National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for heater burning gas

  1. Hot gas engine heater head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berntell, John O.

    1983-01-01

    A heater head for a multi-cylinder double acting hot gas engine in which each cylinder is surrounded by an annular regenerator unit, and in which the tops of each cylinder and its surrounding regenerator are interconnected by a multiplicity of heater tubes. A manifold for the heater tubes has a centrally disposed duct connected to the top of the cylinder and surrounded by a wider duct connecting the other ends of the heater tubes with the regenerator unit.

  2. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas Swimming Pool Heaters Gas-fired pool heaters remain the most popular system for heating swimming pools. Today you can find new gas-fired heater models with much higher...

  3. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and pool use, they may not be the most energy-efficient option when compared to heat pump and solar pool heaters. How They Work Gas pool heaters use either natural gas or...

  4. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater ...

  5. Promising Technology: Tankless Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tankless gas water heater does not have a storage tank, as a conventional water heater does. Instead, a tankless water heater instantaneously heats water flowing over the heat exchanger coils when there is hot water demand. Because there is no tank, tankless water heaters have no standby energy losses that are associated with storage units. Another non-energy saving benefit is that a tankless water heater is much more compact.

  6. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  7. Storage Gas Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Water Heaters Storage Gas Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Water Heaters, Storage Gas -- v2.0 (106.02 KB) More Documents &

  8. Tankless Gas Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Water Heaters Tankless Gas Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Water Heaters, Tankless Gas -- v1_2 (108.48 KB) More Documents &

  9. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How They Work Gas pool heaters use either natural gas or propane. As the pump circulates the pool's water, the water drawn from the pool passes through a filter and then to the ...

  10. Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Electric and Gas Water Heaters Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and or efficiency level. INPUT ...

  11. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Storage Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for ...

  12. Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  13. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Gas Water Heaters | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Gas Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Gas Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial gas water heaters (CWHs), a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically

  14. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Gas Storage Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential gas storage water heaters, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition

  15. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater measuring device mounted on the outside of a building wall. As improved thermal enclosures dramatically reduce heating and cooling loads, the water heating load continues to grow in importance. This Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing by IBACOS that shed light on

  16. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This report discusses a field demonstration to analyze the energy savings for one of these ... Louis, MO. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters (2.28 MB) More Documents & ...

  17. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  18. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  19. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial gas water heaters (CWHs), a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  20. Residential Gas-Fired Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Gas-Fired Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Residential Gas-Fired Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Gas-fired adsorption heat pump water heater prototype. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Gas-fired adsorption heat pump water heater prototype. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN DOE Funding: $310,000 Project Term: October 1, 2013 - September 30, 2016 Funding Type: Annual Operating Plan (AOP) PROJECT

  1. Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pescatore

    2006-01-11

    This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize

  2. Energy Factor Analysis for Gas Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    Gas heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) can improve water heating efficiency with zero GWP and zero ODP working fluids. The energy factor (EF) of a gas HPWH is sensitive to several factors. In this work, expressions are derived for EF of gas HPWHs, as a function of heat pump cycle COP, tank heat losses, burner efficiency, electrical draw, and effectiveness of supplemental heat exchangers. The expressions are used to investigate the sensitivity of EF to each parameter. EF is evaluated on a site energy basis (as used by the US DOE for rating water heater EF), and a primary energy-basis energy factor (PEF) is also defined and included. Typical ranges of values for the six parameters are given. For gas HPWHs, using typical ranges for component performance, EF will be 59 80% of the heat pump cycle thermal COP (for example, a COP of 1.60 may result in an EF of 0.94 1.28). Most of the reduction in COP is due to burner efficiency and tank heat losses. Gas-fired HPWHs are theoretically be capable of an EF of up to 1.7 (PEF of 1.6); while an EF of 1.1 1.3 (PEF of 1.0 1.1) is expected from an early market entry.

  3. Covered Product Category: Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including whole-home gas tankless water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  4. Covered Product Category: Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including whole-home gas tankless water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  5. Gas-fired chiller-heaters as a central plant alternative for small office buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thies, R.M.; Bahnfleth, W.

    1998-01-01

    Gas absorption chillers-heaters have been applied successfully in large projects where use of multiple chillers is feasible. Large facilities typically have a substantial base cooling load. If the base load is greater than 30% of the minimum capacity of the smallest chiller, chiller-heaters alone can be used as the building central plant. However, this study shows that a small office building presents part-load design difficulties that tend to favor the use of other technologies. The engineer can overcome these application problems by a variety of means, as has been illustrated. Manufacturers, too, are addressing the problems associated with low-load operation of direct-fired chiller heaters. A new generation of chiller-heaters that can unload down to 10% of design load will soon be available. If these new machines are capital-cost-competitive and perform up to expectations, the routine application of chiller-heaters in small commercial buildings may be just around the corner.

  6. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Carol T.; Bender, Donald A.; Bowman, Barry R.; Burnham, Alan K.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Comfort, III, William J.; Guymon, Lloyd G.; Henning, Carl D.; Pedersen, Knud B.; Sefcik, Joseph A.; Smith, Joseph A.; Strauch, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  7. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R.; Burnham, A.K.; Chesnut, D.A.; Comfort, W.J. III; Guymon, L.G.; Henning, C.D.; Pedersen, K.B.; Sefcik, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Strauch, M.S.

    1993-03-09

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  8. Metal spray apparatus with a U-shaped electric inlet gas heater and a one-piece electric heater surrounding a nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glovan, Ronald J.; Tierney, John C.; McLean, Leroy L.; Johnson, Lawrence L.; Verbael, David J.

    1995-01-01

    An electrically heated metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments.

  9. Metal spray apparatus with a U-shaped electric inlet gas heater and a one-piece electric heater surrounding a nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Verbael, D.J.

    1995-10-17

    An electrically heated metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  10. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit...

  11. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  12. Packaged die heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  13. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  14. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle ... Target MarketAudience: Residential gas water heating Key Partners: GE CRADA partner SRA ...

  15. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  16. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  17. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-12-27

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

  18. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  19. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  20. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haines, Leland Milburn

    2002-02-19

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  1. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  2. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water ...

  3. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  4. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  5. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace. Researchers in the Residential ...

  6. Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 (502.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Storage Gas Water Heaters

  7. Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 (502.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water Heaters Heat Pump Water ...

  8. Portable Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Space heater capacities generally range between 10,000 Btu and 40,000 Btu per hour, and commonly run on electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene (see wood and pellet heating ...

  9. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from forest, land use and biomass burning in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matitu, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) gases are the main contributors to the greenhouse effect that consequently results in global warming. This paper examines the sources and sinks of these gases from/to forest, land use and biomass burning and their likely contribution to climate change using IPCC/OECD methodology. Emissions have been calculated in mass units of carbon and nitrogen Emissions and uptake have been summed for each gas and the emissions converted to full molecular weights. Mismanagement of forests and land misuse have contributed much to greenhouse gas emissions in Tanzania. For example, cultivation methods, forest clearing, burning of savannah grass and indiscriminate logging (non-sustainable logging) have contributed significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. These categories contribute more than 90% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the study shows that shifting cultivation, savannah burning and forest clearing for conversion to permanent crop land and pasture are the main contributors.

  11. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Patrick ... The target market is the hospital, hotel and full service restaurant gas hot water heating ...

  12. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can usually save you

  13. Measurement of adiabatic burning velocity in natural gas-like mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratna Kishore, V.; Duhan, Nipun; Ravi, M.R.; Ray, Anjan

    2008-10-15

    Experimental measurements of the adiabatic burning velocities were carried out for natural gas-like mixtures burning in air over a range of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure. Effect of CO{sub 2} dilution up to 60%, N{sub 2} dilution up to 40% and 25% enrichment of ethane on burning velocity of methane-air flames were studied. Heat flux method with setup similar to that of [K.J. Bosschaart, L.P.H. de Goey, Detailed analysis of the heat flux method for measuring burning velocity, Combustion and Flame 132 (2003) 170-180] was used for measurement of burning velocities. Initially experiments were done for methane-air and ethane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios and the results were in good agreement with published data in the literature. Computations were performed using PREMIX code with GRI 3.0 reaction mechanism for all the mixtures. Predicted flame structures were used to the explain the effect of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} dilution on burning velocity of methane-air flames. Peak burning velocity for CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}-air mixtures occur near to {phi} = 1.0. (author)

  14. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  16. Device for collecting emissions from kerosene heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilloti, N.J.

    1984-09-04

    An apparatus for both improving the heat distribution throughout a room from a portable kerosene heater and for collecting undesirable emissions resulting from the burning of the kerosene, includes a base adapted to be mounted on the top of the heater, the base supporting a vertically extending shaft on which is mounted a heat-driven fan formed of either paper or metal, and a disposable disk mounted a spaced distance above the fan on the same shaft, the disk serving as a collector for the undesirable emissions. When the device is placed on an operating kerosene heater, the rising hot air and gases from the heater cause the fan to rotate, which in turn causes emissions from the burning fuel to move upwardly in a more or less cylindrical path. As the products of combustion move upwardly, certain emissions therein such as soot, oily vapors, etc. deposit or condense onto the surface of the spinner and disposable disk.

  17. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  18. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  19. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  20. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  2. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus

  3. Water Heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Heaters Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Water Heaters Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterHeaters&oldid267202"...

  4. Columbia Gas of Massachusetts - Commercial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - 800 Indirect Water Heater: 400 Condensing Stand Alone Water Heaters: 500 Storage Water Heaters: 100 After Market Boiler Reset: 225 Commercial Griddles: 500 Gas Fryers...

  5. Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Space heater capacities generally range between 10,000 Btu to 40,000 Btu per hour. Common fuels used for this purpose are electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene. Although ...

  6. Portable solar heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilar, L.J.

    1981-08-18

    A portable solar heater combines a self-contained hot air and heat storage system having a collector area with adjustable reflectors in a unit that can be moved from room to room as needed. The heater has fans for circulation of the solar heater air and provides both direct and indirect heat transfer to the ambient room air.

  7. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menotti, James Louis

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  8. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  9. Portable solar heater structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holley, D.; Holley, D.E.

    1981-09-08

    Portable solar heater structure is described. A substantially rectangular frame has a back with openings therethrough for permitting air to be drawn into the solar heater. A layer of insulating materials is in contact with the back. A plurality of cupshaped solar collectors open toward the front of the solar heater structure are positioned adjacent the insulating material. A cover is over the front of the solar heater having openings therein adjacent the top thereof through which air heated by the solar heater is passed. A passage is between the openings in the back and cover of the solar heater through which relatively cool air is drawn through the openings in the back over the collectors to be heated for subsequent withdrawal through the openings in the cover.

  10. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  11. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  12. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  13. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  14. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  15. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer

  16. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  17. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: A.O. Smith Inc. - Milwaukee, WI DOE Funding: $2,000,000 Cost Share: Provided by CRADA partners Project Term: October 1, 2013 - September 30, 2016 Project Objective The objective of this project is to develop a gas-fired absorption heat pump water heater for the commercial

  18. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  19. Portable kerosene heater controversy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, M.O.

    1982-04-01

    The National Kerosene Heater Association reports sales of slightly fewer than two million heaters in the United States between 1975 and 1979. More than one million were sold in 1980 and they project sales of eight to ten million by 1985. Kerosene heater dealers are urged to post warnings to customers specifying the grade of kerosene to be used. 1-K kerosene has a maximum sulfur content of .04% and is generally suitable for use in nonflue-connected burners. 2-K kerosene, with a sulfur content of as much as .30% should be used only in flue-connected burner applications. (JMT)

  20. Explosives tester with heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  1. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.; Madden, Norman W.; Malone, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vesssel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism.

  2. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

    1990-09-11

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

  3. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  4. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's...

  5. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's ...

  6. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy ...

  7. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  8. A Combined Water Heater Dehumidifier and Cooler (WHDC)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Water Heater Dehumidifier and Cooler (WHDC) 2016 Building Technologies Office ... Project Outcome: - Develop a low-cost gas-fired water heat pump to meet the DOE MYPP 2020 ...

  9. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  10. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  11. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.The gas-fired tank type water heaters in the housing units were replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  12. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides ...

  13. Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters An example of a solar pool heater. An example of a solar pool heater. You can significantly reduce swimming pool heating costs by...

  14. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  15. Comparison of emissions and efficiency of a turbocharged lean-burn natural gas and Hythane-fueled engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.F.; Wallace, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential for reduced exhaust emissions and improved efficiency, by way of lean-burn engine fueling with hydrogen supplemented natural gas (Hythane). The emissions and efficiency of the Hythane fuel (15% hydrogen, 85% natural gas by volume), were compared to the emissions and efficiency of pure natural gas using a turbocharged, spark ignition, 3.1 L, V-6 engine. The feasibility of heavy duty engine fueling with Hythane was assessed through testing conducted at engine speed and load combinations typical of heavy-duty engine operation. Comparison of the efficiency and emissions at MBT spark timing revealed that Hythane fueling of the test engine resulted in consistently lower brake specific energy consumption and emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), at a given equivalence ratio. There was no clear trend with respect to MBT oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. It was also discovered that an improved NO{sub x}-THC tradeoff resulted when Hythane was used to fuel the test engine. Consequently, Hythane engine operating parameters can be adjusted to achieve a concurrent reduction in NO{sub x} and THC emissions relative to natural gas fueling.

  16. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

  17. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution

  19. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing ...

  20. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you want an energy-efficient way to heat your swimming pool, consider using a heat pump pool heater in mild climates.

  1. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  2. Chaudagaz condensation water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nocturne, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Chaudagaz water heater offers (1) a high heating capacity (40 kW) through the use of a ventilator-equipped burner, (2) quick warmup (less than 20 min), and (3) high heating efficiency (85% upper calorific value) obtained by a unique heat-recovery system. The combustion products rise through a central cylinder, then flow downward along stainless-steel spiral tubing, warming the water and exiting from the bottom of the tank. This natural flow allows easy discharge of condensates and prevents cold air from sweeping through the stack when the burner is off.

