National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for heated catalytic converter

  1. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  2. Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    NOx - 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST INTRODUCTION Automobile engines of gasoline (hydrocarbons, CxHy) in air: CxHy + O2 CO2 + H2O + heat (1) When there is the correct balance

  3. Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic converter through use of insulation within the ceramic monolith

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Emissions performance comparison of conventional catalytic converter with multi-channel catalytic converter (ceramic fiber insulation layers introduced into ceramic monolith of three-way catalytic converter)

  4. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

  5. Improved Low-Temperature Performance of Catalytic Converters...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory. Toxic vehicle emissions, such as carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons, are chemically converted to benign compounds, like carbon dioxide (CO2) and water,...

  6. Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1999-04-06

    A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2}. The second stage serves to convert NO{sub 2} to environmentally benign gases that include N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. By preconverting NO to NO{sub 2} in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO{sub x} reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2} and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C{sub x}H{sub y}) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO{sub 2} from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, and includes a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst. 9 figs.

  7. Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Mark C. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2. The second stage serves to convert NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO.sub.2 from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO.sub.2 to N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a gamma-alumina .gamma.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst.

  8. Experimental and numerical study of the behavior of three-way catalytic converters under different engine operation conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuetao

    2005-01-01

    The thesis reports the studies on how the three-way catalytic converters behave under different operation conditions. The main focus of the work is in the oxygen storage capacity of the three-way catalyst. Rich-to-lean ...

  9. Dynamic Incompressible Navier-Stokes Model of Catalytic Converter in 1-D Including Fundamental Oxidation Reaction Rate Expressions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loya, Sudarshan Kedarnath

    2011-12-31

    these postulations have been effective in the past, they might not work with new versions of catalytic converters and the architectures being proposed. In particular, classical models neglect viscosity, conductivity and diffusion in the bulk gas phase. However...

  10. Heat transfer rates in fixed bed catalytic reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levelton, Bruce Harding

    1951-01-01

    bed. A consideration of thermal effects in a gas-solid tubular reactor involves a number of prime variables, viz. (a) Reynolds number and heat capacity of reactants (b) Tube diameter and length (c) Catalyst particle size, shape and characteristics... conditions than in fixed bed reactors prevail. The problem of determining temperatures in moving-bed catalytic reactors is somewhat similar to that in gas-solid fixed bed reactors, but this investigation will not treat such cases. The mechanism of heat...

  11. Aalborg Universitet SiC heat pump converters with support for voltage unbalance in distribution grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    Aalborg Universitet SiC heat pump converters with support for voltage unbalance in distribution (APA): Trintis, I., Douglass, P., Maheshwari, R., & Munk-Nielsen, S. (2015). SiC heat pump converters.aau.dk on: november 29, 2015 #12;SiC heat pump converters with support for voltage unbalance in distribution

  12. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  13. Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢ £Space Heating & Cooling

  14. Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rasor, Ned S. (Cupertino, CA); Riley, David R. (West Newton, PA); Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Geller, Clint B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

  15. Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D. Ronney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood title: Extinction limits in excess enthalpy burners To be published in Proceedings of the Combustion-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D

  16. Thermionic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, G.O.

    1987-05-19

    A thermionic converter is set forth which includes an envelope having an electron collector structure attached adjacent to a wall. An electron emitter structure is positioned adjacent the collector structure and spaced apart from opposite wall. The emitter and collector structures are in a common chamber. The emitter structure is heated substantially only by thermal radiation. Very small interelectrode gaps can be maintained utilizing the thermionic converter whereby increased efficiency results. 10 figs.

  17. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  18. Visible light plasmonic heating of Au-ZnO for the catalytic reduction of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Congjun; Ranasingha, Oshadha; Natesakhawat, Sittichai; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Ohodnicki, Andio, Mark; Lewis, James; P Matranga, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Plasmonic excitation of Au nanoparticles attached to the surface of ZnO catalysts using low power 532 nm laser illumination leads to significant heating of the catalyst and the conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} reactants to CH{sub 4} and CO products. Temperature-calibrated Raman spectra of ZnO phonons show that intensity-dependent plasmonic excitation can controllably heat AuZnO from 30 to #1;~600 {degrees}#3;C and simultaneously tune the CH{sub 4} : CO product ratio. The laser induced heating and resulting CH{sub 4} : CO product distribution agrees well with predictions from thermodynamic models and temperatureprogrammed reaction experiments indicating that the reaction is a thermally driven process resulting from the plasmonic heating of the AuZnO. The apparent quantum yield for CO{sub 2} conversion under continuous wave (cw) 532 nm laser illumination is 0.030%. The AuZnO catalysts are robust and remain active after repeated laser exposure and cycling. The light intensity required to initiate CO{sub 2} reduction is low (#1;~2.5 x#4; 10{sup 5} W m{sup #5;-2}) and achievable with solar concentrators. Our results illustrate the viability of plasmonic heating approaches for CO{sub 2} utilization and other practical thermal catalytic applications.

