixtures[J] . Fluid machinery , 1996 , 24 (5) [22] Ge run-ting . Foundation of Dynamic Parameter Model and Theoritical Calculation of Evaporator...

Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

U. K. consortium Stirling engine regenerator effectiveness and heater performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper covers results of measurements of effectiveness of regenerator materials by use of a dynamic test rig. The rig enables measurements to be made of enthalpy flux through the regenerator under simulated Stirling engine conditions of fluid flow and heat transfer. The paper also discusses the design and operation of the 60 kw heat-pipe heater head of the U.K. Consortium Stirling engine.

Rice, G.; Dadd, M.W.; Jones, J.D.; Thonger, J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Chiller-heater unit nets building 2-yr payback  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 500-ton double-absorption Hitachi Paraflow chiller-heater that switches from purchased steam to natural gas will reduce a Manhattan office building's energy costs by 55% and achieve a two-year payback. The new system replaces a steam-powered, single-stage absorption chiller. By reusing heat in a second-stage generator, the Hitachi unit uses only half as many Btus per ton as a conventional chiller. (DCK)

Duffy, J.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

385

Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

388

Testing and analysis of the Semiscale Mod-1 heater rod design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of electrically heated nuclear fuel rod simulators in the Semiscale Program is traced from a historical viewpoint. The design of the Semiscale Mod-1 electrical heater rod and core simulator is discussed. Heater rod thermal response during transient thermal-hydraulic depressurization experiments conducted in the Mod-1 system, and analysis techniques and tests conducted to help quantify heater rod characteristics and behavior are presented.

Larson, T.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

HEATER TEST PLANNING FOR THE NEAR SURFACE TEST FACILITY AT THE HANFORD RESERVATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heater Experiment at Hanford. Berkeley, Lawre ;e BerkeleyTest Facility, Hole DC-11, Hanford Reservation. Prepared forof Gable Mountain Basalt Cores, Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

DuBois, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During #EnergyFaceoff Round Three  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

#EnergyFaceoff round three goes to the electric blanket, see how much more money it can save you over a space heater!

391

Development of solar air heaters & thermal energy storage system for drying applications in food processing industries.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In the present work, the author has designed and developed all types of solar air heaters called porous and nonporous collectors. The developed solar air (more)

Sreekumar, A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heater Test Procedures  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters.

393

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters.

394

A model for improvement of water heating heat exchanger designs for residential heat pump water heaters.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Heat pump water heaters are a promising technology to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A key component is the water heating heat exchanger. (more)

Weerawoot, Arunwattana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

Annual Operating Characteristics of Solar Central Water Heater System Assisted by Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solar central water heater (SCWH) could supply ... massive users effectively and reliably. A SCWH assisted by heat pump (SCWHP) was proposed...

Wei Hu; Zhaolin Gu; Shiyu Feng; Xiufeng Gao

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Solar Hot Water Heater Augmented with PV-TEM Heat Pump.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solar assisted heat pumps (SAHPs) can provide higher collector efficiencies and solar fractions when compared against standard solar hot water heaters. Vapour compression (VC) heat (more)

PRESTON, NATHANIEL

398

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as conventional electric resistance water heaters. Atwo technologies: (1) an electric resistance storage waterin heat pump or in electric resistance mode. The electric

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Siting Requirements for Anaerobic Lagoons (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute provides regulations for required distances between anaerobic lagoons and residences or public use areas. The separation distances may be waived or reduced with the agreement of the...

400

Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Policy for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VII-4-4 Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou Ying Wang LiHua Zhao Graduated Student Associate Professor School of Architecture, South China... and lasting from a social benefit point of view in order to sustainable develop and ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Policy for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VII-4-4 benefit our offspring. REFERENCES [1] Yi Yun, ShanMing Wang. Market insight of solar...

Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Reduced gas pressure operation of sludge digesters: Expanded studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous investigations strongly suggested that the municipal anaerobic sludge digestion process could be enhanced by reactor operation with subatmospheric headspace pressures. Enhanced solids destruction and methane production along with increased process stability were observed in these earlier studies. However, due to the small scale of the anaerobic reactors used ( {approx}1.5 L), definitive steady-state measurements could not be obtained. These expanded studies were undertaken to verify and define the magnitude of the benefits that might be obtained with vacuum operation of sludge digesters. Four reactors ({approx}15.0 L) were fed municipal sludge at three different organic loading rates while being maintained with a 15-day solids retention time. One reactor had a constant headspace pressure of 1.02 atm; a second was maintained at 0.75 atm; and the remaining two reactors were operated for the majority of the day at 1.02 atm, and for part of the day with a 0.75 atm headspace pressure. Additional small-scale, batch experiments were performed to help identify controlling digestion mechanisms. The results of these expanded studies indicate that vacuum operation did not yield significant advantages over the organic loading range investigated (0.088 to 0.352 lb VSS/ft{sup 3}{center_dot}d).

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Biogas production and feasibility of energy recovery systems for anaerobic treatment of wool-scouring effluent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of anaerobic digestion to produce biogas at a small wool-scouring facility in the United States was examined. The facility will process 90,800kg (200,000 pounds) of greasy wool per year at maximum capacity. Biochemical methane potential experiments showed that anaerobic biodegradation of organic constituents in wool-scouring effluent (WSE) ranged from 17 to 75% on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis and produced 0.100.39L methane per gram of WSE COD added. Microbial inhibition was observed when initial WSE concentrations exceeded 1000mg COD/L. A laboratory-scale continuous reactor operated at organic loading rates of 100200mg COD/L/day produced biogas with an average methane content of 75% and provided 7278% removal of total WSECOD. Life cycle costing predicted that the best alternative for energy recovery at a small wool-scouring facility was to offset natural gas used to heat water for wool-scouring with biogas. Economic feasibility should increase with increasing COD removal, increasing natural gas price, and increasing cost to discharge to the municipal wastewater treatment works. The key anaerobic treatment design challenge will be to maximize WSE organic loading rates while minimizing microbial inhibition.