  3. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  4. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient...

  5. Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

  6. Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel ...

  7. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15, 2012 - 6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over...

  8. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  9. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  10. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  11. Process Heater for Stoichiometric Combustion Control | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heater for Stoichiometric Combustion Control Process Heater for Stoichiometric Combustion Control An Enhanced, CO-Based, Low Excess Air Control System Saves Energy While Reducing ...

  12. Water Heater Controller - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Water Heater Controller Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Water heaters can be retrofitted to ...

  13. DOE_Water_Heater_Meeting_111612.pdf

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters", the comments filed therein, and ... that Joint Commenters had done with water heater manufacturers to identify ...

  14. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, L. Earle, D. Christensen, J. ... 2013 Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, L. Earle, D. ...

  15. Columbia Gas of Virginia- Business Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Gas of Virginia offers rebates to commercial customers for the purchase and installation of energy efficient equipment. Water heaters, furnaces, boilers, controls, and infrared heaters are...

  16. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  17. Composition of carbonaceous smoke particles from prescribed burning of a Canadian boreal forest: 1. Organic aerosol characterization by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Laterza, C.; Newman, L.; Daum, P.; Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S.; Winstead, E.L.

    1995-06-01

    In this study we examine the molecular organic constituents (C8 to C40 lipid compounds) collected as smoke particles from a Canadian boreal forest prescribed burn. Of special interest are (1) the molecular identity of polar organic aerosols, and (2) the amount of polar organic matter relative to the total mass of aerosol particulate carbon. Organic extracts of smoke aerosol particles show complex distributions of the lipid compounds when analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The molecular constituents present as smoke aerosol are grouped into non-polar (hydrocarbons) and polar {minus}2 oxygen atoms) subtractions. The dominant chemical species found in the boreal forest smoke aerosol are unaltered resin compounds (C20 terpenes) which are abundant in unburned conifer wood, plus thermally altered wood lignins and other polar aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results show that smoke aerosols contain molecular tracers which are related to the biofuel consumed. These smoke tracers can be related structurally back to the consumed softwood and hardwood vegetation. In addition, combustion of boreal forest materials produces smoke aerosol particles that are both oxygen-rich and chemically complex, yielding a carbonaceous aerosol matrix that is enriched in polar substances. As a consequence, emissions of carbonaceous smoke particles from large-scale combustion of boreal forest land may have a disproportionate effect on regional atmospheric chemistry and on cloud microphysical processes.

  18. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless water heaters, also known as ...

  19. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  20. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  1. Promising Technology: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A heat pump water heater uses electricity to transfer heat from the ambient air to stored water, as opposed to an electric resistance water heater, which uses electricity to generate the heat directly. This enables the heat pump water heater to be 2 to 3 times as efficient as an electric resistance water heater.

  2. Residential Water Heaters Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ENERGY LABORATORY Technology Overview - Condensing Storage * Fuels: Natural Gas, Propane * Much greater surface area of flue pipe, more heat transfer and combustion gases...

  3. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  4. A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) Figure 1: The system model for the combined Water heater, ...

  5. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When selecting a new water heater for your home, ...

  6. Piedmont Natural Gas- Residential Equipment Efficiency Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Piedmont Natural Gas offers rebates on high-efficiency natural gas tankless water heaters, tank water heaters and furnaces. Customers on the 101-Residential Service rate are eligible for these...

  7. Piedmont Natural Gas- Residential Equipment Efficiency Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Piedmont Natural Gas offers rebates on high-efficiency natural gas tankless water heaters, tank water heaters and furnaces. Customers on the 201-Residential Service Rate or 221-Residential Service...

  8. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  9. WPN 08-4: Space Heater Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To update the policy relation to space heaters for the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This policy supersedes the previous space heater policy issued by memoranda on March 18, 1992.

  10. Lean-Burn Stationary Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine Operation with a Prototype Miniature Diode Side Pumped Passively Q-switched Laser Spark Plug

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, D.L.; Woodruff, S.D.; McMillian, M.H.; Richardson, S.W.; Gautam, Mridul

    2008-04-01

    To meet the ignition system needs of large bore lean burn stationary natural gas engines a laser diode side pumped passively Q-switched laser igniter was developed and used to ignite lean mixtures in a single cylinder research engine. The laser design was produced from previous work. The in-cylinder conditions and exhaust emissions produced by the miniaturized laser were compared to that produced by a laboratory scale commercial laser system used in prior engine testing. The miniaturized laser design as well as the combustion and emissions data for both laser systems was compared and discussed. It was determined that the two laser systems produced virtually identical combustion and emissions data.

  11. Residential CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Residential CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Residential CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater ...

  12. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  13. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore,

  14. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  15. Silicon photonic heater-modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-07-14

    Photonic modulators, methods of forming photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes a disk resonator having a central axis extending along a thickness direction of the disk resonator. The disk resonator includes a modulator portion and a heater portion. The modulator portion extends in an arc around the central axis. A PN junction of the modulator portion is substantially normal to the central axis.

  16. Integral finned heater and cooler for stirling engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1984-01-01

    A piston and cylinder for a Stirling engine and the like having top and bottom meshing or nesting finned conical surfaces to provide large surface areas in close proximity to the working gas for good thermal (addition and subtraction of heat) exchange to the working gas and elimination of the usual heater and cooler dead volume. The piston fins at the hot end of the cylinder are perforated to permit the gas to pass into the piston interior and through a regenerator contained therein.

  17. Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady; Michael Patrick , Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno , Vitek; John Michael

    2010-03-23

    Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

  18. Residential Gas-Fired Adsorption HPWH | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Gas-Fired Adsorption HPWH Gas-fired adsorption heat pump water heater prototype. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Gas-fired adsorption heat pump water ...

  19. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  20. Chiller-heater unit nets building 2-yr payback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, J.

    1983-05-09

    A 500-ton double-absorption Hitachi Paraflow chiller-heater that switches from purchased steam to natural gas will reduce a Manhattan office building's energy costs by 55% and achieve a two-year payback. The new system replaces a steam-powered, single-stage absorption chiller. By reusing heat in a second-stage generator, the Hitachi unit uses only half as many Btus per ton as a conventional chiller. (DCK)

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Water Heater Stock for Commercial Buildings, By Fuel Type Fuel Type Electric 41% Natural Gas 31% Fuel Oil 2% Propane/LPG 3% District Heat 1% No Water Heating 25% Note(s): Souce(s): Percent of Buildings in 2003 (1) (1) Percentages add to 103% because some buildings use more than one fuel for water heating. EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Buildings Characteristics, June 2006, Table B31, p. 175

  2. Piedmont Natural Gas- Commercial Equipment Efficiency Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Piedmont Natural Gas offers rebates to commercial customers for purchasing and installing high-efficiency natural gas tankless water heaters. Customers on the 202-Small General Service Standard...

  3. Joint used for coupling long heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menottie, James Louis

    2013-02-26

    Systems for coupling ends of elongated heaters and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include two elongated heaters with an end portion of one heater abutted or near to an end portion of the other heater and a core coupling material. The core coupling material may extend between the two elongated heaters. The elongated heaters may include cores and at least one conductor substantially concentrically surrounds the cores. The cores may have a lower melting point than the conductors. At least one end portion of the conductor may have a beveled edge. The gap formed by the beveled edge may be filled with a coupling material for coupling the one or more conductors. One end portion of at least one core may have a recessed opening and the core coupling material may be partially inside the recessed opening.

  4. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  5. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  6. Commercial Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heaters Commercial Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Commercial Water Heaters -- v2.0 (96.96 KB) More Documents & Publications

  7. Storage Electric Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Water Heaters Storage Electric Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Water Heaters, Storage Electric -- v2.0 (102.27 KB) More Documents

  8. Storage Oil Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Water Heaters Storage Oil Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Water Heaters, Storage Oil -- v2.0 (103.3 KB) More Documents & Publications

  9. Tankless Electric Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Water Heaters Tankless Electric Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Water Heaters, Tankless Electric -- v2.0 (98.91 KB) More Documents

  10. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in

  11. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Heat Pump Water Heaters -- v1.7 (350.5 KB) More Documents &

  12. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-23

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  13. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-11

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  14. Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar water heaters Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)1...

  15. Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar water heaters (Redirected from - Solar Hot Water) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of...

  16. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle ... MarketAudience: Residential electric water heating Key Partners: GE Appliances CRADA ...

  17. Clark Public Utilities- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition, Clark Public Utilities offers a loan program for eligible solar water heater equipment. For additional information, call Energy Services at (360) 992-3355.

  18. Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ...identialwaterheaterwebinar.pdf (1.77 MB) More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters 2014-10-14 Issuance: ...

  19. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    They are popular in climates prone to freezing temperatures. Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate collector is ...

  20. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  1. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  2. Questar Gas - Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building Other EE Tankless Water Heater Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Questar Gas Website http:www.thermwise.combuilder...

  3. The Market - Who Needs Heat Pump Water Heaters? (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The Market - Who Needs Heat Pump Water Heaters? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Market - Who Needs Heat Pump Water Heaters? Heat pump water heaters ...

  4. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR Is your water ...

  5. Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the ...

  6. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. How does it work? Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use your home's heating system to heat water. Tankless coil and...

  7. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  8. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  9. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Bass, Ronald Marshall; Kim, Dong Sub; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Stegemeier, George Leo; Keltner, Thomas Joseph; Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon

    2010-12-28

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  10. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems --...

  11. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal ...

  12. Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN DOE Funding: 500,000 Project Term: Oct. 2013 - ...

  13. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's ...

  14. EERE Success Story-Xergy Develops Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Xergy Develops Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor EERE Success Story-Xergy Develops Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor September 15, 2015 - 3:41pm Addthis Xergy Inc. and an ...

  15. Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters 2016 Building Technologies ... Project Goal: Demonstrate a home water heater product with affordable and reliable ...

  16. Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters 2015 Building Technologies ... Home Water Heaters with Affordable, Reliable Solid-State Heat Pumps Key Partners: ...

  17. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Solar Water Heaters ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Solar Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential solar ...

  18. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bamdad Bahar bamdad.bahar@xergyinc.com Xergy, Inc. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using ... Project Goal: Develop a heat pump water heater utilizing electrochemical ...

  19. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression (ECC) 2016 Building Technologies ... Key Partners: Project Goal: Develop a heat pump water heater utilizing electrochemical ...

  20. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heat Pump Water Heaters: ...

  1. New Residential Water Heater Concept Promises High Efficiency...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Residential Water Heater Concept Promises High Efficiency, Lower Cost New Residential Water Heater Concept Promises High Efficiency, Lower Cost August 17, 2016 - 2:20pm Addthis A ...

  2. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Homes & Buildings Water Heating Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of ...

  3. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Water Heater and Certain Commercial Water Heater Test Procedures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for residential water heaters and certain commercial water heaters.

  4. New England Gas Company- Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In conjunction with Gas Networks, New England Gas Company offers its residential and commercial customers rebates for buying energy efficient gas boilers, furnaces, high efficiency water heaters,...

  5. A small self-powered space heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menchen, W.R.; McAlonan, M.

    1995-12-31

    The work described combines the use of thermoelectric energy conversion with diesel burner technology, yielding a forced convection heater that does not require the use of external electric power. A heater of this type has both commercial and military application if, at reasonable cost, it is safe, portable and easy to operate. Self-powered refers to a design approach where part of the heat generated by a burner is used to produce all of the electrical power required to run system components. A successful self-powered heater requires careful attention to heat transfer and pressure drop so that power requirements and hence cost can be minimized.

  6. Impact of operating parameters changing on energy, environment and economic efficiencies of a lean burn gas engine used in a cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemoult, B.; Tazerout, M.; Rousseau, S.

    1998-07-01

    The facts that national electrical company Electricite de France (EDF) has a monopoly on electrical power production in France and an extensive installed base of nuclear power plants, explain the difficulty encountered in developing cogeneration technology in France. Cogeneration only really first appeared in this country in the early 1990's, with the liberalization of energy markets and the government's encouragement. Since then, the number of cogeneration plants has continuously increased and electrical generating capacity is now approximately 1,200 MWe. Turbine and reciprocating engines (most of which are natural gas fired) account respectively for about 55% and 45% of the installed power. Unlike other countries, such as Germany--which has about two thousand 500 kWe and smaller units--the future of low-power cogeneration in France is far from assured, and there are currently less than 10 such plants. To help develop this efficient technology for producing electrical power and hot water, the Ecole des Mines de Nantes purchased a 210 kWe cogeneration generator set in 1996. This facility provides all or part of the school's electrical and heat requirements during five months between November and March. This cogeneration facility is also used during the rest of the year to perform research experiments in the field of lean-burn natural gas combustion. Lastly, it is also used to provide training for industry in cogeneration technology. Within this context, work was undertaken to study the set's energy and emissions performance, in relation to such parameters as spark advance and air factor, and at various loads.

  7. Industrial application fluidized bed combustion. Category III: indirect fired heaters. Quarterly technical report No. 16, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The High Temperature Heat Flux Test Unit was put into operation during July 1979. Tests using both propane and coal fuels have been completed. Test results are summarized in this report. The object of the Economic and Applications Task of the Program is to evaluate the economic and logistic factors that might influence the schedule and circumstances under which coal fired Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology might be applied to petroleum and petrochemical plant process heaters. The results of these studies indicate that the potential for near term application of AFBC technology to refinery crude heaters is relatively low. A possible alternative application of FBC heaters in the Exxon Donor Solvent Process for the liquefaction of coal has been identified. In this alternative an FBC heater would be used to burn the heavy vacuum tower bottoms. A preliminary design of such a heater has been completed and released to the Exxon Synfuels Division for further evaluation. The final task of the program will be to prepare a design specification for a hypothetical commercial sized process heater from which all interested parties can make a definitive evaluation of the technical and commercial prospects of the technology. This design work is now underway.