  19. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  20. Universal thermochemical energy converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich (Oak Ridge, TN); Sand, James R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Conklin, James C. (Knoxville, TN); VanCoevering, James (Oak Ridge, TN); Courville, George E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for a thermochemical closed cycle employing a polyatomic, chemically active working fluid for converting heat energy into useful work.

  1. Effect of heat recirculation on the self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane/air mixtures in a quartz reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Pirone, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione-CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Russo, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Vlachos, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane is experimentally studied in a two-pass, quartz heat-recirculation reactor (HRR) and compared to that in a no (heat) recirculation reactor (NRR). Structured monolithic reactors with Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Pt doped perovskite catalysts have been compared in the HRR and NRR configurations. Heat recirculation enhances combustion stability, by widening the operating window of self-sustained operation, and changes the mode of stability loss from blowout to extinction. It is found that thermal shields (upstream and downstream of the monolith) play no role in the stability of a HRR but increase the stability of a NRR. The stability of a HRR follows this trend: Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > doped perovskite > LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Finally, a higher cell density monolith enlarges the operating window of self-sustained combustion, and allows further increase of the power density of the process. (author)

  2. Effect of heat treatment on the catalytic activity of activated alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrar, Gerald Leland

    1950-01-01

    and constant feed com- position: to dxc Iko f(xc) ko' f'(xc)j a s L 8f fraction reactant converted k ~ forward reaction rate constant k a L s k'~ reverse reaction rate constant ko' a L s Wc weight of catalyst nt mole of feed ner unit time a ~ area per... unit mass of catalyst L active spots per unit area s ~ number of equidistant~ active spots ad)acent to each spot, needed by and available for reaction (assumed constant in this case) Let [ko f(xc) k ' f'(x )] 15(xc) Separating variables...

  3. Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    million barrels, and nearly 9 million of that is gasoline. With fuel prices rising, consumers are lookingConverting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels are created and produced. The company has a proprietary

  4. Catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  5. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  6. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuelbio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  7. Beam converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter

    2003-05-06

    A converter and method for converting electron energy to irradiative energy comprising foam and/or foil. Foam and foil optionally comprise a high-Z material, such as, but not limited to, tantalum.

  8. Dynamic Electronic Control of Catalytic Converters | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commonalities between Non-road and On-road Diesel Emissions Diesel Injection Shear-Stress Advanced Nozzle (DISSAN) Microstructural Contol of the Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Consisted...

  9. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis In ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, biomass is heated with catalysts...

  10. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis The in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis pathway involves rapidly heating...

  11. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving 35 pseudo compo- nents. They claimed that the simplified-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high

  12. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

  13. Catalytic Coherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan Aberg

    2014-10-20

    Due to conservation of energy we cannot directly turn a quantum system with a definite energy into a superposition of different energies. However, if we have access to an additional resource in terms of a system with a high degree of coherence, as for standard models of laser light, we can overcome this limitation. The question is to what extent coherence gets degraded when utilized. Here it is shown that coherence can be turned into a catalyst, meaning that we can use it repeatedly without ever diminishing its power to enable coherent operations. This finding stands in contrast to the degradation of other quantum resources, and has direct consequences for quantum thermodynamics, as it shows that latent energy that may be locked into superpositions of energy eigenstates can be released catalytically.