Erika J. Schoen; David M. Bagley

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Mechanism of degradation of wool wax in the anaerobic treatment of woolscouring wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results of the anaerobic digestion of a woolscouring wastewater treatment and some considerations about the anaerobic degradation mechanisms of wool wax, are presented. A 57 live anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was operated with woolscouring effluent. When organic load varied from 3 to 5 kg COD/m3 d, COD and grease removal ranged from 40 to 55% and 50 to 65%, respectively. With centrifuged effluent, COD removal was 45% to 60%. A 300 m3 ABR was built and operated during two years based on the previous laboratory results. COD removal was between 45% to 18% with organic load of 3 to 10 kg COD/m3 d. With centrifuged effluent, COD efficiencies ranged between 72% and 47%. No inhibition by long chain fatty acids was observed. Considering the results of grease content determination and TLC analysis in both reactors, it could be assumed that wool wax is hydrolyzed forming sterols and free fatty acids and that free fatty acids are degraded while sterols are accumulated in the sludge.

Soledad Gutirrez; Alberto Hernndez; Mara Vias

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Anaerobic conversion of microalgal biomass to sustainable energy carriers A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review discusses anaerobic production of methane, hydrogen, ethanol, butanol and electricity from microalgal biomass. The amenability of microalgal biomass to these bioenergy conversion processes is compared with other aquatic and terrestrial biomass sources. The highest energy yields (kJg?1drywt. microalgal biomass) reported in the literature have been 14.8 as ethanol, 14.4 as methane, 6.6 as butanol and 1.2 as hydrogen. The highest power density reported from microalgal biomass in microbial fuel cells has been 980mWm?2. Sequential production of different energy carriers increases attainable energy yields, but also increases investment and maintenance costs. Microalgal biomass is a promising feedstock for anaerobic energy conversion processes, especially for methanogenic digestion and ethanol fermentation. The reviewed studies have mainly been based on laboratory scale experiments and thus scale-up of anaerobic utilization of microalgal biomass for production of energy carriers is now timely and required for cost-effectiveness comparisons.

Aino-Maija Lakaniemi; Olli H. Tuovinen; Jaakko A. Puhakka

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Eleana near-surface heater experiment final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a near-surface heater experiment operated at a depth of 23 m in argillite within the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test geometrically simulated emplacement of a single canister of High-Level Waste (HLW) and was operated at a power level of 2.5 kW for 21 days, followed by 3.8 kW to 250 days, when the power was turned off. Below 85 to 100{sup 0}C, there was good agreement between modeled and measured thermal results in the rock and in the emplacement hole, except for transient transport of water in the heater hole. Above 100{sup 0}C, modeled and measured thermal results increasingly diverged, indicating that the in-situ rock-mass thermal conductivity decreased as a result of dehydration more than expected on the basis of matrix properties. Correlation of thermomechanical modeling and field results suggests that this decrease was caused by strong coupling of thermal and mechanical behavior of the argillite at elevated temperatures. No hole-wall decrepitation was observed in the experiment; this fact and the codrrelation of modeled and measured results at lower temperatures indicate that there is no a priori reason to eliminate argillaceous rocks from further consideration as a host rock for nuclear wastes.

Lappin, A R; Thomas, R K; McVey, D F

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Electric and Gas Water Heaters Electric and Gas Water Heaters Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters October 8, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Type of Water Heater Electric Gas Electric Average Daily Usage (gallons per day)* gallons 64* Energy Factor† 0.92 (electric) 0.61 (gas) Energy Cost $ / kWh $0.06 per kWh $.60 per therm Quantity of Water Heaters to be Purchased unit(s) 1 unit * See assumptions for various daily water use totals. † The comparison assumes a storage tank water heater as the input type. To allow demand water heaters as the comparison type, users can specify an input EF of up to 0.85; however, 0.66 is currently the best available EF for storage water heaters.

407

Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the water heater's annual operation costs but also its size and energy efficiency. Natural gas, oil or tank water heater operates by releasing hot water from the top of the tank when the hot water tap is turned on. The hot water is released into the hot water line. As the hot water leaves the tank, cold

408

Tankless water heaters fill the bill at fast-food restaurants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article explains why Kentucky Fried Chicken has installed a PH-24 water heater. The tankless water heater meets the restaurant's criteria for space spacing, flow rates, certification and availability, and money saving efficiency. This article describes the system and its advantages.

Not Available

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

PRELIMINARY THERMAL AND THERMOMECH-ANICAL MODELING FOR THE NEAR SURFACE TEST FACILITY HEATER EXPERIMANTS AT HANFORD: Appendix D  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heater Experiments at Hanford V O L U M E II (Appendix D) TENG-48 and for Rockwell Hanford Operations a Department ofFACILITY HEATER EXPERIMENTS AT HANFORD Volume 2 (Appendix D)

Chan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The evaporation phenomenon of a liquid droplet was investigated by using microfabricated heaters. All 32 microheaters were designed to have the same resistance. Gold microheaters worked both as temperature indicators and as heaters. The first...