  8. Heater head for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darooka, D.K.

    1988-09-06

    A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

  9. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  10. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Xie, Xueying; Miller, David Scott; Ginestra, Jean Charles

    2011-07-26

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  11. Phase change material storage heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goswami, D. Yogi; Hsieh, Chung K.; Jotshi, Chand K.; Klausner, James F.

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  12. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Water Heater Stock for Residential Buildings, By Fuel Type Electric Natural Gas Fuel Oil Propane/LPG Other 0.2 0.2% Total (1) Note(s): Souce(s): According to RECS, 1.1 million households did not use hot water.The total only includes those households that used hot water. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2005, Table HC 2.8, June 2008. 4.0 3.6% 4.0 3.6% 110.0 100.0% Households in 2005 (millions) Percent 43.1 39.2% 58.7 53.4%

  14. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  15. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  16. Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department - Residential Conservation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Programmable Thermostats: 25 Water Heater: 100 Summary The Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department (WMGLD), in cooperation with the Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric...

  17. Portable Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    range between 10,000 Btu and 40,000 Btu per hour, and commonly run on electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene (see wood and pellet heating for information on wood and...

  18. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heaters | Department of Energy Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential whole-home gas tankless water heaters, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories

  19. Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitek, John Michael [Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Michael Patrick [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-06

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Systems and methods for making heaters are described herein. At least one heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The heater provides a first amount of heat at a lower temperature. The heater may provide a second reduced amount of heat when the heater reaches a selected temperature, or enters a selected temperature range, at which the ferromagnetic conductor undergoes a phase transformation.

  20. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Water Heater Efficiencies 2005 2010 Efficiency Stock Minimum Best-Available Residential Type Parameter (1) Efficiency New Efficiency New Efficiency Electric Storage EF 0.90 0.90 (2) 0.95 (2) Electric Instantaneous EF 0.82 0.82 0.98 Electric Heat Pump EF 2.00 2.00 2.35 Gas-Fired Storage EF 0.60 0.59 (3) 0.85 (3) Gas-Fired Instantaneous EF 0.82 0.82 0.98 Oil-Fired Storage EF 0.50 0.53 (4) 0.68 (4) Solar SEF 2.50 N.A. 2.50 2007 2010 Efficiency Stock Minimum Best-Available Commercial Type

  2. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a demand water heater at each hot water outlet. ENERGY STAR estimates that a typical family can save 100 or more per year with an ENERGY STAR qualified tankless water heater....

  3. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or demand-type water heaters heat water directly without the use of a storage tank Heat pump water heaters move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat...

  4. Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE September 15, 2015 - 3:41pm Addthis Xergy Inc. and GE...

  5. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  6. List of Water Heaters Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heaters Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 975 Water Heaters Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-975) Incentive Incentive Type Place...

  7. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its low cost ...

  8. GeoSprings Hybrid Water Heater - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GeoSprings Hybrid Water Heater Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory&39;s facility tests several water heaters at one time. Because of ORNL&39;s ...

  9. Making Water Heaters More Efficient | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Making Water Heaters More Efficient Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) ... Making Water Heaters More Efficient Jigar Shah 2013.11.13 As children, many of us grow up ...

  10. Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative- Residential Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative offers up to $300 for the purchase of an electric water heater. The rebate amount varies based on the size of the water heater purchased.

  11. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR A properly sized ...

  12. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A household can receive a maximum of two solar water heater rebates. Rebate amounts vary slightly based upon installed equipment. Rebates will be $1,250 for solar water heaters with an OG-300 rat...

  13. Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Your Water Heater Tank Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Addthis Project Level medium Energy Savings 20-45 annually Time to Complete 1.5 hours Overall Cost 30 ...

  14. ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the Next Five Years ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the Next ...

  15. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Pump Swimming Pool Heaters Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters How a heat pump works. How a heat pump works. How They Work Heat pumps use electricity to capture heat and move it from ...

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory studied heat pump water heaters, an efficient, cost-effective alternative to traditional electric resistance water heaters that can improve energy efficiency by up to 62%.

  17. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

  18. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

  19. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  20. What to expect from a batch solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.

    1984-01-01

    Batch solar water heaters are becoming more popular because of their low initial cost and simplicity of operation. Batch type water heaters have the following features in common: a water tank or tanks, an insulated tank enclosure, a glazed collecter surface, and a reflector system. The advantages of this type of solar water heater are discussed.

  1. Consumer-products minimum energy-efficiency-standards program. Topical report on Subtask 3. 1. Evaluation of energy consumption savings of boost heaters in dishwashers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    An analysis of the energy conservation and life cycle cost benefits of boost heaters for dishwashers is presented to provide technical information to assist in determining whether to modify the dishwasher test procedure to include boost heaters. Two manufacturers are offering dishwashers which have an inlet water temperature requirement of 120/sup 0/F. Cleaning performance in these appliances is maintained with an electric coil in the sump of the dishwasher, which boosts the incoming water to its final temperature. Both manufacturers have petitioned DOE for exemption from efficiency standards, since current DOE test procedures give no credit for water heater energy savings. The evaluation shows boost heaters to be energy conserving for all conditions. The life cycle cost analysis indicates boost heaters are cost effective in all cases for homes with electric water heaters, and in most cases for homes having gas water heaters. Additionally the proposed standards for dishwashers will lower water consumption in 1985 model dishwashers such that boost heaters will become cost effective in all cases.

  2. Electric heater for nuclear fuel rod simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reginald W.; Morgan, Jr., Chester S.; Dial, Ralph E.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an electric cartridge-type heater for use as a simulator for a nuclear fuel pin in reactor studies. The heater comprises an elongated cylindrical housing containing a longitudinally extending helically wound heating element with the heating element radially inwardly separated from the housing. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of boron nitride electrically insulate the heating element from the housing while providing good thermal conductivity. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of magnesia or a magnesia-15 percent boron nitride mixture are disposed in the cavity of the helical heating element. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the magnesia or the magnesia-boron nitride mixture is higher than that of the boron nitride disposed about the heating element for urging the boron nitride radially outwardly against the housing during elevated temperatures to assure adequate thermal contact between the housing and the boron nitride.

  3. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed

  4. Tubular electric heater with a thermocouple assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, R.K.; Williams, D.E.

    1975-08-01

    This patent relates to a thermocouple or other instrumentation which is installed within the walls of a tubular sheath surrounding a process device such as an electric heater. The sheath comprises two concentric tubes, one or both of which have a longitudinal, concave crease facing the other tube. The thermocouple is fixedly positioned within the crease and the outer tube is mechanically reduced to form an interference fit onto the inner tube. (auth)

  5. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  6. CenterPoint Energy (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    25% of cost up to 300boiler or 1,500building Carbon Monoxide Sensors: 100sensor Linkageless controls: 300MMBtu input High Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heaters:...

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  8. Analysisi Benchmark of the Single Heater Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.M. Wade; H. Marr; M.J. Anderson

    2006-07-27

    The Single Heater Test (SHT) is the first of three in-situ thermal tests included in the site characterization program for the potential nuclear waste monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The heating phase of the SHT started in August 1996 and was concluded in May 1997 after 9 months of heating. Cooling continued until January 1998, at which time post-test characterization of the test block commenced. Numerous thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical sensors monitored the coupled processes in the unsaturated fractured rock mass around the heater (CRWMS M&O 1999). The objective of this calculation is to benchmark a numerical simulation of the rock mass thermal behavior against the extensive data set that is available from the thermal test. The scope is limited to three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations of the computational domain of the Single Heater Test and surrounding rock mass. This calculation supports the waste package thermal design methodology, and is developed by Waste Package Department (WPD) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 3, BSCN 1, Calculations.

  9. Piedmont Natural Gas- Commercial Equipment Efficiency Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Piedmont Natural Gas offers rebates to commercial customers for purchasing and installing high-efficiency natural gas tankless water heaters. Customers on the 102-Small General Service and 152...

  10. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  11. SCE&G (Gas)- Residential EnergyWise Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South Carolina Electric and Gas (SCE&G) provides energy efficiency incentives to home owners in its service territory. Natural gas customers are eligible for rebates on water heaters, gas logs...

  12. Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D.; DeRossi, Raymond S.; Mullins, Lawrence E.

    1993-01-01

    A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a prober assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

  13. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  14. Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program » Pilot Projects » Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters On Oct. 4, 2011, Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, presented a Webinar about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor their installation. View the webinar presentation. More Information Some resources and tools mentioned in the

  15. Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement October 2, 2015 This enforcement policy statement explains DOE's policy with respect to the enforcement of certification requirements and compliance with standards with respect to consumer water heaters and residential-duty commercial water heating equipment during the interim period between July 13, 2015, and the publication of a conversion factor final rule. Enforcement Policy Statement - WH.pdf (74.46 KB) More

  16. Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pilot Projects » Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar On Feb. 22, 2011, Jerone Gagliano, director of Energy Engineering Performance Systems Development, presented a Webinar about residential water heating technology and how to choose the right water heater. It's one of the presentations in a series of Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinars sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. View the

  17. Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, Stanley Leroy

    2012-04-03

    A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

  18. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  19. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models. 2012 ASHRAE Winter Conference, Chicago, IL, January 21-25, 2012. NREL Report ...

  20. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models. ASHRAE Transactions 2012, Vol. 118, Part 1. www.nrel.govdocsfy12osti...

  1. Which Water Heater Is Right for You? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Which Water Heater Is Right for You? Which Water Heater Is Right for You? March 5, 2015 - 11:07am Addthis Investing in a more energy efficient water heater can save you money in the long run. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, U.S. Department of Energy Investing in a more energy efficient water heater can save you money in the long run. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, U.S. Department of Energy Paige Terlip Paige Terlip Former Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory What does this

  2. Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing and promoting the market introduction of a residential absorption heat pump water heater that would use 40% less energy annually ...

  3. 01-05-1998 - Heater Malfunction | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heater Malfunction Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/1998 File (public): PDF icon 01-05-1998_yellow_alert

  4. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems A. Rudd, K. Ueno, D. Bergey, R. Osser Building Science Corporation June 2012 i ...

  5. Stainless Steel Hotplate Heater for Long Objects --- Inventor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stainless Steel Hotplate Heater for Long Objects --- Inventor(s): Stephan Jurczynski and ... High electrical current is passed through a stainless steel plate longer and slightly ...

  6. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.

    2012-05-01

    A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

  7. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Water Heating Systems Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, ...

  8. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

  9. Shipping device for heater unit assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaushild, Ronald M.; Abbott, Stephan L.; Miller, Phillip E.; Shaffer, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A shipping device for a heater unit assembly (23), the heater unit assembly (23) including a cylindrical wall (25) and a top plate (31) secured to the cylindrical wall (25) and having a flange portion which projects radially beyond the outer surface of the cylindrical wall (25), and the shipping device including: a cylindrical container (3) having a closed bottom (13); a support member (47) secured to the container (3) and having an inwardly directed flange for supporting the flange portion of the top plate (31); a supplemental supporting system (1) for positioning the heater unit assembly (23) in the container (3) at a spaced relation from the inner surface and bottom wall (13) of the container (3); a cover (15) for closing the top of the container (3); and a container supporting structure (5,7,8) supporting the container (3) in a manner to permit the container (3) to be moved, relative to the supporting structure (5,7,8 ), between a vertical position for loading and unloading the assembly (23) and a horizontal position for transport of the assembly (23). A seal (57) is interposed between the container (3) and the cover (15) for sealing the interior of the container (3) from the environment. An abutment member (41) is mounted on the container supporting structure (5,7,8) for supporting the container bottom (13), when the container (3) is in the vertical position, to prevent the container (3) from moving past the vertical position in the direction away from the horizontal position, and a retainer member (55) is secured within the cover (15) for retaining the assembly top plate (31) in contact with the support member (47) when the cover (15) closes the top of the container (3).

  10. Washington Gas- Residential Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington Gas as a part of the Maryland EmPOWER program offers incentives to its residential customer for making energy efficiency improvements. Rebates are available for qualifying water heaters,...

  11. Washington Gas- Commercial Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington Gas as a part of the Maryland EmPOWER program offers incentives to its commercial customer for making energy efficiency improvements. Rebates are available for qualifying water heaters,...

  12. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Evaporator 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Oct 1, 2009 Planned end date: Sep 30, 2016 Key Milestones 1. Go/No-Go: Price premium <$750 compared to baseline HFC HPWH; FY15Q2 (MET) 2. Go/No-Go: EF>2.0 and FHR>50 gallon to meet ENERGY STAR qualification criteria; FY14Q4 (MET) Budget: Total DOE to Date: $2,367k Total Project: $2,435k Key

  13. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reg W.; Dial, Ralph E.; Finnell, Wilber K. R.

    1990-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocuple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  14. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reginald W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dial, Ralph E. (Concord, TN); Finnell, Wilber K. R. (Kingston, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocouple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  15. The hybrid rich-burn/lean burn engine. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.A.; Podnar, D.; Meyers, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed a unique engine technology called Hybrid Rich-Burn/Lean-Burn (HRBLB) that capitalizes on the low production of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) during extremely rich and lean combustion. The HRBLB concept is predicated on simultaneous combustion of extremely rich and lean natural gas-air mixtures in separate cylinders. Rich exhaust products undergo a catalytic water-gas shift reaction to form an intermediate combustible fuel composed of carbon monoxide, water vapor, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. All of the intermediate fuel is added to lean natural gas-air mixtures in other cylinders to enhance ignitability that would otherwise result in misfire. This paper presents results obtained during the development of a stationary, turbocharged, and intercooled, 18-liter HRBLB engine. Results show that NO{sub x} can be reduced by a factor of 2.5 to 3.5 relative to stock engine emissions at equivalent efficiency. The HRBLB engine has demonstrated corrected NO{sub x} (15% O{sub 2}) levels of 23 ppm at rated load with thermal efficiencies of 35%.

  16. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-01

    Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ENVIRON International Corporation, in collaboration with Callidus Technologies by Honeywell and Shell Global Solutions, Inc., will develop and demonstrate a full-scale fuel blending and combustion system. This system will allow a broad range of opportunity fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery fuel gas, to be safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria pollutants. The project will develop a commercial technology for application in refinery and chemical plant process heaters where opportunity fuels are used.