  14. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  15. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-09-22

    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  16. Catalytic cartridge SO3 decomposer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1982-05-25

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a crossflow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axialflow cartridge, so3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  17. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, Manu

    2012-01-01

    liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

  18. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

  19. Method and apparatus for a catalytic firebox reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance L. (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Ulkarim, Hasan (Hamden, CT); Castaldi, Marco J. (Bridgeport, CT); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic firebox reactor employing an exothermic catalytic reaction channel and multiple cooling conduits for creating a partially reacted fuel/oxidant mixture. An oxidation catalyst is deposited on the walls forming the boundary between the multiple cooling conduits and the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, on the side of the walls facing the exothermic catalytic reaction channel. This configuration allows the oxidation catalyst to be backside cooled by any fluid passing through the cooling conduits. The heat of reaction is added to both the fluid in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel and the fluid passing through the cooling conduits. After discharge of the fluids from the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, the fluids mix to create a single combined flow. A further innovation in the reactor incorporates geometric changes in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel to provide streamwise variation of the velocity of the fluids in the reactor.

  20. Power Converters for Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visintini, R

    2015-01-01

    Particle accelerators use a great variety of power converters for energizing their sub-systems; while the total number of power converters usually depends on the size of the accelerator or combination of accelerators (including the experimental setup), the characteristics of power converters depend on their loads and on the particle physics requirements: this paper aims to provide an overview of the magnet power converters in use in several facilities worldwide.

  1. Switching Power Converter A/D Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to make intelligent decisions on load and system management prior to system faults. With the increased use of the converter [1]. Traditionally, system monitoring and control is performed by a central power management

  2. Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Heinz, Robert (Ludwigshafen, DE)

    2012-06-26

    A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

  3. Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic converter through use of insulation within the ceramic monolith Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way...

  4. Rich catalytic injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  5. Interleaved power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Lizhi (Canton, MI)

    2007-11-13

    A power converter architecture interleaves full bridge converters to alleviate thermal management problems in high current applications, and may, for example, double the output power capability while reducing parts count and costs. For example, one phase of a three phase inverter is shared between two transformers, which provide power to a rectifier such as a current doubler rectifier to provide two full bridge DC/DC converters with three rather than four high voltage inverter legs.

  6. Catalytic cracking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Baker, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

  7. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  8. Microminiature thermionic converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Donald B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sadwick, Laurence P. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wernsman, Bernard R. (Clairton, PA)

    2001-09-25

    Microminiature thermionic converts (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures. Methods of manufacturing those converters using semiconductor integrated circuit fabrication and micromachine manufacturing techniques are also disclosed. The MTCs of the invention incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. Existing prior art thermionic converter technology has energy conversion efficiencies ranging from 5-15%. The MTCs of the present invention have maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices can be fabricated at modest costs.

  9. Voltage Converter TYPICAL APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    1 LTC660 100mA CMOS Voltage Converter TYPICAL APPLICATION U s Simple Conversion of 5V to 5V Supply s Output Drive: 100mA s ROUT: 6.5 (0.65V Loss at 100mA) s BOOST Pin (Pin 1) for Higher Switching Frequency-capacitor voltage converter. It performs supply voltage conversion from positive to negative from an input range

  10. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  11. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-11-18

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

  12. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James M. (Livermore, CA); Leighton, James F. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  13. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  14. Catalytic reactor with improved burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faitani, Joseph J. (Hartford, CT); Austin, George W. (Glastonbury, CT); Chase, Terry J. (Somers, CT); Suljak, George T. (Vernon, CT); Misage, Robert J. (Manchester,all of, CT)

    1981-01-01

    To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

  15. Sodium heat engine electrical feedthrough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Neill (Dearborn, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a hermetically sealed feedthrough structure.

  16. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  17. Definition of Power Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordry, F

    2015-01-01

    The paper is intended to introduce power conversion principles and to define common terms in the domain. The concept s of sources and switches are defined and classified. From the basic laws of source interconnections, a generic method of power converter synthesis is presented. Some examples illustrate this systematic method. Finally, the commutation cell and soft commuta tion are introduced and discussedd.

  18. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  19. A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production...

  20. Catalytic conversion of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

  1. The Geography of European Convertible Bonds: Why Firms Issue Convertibles?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    1 The Geography of European Convertible Bonds: Why Firms Issue Convertibles? Franck Bancel Usha R at the geography of CB issuance. The size and development of the CB market varies widely across countries and over

  2. Multiscale Modeling and Solution Multiplicity in Catalytic Pellet Reactors Kedar Kulkarni,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    Multiscale Modeling and Solution Multiplicity in Catalytic Pellet Reactors Kedar Kulkarni, Jeonghwa phenomena in catalytic pellet reactors are often difficult to analyze because of coupling between heat at the macroscopic level as well as the catalyst pellets at the microscopic level. The resulting approach yields

  3. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will exceed this initial performance estimates. In advancing the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of this type of wave energy converter from 3 to 4, we find the CycWEC to exceed our initial estimates in terms of hydrodynamic performance. Once fully developed and optimized, it has the potential to not just outperform all other WEC technologies, but to also deliver power at a lower LCOE than competing conventional renewables like wind and solar. Given the large wave power resource both domestically and internationally, this technology has the potential to lead to a large improvement in our ability to produce clean electricity at affordable cost.