Paik, Sokwon

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

411

HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? January 10, 2011 - 4:27pm Addthis Andrea Spikes Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory I live in Colorado, and when it's cold it is very, very cold. Since I hate paying high heating bills, I typically have my thermostat set to a chilly 62°F. My husband and I have gotten used to this, and really like being able to use a warm comforter while the air stays cooler. There are some nights, however, that even this setting seems too high and the heater is running a lot more than I'd like it to. When it's below 0° overnight, or even sometimes during the day, we occasionally break out our oil-filled space heater when we're only using one room. That has me

412

HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? HVAC vs. Space Heaters: Which is More Efficient? January 10, 2011 - 4:27pm Addthis Andrea Spikes Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory I live in Colorado, and when it's cold it is very, very cold. Since I hate paying high heating bills, I typically have my thermostat set to a chilly 62°F. My husband and I have gotten used to this, and really like being able to use a warm comforter while the air stays cooler. There are some nights, however, that even this setting seems too high and the heater is running a lot more than I'd like it to. When it's below 0° overnight, or even sometimes during the day, we occasionally break out our oil-filled space heater when we're only using one room. That has me

413

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Incorporating tankless water heaters was one Incorporating tankless water heaters was one of many energy-efficiency recommendations Building America's research team IBACOS had for San Antonio builder Imagine Homes. Although tankless gas water heaters should save approximately 33% on hot water heating compared to a conventional storage water heater, actual energy savings vary significantly based on individual draw volume. Above 10 gallons per draw, the efficiency approaches the rated energy factor. The greatest savings occur at a daily use quantity of about 50 gallons. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 1. Advanced Technologies and Practices 1.2 Energy Efficient Components Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance As improved thermal enclosures dramatically reduce heating and cooling loads,

414

Enhancement of Heat Transfer in an Artificially Roughened Solar Air Heater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract: solar air heater is one of the basic equipment through which solar energy is converted into thermal energy. Solar air heaters, because of their simple in design, are cheap and most widely used collection devices of solar energy. The thermal efficiency of a solar air heater is significantly low because of the low value of the convective heat transfer coefficient between the absorber plate and the air, leading to high absorber plate temperature and high heat losses to the surroundings. This paper presents the study of heat transfer in a solar air heater by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The effect of Reynolds number on Nusselt number is investigated. A commercial finite volume package ANSYS FLUENT 12.1 is used to analyze and visualize the nature of the flow across the duct of a solar air heater.

unknown authors

415

Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emerging Technologies » Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Emerging Technologies » Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into carbon gas-fired absorption heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to increase water heating energy efficiency over conventional gas storage water heaters by 40%. Project Description This project seeks to develop a natural gas-fired water heater using an absorption heat. The development effort is targeting lithium bromide aqueous solutions as a working fluid in order to avoid the negative implications of using more toxic ammonia. Project Partners Research is being undertaken through a Cooperative Research and Development

416

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic acid-resistant bacterium Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantification of Methanogenic Groups in Anaerobic... February 1994 The microbial community structure of anaerobic biological reactors was evaluated by using... ,...

417

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermohalophilic bacterium Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantification of Methanogenic Groups in Anaerobic... February 1994 The microbial community structure of anaerobic biological reactors was evaluated by using... ,...

418

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacterium anaerocellum Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantification of Methanogenic Groups in Anaerobic... February 1994 The microbial community structure of anaerobic biological reactors was evaluated by using... ,...

419

PAFC fed by biogas produced by the anaerobic fermentation of the waste waters of a beet-sugar refinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beet-washing waters of a beet-sugar refinery carry a high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), and their conditioning to meet legal constraints before disposal considerably contributes to the operation costs of the refinery. Their fermentation in an anaerobic digestor could instead produce readily disposable non-polluting waters, fertilizers and biogas, useful to feed a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) heat and power generator system. A real refinery case is considered in this work, where the electrical characteristics V = V(I) of a laboratory PAFC stack, fueled with a dry simulated reforming gas (having the same H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} content as the biogas obtainable by the above said anaerobic digestion), are determined. The encouraging results show that a possible market niche for fuel cells, in the food-industry waste partial recovery and residual disposal, deserves attention.

Ascoli, A.; Elias, G. [Univ. Diegli Studi di Milano (Italy); Bigoni, L. [CISE Tecnologie Innovative S.p.A., Segrate (Italy); Giachero, R. [Du Pont Pharma Italia, Firenze (Italy)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Indoor air pollutants from unvented kerosene heater emissions in mobile homes: studies on particles, semivolatile organics, carbon monoxide, and mutagenicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Indoor air pollutants from unvented kerosene heater emissions in mobile homes: studies on particles, semivolatile organics, carbon monoxide, and mutagenicity ...

Judy L. Mumford; Ron W. Williams; Debra B. Walsh; Robert M. Burton; David J. Svendsgaard; Jane C. Chuang; Virginia S. Houk; Joellen Lewtas

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Biofuels Digest | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Digest Digest Jump to: navigation, search Name Biofuels Digest Address 801 Brickell Avenue Suite 900 Place Miami, Florida Zip 33131 Sector Services Product Information Year founded 2007 Number of employees 1-10 Phone number 786-393-8530 Website http://www.biofuelsdigest.com Coordinates 25.765653°, -80.190405° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":25.765653,"lon":-80.190405,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

422

Combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools comprises a fence shaped for extending about the periphery of the pool to restrict ingress and egress therefrom. A tubular heat exchanger is formed in at least one section of the fence, includes an exterior surface adapted to absorb solar energy, and communicates with the water in the swimming pool. The number of heat exchanger fence sections can be varied in accordance with the climate in which the pool is located. A pump flows the water in the swimming pool through the heat exchanger fence sections during daylight hours, thereby simultaneously heating the water in the pool, and providing an attractive and protective safety barrier about the swimming pool.

Divine, D.L.

1981-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

423

Diversity of Anaerobic Microbes in Spacecraft Assembly Clean Rooms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...anaerobic bacteria were preferentially enriched under the cultural conditions used, making...study bacterial population dynamics during uranium reduction and reoxidation. Appl. Environ...cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations...

Alexander Probst; Parag Vaishampayan; Shariff Osman; Christine Moissl-Eichinger; Gary L. Andersen; Kasthuri Venkateswaran

2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

424

Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...this review is to survey energy metabolism-with...the light or in the dark (425), if needed...perspective, anaerobic energy metabolism in eukaryotes...eukaryotes than other surveys might imply (15...involved in anaerobic energy metabolism in eukaryotes...