  17. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Eklund, Ken; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg

    2015-10-05

    A new generation of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) has been introduced into the U.S. market that promises to provide significant energy savings for water heating. Many electric utilities are promoting their widespread adoption as a key technology for meeting energy conservation goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the space conditioning impact of an HPWH installed in a conditioned space. There is also uncertainty regarding the potential for deployment of HPWHs in demand response (DR) programs to help manage and balance peak utility loads in a similar manner as conventional electric resistance water heaters (ERWH). To help answer these uncertainties, controlled experiments have been undertaken over 30 months in a matched pair of unoccupied Lab Homes located on the campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  18. Build-it-yourself solar water heater: reduce electric use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Drawings and instructions for a simple breadbox-style solar water heater are presented. This booklet is a step-by-step guide to building a solar water heater for approximately 15 percent of the cost of most commercially-installed systems. This system does not provide as much energy as the commercially available systems. (MHR)

  19. Pollutant emissions from portable kerosene-fired space heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traynor, G.W.; Allen, J.R.; Apte, M.G.; Girman, J.R.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1983-06-01

    Indoor use of unvented combustion appliances is known to cause an increase in indoor air pollutants. We conducted laboratory tests on two radiant and two convective portable kerosene-fired space heaters to identify the pollutants they emit and to determine their emission rates. Results show that carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and formaldehyde were emitted by both types of heaters and that the radiant heaters and one of the convective heaters also emitted trace amounts of fine particles. When such heaters are operated for 1 h in a 27-m/sup 3/ chamber with 0.4 air changes per hour, the resultant CO/sub 2/ concentrations are well above the U.S. occupational standard, and NO/sub 2/ concentrations are well above California's short-term outdoor standard.

  20. Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Information flow ...

  1. ISSUANCE 2015-10-15: Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice of Data Availability ISSUANCE 2015-10-15: Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice of Data Availability This document is the Energy ...

  2. Field Demonstration of High-Efficiency Gas Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... C. Electricity Consumption ......the thermostat signaled for the start or end of a heating cycle, time was recorded. ...

  3. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that shed light on how real-world water usage affects energy saving estimates of high-efficiency water heating systems.

  4. CenterPoint Energy (Gas)- Residential Heating and Hot Water Rebates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    CenterPoint Energy offers gas heating and water heating equipment rebates to its residential customers. Eligible equipment includes furnaces, back-up furnace systems, hydronic heaters, storage...

  5. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  6. Summary of AEP`s experience with retubing feedwater heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashner, B.

    1995-12-01

    American Electric Power (AEP) oversees the design, operation and maintenance of 500+ low pressure (LP) and high pressure (HP) feedwater heaters on subcritical and supercritical pressure fossil generating units. Approximately 150 of these U-tubed heaters have been successfully retubed since the 1970`s, with a majority of the retubings performed in the field by qualified heat exchanger companies. Due to the large number of retubed heaters, AEP has gone through the {open_quotes}learning curve{close_quotes} and refined its technical specifications for retubing heaters. In comparison to the 150 retubed heaters, over 70 LP and HP heaters have been replaced. Examples will be presented comparing the engineering and cost benefits for retubing versus replacement. A total of 24 bar charts are attached which summarize operating experience with the original heater tube materials and replacement tube materials. The tube materials consist of arsenical copper, copper-nickels, admiralty, monel, carbon steel and stainless steels. A brief discussion of AEP`s recommended tube materials for various applications will be presented, taking into account long term operation and heat rate impacts.

  7. Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

    2006-10-12

    Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing ‘dirty’ fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes – both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

  8. Comparative performance indices for solar batch water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Aaboe, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    A simple method is developed to allow direct comparison of various solar batch water heaters. Certain system variables must be determined by calculation or measurement which may vary with season. These include Thermal Efficiency of Collection, Tank R value, Collector Surface to Tank Volume Ratio, Clear Day Collection Period in Hours, System Cost, and Installed Solar Heatings Fraction (optional). These variables are used to compute any one of four performance indices. This method allows a valid comparison not only between various solar batch water heaters but between other types of solar water heaters as well. This system may be used by consumers or designers to choose the most cost and performance effective options.

  9. Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On top of the tank are two thin pipes; one pipe is the hot water outlet, and the other is the cold water inlet. A large pipe in the middle is called a vent pipe. A pressure/temperature relief valve is also on top of the tank and is connected to an open pipe that runs down the side of the tank. Another

  10. Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a larger one on the bottom. In the top chamber are a fan, a cylindrical compressor, and an evaporator that runs along the inside of the chamber. Jutting out from the exterior of the bottom chamber is a temperature and pressure relief valve. This valve has a tube called a hot water

  11. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Energy-Efficient Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PSNC offers rebates to customers who purchase energy-efficient natural gas water heaters, furnaces, or boilers. The rebate is available only when existing natural gas-fired water heating or heating...

  12. Texas Gas Service- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Texas Gas Service offers an incentive for its residential customers within the Austin and Sunset Valley city limits to install new central furnaces, hydronic water heaters, high efficiency gas...

  13. PG&E (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) offers rebates for residential gas customers who install energy efficient furnaces or water heaters in homes. More information and applications for...

  14. Performance comparison of several passive solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Nagy, C.

    1980-01-01

    Three .076 m/sup 3/ (20 gal.) batch water heaters were constructed for the purpose of side by side testing. The test models included an Inverted Batch Water Heater, a Greenhouse Integrated Skylight Heater, and a typical Breadbox Batch Heater. These designs were chosen because of their low initial cost, simple construction, ease of freeze protection, uncomplicated operation and heating effectiveness. The results of our testing show that our test models produced 35 to 70/sup 0/C (95 to 158/sup 0/F) average water temperatures with average collection efficiencies of about 34%. Materials costs for each of these systems were $200 to $400. These systems were tested side by side during periods of both low and high thermal demand, both with and without a selective surface foil on the absorber surfaces.

  15. Corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavers, J.A.; Agrawal, A.K.; Berry, W.E.

    1983-07-01

    A survey of the literature was performed for the Electric Power Research Institute on corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. The survey was directed toward failures in fossil and in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, but includes some pertinent information related to failures in boiling water reactor (BWR) power plants. The survey was organized into sections on the commonly used feedwater heater materials; C steel, brasses, Cu-Ni alloys, MONEL Alloy 400, and Type 304 Stainless Steel. A section on Ti as a potential feedwater heater material also is given in the appendices. Each section is divided into subsections on field experience and laboratory studies tat relate to the field failures that have been observed. Appendices are given on a feedwater heater description, water quality in power plants, forms of corrosion, and failure analysis techniques.

  16. Predictive Control of Hot Water Heaters - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication Full Report on Heat Pump Water Heaters (15,810 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Water heating in residential homes can account for as much as 15% of total energy use. ...

  17. Enforcement Policy Statement Consumer Water Heaters and Certain...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Consumer Water Heaters and Certain Commercial Water Heating Equipment Issued: October 2, 2015 As required by 42 U.S.C. 6295(e)(5)(B), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ...

  18. Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc- Residential Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Aiken Electric Cooperative offers residential members rebates for installing high-efficiency electric water heaters and/or timers in their homes. Customers have four rebate options: 

  19. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To invest in a renewable resource, consider an ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater and use free energy from the sun to heat your water. Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers rebates of $20...

  20. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  1. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercElctrcEngineHeaters | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rcElctrcEngineHeaters" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  2. Light-weight radioisotope heater impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Rinehart, G.H.; Herrera, A.

    1998-12-31

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s.

  3. Air-pollutant emissions from kerosene space heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaderer, B.P.

    1982-12-10

    Air pollutant emissions from portable convective and radiant kerosene space heaters were measured in an environmental chamber. Emission factors for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen depletion are presented. The data suggest that the use of such heaters in residences can result in exposures to air pollutants in excess of ambient air quality standards and in some cases in excess of occupational health standards.

  4. Kerosene vs. electric portable heaters: the question of risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leff, H.S.

    1984-03-01

    As home heating costs have risen, more and more people have turned to portable electric and kerosene space heaters. Kerosene heaters are cheaper to run than electric, but there are numerous health and safety issues - many of them unanswered - associated with their use. Among the issues discussed are indoor air pollution by sulfur dioxide, the life-cycle costs, the deposition of pollution on furniture, and the fire hazards.

  5. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid<br /> Image: Xergy Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid Image: Xergy Xergy's technology has the potential to move away from vapor compression

  6. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar; Harold J. , Harris; Christopher Kelvin

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  7. Water inflow into boreholes during the Stripa heater experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P.H.; Rachiele, R.; Remer, J.S.; Carlsson, H.

    1981-04-01

    During the operation of three in-situ heater experiments at Stripa, Sweden, groundwater flowed into many of the instrumentation and heater boreholes. These flows were recovered and measured routinely. The records of water inflow indicate two origins: inflow attributed to local hydrological pressure gradients, and water migration from cracks closing under the rapidly increasing, thermal-induced stress changes. The latter component appeared as a main pulse that occurred when the heaters were turned on, and lasted about 30 to 40 days, steadily declining over the next several months, and decreasing sharply when heater power was decreased or stopped. The magnitude of the total inflow per hole ranged over more than five decades, from 0.1 to over 10,000 liters over the 500 to 600 day time periods. When plotted against the logarithm of total volume, the frequency distribution displays a normal curve dependence with a mean of approximately 10 liters. Of this amount, 1 to 2 liters of flow into 38-mm-diam boreholes accompanied an increase in applied heat load. These amounts are compatible with rock porosities of a fraction of one percent. Inflow into the 3.6 and 5.0 kW heater holes peaked within 3 to 6 days after heater turn on, then declined to zero inflow, with no further inflow measured for the remainder of the experiments. In the heater holes of the time-scaled experiment, which operated at 1.125 kW or less, the initial pulse of inflow took much longer to decay, and 7 of 8 heater holes continued to flow throughout the experiment. The packing off and isolation of a borehole some 40 m distant in the ventilation drift dramatically increased the inflow into the heater holes in one of the three heater experiments. This demonstrated the existence of permeable flow paths among a number of boreholes. The records of water inflow demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of the nature of fluid flow and storage in fractured crystalline rock.

  8. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  9. Ripple burn control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhadra, D.K.; Petrie, T.W.; Peuron, U.A.; Rawls, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    The ripple contribution to the ion thermal conductivity is ideally suited in magnitude, temperature dependence, and spatial dependence to serve as a burn control mechanism. Furthermore, a considerable measure of automatic burn control results because of the radial shift of the plasma to a region of higher ripple. Unfortunately, the window in ripple values consistent with both ignition and a burn equilibrium is uncomfortably narrow, given the current lack of contact between the theoretical models of ripple transport and experimental observations. A survey is made of the techniques to vary the ripple and thus broaden the design window. One new technique is discussed in some detail: the use of ferromagnetic materials in the shield with magnetic properties which are sensitive functions of the operating temperature.

  10. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the SWH was appropriate for each household were crucial for maintaining suffcient ... Adams saw the beneft of the SWH when his annual gas consumption was reduced by 70%. With ...

  11. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  12. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  13. WHAM: Simplified tool for calculating water heater energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, J.D.; Whitehead, C.D.; Lekov, A.B.; Rosenquist, G.J.; Winiarski, D.W.

    1999-07-01

    Water heating comprises a significant portion of residential energy consumption--17% in the US, according to the residential energy consumption survey (RECS) (EIA 1995). For such a significant energy end use, energy analysts need a method to quickly and reliably assess current and future energy requirements for a variety of conservation policies and programs. To fill this need, the water heater analysis model (WHAM) was developed as a simple energy equation that accounts for different operating conditions and water heater characteristics when calculating energy consumption. The results of WHAM are compared to the results of detailed water heater simulation programs and show a high level of accuracy in estimating energy consumption. WHAM energy calculations are based on assumptions that account for a variety of field conditions and water heater types. By including seven parameters--recovery efficiency (RE), standby heat loss coefficient (UA), rated input power (Pon), average daily hot water draw volume, inlet water temperature, thermostat setting, and air temperature around the water heater--WHAM provides an accurate estimate of energy consumption in the majority of cases.

  14. Evaluation of a jet plate solar air heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, C.; Garg, H.P. )

    1991-01-01

    To achieve higher heat transfer from the absorber plate to the flowing air stream with an intention to increase the amount of the collected energy, and hence, to improve the efficiency of an air-based solar collector, a unique jet impingement concept has been advanced for evaluation in the present study. To investigate the effects of various geometrical parameters such as the hole or nozzle diameter on the jet plate, their interspacings, the nozzle height, the distance between the absorber and the jet plate and the operational parameter such as the velocity of air impinging out of the holes/nozzles on to the back side of the absorber surface on the performance parameters of the jet impingement concept air heater, a detailed theoretical parametric analysis has been made on the design for different mass flow rates of air and different lengths of air channel. A parallel study has also been carried out on a conventional parallel plate air heater in order to compare its air temperature increment and performance efficiency with those of the jet plate air heater. The gain in air temperature increment and performance efficiency of the jet-concept air heater over that of the parallel plate air heater with duct depth 10 cm and length 2 m is 15.5{degree}C to 2.5{degree}C and 26.5% to 19%, respectively, for air flow rates in the range 50 to 250 kg/hm{sup 2}.

  15. Kerosene space heaters--combustion technology and kerosene characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubayashi, k.; I Wasaki, N.

    1984-07-01

    This paper describes kerosene combustion technology. Unvented wick-type kerosene space heaters are very popular in Japan because of their economy and convenience. In recent years new vaporized kerosene burners having premixed combustion systems have been developed to solve some of the problems encountered in the older portable type. Some of the features of the new burners are instantaneous ignition, no vaporizing deposit on the burner and a wide range heating capacity. These new kerosene heaters have four major components: an air supply fan, a fuel supply assembly, a burner assembly and a control assembly. These heaters are designed to be highly reliable, have stable combustion characteristics, yield minimum carbon deposit. Finally, they are simple and inexpensive to operate.