  4. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  5. Lightning Dock Geothermal Space Heating Project: Lightning Dock...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    home heating systems, which consisted of pumping geothermal water and steam through passive steam heaters, and convert the systems to one using modern heat exchange units. It...

  6. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge internally heated is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube being internally heated. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and being internally heated. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  7. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Hryn, John N. (Naperville, IL); Elam, Jeffrey W. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  8. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esser, A.A.M.

    1998-03-31

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero. 20 figs.

  9. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esser, Albert Andreas Maria (Niskayuna, NY)

    1998-03-31

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero.

  10. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

  11. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  12. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  13. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  14. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  15. Component technology for Stirling power converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thieme, L.G.

    1994-09-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has organized a component technology program as part of the efforts to develop Stirling converter technology for space power applications. The Stirling space power program is part of the NASA High Capacity Power Project of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). NASA Lewis is also providing technical management for a DOE/Sandia program to develop Stirling converters for solar terrestrial power producing electricity for the utility grid. The primary contractors for the space power and solar terrestrial programs develop component technologies directly related to their program goals. This Lewis component technology effort, while coordinated with the main programs, aims at longer term issues, advanced technologies, and independent assessments. This paper will present an overview of work on linear alternators, engine/alternator/load interactions and controls, heat exchangers, materials, life and reliability, and bearings.

  16. Catalysis of 6? Electrocyclizations & Catalytic Disproportionation of Lignin Model Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Lee

    2010-01-01

    catalytic reductions, and catalytic oxidations. 13 The high-processes for the catalytic oxidation of lignin has focusedand paper industry. Catalytic oxidation is of less interest

  17. Catalytic reforming methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  18. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  19. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Power Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charoy, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the main challenges related to power converters in a scientific environment. It proposes some methods of EMC analysis, design, meas urement, and EMC troubleshooting.

  20. Self-powered microthermionic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; King, Donald B.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2004-08-10

    A self-powered microthermionic converter having an internal thermal power source integrated into the microthermionic converter. These converters can have high energy-conversion efficiencies over a range of operating temperatures. Microengineering techniques are used to manufacture the converter. The utilization of an internal thermal power source increases potential for mobility and incorporation into small devices. High energy efficiency is obtained by utilization of micron-scale interelectrode gap spacing. Alpha-particle emitting radioisotopes can be used for the internal thermal power source, such as curium and polonium isotopes.

  1. CHEMICAL AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTAL CARBON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    of kinetic data for the catalytic oxidation of S0 by variousand mechanism for the catalytic oxidation of so 2 on carbonthe pH is low. The catalytic oxidation of sulfurous acid on

  2. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Allentown, PA A microbial reverse electrodialysis technology will be combined with waste heat recovery to convert effluents into electricity and chemical products, including...

  3. DOI: 10.1002/chem.200700579 Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetic Acid on Dispersed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    DOI: 10.1002/chem.200700579 Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetic Acid on Dispersed Mo, such as acetaldehyde and acetic acid, currently produced from ethane, ethene, or methanol. Pd-based catalysts convert ethanolO2 reactants to acetic acid, but with low reaction rates and modest selectivities (433 K, 70

  4. CHIC - Converting Hamburgers Into Cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, Joseph A

    components and convert them into SciXML. This is sectioned into text-rich and data-rich streams and stand-off annotation (SAF) is created for each. Embedded domain specific objects can be converted into XML (Chemical Markup Language). The different workflow...

  5. Power Converters for Cycling Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouteille, J F

    2015-01-01

    Cycling accelerators require power converters that are capable of storing the energy that oscillates between lattice magnets and the converter during the acceleration process. This paper presents the basic requirements for such systems and reviews the various electrical circuits that have been used for a variety of differing applications. The designs currently used for fast-, medium- and slow-cycling accelerators are presented.