Mikls Mller; Marek Mentel; Jaap J. van Hellemond; Katrin Henze; Christian Woehle; Sven B. Gould; Re-Young Yu; Mark van der Giezen; Aloysius G. M. Tielens; William F. Martin

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

NONE

2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

426

Effects of Temperature on Aerobic Treatment of Anaerobically Digested Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

wool scouring ww ... The TCOD removal efficiencies at thermophilic conditions fall in an acceptable range between 72?80% although the values were lower than the TCOD removal efficiency at mesophilic conditions (95%). ... Figure 4 shows that the efficiency of BOD removal decreased when the temperature increased from mesophilic to thermophilic range; with an operating temperature of 28 C (97% BOD removal) being the most efficient while the least efficient was at 55 C (76% BOD removal). ...

Yi Jing Chan; Mei Fong Chong; Chung Lim Law

2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

427

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digester gas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Department of Physics, Stanford University Collection: Physics 6 Managing Manure with Biogas Recovery Systems Summary: emissions and capture biogas--a useful source of energy....

428

Research review paper1 Anaerobic digestion of microalgae as a necessary step to make3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the energetic recovery of cell biomass. Lastly, the ability of these CO2 consuming30 microalgae to purify biogas potential, codigestion,34 pretreatment, biogas, CO2 mitigation, biofuel35 36 Contents37 38 1 Introduction....................................................................................... 545 2.3.3 Biogas quality

Boyer, Edmond

429

Alternative energy systems for Puerto Rico : analysis and comparison of anaerobic waste digestion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy prices in Puerto Rico are increasing constantly, making evident the need for alternative energy sources. Several methods to produce power have been developed as alternatives to burning petroleum, such as solar energy ...

Cuevas, Emil A. (Emil Andr Cuevas Melndez)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Anaerobic Co-digestion of Chicken Processing Wastewater and Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operated in the batch mode at 35C. The secondary objective was to evaluate two sources of glycerol as co-substrates for AD to determine if different processing methods for the glycerol had an effect on CH? production. The biogas yields were higher for co...

Foucault, Lucas Jose

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

431

Anaerobic Digestion of Renewable Biomass: Thermophilic Temperature Governs Methanogen Population Dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...maize from a biogas plant in Nordhausen, Germany), 1/3 sewage sludge (from a wastewater treatment plant [WWTP] in Geesthacht, Germany), and 1/3 hot-rot compost suspension (compost from grass and garden greens, without solids). After a couple...

Niclas Krakat; A. Westphal; S. Schmidt; P. Scherer

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

432

Ozone treatment of biomass to enhance digestibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is very resistant to enzymatic degradation. Lignocellulosic materials require pretreatment to enhance their digestibility. The main objective of this research was to further enhance the digestibility of biomass (bagasse) with ozonation as a follow...

Almendarez, Maria Elena

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

?enseignement de ?endoscopie digestive en Italie  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

En Italie, nous disposons de deux coles de postgraduat : Gastroentrologie et Endoscopie Digestive et ?autre part : Chirurgie Digestive et Endoscopie Chirurgicale. Le premier cours dure quatre ans, le second cin...

A. Russo

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Anaerobic treatment of gasifier effluents. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed during the quarter ending December 30, 1981. The major efforts have been directed toward the continued acclimation of two anaerobic treatment systems, start up of a third anaerobic treatment system, GC/MS characterization of the coal gasification wastewater, data acquisition for determination of distribution coefficients for the extraction of phenol from the wastewater using MIBK, and preliminary design of a solvent extraction system for wastewater pretreatment. The progress of these efforts are depicted in the Gannt Chart, along with project expenditures for the above contract, and are presented in detail in the following sections.

Cross, W.H.; Chian, E.S.K.; Pohland, F.G.; Giabbai, M.; Harper, S.R.; Kharkar, S.; Cheng, S.S.; Shuey, P.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

PRINCIPLES CONCERNING THE ISOLATION OF ANAEROBES STUDIES IN PATHOGENIC ANAEROBES. II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...L. 1902 Ueber die Garung der Cellulose. Ibid., 81, 226. OMELIANSKY, W. L. 1904 Ueber die Trennung der Wasserstoff und Methan- gaihrung der Cellulose. Ibid. 11, 369, 703. PFUHL, E. 1907 Die Zuchtung anaerober Bakterien in Leberbouillon...

Hilda Hempl Heller

1921-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Evaluation of a Stirling engine heater bypass with the NASA Lewis nodal-analysis performance code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Research Center investigated whether bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater during regenerative cooling would improve the engine thermal efficiency. The investigation was accomplished by using the Lewis nodal-analysis Stirling engine computer model. Bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater at full power resulted in a rise in the indicated thermal efficiency from 40.6 to 41.0 percent. For the idealized (some losses not included) heater bypass that was analyzed, this benefit is not considered significant.

Sullivan, T.J.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States New Construction Market Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Gabrielle Wong-Parodi James McMahon Victor Franco Date: May 8, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 In the new single-family home construction market, the choice of what gas furnace and gas water heater combination to install is primarily driven by first cost considerations. In this study, the authors use a life-cycle cost analysis approach that accounts for uncertainty and variability of inputs to assess the economic benefits of installing different gas furnace and water heater combinations. Among other factors, it assesses the economic feasibility of eliminating the traditional metal vents and replacing them with vents made of plastic materials used in condensing and power vent

438

Critical Question #8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best 8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? Critical Question #8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? What do we know about actual performance compared to promised performance? What is the best way to manage the space conditioning impacts on a home? Is there an easy decision tree for deciding if this is the best solution for a particular home (Climate? Utility prices? Accessibility? Physical space constraints? Workforce?)? cq8_residential_hpwh_costs_maguire.pdf cq8_hpwh_performance_colon.pdf cq8_hpwhs_multifamily_weitzel.pdf More Documents & Publications Track A - Energy Systems Innovations Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Standing Technical Committee Working Sessions

439

A Small Scale Solar Agricultural Dryer with Biomass Burner and Heat Storage Back-Up Heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a small scale solar agricultural dryer with a simple biomass burner and heat storage back-up heater. The key design features ... are the combination of direct and indirect type solar dryer, t...