  16. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1984-06-13

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable porportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005/sup 0/C at a flow rate of 50 cm/sup 3//sec with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  17. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, Albert; Swift, Gregory W.

    1985-01-01

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable proportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005.degree. C. at a flow rate of 50 cm.sup.3 /second with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Water Heater Stock for Residential Buildings, By Storage Type Small (30 gallons or less) 17.1 17% 1.4 14% 18.5 17% Medium (31 to 49 gallons) 52.4 53% 2.4 24% 54.8 50% Large (50 gallons or more) 27.1 27% 2.8 27% 29.9 27% Tankless water heater 1.1 1% 0.2 2% 1.3 1% No Separate Water Heater 1.9 2% 3.4 33% 5.3 5% Total (1) 99.6 100% 10.2 100% 109.8 100% Note(s): Souce(s): Number and Percent of Households in 2005 Used by One Unit Used by Multiple Units Total According to RECS, 1.1 million households

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Water Heater Manufacturer Market Shares 2006 2008 A.O. Smith/State Industries 23% 46% Rheem Manufacturing 37% 37% Bradford-White 14% 13% American Water Heater 14% (1) Others 12% 4% Total 100% 100% Total Units Shipped (2) Note(s): Source(s): 9,446,076 8,190,043 1) Included in A.O. Smith/State Industries. 2) Excludes exports. Appliance Magazine, A Portrait of the U.S. Appliance Industry, Sept. 2007, p. 63 for 2006; Appliance Magazine, U.S. Appliance Industry: Market Share, Life Expectancy &

  20. Category:Burns, OR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    72 KB SVSecondarySchool Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVSecondarySchool Burn... 70 KB SVSmallHotel Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVSmallHotel Burns OR ... 69 KB...

  1. Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During #EnergyFaceoff...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Space Heater Space Heater (low end of energy use): (750 W x 8 hours) 1000 6 kWhday (daily consumption) 6 kWhday x ... have no additional electricity costs, and you won't ...

  2. Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters, EERE-2015-BT-TP-0007-0002 Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters, ...

  3. How Do You Use a Space Heater Efficiently? | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    explored the question of space heaters and found that there are many factors to consider when deciding whether to use a space heater or central heating system. How do you use a...

  4. HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy This ...

  5. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater March 2, 2015 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water...

  6. Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

  7. ISSUANCE 2015-10-15: Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Data Availability | Department of Energy Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice of Data Availability ISSUANCE 2015-10-15: Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice of Data Availability This document is the Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice of Data Availability. Electric_Pool_Heaters_NODA.pdf (210.63 KB) More Documents & Publications Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool

  8. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  9. Design and performance of low-wattage electrical heater probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddle, R.; Wetzel, J.R.; Cech, R.

    1997-11-01

    A mound electrical calibration heater (MECH) has been used in several EG and G Mound developed calorimeters as a calibration tool. They are very useful over the wattage range of a few to 500 W. At the lower end of the range, a bias develops between the MECH probe and calibrated heat standards. A low-wattage electrical calibration heater (L WECH) probe is being developed by the Safeguards Science and Technology group (NIS-5) of Los Alamos National Laboratory based upon a concept proposed by EG and G Mound personnel. The probe combines electrical resistive heating and laser-light powered heating. The LWECH probe is being developed for use with power settings up to 2W. The electrical heater will be used at the high end of the range, and laser-light power will be used low end of the wattage range. The system consists of two components: the heater probe and a control unit. The probe is inserted into the measuring cavity through an opening in the insulating baffle, and a sleeve is required to adapt to the measuring chamber. The probe is powered and controlled using electronics modules located separately. This paper will report on the design of the LWECH probe, initial tests, and expected performance.

  10. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  11. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  12. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  13. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  14. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, William P.; Buescher, Tom

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  15. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Steven A.; Pratt, Richard M.; Chassin, Forrest S.

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  16. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, T.F.

    1998-09-29

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  17. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Thomas F.

    1998-01-01

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  18. Texas Gas Service- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Texas Gas Service (TGS) offers a range of financial incentives to commercail customers who purchase and install energy efficient commercial equipment. Eligible equipment includes water heaters,...

  19. MidAmerican Energy (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    MidAmerican Energy offers basic energy efficiency incentives for residential customers in Nebraska. These incentives include gas heating equipment such as boilers, furnaces, and water heaters. Free...

  20. Low-cost Batch Solar Water Heater research and development project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.

    1983-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the development and testing of Batch Solar Water Heaters. Batch Heaters tested include several kinds of tank-under-glass (Breadbox) models and several types of Inverted Batch Solar Water Heaters with both fixed and moveable reflector systems. Temperature graphs and tables of performance indices are presented for each water heater tested. An Inverted Batch Water Heater was developed based upon the test results called the Bottomgainer. Two prototypes of the Bottomgainer model were installed and monitored in use on residences. The Bottomgainer concept could be adapted to commercial production.

  1. Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-02-14

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

  2. SystemBurn

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-30

    SystemBurn is a tool for creating a synthetic computational load for the purpose of measuring how much power a computer will draw under that type of load. The loads include fundamental library function calls like matrix multiply, memory copies, fourier transforms, bit manipulation, I/O, network packet transfers, and some code contrived to cause the processor to dray more or less power. The code produces some diagnostic and progress output, but the actual measurements would bemore » recorded from the power panels within the computer room.« less

  3. Columbia Gas of Massachusetts - Residential Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heaters: 400 Tankless Water Heaters: 500 - 800 Condensing Water Heater: 400 Storage Water Heaters: 100 Thermostat: 25 After Market Boiler Reset: 225 Heat Recovery...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this week led to decreases in consumption of natural gas for power generation. Power burn fell almost 4 percent week over week, according to data from Bentek Energy Services,...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    reverse direction and fall to 3.91 per MMBtu yesterday. Natural gas demand for power burn increased across the country during the report week. According to data from BENTEK...

  6. Biomass Burning Observation Project Specifically,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pacific Northwest region and in the vicinity of Memphis, Tennessee, as part of the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP). The aircraft will fly through smoke plumes from...

  7. ISSUANCE 2015-08-14: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Definitions and Standards for Grid-Enabled Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Definitions and Standards for Grid-Enabled Water Heaters

  8. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or smart grid, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  9. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  10. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  11. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  12. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  13. BLM Burns District Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Burns District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Burns District Office Place: Hines, Oregon References: BLM Burns District Office1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  14. ARM - Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 2013 BNL BBOP Website Contacts Larry Kleinman, Lead Scientist Arthur Sedlacek Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Biomass Burning Plants, trees, grass, brush, and...

  15. Effects on carbon monoxide levels in mobile homes using unvented kerosene heaters for residential heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.; Walsh, D.; White, J.; Jackson, M.; Mumford, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old. These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. Respondents were asked to operate their heaters in a normal fashion. CO, air exchange and temperature values were measured during the study in each home. Results indicate that consumers using unvented kerosene heaters may be unknowingly exposed to high CO levels without taking proper precautions.

  16. WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Allowable Weatherization Measures | Department of Energy 0-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water Heaters as Allowable Weatherization Measures WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water Heaters as Allowable Weatherization Measures Effective: Oct. 6, 2000 Provides states with the approval to include refrigerator and electric water heater replacements as an allowable measure. WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water

  17. Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During #EnergyFaceoff Round Three

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    #EnergyFaceoff round three goes to the electric blanket, see how much more money it can save you over a space heater!

  18. Mountain Association for Community Economic Development- Solar Water Heater Loan Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Kentucky Solar Partnership (KSP) and the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED) partner to offer low interest loans for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans...

  19. An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2011-08-31

    This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users’ water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

  20. Ex Parte Memorandum on Grid-Enabled Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Grid-Enabled Water Heaters Ex Parte Memorandum on Grid-Enabled Water Heaters On September 26, 2013 a number of stakeholders met with DOE representatives regarding water heater standards and thermal storage and demand response programs. DOE exparte memo_10_02_13 (99.23 KB) Grid-Enabled_Water_Heater_Amendment (27.15 KB) More Documents & Publications EPAct 2005. Conference Report, July 27, 2005 E:\BILLS\H6.PP In the Senate of the United States,June 28, 2005.

  1. DOE_EnergyEfficiencyStandardsForLargeVolumeWaterHeaters.pdf

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and information on the use of electric thermal storage water heaters in utility demand response programs, and on the impact that the energy efficiency standards established by ...

  2. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heater Test Procedures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters.

  3. HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy This presentation at the 2014 Peer Review provided an overview of the Building Technologies Office's HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D activities. Through robust feedback, the BTO Program Peer Review enhances existing efforts and improves future designs. View the Presentation HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D

  4. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its low cost heat pump water heater. These solid state heat pumping elements can be implemented in low cost manner which have the potential to dramatically change the way in which he heat water.<BR />Image: Sheetak Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its low cost heat pump water heater. These

  5. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Calculating the efficiency and operating cost of your water heater can help you decide which model is right for your household.

  6. Technical Highlight: NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters.

  7. Microsoft Word - Deep-Burn awards news release _2_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELEASE Tim Jackson, DOE-Idaho Operations Office Wednesday, July 23, 2008 (208) 526-8484 U.S. Department of Energy Awards $7.3 million for "Deep-Burn" Gas-Reactor Technology Research & Development WASHINGTON, DC -Today the U.S. Department of Energy announced it has selected teams led by Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to advance the technology of nuclear fuel "Deep-Burn," in which plutonium and higher transuranics recycled from spent nuclear fuel

  8. Iron/potassium perchlorate pellet burn rate measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.W.; Walters, R.R.

    1995-01-25

    A burn rate test having several advantages for low gas-producing pyrotechnic compacts has been developed. The technique involves use of a high speed video motion analysis system that allows immediate turnaround and produces all required data for rate computation on magnetic tape and becomes immediately available on the display screen. The test technique provides a quick method for material qualification along with data for improved reliability and function. Burn rate data has been obtained for both UPI and Eagle Pitcher Iron/Potassium Perchlorate blends. The data obtained for the UPI blends cover a range of composition, pellet density, and ambient (before ignition) pellet temperature. Burn rate data for the E-P blends were extended to include surface conditions or particle size as a variable parameter.

  9. An optimized periodic inspection program for condensers and feedwater heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhart, E.R.; Kaminski, S.

    1996-12-31

    Tube failures in steam plant surface condensers and feedwater heaters are a significant reliability problem for the electric power industry. Tube failures can also result in an increase in replacement power costs. In addition, condenser leaks from failed tubes have potentially harmful effects on major components such as steam generators and turbines. To reduce the number of tube failures and consequent leakage, periodic maintenance programs have used the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method of eddy-current testing (ET) to inspect the condition of the tubes from the water side. This NDE method can identify tubes that have experienced major degradation and should be plugged to prevent in-service failure. However, the use of NDE methods in plant maintenance of condensers and feedwater heaters is not standard practice and varies significantly throughout the utility industry. Variability of inspection results and difficulty in inspecting some types of tubing (monel, carbon steel) have caused many utility sites to question the value of in-service inspection of heat transfer tubing from the water side. Recognizing the above problem, advanced ET systems have been developed that use multi-frequency, remote field and digital data processing techniques to inspect a wide variety of tubing materials and produce on-site inspection reports. Recent field examination results will be presented.

  10. Eleana near-surface heater experiment final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lappin, A R; Thomas, R K; McVey, D F

    1981-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a near-surface heater experiment operated at a depth of 23 m in argillite within the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test geometrically simulated emplacement of a single canister of High-Level Waste (HLW) and was operated at a power level of 2.5 kW for 21 days, followed by 3.8 kW to 250 days, when the power was turned off. Below 85 to 100{sup 0}C, there was good agreement between modeled and measured thermal results in the rock and in the emplacement hole, except for transient transport of water in the heater hole. Above 100{sup 0}C, modeled and measured thermal results increasingly diverged, indicating that the in-situ rock-mass thermal conductivity decreased as a result of dehydration more than expected on the basis of matrix properties. Correlation of thermomechanical modeling and field results suggests that this decrease was caused by strong coupling of thermal and mechanical behavior of the argillite at elevated temperatures. No hole-wall decrepitation was observed in the experiment; this fact and the codrrelation of modeled and measured results at lower temperatures indicate that there is no a priori reason to eliminate argillaceous rocks from further consideration as a host rock for nuclear wastes.

  11. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  12. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  13. Thermostatically controlled portable electric space heater with automatic temperature setback for energy saving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, S.

    1994-01-11

    An electrically-powered portable space heater of the type having one or more vertically extending fin-tube heating elements disposed within an elongated housing has a selectively adjustable temperature controller responsive to a signal from an upwardly extending thermistor externally pivotally mounted on the rear of the heater housing for movement from a storage position behind the housing to an upraised operative position, thermistor also being used to supply a room temperature signal to an ambient temperature display device on the heater housing. Furthermore, the heater includes a selectively actuatable energy saving feature which, when actuated, automatically reduces by 5 degrees F. after a period of one hour the temperature to which the heater has been pre-set by the operator. 17 figs.

  14. Multi-cylinder hot gas engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1985-01-01

    A multi-cylinder hot gas engine having an equal angle, V-shaped engine block in which two banks of parallel, equal length, equally sized cylinders are formed together with annular regenerator/cooler units surrounding each cylinder, and wherein the pistons are connected to a single crankshaft. The hot gas engine further includes an annular heater head disposed around a central circular combustor volume having a new balanced-flow hot-working-fluid manifold assembly that provides optimum balanced flow of the working fluid through the heater head working fluid passageways which are connected between each of the cylinders and their respective associated annular regenerator units. This balanced flow provides even heater head temperatures and, therefore, maximum average working fluid temperature for best operating efficiency with the use of a single crankshaft V-shaped engine block.