  6. Catalytic Filter for Diesel Exhaust Purification | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Filter for Diesel Exhaust Purification Catalytic Filter for Diesel Exhaust Purification This project is developing a precious metal-free passive diesel particulate...

  7. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  8. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  9. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  10. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  11. Converting energy from fusion into useful forms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovari, M; Jenkins, I; Kiely, C

    2014-01-01

    If fusion power reactors are to be feasible, it will still be necessary to convert the energy of the nuclear reaction into usable form. The heat produced will be removed from the reactor core by a primary coolant, which might be water, helium, molten lithium-lead, molten lithium-containing salt, or CO2. The heat could then be transferred to a conventional Rankine cycle or Brayton (gas turbine) cycle. Alternatively it could be used for thermochemical processes such as producing hydrogen or other transport fuels. Fusion presents new problems because of the high energy neutrons released. These affect the selection of materials and the operating temperature, ultimately determining the choice of coolant and working cycle. The limited temperature ranges allowed by present day irradiated structural materials, combined with the large internal power demand of the plant, will limit the overall thermal efficiency. The operating conditions of the fusion power source, the materials, coolant, and energy conversion system w...

  12. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  13. Power converter connection configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C. (Wauwatosa, WI); Kehl, Dennis L. (Milwaukee, WI); Gettelfinger, Lee A. (Brown Deer, WI); Kaishian, Steven C. (Milwaukee, WI); Phillips, Mark G. (Brookfield, WI); Radosevich, Lawrence D. (Muskego, WI)

    2008-11-11

    EMI shielding is provided for power electronics circuits and the like via a direct-mount reference plane support and shielding structure. The thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support forms a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  14. Switched-Mode Power Converter Programmable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Switched-Mode Power Converter Programmable compensator Identification & design Vref DPWM vout digital controller design for switching power converters. Starting from an experimentally identified Digital Controller Design for Switching Converters Abstract--This paper presents an approach to automated

  15. Sodium heat engine electrical feedthrough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, N.

    1985-03-19

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy is disclosed. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a hermetically sealed feedthrough structure. 4 figs.

  16. Converting Biomass to High-Value Feedstocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Converting Biomass to High-Value Feedstocks Advanced feedstocks play an important role in economically and efficiently converting biomass into bioenergy products. Advanced...

  17. Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Karim, Hasan (Simpsonville, SC); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

    2009-04-21

    An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

  18. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Sang Hoon

    2011-01-01

    sensitivity The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO)stabilizer. The catalytic activity of CO oxidation overintriguing catalytic behavior for CO oxidation 5-15 ; while

  19. Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eteman, Shahrokh

    2013-06-30

    Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

  20. Catalytic dehydrogenation of ethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place, Harold Glenn

    1955-01-01

    for the purpose of distributing the gas evenly through the catalyst bed. The catalyst bed rested on a perforated stainless steel block which was drilled to permit the insertion of therso- couple wells. Temperatures were amasured at the top and bottom... of bed. The reactor was surrounded by an electric furnace. The furnace contained four separate heating coils. The output of each was adjusted by use of a variac. The temperature of the catalyst bed was controlled by means of a Leeds and Northrup...

  1. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  4. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  5. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  6. Thermochemical Conversion: Using Heat and Catalysis to Make Biofuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysis to Make Biofuels and Bioproducts The Bioenergy Technologies Office works with industry to develop pathways that use heat, pressure, and catalysis to convert domestic,...

  7. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-15

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  8. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  9. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  10. Treatment of activated carbon to enhance catalytic activity for reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, B.J.; Rhee, H.K. (Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Lee, J.K.; Park, D. (Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    1994-11-01

    Catalytic activity of activated carbon treated with various techniques was examined in a fixed bed reactor for the reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia at 150 C. Activated carbon derived from coconut shell impregnated with an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate, further treated with sulfuric acid, dried at 120 C, and then heated in an inert gas stream at 400 C, showed the highest catalytic activity within the range of experimental conditions. The enhancement of catalytic activity of modified activated carbon could be attributed to the increase in the amount of oxygen function groups which increased the adsorption site for ammonia. Catalytic activity of activated carbons depended on the surface area and the oxygen content as well.