Elieser Tarigan; Perapong Tekasakul

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Development and Application of Engineering-Scale Solar Water Heater System Assisted by Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump was developed based on ... . The subunits of modularized system include vacuum solar energy collectors, air source heat pump, ... Energy source...

Xiufeng Gao; Shiyu Feng; Wei Hu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Thermal performance evaluation of a solar air heater with and without thermal energy storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This communication presents the experimental study and performance analysis of a solar air heater with and without phase change ... found that the output temperature in case with thermal energy storage (TES) is h...

V. V. Tyagi; A. K. Pandey; S. C. Kaushik

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Design, modeling, and performance of four breadbox passive solar water heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Southwest Border Regional Commission demonstration program on Solar Upgrading of Low-Income Housing, three different types of passive breadbox solar water heaters were designed. Using these designs, a total of six solar water heaters have been installed on public housing units in Las Cruces; these systems act as preheaters to the existing conventional gas-fired water heaters. Under a separate contract from the National Center for Appropriate Technology, four of these installations have been instrumented with two Btu meters each to measure the thermal output of both the solar preheater and conventional backup system. This has enabled measurement of the actual solar fraction of the four instrumented solar systems. The design and construction of the water heaters is described, and the actual performance of the systems is compared with the predicted performance.

Roberts, D. (Energy Management Services, Inc., Santa Fe, NM); Farrer, R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 Million  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 Million in the Next Five Years ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 Million in the Next Five Years December 31, 2008 - 9:18am Addthis WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the availability of ENERGY STAR® residential water heaters. With today's announcement, the ENERGY STAR® program now addresses every major residential appliance found in most American homes. Introduction of this product provides significant potential savings to consumers. Water heating represents up to 15.5 percent of national residential energy consumption, the second largest end use of energy in homes, following heating and cooling. Using one of five specified water heating technologies, ENERGY

445

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

5 5 Water Heater Efficiencies 2005 2010 Efficiency Stock Minimum Best-Available Residential Type Parameter (1) Efficiency New Efficiency New Efficiency Electric Storage EF 0.90 0.90 (2) 0.95 (2) Electric Instantaneous EF 0.82 0.82 0.98 Electric Heat Pump EF 2.00 2.00 2.35 Gas-Fired Storage EF 0.60 0.59 (3) 0.85 (3) Gas-Fired Instantaneous EF 0.82 0.82 0.98 Oil-Fired Storage EF 0.50 0.53 (4) 0.68 (4) Solar SEF 2.50 N.A. 2.50 2007 2010 Efficiency Stock Minimum Best-Available Commercial Type Parameter (1) Efficiency New Efficiency New Efficiency Electric Storage Thermal Efficiency 0.98 0.98 (5) 0.98 (5) Electric Instantaneous Thermal Efficiency 0.98 0.98 0.98 Gas-Fired Storage Thermal Efficiency 0.78 0.80 (6) 0.96 (6) Gas-Fired Instantaneous Thermal Efficiency 0.77 0.80 0.85 Oil-Fired Storage Thermal Efficiency 0.79 0.78 (7) 0.85 (7) Note(s):

446

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

447

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

448

Anaerobic bioflocculation of wool scouring effluent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-stage anaerobic bioflocculation process (ABP) successfully flocculated a high grease (> 15 g/l) wool scouring effluent (WSE). During 110 days of continuous operation, a two-stage laboratory process removed between 70 and 90% grease and 6086% COD at a combined hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 410 days. Grease removal was more difficult with low grease (<10 g/l) WSE. At a HRT of 3 days a single-stage ABP removed 40 and 44% grease at 20 and 37C, respectively. Methane production and volatile fatty acids consumption were negligible. Most of the grease was removed by flocculation as a result of anaerobic bacterial activity. The supernatant was successfully treated by an aerobic activated sludge process reducing grease concentration from about 1.5 to less than 0.1 g/l in the final effluent at an HRT of 3 days.

Wipa Lapsirikul; Ralf Cord-Ruwisch; Goen Ho

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Performance of unglazed solar ventilation air pre-heaters for broiler barns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar radiation is an interesting heat source for applications requiring a limited amount of energy, such as pre-heating cold fresh air used in venting livestock barns. The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy recovery efficiency of a solar air pre-heater consisting of an unglazed perforated black corrugated siding where the incoming fresh ventilation air picks up heat from its face and back. Installed on the southeast wall of two broiler barns located 40km east of Montreal, Canada, the performance of solar air pre-heaters was monitored over 2years. Sensors inside the barns monitored the temperature of the ambient air, that pre-heated by the solar collector and that exhausted by one of the three operating fans. An on-site weather station measured ambient air temperature, wind direction and velocity and radiation energy absorbed on a vertical plane parallel to the unglazed solar air pre-heaters. The measured vertical solar radiation value was used to evaluate the heat recovery efficiency of the unglazed solar air pre-heaters. Using data from the Varennes Environment Canada weather station located 30km northwest, the solar sensors were found to measure the absorbed solar radiation with a maximum error of 7%, including differences in exterior air moisture. Unglazed, the efficiency of the solar air pre-heaters reached 65% for wind velocities under 2m/s, but dropped below 25% for wind velocities exceeding 7m/s. Nevertheless, the unglazed solar air pre-heaters were able to reduce the heating load especially in March of both years. Over a period starting in November and ending in March, the solar air heaters recovered an energy value equivalent to an annual return on investment of 4.7%.

Sbastien Cordeau; Suzelle Barrington

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Degradation of Triclosan under Aerobic, Anoxic, and Anaerobic Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Triclosan (2, 4, 4?-trichloro-2? ... consumables. Aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures tolerating triclosan were developed and 77 bacterial strains tolerating triclosan at different levels were isolated from...