  15. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  16. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Request for Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Request for Information

  17. Clean burning solid fuel stove and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.; Grouw, S.J.V.

    1985-10-08

    A stove for burning solid fuels having an insulated primary combustion chamber, uniform distribution of preheated primary air through upward facing holes in a grate, downward flow of combustion gas through the grate, retention of hot coals in the grate structure, preheated secondary air, individually controlled primary and secondary air flows, insulated vortex combustion chambers for secondary combustion, longitudinally finned tubes as a first stage heat exchanger, plate-fin assembly as a second stage heat exchanger, an induced draft fan to draw the air and combustion gases through the combustion chambers as well as the heat exchangers, and a forced air fan to blow cool room air through the two stage heat exchanger.

  18. Thermal performance of packed-bed solar air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S.P.; Saini, J.S.; Varma, H.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the enhancement of thermal performance of solar iar heater having its duct packed with blackened wire-screen matrices. Tests were conducted to cover wide range of influencing parameters including geometry of wire screens, mass flow rates and input solar energy fluxes under actual outdoor conditions. Effect of these parameters on the thermal performance has been investigated and results have been compared with those of plane (flat-plate) collectors. These tests provide useful data for rating wire-screen matrices packed-bed collectors based on thermal performance. It is observed that the performance of plane collector improves appreciably by packing its duct with blackened wire-screen matrices and this improvement is a strong function of bed and operating parameters.

  19. Optimal thermohydraulic performance of artifically roughened solar air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, B.N.; Saini, J.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficient of solar air heaters can be increased by providing artificial roughness on the bottom of the absorber plate, leading to higher collection efficiency. Inclusion of artificial roughness, however, results in a higher friction factor and consequently a higher pumping power is required. Results show that both the Nusselt number and friction factor increase with increasing relative roughness height and decrease with increasing relative roughness pitch, but not in direct proportions. Optimization of the roughness and flow parameters (p/e, e/D, Re) to maximize heat transfer while keeping friction losses minimum was attempted. It has been found that a particular value of roughness Reynolds number (e{sup +} = e/D {radical}{ovr f/2Re}), always corresponds to optimum thermohydraulic conditions in the range of parameters investigated. On this basis design curves have been developed that give the optimal thermohydraulic performance combination of these parameters.

  20. Natural Gas Year-in-Review - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increased winter natural gas demand offset the decline in power burn, leading to a net ... a marginal source of supply, largely during cold weather and pipeline maintenance outages. ...

  1. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  2. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  3. Clean Burn Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Burn Fuels LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clean Burn Fuels LLC Place: Raleigh, North Carolina Zip: 27603 Sector: Biofuels Product: Biofuels developer planning to build a 60m...

  4. Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EERE-2015-BT-TP-0007-0002 | Department of Energy Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters, EERE-2015-BT-TP-0007-0002 Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters, EERE-2015-BT-TP-0007-0002 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Water Heaters, EERE-2015-BT-TP-0007-0002, specifically issues surrounding the Conversion Factor status. EXPARTE MEMO 4 26-rbc (83.88 KB) More Documents

  5. Evaluation of a Stirling engine heater bypass with the NASA Lewis nodal-analysis performance code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Research Center investigated whether bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater during regenerative cooling would improve the engine thermal efficiency. The investigation was accomplished by using the Lewis nodal-analysis Stirling engine computer model. Bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater at full power resulted in a rise in the indicated thermal efficiency from 40.6 to 41.0 percent. For the idealized (some losses not included) heater bypass that was analyzed, this benefit is not considered significant.

  6. Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubesh, John Thomas; Dodge, Lee Gene; Podnar, Daniel James

    1998-04-07

    The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

  7. Berkshire Gas - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    400 Storage Water Heaters: 100 Condensing Stand Alone Water Heaters: 500 Tankless Water Heaters: 500 - 800 Heat Recovery Ventilator: 500 After-Market Boiler Reset...

  8. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2ElctrcEngineHeaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Property Edit with form History Property:BuildingSPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2ElctrcEngineHeaters Jump to: navigation, search This is...

  9. Efficient graphite ring heater suitable for diamond-anvil cells to 1300 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Zhixue; Amulele, George; Lee, Kanani K. M.; Miyagi, Lowell

    2013-02-15

    In order to generate homogeneous high temperatures at high pressures, a ring-shaped graphite heater has been developed to resistively heat diamond-anvil cell (DAC) samples up to 1300 K. By putting the heater in direct contact with the diamond anvils, this graphite heater design features the following advantages: (1) efficient heating: sample can be heated to 1300 K while the DAC body temperature remains less than 800 K, eliminating the requirement of a special alloy for the DAC; (2) compact design: the sample can be analyzed with in situ measurements, e.g., x-ray, optical, and electrical probes are possible. In particular, the side access of the heater allows for radial x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in addition to traditional axial XRD.

  10. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

  11. Tri-County Electric Cooperative- Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tri-County Electric Cooperative offers a $75 rebate on the purchase of energy-efficient electric water heaters. The rebate is valid for new or replacement units which have an Energy Factor Rating...

  12. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  13. Portable, flueless, low NO sub x , low CO space heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kardas, A.

    1990-09-25

    This patent describes a flueless, portable space heater. It comprises: a fuel chamber having a fuel inlet and fuel distributing means, fuel swirling means for generating a swirling fuel flow; a primary air chamber, primary air swirling means for generating a counter-swirling primary air flow with respect to the swirling fuel flow; at least one combustion chamber wall forming a combustion chamber sealably secured to and in communication with the primary air swirling means, secondary air inlet means; mediate shell surrounding the at least one combustion chamber wall; a top and a bottom sealing the space, a secondary air inlet in communication with the space. The bottom having at least one bottom plate through hole, at least one secondary air inlet tube sealably secured to the bottom and in communication with the at least one bottom plate through hole, each the bottom plate through hole in communication with the space between the intermediate shell and the at least one combustion chamber wall; and an outer protective shell surrounding and supportably spaced from the at least one combustion chamber wall of the combustion chamber.

  14. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) sequential impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Rinehart, G.H.

    1997-08-01

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. A series of sequential impacts tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules was recently conducted to determine a failure threshold. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Although the tests were conducted until the aeroshells were sufficiently distorted to be out of dimensional specification, the simulant-fueled capsules used in these tests were not severely deformed. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s. Postimpact examination revealed that the sequentially impacted capsules were slightly more deformed and were outside of dimensional specifications.

  15. Heat pump water heater and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Tomlinson, John J.; Chen, Fang C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

  16. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  17. Light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Rinehart, G. H.; Herrera, A.; Lopez, B.; Lynch, C.; Moniz, P.

    1998-01-15

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s.

  18. Light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.; Rinehart, G.H.; Herrera, A.; Lopez, B.; Lynch, C.; Moniz, P.

    1998-01-01

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerant | Department of Energy Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Information flow schematic for an integrated heat pump design model and wrapped tank model. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information flow schematic for an integrated heat pump design model and wrapped tank model. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information flow schematic

  20. Commercial CO2 Electric Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 Electric Heat Pump Water Heater Commercial CO2 Electric Heat Pump Water Heater Planned enhanced modeling approach to facilitate analyses of wrapped-tank options for the project. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Planned enhanced modeling approach to facilitate analyses of wrapped-tank options for the project. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN FY16 DOE Funding: $150,000 Project Term: October 1, 2015 - TBD

  1. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of

  2. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W.; Sethi, Vijay; Brecher, Lee E.

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  3. Protection heater design validation for the LARP magnets using thermal imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marchevsky, M.; Turqueti, M.; Cheng, D. W.; Felice, H.; Sabbi, G.; Salmi, T.; Stenvall, A.; Chlachidze, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Ferracin, P.; et al

    2016-03-16

    Protection heaters are essential elements of a quench protection scheme for high-field accelerator magnets. Various heater designs fabricated by LARP and CERN have been already tested in the LARP high-field quadrupole HQ and presently being built into the coils of the high-field quadrupole MQXF. In order to compare the heat flow characteristics and thermal diffusion timescales of different heater designs, we powered heaters of two different geometries in ambient conditions and imaged the resulting thermal distributions using a high-sensitivity thermal video camera. We observed a peculiar spatial periodicity in the temperature distribution maps potentially linked to the structure of themore » underlying cable. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of heat diffusion and spatial heat distribution have been conducted, and the results of simulation and experiment have been compared. Imaging revealed hot spots due to a current concentration around high curvature points of heater strip of varying cross sections and visualized thermal effects of various interlayer structural defects. Furthermore, thermal imaging can become a future quality control tool for the MQXF coil heaters.« less

  4. Coweta-Fayette EMC- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coweta-Fayette Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) provides electric and natural gas service to 58,000 customers in Georgia's Coweta, Fayette, Meriwether, Heard, Troop and Fulton counties.

  5. Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, Thomas David

    2009-11-03

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing acidic gas to a subsurface formation is described herein. The method may include providing heat from one or more heaters to a portion of a subsurface formation; producing fluids that include one or more acidic gases from the formation using a heat treatment process. At least a portion of one of the acidic gases may be introduced into the formation, or into another formation, through one or more wellbores at a pressure below a lithostatic pressure of the formation in which the acidic gas is introduced.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at selected burning grounds at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, B.W.; Minor, L.K.M.; Flucas, B.J.

    1998-02-01

    A commercial immunoassay field test (IFT) was used to rapidly assess the total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil at selected burning grounds within the explosives corridor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Results were compared with analyses obtained from LANL Analytical Laboratory and from a commercial laboratory. Both used the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Methods 8270 and 8310. EPA`s Method 8270 employs gas chromatography and mass spectral analyses, whereas EPA`s Method 8310 uses an ultraviolet detector in a high-performance liquid chromatography procedure. One crude oil sample and one diesel fuel sample, analyzed by EPA Method 8270, were included for references. On an average the IFT results were lower for standard samples and lower than the analytical laboratory results for the unknown samples. Sites were selected to determine whether the PAHs came from the material burned or the fuel used to ignite the burn, or whether they are produced by a high-temperature chemical reaction during the burn. Even though the crude oil and diesel fuel samples did contain measurable quantities of PAHs, there were no significant concentrations of PAHs detected in the ashes and soil at the burning grounds. Tests were made on fresh soil and ashes collected after a large burn and on aged soil and ashes known to have been at the site more than three years. Also analyzed were twelve-year-old samples from an inactive open burn cage.

  7. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  8. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, Jonathan L.; Hall, Kevin A.

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  9. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design

  10. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  11. Accelerated Life Structural Benchmark Testing for a Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, David L.; Kantzos, Pete T.

    2006-01-20

    For proposed long-duration NASA Space Science missions, the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Infinia Corporation, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110-watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110). A structurally significant limit state for the SRG110 heater head component is creep deformation induced at high material temperature and low stress level. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and a wealth of creep data is available for the Inconel 718 material of construction. However, the specified atypical thin heater head material is fine-grained with a heat treatment that limits precipitate growth, and little creep property data for this microstructure is available in the literature. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply a multiaxial stress state on the component, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, an extensive experimental investigation is ongoing to aid in accurately assessing the durability of the SRG110 heater head. This investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head-like pressure vessels at design temperature with stress levels ranging from approximately the design stress to several times that. This paper presents experimental results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for four higher-stress, accelerated life tests. Analysts are using these results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the SRG110 heater head.

  12. Performance of Gas-fired Water Heaters in a 10-home Field Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

  13. Energy Efficient Condensing Side-arm Gas Water Heater - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficient Buildings Hub Energy Efficient Buildings Hub August 1, 2010 - 4:27pm Addthis This model of a renovated historic building -- Building 661 -- in Philadelphia will house the Energy Efficient Buildings Hub. The facility’s renovation will serve as a best practices model for commercial building design, historic adaptive re-use, and energy efficiency innovation through continuous retrofit. This model of a renovated historic building -- Building 661 -- in Philadelphia will house the

  14. Electric cartridge-type heater for producing a given non-uniform axial power distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, D.L.; Kress, T.S.

    1975-10-14

    An electric cartridge heater is provided to simulate a reactor fuel element for use in safety and thermal-hydraulic tests of model nuclear reactor systems. The electric heat-generating element of the cartridge heater consists of a specifically shaped strip of metal cut with variable width from a flat sheet of the element material. When spirally wrapped around a mandrel, the strip produces a coiled element of the desired length and diameter. The coiled element is particularly characterized by an electrical resistance that varies along its length due to variations in strip width. Thus, the cartridge heater is constructed such that it will produce a more realistic simulation of the actual nonuniform (approximately ''chopped'' cosine) power distribution of a reactor fuel element.

  15. The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters February 17, 2009 - 9:48am Addthis Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory If you've gone shopping for new appliances sometime in the last decade, then you're probably familiar with the ENERGY STAR® label. ENERGY STAR is a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that sets

  16. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Characterized particulate emissions from U.S.-legal ...

  17. Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report PR Buseck ... DOESC-ARM-15-076 Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report PR ...

  18. Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning LWRs with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning LWRs with Internal Blankets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning ...

  19. Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report The Biomass ...

  20. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Burns & McDonnell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Burns & McDonnell - Facility Engineering Services, LLC - September 2015 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Burns & McDonnell - Facility Engineering Services, LLC - ...

  1. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan (Program Document...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth's climate through the direct ...

  2. ISSUANCE 2014-12-23: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters, Final Rule

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-05-12: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Consumer and Commercial Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Consumer and Commercial Water Heaters

  4. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  5. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  6. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  7. Enhanced heat transfer tubes for film absorbers of absorption chiller/heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Nosetani, Tadashi; Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki

    1995-12-31

    Absorption chiller/heaters using non-CFC refrigerants are attracting attention as environmentally friendly energy systems. As the refrigerant/absorbent pair, the water/lithium bromide aqueous solution pair is preferably used for most absorption chiller/heaters in Japan. Absorption chiller/heaters, mainly used as water chillers and air-conditioners, are commercially available at least for unit cooling capacities above 60 kW. In absorption chiller/heaters, the absorber must be made compact, because the absorber has the largest heat transfer area of the four primary heat exchangers in the system: the evaporator, absorber, regenerator and condenser. Although a great amount of information is available on the evaporator and condenser, the same type of information concerning the absorber is lacking. This paper introduces two kinds of double fluted tubes called Arm tubs and Floral tubes for film absorbers. Arm tubes are manufactured using a two-pass drawbench process, while Floral tubes are made using a single pass drawbench process. The experiments using a lithium bromide aqueous solution with the addition of 250 ppm n-octyl alcohol as the surfactant showed that Arm tubes and Floral tubes had about 40% higher heat transfer performance than plain tubes. Therefore, Floral tubes are expected to realize a high performance at low cost. Furthermore, the optimization of the number of grooves on the outside of the tubes is also described here.