  11. Isabella Inzoli Coupled transports of heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    about the transport of gas and heat across a membrane and to shed light on the coupling effects between.g. for catalytic cracking and for separation processes. The dynamic behaviour of the molecules entering a membrane transport of gas and heat into and across a silicalite membrane. These simulations allow to follow the time

  12. General Impedance Synthesis Using Simple Switching Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    -frequency storage element and a pair of switches, such as the buck, buck-boost and boost converters, as shown in FigGeneral Impedance Synthesis Using Simple Switching Converters Joe C. P. Liu, Chi K. Tse, Franki N converters is studied in this paper. We begin with showing that any impedance can be synthesized by a circuit

  13. Complex Behavior in Switching Power Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    Complex Behavior in Switching Power Converters CHI K. TSE, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE, AND MARIO DI--Bifurcation, chaos, dcdc converters, nonlinear dy- namics, power electronics, switching power converters. I power devices, control methods, circuit design, computer-aided analysis, passive components, packaging

  14. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Z. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  15. Hybrid Heat Pump Design and Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Koebberman, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Hybrid Heat Pump (HHP) converts industrial waste heat into process steam. Waste heat at temperatures as low as approximately 200F can be used. Steam output covers a range between 12,000 Ib/h and 50,000 Ib/h, depending on the application...

  16. Intermountain Gas Company (IGC)- Gas Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Intermountain Gas Company's (IGC) Gas Heating Rebate Program offers customers a $200 per unit rebate when they convert to a high efficiency natural gas furnace that replaces a heating system...

  17. Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rental car customers may be able to breathe a little easier during their next trip to the airport. Alamo Rent A Car, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, and National Car Rental, all brands operated by the subsidiaries of Enterprise Holdings, are converting their airport shuttle buses to run on biodiesel fuel. The move is a good one for the environment, and will ultimately reduce the companys carbon emissions. We are saving 420,000 gallons of petroleum diesel, says Lee Broughton, director of corporate identity and sustainability for Enterprise Holdings.

  18. Converting Energy to Medical Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortal ControllingConvection feedbacksConverting

  19. Sandia Energy - WEC-Sim (Wave Energy Converter SIMulator)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WEC-Sim (Wave Energy Converter SIMulator) Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power WEC-Sim (Wave Energy Converter SIMulator) WEC-Sim (Wave Energy Converter...

  20. Stability of Multiple Steady States of Catalytic Combustion , and J. BRINDLEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, Alex

    Stability of Multiple Steady States of Catalytic Combustion A. JAMES* , and J. BRINDLEY Department reaction (m s 1 ) Ag Pre-exponential factor for gas-phase reaction (m3 mol 1 s 1 ) Cox Initial [O2] (mol m mol 1 ) h Heat transfer coefficient (W m 2 K 1 ) hD Mass transfer coefficient (m s 1 ) kc Thermal

  1. Comment on "Catalytic Activity of the Rh Surface Oxide: CO Oxidation over Rh(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    . Obviously, heating Rh in pure oxygen to T ) 230 C and above will lead to the formation of surface Rh oxideComment on "Catalytic Activity of the Rh Surface Oxide: CO Oxidation over Rh(111) under Realistic suggest the importance of a surface oxide phase for high CO2 formation in CO-O2 reactions. However

  2. Performance of randomized Kelvin cell structures as catalytic substrates: Mass-transfer based analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    t Open cell foams are attractive materials for various industrial applications, but building accurate industrial applications like filters, heat exchangers and catalytic reactors. As a catalyst support (Giani et al., 2005a). In the field of automotive catalysts a critical parameter is the pressure drop

  3. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter.

  4. Producing Clean Syngas via Catalytic Reforming for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magrini, K. A.; Parent, Y.; Jablonski, W.; Yung, M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermochemical biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals can be achieved through gasification to syngas. The biomass derived raw syngas contains the building blocks of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as well as impurities such as tars, light hydrocarbons, and hydrogen sulfide. These impurities must be removed prior to fuel synthesis. We used catalytic reforming to convert tars and hydrocarbons to additional syngas, which increases biomass carbon utilization. In this work, nickel based, fluidizable tar reforming catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for tar and methane reforming performance with oak and model syngas in two types of pilot scale fluidized reactors (recirculating and recirculating regenerating). Because hydrogen sulfide (present in raw syngas and added to model syngas) reacts with the active nickel surface, regeneration with steam and hydrogen was required. Pre and post catalyst characterization showed changes specific to the syngas type used. Results of this work will be discussed in the context of selecting the best process for pilot scale demonstration.