Prajeesh Gangadharan Puthiya Veetil

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic ultramicrobacteria belonging...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of bacterial... belonged to the -, -, and -Proteobacteria, the Actinobacteria, and the CFB groups. The only uncultured... this group are facultatively or obligately anaerobic...

452

Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic that anaerobic biofuel production could be significantly improved via directed evolution of a sugar transporter: cellodextrin transporter; cellobiose utilization; cellulosic biofuel; anaerobic fermentation; directed

Zhao, Huimin

453

Statistical Digest No. 70 Fishery Statistics of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These statistics include data on the volume and value of landed catches, employment, quantity of gear operatedStatistical Digest No. 70 Statistics of the United States 1976 Washington National Marine Fisheries Service #12;#12;Statistical Digest No. 70 Fishery Statistics of the United States

454

Chemical Reactor Analysis and Optimal Digestion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J 310 Chemical Reactor Analysis and Optimal Digestion An optimal digestion theory can be readily derived from basic principles o f chemical reactor analysis and design Deborah L. Penry and Peter for formulating and solving optimization problems (Bellman 1957), the entire process is optimized only

Jumars, Pete

455

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestor methanothrix Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The main factors that affect the economic viability of anaerobic digestors... of the biogas and the energy required to heat the digestor). Anaerobic digestors are normally...

456

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biosurfactant production Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(1990) Received 25th January Summary: ). High Solids Anaerobic Fermentation for Biogas and Compost Production. Biomass 16, 173-182. Owen, W... Reactor for Anaerobic...

457

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

organic waste, converting... of anaerobic bacteria, these compounds decompose to yield a biogas that comprises of methane (CH.) and carbon... not processed anaerobically. The...

458

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacteria thermoanaerobacter Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

organic waste, converting... of anaerobic bacteria, these compounds decompose to yield a biogas that comprises of methane (CH.) and carbon... not processed anaerobically. The...

459

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic selenate-respiring bacteria Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

organic waste, converting... of anaerobic bacteria, these compounds decompose to yield a biogas that comprises of methane (CH.) and carbon... not processed anaerobically. The...

460

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic laboratory conditions Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from pasturelands that received biosolids (anaerobic and aerobiclime stabilized... (Hale et al., 2000), indicating modest degradation in anaerobic sediments. Leachate from a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline anaerobic respiration Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The Effects of Benthic Organic Matter Quality on Aerobic and Anaerobic Sediment Metabolism in West Falmouth Harbor Summary: , respectively. Anaerobic respiration...

462

The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters February 17, 2009 - 9:48am Addthis Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory If you've gone shopping for new appliances sometime in the last decade, then you're probably familiar with the ENERGY STAR® label. ENERGY STAR is a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that sets higher-than-average standards for household appliances, electronics, and commercial products. Products that meet these rigorous energy requirements can be designated as ENERGY STAR products. For the average consumer, it basically means that ENERGY STAR products are more energy efficient than their standard counterparts, and therefore will

463

City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State California Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider City of San Jose Building, Planning and Electrical Permits are required for Photovoltiac (PV) systems installed in San Jose. In most cases, PV systems must also undergo a Building Plan Review and an Electrical Plan Review. Building Plan Reviews are not required for installations that meet all of the following criteria: 1. Total panel weight (including frame) is not greater than 5 lbs. per

464

Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters: Initial Findings of Draw Profile Effect on HPWH Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluation Overview  2000-2002 Evaluated 20 installations with CL&P  Product had problems; not ready for prime time (average COPs of 1.67 was not the problem)  New batch of heaters available, including:  GE's GeoSpring Hybrid (50 gal)  A.O.Smith's Voltex Hybrid (60 & 80 gal)  Stiebel-Eltron's Accelera 300 (80 gal)  Evaluating 14 installations for National Grid, NSTAR, & Cape Light Compact. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.

465

Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the US Jeff Maguire 4/30/13 Outline * Why HPWHs? * US Water Heating Market * Overview of HPWHs * Model Description * Results o HPWH Performance o Energy Savings Potential o Breakeven Cost 2 Heat Pump Water Heaters Save $300 a year over standard electric? Save $100 a year over standard gas? Heat Pump Electric Gas 3 Questions about HPWHs * Are HPWHs a good replacement for typical gas and electric storage water heaters? o In different locations across the country? o In conditioned/unconditioned space? o Source energy savings?

466

Development status of coal-fired gas heaters for Brayton-cycle cogeneration systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under contract from the Department of Energy, Rocketdyne is developing the technology of coal-fired gas heaters for utilization in Brayton-cycle cogeneration systems. The program encompasses both atmospheric fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustion systems; and it is directed toward the development of gas heater systems capable of delivering high pressure air or helium at 1550 F, when employing metallic heat exchangers, and 1750 F, when employing ceramic heat exchangers. This paper reports on the development status of the program, with discussions of the completed ''screening'' corrosion/erosion tests of candidate heat exchanger materials, a description and summary of the operating experience with the 6- by 6-foot AFB test facility and a projection of the potential for relatively near term commercialization of such heater systems.

Gunn, S.V.; McCarthy, J.R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Refractory oxides for high?temperature coal?fired MHD air heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a coal?burning MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) power plant the use of a regenerative air heater is one option for producing the required high plasma temperatures. However thermal mechanical and chemical stresses which the MHD environment places on materials are enormous and candidate materials must be carefully tested. We report on the results of such testing for a variety of materials studied in heater test facilities at both FluiDyne Engineering Corporation and at Montana State University. We describe the experimental program and test facilities for MHD heater development the rationale for the choice of materials and their performance (success or failure) under various envirnoments (slagging and nonslagging). Future materials needs are discussed in light of the observed effects.