  8. A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. This paper proposes a more realistic ratings draw that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. Presented at the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum; Denver, Colorado; May 13-17, 2012.

  9. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  10. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth; Owens, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  11. NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

    2012-04-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82?ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

  12. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82?ºC (180?ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  13. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1 : Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elston, Ralph

    1996-08-01

    Head burn is a descriptive clinical term used by fishery biologists to describe exfoliation of skin and underlying connective tissue of the jaw and cranial region of salmonids, observed at fish passage facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The observations are usually made on upstream migrant adult salmon or steelhead. An expert panel, convened in 1996, to evaluate the risk and severity of gas bubble disease (GBD) in the Snake and Columbia River system believed that, while head burns appeared to be distinct from GBD, the relationship between dissolved gas saturation in the rivers and head burns was uncertain.

  14. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis; Obrey, Stephen J; Foley, Timothy J; Son, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  15. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  16. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  17. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  18. Keeping the home fires burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenti, M.

    1993-07-01

    Some utilities and thermal researchers are devising thermoelectric and thermophotovoltaic technologies to convert furnace heat to electricity and keep home heating systems functioning during extended power failures. Storms that damage power lines often leave homes without heat, since the electricity supplied to furnace blowers is cut along with all other electricity. One case in points is the March 1991 ice storm that left nearly 200,000 Rochester Gas and Electric Corp. customers without electrical power, some for up to two weeks. This led the Rochester, N.Y., utility, RG and E, to search for an independent power source that could provide homes with heat during prolonged outages. RG and E funded development of a continuous gas furnace by the GE Research and Development Center in Schenectady, N.Y., that would keep its customers' homes heated and provide some electricity during power outages. Since natural gas lines are rarely interrupted during a power outage, the furnace is still a potential source of heat, but only if there is some way to supply electricity that is independent of the grid, said Bruce Snow, manager and chief engineer of the technical services division at RG and E. The electricity would power the furnace blower, which blows hot air through air ducts, or run the motor that pumps water through a piping system to keep the house warm. Such a thermoelectrical system involves heating the two junctions of thermocouples, which are made of dissimilar wires, at two different temperatures in order to create electricity. A newer technology, thermophoto-voltaics, also converts heat to electricity. In this process described here, the heat causes an emitter to radiate a wavelength of light, which is converted into electricity by a photovoltaic unit.

  19. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same

  20. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  1. The elimination of the reverse circulation in thermosiphon solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prapas, D.E.; Sotiropoulos, B.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Thermosiphon solar water heaters (TSWH), employing either closed or open collector loops, are widely used today to cover a substantial part of the hot water needs, mostly in residential small scale applications. Their cost is lower in comparison to pumped systems, because no pumps, controls etc. are required. However, the storage tank has to be mounted above the collector in order to promote the thermosiphon flow; this could be a serious drawback in some applications. An undesirable characteristic of TSWH is the reverse circulation (RC) of the working liquid when the temperature of the collector is lower than that of the storage tank. The causes of reverse circulation in thermosyphon solar water heaters, the geometry of the systems, and the affects of nocturnal radiative cooling of the collector are discussed. A means of interconnecting collector and tank to drastically reduce reverse circulation is presented.

  2. ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 Million in the Next Five Years

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the availability of ENERGY STAR® residential water heaters. With today's announcement, the ENERGY STAR® program now addresses every...

  3. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  4. Energy Use Test Facility: CAC-DOE solar air heater test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The solar air heater testing demonstrated an attractive application for residential space heating, especially appealing to the do-it-yourself market. Simple improvements in construction, such as caulking of the glazing, could increase collector performance at little cost. The operating cost of the fan was insignificant, being less than $0.05/week. Tested in its as-shipped configuration at 96.1 cfm (3 cfm/ft/sup 2/), the useful energy delivered averaged 20,000 Btu/day for six days in December. The electrical consumption of the fan was approximately 1 kWh. Doubling the flowrate did not increase collector performance appreciably. A TRNSYS computer simulation model for this solar air heater design was validated by comparing the measured test data on January 4, 1981 with calculated values. TRNSYS predicted the measured collector outlet temperatures within +- 1.2/sup 0/F and the energy delivered within +- 3%. The excellent agreement was obtained by adjusting the collector loss coefficient to an unrealistically low value; therefore, a parametric study is recommended to determine the model sensitivity to varying different parameters. A first-order collector efficiency curve was derived from the TRNSYS simulations which compared well with the curve defined by the clear-day measured data. In addition, a linear equation for the monthly efficiency that allows a calculation of energy savings for any location was derived from simulated data. The annual energy delivered by the air heater is calculated for three cities using hourly TRNSYS simulations and Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data. The approximate cost of materials for the heater is $144 maximum. Discounting 40% for the federal tax credit, the cost is $86. Based on 1981 electrical rates of $0.04/kWh, 2-1/2 to 3 heating seasons are required to pay back the initial cost of one collector in the TVA region.

  5. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  6. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  7. Aqueous propylene-glycol concentrations for the freeze protection of thermosyphon solar energy water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, B. ); Edmonds, J.E.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Using a validated dynamic simulation model, the thermal performance of an indirect thermosyphon solar energy water heater was examined. The heat transfer fluids employed were aqueous solutions of propylene glycol. The effect of varying the glycol concentration on the hot water output and efficacy of freeze protection was determined for a specific pattern of hot water withdrawal and weather for the temperature maritime climate of London, England. The heat output is compared with that of a drain-down direct system.

  8. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  9. Microcantilever heater-thermometer with integrated temperature-compensated strain sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, William P.; Lee, Jungchul; Goericke, Fabian T.

    2011-04-19

    The present invention provides microcantilever hotplate devices which incorporate temperature compensating strain sensors. The microcantilever hotplate devices of the present invention comprise microcantilevers having temperature compensating strain sensors and resistive heaters. The present invention also provides methods for using a microcantilever hotplate for temperature compensated surface stress measurements, chemical/biochemical sensing, measuring various properties of compounds adhered to the microcantilever hotplate surface, or for temperature compensated deflection measurements.

  10. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G.; Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  11. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. ); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  12. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  13. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; BushPE, John D

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  14. Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

    2007-03-31

    The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

  15. Indoor air pollution from portable kerosene-fired space heaters. [Effects of wick height and fuel consumption rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Dillworth, J.F.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-02-01

    Indoor use of unvented combustion appliances is known to cause an increase in indoor air pollutant levels. Laboratory tests were conducted on radiant and convective portable kerosene-fired space heaters to identify the pollutants they emit and to determine their emission rates. Laboratory-derived CO and NO/sub 2/ emission rates from unvented portable kerosense-fired space heaters are summarized and the effect of wick height and fuel consumption rate on CO and NO/sub 2/ emissions is given. Pollutant concentration profiles resulting from the use of kerosene heaters in a 27m/sup 3/ environmental chamber and a 240m/sup 3/ house are presented. When such heaters are operated for one hour in a 27m/sup 3/ chamber with 0.4 air changes per hour, the resultant CO/sub 2/ concentrations are well above the U.S. occupational standard, and NO/sub 2/ concentrations are well above California's short-term outdoor standard. Further data on parameters such as heater usage patterns and air exchange rates are needed to determine the actual pollutant exposure that kerosene heater users experience.

  16. Trash burns, turns into $120,000 in annual savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, W.A.

    1981-09-01

    A plan was developed to generate a major portion of the energy required for heating and air conditioning by burning factory trash instead of using natural gas and electricity. Trash from the Rockwell Int'l. plant, including broken wood pallets, cardboard packing materials and office waste paper, amounted to 1,000 tons per year. Previously, a contractor was being paid to come to the plant several times a week, pick up the trash and haul it to a landfill. To supplement the 1,000 tons of usable waste generated by the plant annually, the additional 500 tons of similar trash needed to operate the system are received from other industries in the vicinity. Besides accepting waste from other plants, the Marysville facility stockpiles and uses refuse corn stalks harvested from 50 acres of Rockwell-owned land adjacent to the plant. The incinerator featuring a pyrolytic heat recovery system is presented and its operation is illustrated.

  17. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, KI; Sedlacek, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    reverse direction and fall to 3.91 per MMBtu yesterday. Natural gas demand for power burn increased across the country during the report week. According to data from BENTEK...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    over the week were offset by declines in gas consumed for electricity generation. Power burn fell by 2.9 percent over the week according to estimates from BENTEK Energy Services,...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    this week led to decreases in consumption of natural gas for power generation. Power burn fell almost 4 percent week over week, according to data from Bentek Energy Services,...

  1. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Brief Introduction to Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane is highly flammable and burns almost completely. There is no ash and very little air pollution. Natural gas provides one-fifth of all the energy used in the United States. ...

  2. Igniter for gas discharge pipe with a flame detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerra, R.E.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a method of burning waste gas, using an igniter of the type having a nozzle, a main gas conduit extending to the nozzle, and an electrical spark means for creating a spark in the nozzle. It comprises: mounting the igniter to a waste gas discharge pipe with the nozzle directed across the opening of the gas discharge pipe; supplying a gaseous fuel to the main gas conduit; igniting the gaseous fuel with the electrical spark means, creating a flame for igniting the waste gas being discharged from the gas discharge pipe; providing the igniter with an auxiliary gas line extending to the vicinity of the nozzle; and supplying a second and lower volume source of waste gas to the auxiliary gas line for burning at the nozzle.

  3. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Christopher M.; Garrabrant, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  4. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Bed for Burning Coal?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-Bed for Burning Coal An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with ...

  5. Raymond Burns > Product Research Technologist - Exxon Mobile > Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alumni > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Raymond Burns Product Research Technologist - Exxon Mobile raymond.burns@gmail.com Formerly a member of the DiSalvo Group, Ray earned his PhD in August 2013

  6. Emission and transport of cesium-137 from boreal biomass burning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from boreal biomass burning in the summer of 2010 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Emission and transport of cesium-137 from boreal biomass burning in the summer ...

  7. Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium ...

  8. Burn to Learn | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burn to Learn Burn to Learn The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 3:06 min. CNS fire protection engineers recently visited Oak Ridge Fire Department to "Burn to Learn." During this event, they were able to burn materials that would be found at Y-12 (e.g,. personal protective equipment, a shredder) and analyze the results. Watch a video about the event here

  9. ISSUANCE 2015-06-25: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Residential and Commercial Water Heaters; Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Residential and Commercial Water Heaters; Correction

  10. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  11. 2015-03-25 Issuance: Definitions Regarding Consumer Water Heaters Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding definitions for consumer water heaters, as issued by the Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 25, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  12. 2015-03-26 Issuance: Residential Water Heaters; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Withdrawal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking withdrawal regarding Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, as issued by the Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 26, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  13. Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

  14. Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinehart, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. The heat sources are required to maintain the temperature of specific components within normal operating ranges. The heat source consists of a hot- pressed [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel pellet, a Pt-3ORh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 180 heat sources, 157 of which will be used on the Cassini mission.

  15. 2014-06-27 Issuance: Test Procedures for Residential and Commercial Water Heaters; Final Rule

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential and commercial water heaters, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on June 27, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  16. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  17. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  18. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  19. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  20. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C.; Edmonds, Ryan G.; Williams, Joseph T.; Baldwin, Stephen P.

    2009-10-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  1. Current issues in natural gas lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reber, J.

    1997-10-01

    Because of the ability of natural gas to burn completely relatively easily, supplying excess oxygen to promote complete reactions is a viable alternative to catalysts. Hence, lean burn technology has a natural fit for this industry. Lube oil is not adversely affected by lean burn operation. There is a slight tendency to cause more oil nitration than oxidation, but the real difference is not significant. Operators may notice somewhat more varnish (caramel color) and less sludge (black) as a result. Because the fuel is burned more completely, there is less problem with fuel-derived oil contamination. Also because of the excess air in the combustion chamber, overall cylinder temperature is lower, causing less stress on the oil. Oil life is generally lengthened. One common misconception that lean burn engines require different lubricants may stem from a change at Waukesha Engine Division--Dresser Industries. Waukesha has changed its lube oil requirements for VHP 3521, 5115, 7042, 9390 GL turbocharged and lean burn model engines. The lube oil specification for these engines is 1% to 1.7% ash with the same 0.10% zinc maximum. This change is not because of the lean burn nature of these engines, rather it is because of drastically decreased lube oil consumption. With less oil consumption, less ash is carried to the critical exhaust valve seat area to prevent valve recession.

  2. Apparatus for burning bales of trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pazar, C. A.

    1985-08-13

    Bales of combustible trash made to specific specifications are burned in a furnace having two parallel upright sidewalls between which the bales pass during burning. A horizontal grate extends between the sidewalls. The bales, if remotely made from the furnace, are bound by an easily meltable strap. The length of the bale is measurably smaller than the distance between said sidewalls to accurately accommodate springback. A ram, after compacting the waste in segmental fashion, pushes each bale to a position between said sidewalls; with the length of the bale being perpendicular to the sidewalls, so that a bale enters the furnace. Springback following the melting of straps allows the bale to expand to fill the gap between the sidewalls. This facilitates ignition and/or burning of the bales and provides a seal against furnace sidewalls. When the ram feeds a fresh bale, previously charged bales (consumed proportional to time in the furnace) are advanced toward the ash discharge port. Before the bales are formed, the trash may be optionally dried by using heated air in the classification into ''light'' sort and ''heavy'' sort. The ''light'' sort is baled and burned as described above. The ''heavy'' sort or a part of the light sort may be premixed with noxious liquid or solid wastes before charging to the furnace. Temperatures consistent with economical use of refractory (1500/sup 0/ F. to 1700/sup 0/ F.) are maintained, for a limited area adjacent the inner wall of the furnace, by addition of liquid water, while interior temperatures of the furnace of about 3000/sup 0/ F. prevail in the central portion of the furnace necessary for the incineration of noxious wastes.