  5. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline , diesel and jet range blendstocks . Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  6. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline, diesel, and jet range blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  7. Fabrication of catalytic electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte.

  8. Mobile power plants : waste body heat recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbons, Jonathan S. (Jonathan Scott), 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Novel methods to convert waste metabolic heat into useful and useable amounts of electricity were studied. Thermoelectric, magneto hydrodynamic, and piezo-electric energy conversions at the desired scope were evaluated to ...

  9. Catalytic oxidizers and Title V requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberoi, M.; Rach, S.E.

    1999-07-01

    Catalytic oxidizers have been used to reduce VOC emissions from various industries including printing, chemical, paint, coatings, etc. A catalytic oxidizer uses a catalyst to reduce the operating temperature for combustion to approximately 600 F, which is substantially lower than thermal oxidation unit. Title V requirements have renewed the debate on the best methods to assure compliance of catalytic oxidizers, with some suggesting the need for continuous emission monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the various aspects of catalytic oxidation and consider options such as monitoring inlet/outlet temperatures, delta T across the catalyst, periodic laboratory testing of catalyst samples, and preventive maintenance procedures as means of assuring continuous compliance.

  10. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  11. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been...

  12. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  13. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the...

  14. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 The research was...

  15. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 You are accessing a...

  16. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  17. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 In this Quarter, the...

  18. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the two...

  19. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  20. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 40 CHEMISTRY; COAL LIQUIDS;...

  1. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

  2. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The team is now exploring techniques that would permit two- and three-dimensional mapping of catalytic reactions. Multidimensional imaging will give the ability to know...

  3. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    Energy-Efficient Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactions. Hydrogenation reactions are very versatile and account for 10% to 20% of all reactions in the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Reductants Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  5. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  6. Catalytic membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

    2011-04-19

    A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

  7. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  8. Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications Naomi Klinghoffer Submitted Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications Naomi Klinghoffer Utilization takes place during catalytic decomposition. This thesis focuses on the utilization of char as a catalyst

  9. Electrical power converter method and system employing multiple output converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C. (Wauwatosa, WI); Radosevich, Lawrence D. (Muskego, WI); Meyer, Andreas A. (Richmond Heights, OH); Gollhardt, Neil (Fox Point, WI); Kannenberg, Daniel G. (Waukesha, WI)

    2007-05-01

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  10. Catalytic Micropumps: Microscopic Convective Fluid Flow and Pattern Timothy R. Kline, Walter F. Paxton, Yang Wang, Darrell Velegol,*, Thomas E. Mallouk,* and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catalytic Micropumps: Microscopic Convective Fluid Flow and Pattern Formation Timothy R. Kline of the driving forces for developing micro/nanofluidics. Engineering fluid flows at this scale remains a "fuel" can be converted locally at a catalyst surface, possibly eliminating external pumps or power

  11. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  12. Effect on Non-Uniform Heat Generation on Thermionic Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The penalty resulting from non-uniform heat generation in a thermionic reactor is examined. Operation at sub-optimum cesium pressure is shown to reduce this penalty, but at the risk of a condition analogous to burnout. For high pressure diodes, a simple empirical correlation between current, voltage and heat flux is developed and used to analyze the performance penalty associated with two different heat flux profiles, for series-and parallel-connected converters. The results demonstrate that series-connected converters require much finer power flattening than parallel converters. For example, a 10% variation in heat generation across a series array can result in a 25 to 50% power penalty.

  13. Catalytic igniters and their use to ignite lean hydrogen-air mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, William J. (Oakland, CA); Thorne, Lawrence R. (Livermore, CA); Volponi, Joanne V. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A catalytic igniter which can ignite a hydrogen-air mixture as lean as 5.5% hydrogen with induction times ranging from 20 s to 400 s, under conditions which may be present during a loss-of-liquid-coolant accident at a light water nuclear reactor comprises (a) a perforate catalytically active substrate, such as a platinum coated ceramic honeycomb or wire mesh screen, through which heated gases produced by oxidation of the mixture can freely flow and (b) a plurality of thin platinum wires mounted in a thermally conductive manner on the substrate and positioned thereon so as to be able to receive heat from the substrate and the heated gases while also in contact with unoxidized gases.

  14. Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus Water Distillation for Water Detritiation Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus Water...

  15. Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

  16. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed...

  17. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion This research, which is relevant to the...

  18. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion You are accessing a document from...