Richard J. Pollina; Ronald R. Smyth

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Development of Industrially Produced Composite Quench Heaters for the LHC Superconducting Lattice Magnets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quench heaters are vital elements for the protection of the LHC superconducting lattice magnets in the case of resistive transitions of the conductor. The basic concept of magnet protection and technical solutions are briefly presented. The quench heater consists of partially copper clad stainless steel strips sandwiched in between electric insulating carrier foils with electrical and mechanical properties such as to withstand high voltages, low temperatures, pressures and ionizing radiation. Testing of some commercial available electric insulation foils, polyimide (PI), polyetheretherketon (PEEK) and polyarylate (PA) and combinations of adhesive systems which are suitable for industrial processing are described. Possible industrial methods for series production for some 80km of these composite quench heaters are indicated.

Szeless, Balzs; Calvone, F

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

T-728: Apache Tomcat HTTP DIGEST Authentication Weaknesses Let...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8: Apache Tomcat HTTP DIGEST Authentication Weaknesses Let Remote Users Conduct Bypass Attacks T-728: Apache Tomcat HTTP DIGEST Authentication Weaknesses Let Remote Users Conduct...

470

Conservation Division regiulations for appliance-efficiency standards relating to refrigerators and freezers, room air conditioners, central air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The text of the appliance efficiency standards for certain types of new appliances sold in California is presented. Specifications and test methods to identify complying refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances are covered.

Not Available

1981-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

471

Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration by Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...anaero- bic, dark conditions are...widespread than the survey indicated. With...of anaerobic, dark growth. Growth...sole carbon and energy source. No accessory...no anaerobic, dark growth of R...oxi- dized by energy-yielding reactions...assistance. The strain survey was performed...

J. E. Schultz; P. F. Weaver

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

City-level energy and CO2 reduction effect by introducing new residential water heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation models for a variety of new water heater systems were developed and the models were integrated into a city-level residential energy end-use model for Osaka City. Using the model, the potential of energy conservation and CO2 emission-reduction by introducing new residential water heaters was evaluated at the city-level. Optimal water-heating systems for each household category for primary energy reduction, CO2 emission-reduction, or cost reduction were identified by applying the end-use demand model. The effect of subsidies for installing more efficient systems and the influence of diffusion of these systems on electricity load curves were also discussed.

Yoshiyuki Shimoda; Tomo Okamura; Yohei Yamaguchi; Yukio Yamaguchi; Ayako Taniguchi; Takao Morikawa

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Waste-to-Energy Road Mapping Workshop  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hydrothermal Liquefaction Heat, Char, Bio-oil, Syngas ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND BIOGAS 7 * Biological, naturally occurring ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESS 8 Anaerobic Digestion...

474

DETERMINATION OF IN-SITU THERMAL PROPERTIES OF STRIPA GRANITE FROM TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN THE FULL-SCALE HEATER EXPERIMENTS: METHOD AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

observed temperatures for the Lulea University pilot heaterPower room '--_I, I\\'~ \\,1 Lulea drift I I I I I I I I Ithe temperature data from the LUlea University pilot heater

Jeffry, J.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

ISSUANCE 2014-12-23: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule

476

Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercElctrcEngineHeaters | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPElectrtyUsePercElctrcEngineHeaters SPElectrtyUsePercElctrcEngineHeaters Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Electric engine heaters Pages using the property "Building/SPElectrtyUsePercElctrcEngineHeaters" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 3.74913558105 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.625045331062 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 2.19814987082 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 +

477

Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2ElctrcEngineHeaters | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ElctrcEngineHeaters ElctrcEngineHeaters Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Electric engine heaters Pages using the property "Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2ElctrcEngineHeaters" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 2.44788473329 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.353408923575 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.835160644485 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 +

478

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

479

Enhanced heat transfer tubes for film absorbers of absorption chiller/heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absorption chiller/heaters using non-CFC refrigerants are attracting attention as environmentally friendly energy systems. As the refrigerant/absorbent pair, the water/lithium bromide aqueous solution pair is preferably used for most absorption chiller/heaters in Japan. Absorption chiller/heaters, mainly used as water chillers and air-conditioners, are commercially available at least for unit cooling capacities above 60 kW. In absorption chiller/heaters, the absorber must be made compact, because the absorber has the largest heat transfer area of the four primary heat exchangers in the system: the evaporator, absorber, regenerator and condenser. Although a great amount of information is available on the evaporator and condenser, the same type of information concerning the absorber is lacking. This paper introduces two kinds of double fluted tubes called Arm tubs and Floral tubes for film absorbers. Arm tubes are manufactured using a two-pass drawbench process, while Floral tubes are made using a single pass drawbench process. The experiments using a lithium bromide aqueous solution with the addition of 250 ppm n-octyl alcohol as the surfactant showed that Arm tubes and Floral tubes had about 40% higher heat transfer performance than plain tubes. Therefore, Floral tubes are expected to realize a high performance at low cost. Furthermore, the optimization of the number of grooves on the outside of the tubes is also described here.

Sasaki, Naoe; Nosetani, Tadashi [Sumitomo Light Metal Industry, Ltd., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Ora, Gunma (Japan). Commercial Air-Conditioning Div.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

480

An Energy-Efficient Self-Regulating Heater for Flow-Through Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Except for the bifilar wire (two strands separately insulated, as in household two-conductor cable, except in miniature, the fabrication of the other heaters is the same. ... The heated reactor was wrapped in foam sheets for insulation and put inside a 25-mm-thick plastic box. ...

Purnendu K. Dasgupta; Ellis L. Loree; Jianzhong Li; Zhang Genfa

2003-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heaters anaerobic digestion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Efficient generation of extended plasma waveguides with the axicon ignitor-heater scheme  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The plasma col- umn was produced by using an axicon to focus a long laser pulse into a line focusEfficient generation of extended plasma waveguides with the axicon ignitor-heater scheme Y.-F. Xiao for generating extended plasma waveguides is developed by using the axicon lens in conjunction with the ignitor

482

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic granular sludge Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sludge Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic granular sludge...