  3. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  4. Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

    2012-08-27

    There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

  5. Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

    2014-09-05

    Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

  6. Stress corrosion cracking of Ni-Cu alloy 400 tubes in feedwater heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amar, A.S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the inspections and metallurgical evaluations of a high pressure feedwater heater that experienced numerous tube failures after a short service life. Using EPRI NDE Center technical support, tubes were eddy current tested with special probes in the tubesheet region and with conventional probes in the remaining straight portion. Pulled tubes were metallurgically examined. Crack depths were correlated with eddy current indications. Short axial cracks were found on the inner surface of the tubes at roll transitions. Failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking. The cold drawn-stress relieved Monel{trademark} (Alloy 400) tube had < 10 KSI hoop residual stress, however the residual stress was probably much higher in the roll transition. A large number of tubes were plugged based on the eddy current indications, however several tubes that showed no indications had leaked a few months later. This suggested that after initiation, crack growth was rapid. The heater was replaced after 4.5 years of service.

  7. MHD air heater development technology. Technical progress report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Technology development for the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described. Work is being done under three tasks as described in the following. (1) materials selection, evaluation, and development: The objective of this task is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The scope of the work will include compilation of materials data, materials selection for testing and design studies, materials property determination, liaison with refractory manufacturers and other organizations to encourage development of materials and fabrication technology, establishment of preliminary HTAH material specifications, analyses of test materials, and development of criteria for thermal stress limits for crack-tolerant refractory materials. (2) operability, performance, and materials testing: The objectives of this task are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. (3) full-scale design concepts: The objectives of this task are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. Progress is described. (WHK)

  8. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  9. Method and apparatus for controlling gas evolution from chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skorpik, J.R.; Dodson, M.G.

    1999-05-25

    The present invention is directed toward monitoring a thermally driven gas evolving chemical reaction with an acoustic apparatus. Signals from the acoustic apparatus are used to control a heater to prevent a run-away condition. A digestion module in combination with a robotic arm further automate physical handling of sample material reaction vessels. The invention is especially useful for carrying out sample procedures defined in EPA Methods SW-846. 8 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for controlling gas evolution from chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skorpik, James R.; Dodson, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward monitoring a thermally driven gas evolving chemical reaction with an acoustic apparatus. Signals from the acoustic apparatus are used to control a heater to prevent a run-away condition. A digestion module in combination with a robotic arm further automate physical handling of sample material reaction vessels. The invention is especially useful for carrying out sample procedures defined in EPA Methods SW-846.

  11. Spark gap switch system with condensable dielectric gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thayer, III, William J.

    1991-01-01

    A spark gap switch system is disclosed which is capable of operating at a high pulse rate comprising an insulated switch housing having a purging gas entrance port and a gas exit port, a pair of spaced apart electrodes each having one end thereof within the housing and defining a spark gap therebetween, an easily condensable and preferably low molecular weight insulating gas flowing through the switch housing from the housing, a heat exchanger/condenser for condensing the insulating gas after it exits from the housing, a pump for recirculating the condensed insulating gas as a liquid back to the housing, and a heater exchanger/evaporator to vaporize at least a portion of the condensed insulating gas back into a vapor prior to flowing the insulating gas back into the housing.

  12. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  14. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  15. National Solar Water Heater Workshop Present at DOE Region V meeting for managers of State Energy Extension Service and State Energy Conservation Plan, March 18-19, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumma, S.A.; Marinello, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief description of the National Solar Water Heater Workshop and some comments by users of the solar water heater, the hardware supplier handbook is presented. The performance expected of a hardware supplier is described, solar system components and their specifications are listed, and information is provided to assist the hardware supplier in obtaining necessary materials. (LEW)

  16. Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF burning program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.

    1982-03-01

    The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF Burning Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test burned in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites annually. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in burning RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem areas encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.

  17. Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.C.

    1995-11-01

    Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b{sub 559} and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Q{sub y}-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of {approximately} 1 cm{sup -1}/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.

  18. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To evaluate the performance of central heat pump water heaters for multifamily applications, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California, for 16 months.

  19. An assessment of performance of materials for FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) air heater applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Miller, S.A.; Podolski, W.F.

    1986-10-01

    The major materials issue in the commercialization of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems for utility cogeneration applications is the corrosion/erosion degradation of in-bed components. To examine this issue, pertinent materials information was collected from 13 sources that included 16 different experimental fluidized-bed combustors (four pressurized, the other atmospheric), and a detailed analysis of the data was performed. The data analysis confirmed that austenitic stainless steels (notably Types 304 and 310) and cobalt-base alloys (notably Haynes 188) are superior to nickel-base alloys. Type 347 stainless steel and Incoloy 800H are questionable from the point of view of metal wastage. Very limited data are available for claddings and coatings. The correlations of the corrosion rate data presented in this paper for several of the more promising alloy candidates for air heater application provide guidelines for the selection of materials with reasonably assured performance in a corrosive environment.

  20. Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bidaux, Yves; Bismuto, Alfredo Tardy, Camille; Terazzi, Romain; Gresch, Tobias; Blaser, Stéphane; Muller, Antoine; Faist, Jerome

    2015-11-30

    In this work, we demonstrate broad electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers at 9.25 μm, 8.5 μm, and 4.4 μm in continuous wave operation using Vernier-effect distributed Bragg reflectors based on superstructure gratings. Integrated micro-heaters allow to switch from one Vernier channel to the other, while predictable and mode-hop free tuning can be obtained in each channel modulating the laser current with a side mode suppression ratio as high as 30 dB. The resulting device behaves effectively as a switchable multicolour tunable source. Tuning up to 6.5% of the central wavelength is observed. To prove the importance of the developed devices for high resolution molecular spectroscopy, a N{sub 2}O absorption spectrum has been measured.

  1. Characteristics and experiences of applicants for HUD grants for solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-eight winners and 45 losers of HUD solar water heater grants in the Florida panhandle were interviewed in 1978 concerning their experiences, and their solar installations were inspected. Operational problems were mostly attributable to control system failure. Grantees were generally pleased with the subsidy program. Grant recipients were not typical of the general public, in that they were mostly middle-aged, well-educated, reasonably affluent people who had a technical background, liked to do things on their own, and were fairly sophisticated so far as energy problems were concerned. It may be that the grant program is not having a great effect on solar energy commercialization, except perhaps in terms of publicity; the recipients generally would have installed systems without a grant, and most of the losers had gone ahead with a solar installation or were planning to do so.

  2. Science on the Hill: Burning questions in study of wildfire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burning questions in study of wildfire Burning questions in study of wildfire Understanding what drives big fires and predicting their behavior helps the fire community prepare for the next blaze through appropriate land management, emergency plans and firefighting strategies. July 12, 2016 A helicopter drops fire retardant on wildfire during 2011 Las Conchas fire in New Mexico. A helicopter drops fire retardant on wildfire during 2011 Las Conchas fire in New Mexico. Burning questions in study

  3. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance

  4. Accuracy of the European solar water heater test procedure. Part 1: Measurement errors and parameter estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.; Leide, B. ); Carvalho, M.J.; Collares-Pereira, M. ); Bourges, B.

    1991-01-01

    The Collector and System Testing Group (CSTG) of the European Community has developed a procedure for testing the performance of solar water heaters. This procedure treats a solar water heater as a black box with input-output parameters that are determined by all-day tests. In the present study the authors carry out a systematic analysis of the accuracy of this procedure, in order to answer the question: what tolerances should one impose for the measurements and how many days of testing should one demand under what meteorological conditions, in order to be able to quarantee a specified maximum error for the long term performance The methodology is applicable to other test procedures as well. The present paper (Part 1) examines the measurement tolerances of the current version of the procedure and derives a priori estimates of the errors of the parameters; these errors are then compared with the regression results of the Round Robin test series. The companion paper (Part 2) evaluates the consequences for the accuracy of the long term performance prediction. The authors conclude that the CSTG test procedure makes it possible to predict the long term performance with standard errors around 5% for sunny climates (10% for cloudy climates). The apparent precision of individual test sequences is deceptive because of large systematic discrepancies between different sequences. Better results could be obtained by imposing tighter control on the constancy of the cold water supply temperature and on the environment of the test, the latter by enforcing the recommendation for the ventilation of the collector.

  5. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Alabama Program Type Rebate Amount 100% Summary This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The...

  6. Arctic Haze: Effect of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haze: Effect of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning Aerosols Transported from Europe to the Arctic For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:...

  7. SFR with once-through depleted uranium breed & burn blanket ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: SFR with once-through depleted uranium breed & burn blanket Authors: Zhang, Guanheng ; Greenspan, Ehud ; Jolodosky, Alejandra ; Vujic, Jasmina Publication Date: 2015-07-01 ...

  8. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  9. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  10. Trash-fired boiler cuts plant's gas use 30%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, F

    1983-06-27

    A Minneapolis bottling plant will burn trash in a 450-horsepower boiler/incinerator to reduce natural gas consumption 30% and eliminate the costs of hauling and disposing of trash. Combined with a CA1500 heat-recovery system installed in 1982, the project will have a two-year payback. The system is clean enough that even old tires can be burned and still meet air pollution regulations. (DCK)

  11. Twenty-year progress report on the Copper Development Association do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heating manual and on the associated prototype heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Winter, F. )

    1994-07-01

    A prototype do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater was built of copper parts in 1973, combining the solar collector and a copper roof of the flat seam type. It has now heated a pool in Pasadena, California successfully for over 20 years. During those years the associated do-it-yourself manual has been distributed to about 100,000 readers, who have used to make an unknown number of heaters. Some have used the manual as the basis for a business, building repeated customer heater installations. The present paper represents a progress report.

  12. AmeriFlux US-Me1 Metolius - Eyerly burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Bev

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Me1 Metolius - Eyerly burn. Site Description - An intermediate aged ponderosa pine forest that was severely burned in the 2002 Eyerly wildfire. All trees were killed (stand replacing event). Irvine et al (2007) GCB 13 (8), 1748–1760.

  13. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and

  14. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  15. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  16. Application of charge stratification, lean burn combustion systems and anti-knock control devices in small two-stroke cycle gasoline engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuentscher, V.

    1986-01-01

    For essentially reducing the specific fuel consumption in two-stroke cycle engines and the concentration of hydrocarbons (HC) in the exhaust gas, the normal engine was equipped with a new ram tuned fuel injection system. By the application of charge stratification, lean burn combustion, different ignition systems and a special anti-knock device, considerable fuel consumption and HC emission reductions were obtained.

  17. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  18. Gas Reactor Technology R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. Department of Energy to Invest up to $7.3 Million for "Deep-Burn" Gas-Reactor Technology R&D Artist's rendering of Nuclear Plant An artist's rendering of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant concept. The U.S. Department of Energy today announced a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) valued at $7.3 million for universities, commercial entities, National Laboratories with expertise in the concept of nuclear fuel "Deep-Burn" in which plutonium and higher transuranics

  19. The role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor in the future of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollaway, W.R.; Lidsky, L.M.; Miller, M.M.

    1990-12-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the potential role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) in the future of nuclear power. The development of a usable actinide burning strategy could be an important factor in the acceptance and implementation of a next generation of nuclear power. First, the need for nuclear generating capacity is established through the analysis of energy and electricity demand forecasting models which cover the spectrum of bias from anti-nuclear to pro-nuclear. The analyses take into account the issues of global warming and the potential for technological advances in energy efficiency. We conclude, as do many others, that there will almost certainly be a need for substantial nuclear power capacity in the 2000--2030 time frame. We point out also that any reprocessing scheme will open up proliferation-related questions which can only be assessed in very specific contexts. The focus of this report is on the fuel cycle impacts of actinide burning. Scenarios are developed for the deployment of future nuclear generating capacity which exploit the advantages of actinide partitioning and actinide burning. Three alternative reactor designs are utilized in these future scenarios: The Light Water Reactor (LWR); the Modular Gas-Cooled Reactor (MGR); and the Integral Fast Reactor (FR). Each of these alternative reactor designs is described in some detail, with specific emphasis on their spent fuel streams and the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Four separation and partitioning processes are utilized in building the future nuclear power scenarios: Thermal reactor spent fuel preprocessing to reduce the ceramic oxide spent fuel to metallic form, the conventional PUREX process, the TRUEX process, and pyrometallurgical reprocessing.

  20. Local Burn-Up Effects in the NBSR Fuel Element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown N. R.; Hanson A.; Diamond, D.

    2013-01-31

    This study addresses the over-prediction of local power when the burn-up distribution in each half-element of the NBSR is assumed to be uniform. A single-element model was utilized to quantify the impact of axial and plate-wise burn-up on the power distribution within the NBSR fuel elements for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. To validate this approach, key parameters in the single-element model were compared to parameters from an equilibrium core model, including neutron energy spectrum, power distribution, and integral U-235 vector. The power distribution changes significantly when incorporating local burn-up effects and has lower power peaking relative to the uniform burn-up case. In the uniform burn-up case, the axial relative power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 59% in the HEU single-element and 46% in the LEU single-element with uniform burn-up. In the uniform burn-up case, the plate-wise power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 23% in the HEU single-element and 18% in the LEU single-element. The degree of over-prediction increases as a function of burn-up cycle, with the greatest over-prediction at the end of Cycle 8. The thermal flux peak is always in the mid-plane gap; this causes the local cumulative burn-up near the mid-plane gap to be significantly higher than the fuel element average. Uniform burn-up distribution throughout a half-element also causes a bias in fuel element reactivity worth, due primarily to the neutronic importance of the fissile inventory in the mid-plane gap region.