483

Enteric bacteria in aerobically digested sludge.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Article Enteric bacteria in aerobically digested sludge. S R Farrah G Bitton Indicator bacteria, Salmonella...aerobic bacteria were determined in samples of undigested sludge and sludge that had been treated by one or two stages of aerobic...

S R Farrah; G Bitton

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

BETO Ranks High in Biofuels Digests Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Biofuels Digest recently released its Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy, ranking Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Director Dr. Jonathan Male , Deputy Director Dr. Valerie Reed, Technology...

485

NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82?ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Eliminating air heater plugging and corrosion caused by SCR/SNCR systems for NOx control on coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a typical coal-fired power plant the rotary regenerative air heater is responsible for 5-10% of the boiler's total efficiency. The three biggest threats to air heater performance deterioration are corrosion of the heat exchange surfaces, plugging, and air heater leakage through the seals. The article concentrates on the vastly increased level of corrosion and plugging issues associated with installing selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems for controlling nitrogen oxide emissions. Some injected ammonia in the SCR process reacts with SO{sub 2} to form ammonium sulphate and bisulphate (ABS) which is deposited on the air heater element surfaces. This can be overcome by applying coatings, using corrosion-resistant steels, reconfiguring the air heaters to a two layer design, improving air heater blowers, improving technologies for removing ammonia 'slip' before it enters the air heater, and using new catalysts that reduce the oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. 4 figs.

Guffre, J. [Paragon Airheater Technologies (United States)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

487

Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes...Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA b Department...ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in...Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, NY. 344. Mulder...Carbohydrate and energy metabolism of Tritrichomonas...

Mikls Mller; Marek Mentel; Jaap J. van Hellemond; Katrin Henze; Christian Woehle; Sven B. Gould; Re-Young Yu; Mark van der Giezen; Aloysius G. M. Tielens; William F. Martin

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

Jewell, W. J.; Dell'orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Innovative wastewater treatment using reversing anaerobic upflow system (RAUS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anaerobic processes are widely popular in the treatment of a variety of industrial wastewaters since the development of such high rate treatment processes like upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic filter, and the fluidized-bed process. In order to devise a low cost/high technology system so that it would provide an economical solution to environmentally sound pollution control, the Reversing Anaerobic Upflow System (RAUS) was developed. The system consists of two anaerobic reactors connected to each other. At the beginning, one reactor is fed upwards with wastewater while the other acts as a settling tank. After a set interval of time, the flow is reversed such that the second reactor is fed with wastewater and the first one acts as the settler. This particular feeding pattern had shown improved settling characteristics and granulation of methanogenic biomass from research carried out at the Hannover University with different wastewaters. The biological reaction vessels to which wastewater is introduced intermittently functions basically as a sludge blanket type reactor although the costly integrated settling devices present in a typical UASB system are avoided. The RAUS combines three principle reactor configurations: (1) conventional with sludge recycling; (2) fill and draw or sequential batch, inflow maintained constant during feeding; (3) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket. A pilot scale RAUS was operated for 400 days using distillery wastewater consisting of molasses slop and bottle washing water mixed in the ratio 1:1. This paper discusses the results of pilot scale experiments.

Basu, S.K. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Environmental Engineering Div.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THE2011] METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAS RECOVERY methane, and 64%

Di Camillo, Nicole G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Radiation Tolerant Programmable Power Supply for the LHC Beam Screen Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the next LHC run, it is required to install 200W of heating capacity per LHC beam screen heater to regenerate the beam screen by desorption of gas trapped on its walls. In the LHC, there are 272 beam screen heaters and the associated electronics limit presently the heating capacity to 25W. Those electronics are, for the most part, installed inside the LHC tunnel and exposed to its radiation environment. This paper describes the development of a new programmable power supply card that will be integrated into the existing LHC radiation tolerant electronic infrastructure used by the cryogenic system. Radiation tests were undertaken to qualify a power switch capable of coping with the 230Vrms grid voltage and an analog signal multiplexer; these components are required respectively for satisfying the higher power requirements and for reducing the overall cost by using a single analog to digital converter to sample all the signals.

Casas, J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

MHD air heater technology development. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress on the technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described in detail. The objective of task 1 is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The objectives of task 2 are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of task 3 are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)

None

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Experimental study of a thermosyphon solar water heater coupled to a fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) storage tank  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal performance of the thermosyphon solar water heater was analyzed to show its ... %. Also, an analysis of the temperature storage characteristics of a novel fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) storage tank w...

P. N. Nwosu; O. U. Oparaku; W. I. Okonkwo; G. O. Unachukwu

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Thermal calculation of combined transpiration-liquid cooling of discharge-chamber walls of an electric-arc heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The article presents a theoretical calculation of the temperature profiles and optimal thicknesses of porous and solid cooled walls, which provide a steady-state operation of an electric-arc heater with transpira...

G. L. Dobroedov; V. I. Krylovich

1970-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Performance Analysis of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Incorporating a Brazed-Plate Gas-cooler.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study focuses on the experimental testing and numerical modeling of a 4.5 kW transcritical CO2 heat pump water heater at Queens University in the (more)

Murray, PORTIA

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Not Available

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Microcantilever heater-thermometer with integrated temperature-compensated strain sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides microcantilever hotplate devices which incorporate temperature compensating strain sensors. The microcantilever hotplate devices of the present invention comprise microcantilevers having temperature compensating strain sensors and resistive heaters. The present invention also provides methods for using a microcantilever hotplate for temperature compensated surface stress measurements, chemical/biochemical sensing, measuring various properties of compounds adhered to the microcantilever hotplate surface, or for temperature compensated deflection measurements.

King, William P. (Champaign, IL); Lee, Jungchul (Champaign, IL); Goericke, Fabian T. (Wolfsburg, DE)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z