  19. Recovering "Waste" from "WTEs"? Heat Attaching devices to flues and exhaust pipes could harvest waste heat-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    that convert heat into electricity to chimney stacks and vehicle exhausts, to squeeze more useful energy from saving that would be especially relevant in hybrid petrol/electric devices where the battery is recharged% of the energy converted in power generation is wasted. The price of energy is high, both in terms of the actual

  20. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  1. Controller for a wave energy converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David G.; Bull, Diana L.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2015-09-22

    A wave energy converter (WEC) is described, the WEC including a power take off (PTO) that converts relative motion of bodies of the WEC into electrical energy. A controller controls operation of the PTO, causing the PTO to act as a motor to widen a wave frequency spectrum that is usable to generate electrical energy.

  2. RF digital-to-analog converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Patrick H. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Yu, David U. L. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A digital-to analogue converter for producing an RF output signal proportional to a digital input word of N bits from an RF reference input, N being an integer greater or equal to 2. The converter comprises a plurality of power splitters, power combiners and a plurality of mixers or RF switches connected in a predetermined configuration.

  3. RF digital-to-analog converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, P.H.; Yu, D.U.L.

    1995-02-28

    A digital-to-analog converter is disclosed for producing an RF output signal proportional to a digital input word of N bits from an RF reference input, N being an integer greater or equal to 2. The converter comprises a plurality of power splitters, power combiners and a plurality of mixers or RF switches connected in a predetermined configuration. 18 figs.

  4. Time interleaved counter analog to digital converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danesh, Seyed Amir Ali

    2011-11-22

    The work explores extending time interleaving in A/D converters, by applying a high-level of parallelism to one of the slowest and simplest types of data-converters, the counter ADC. The motivation for the work is to ...

  5. Switched Mode Four-Quadrant Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thurel, Y

    2015-01-01

    This paper was originally presented at CAS-2004, and was slightly modified for CAS-2014. It presents a review of the key parameters that impact the design choices for a true four-quadrant power converter, in the range 1-10 kW, mainly based on switching mode converter topology. This paper will first describe the state-of-the-art for this power converter family, giving the drawbacks and advantages of different possible solutions. It will also present practical results obtained from the CERN-designed converter. It will finally give some important tips regarding critical phases like test one, when conducting a project dealing with this type of power converter.

  6. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Scarlata, C.; Tan, E. C. D.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Sexton, D.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  7. Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Kanghua (Canton, MI); Ahmed, Sayeed (Canton, MI); Zhu, Lizhi (Canton, MI)

    2007-10-30

    A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

  8. Using Heat and Chemistry to Make Products, Fuels, and Power: Thermochemical Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    Information about the Biomass Program's collaborative projects exploring thermochemical conversion processes that use heat and chemistry to convert biomass into a liquid or gaseous intermediate.

  9. Application and Technology Requirements for Heat Pumps at the Process Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, S.; Chappell, R.

    1987-01-01

    AND TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR HEAT PUMPS AT THE PROCESS INDUSTRIESl Stephen Priebe Engineering Specialist EG&G Idaho, Inc. Idaho Falls, ID There are basically three categories of equip ment used to manage heat energy flows in an indus trial process.... First, heat exchangers are used to move heat through the process down the temperature gradient. Second, heat pumps are used to move heat through the process up the temperature gra dient. Third, heat engines are used to convert heat to shaft power...

  10. Converting a Motorcycle to Electric Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simcoe, Christopher M.

    2009-12-18

    Research was conducted to determine how simple and practical it would be to convert a standard gasoline powered motorcycle to electric power. The research involved background investigation of useful concepts in electric powered motorcycles...

  11. Transformer Synthesis for VHF Converters I. INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    , such as a series resonance to replace the tank and transformer in a resonant converter [8], [9]. Such integrated increased loss due to flux shielding as compared to spiral designs. !"#$%&'"()'*%')$""% +,)+%-"./%011

  12. New Perspectives on Wave Energy Converter Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Alexandra A E

    2009-01-01

    This work examines some of the fundamental problems behind the control of wave energy converters (WECs). Several new perspectives are presented to aid the understanding of the problem and the interpretation of the ...

  13. Intra-channel mass and heat-transfer modeling in diesel oxidation catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    for oxidation catalyts with typical diesel exhaust feed. Such devices have been used for many years to oxidize or selective catalytic NOx reduction reactors). Hence, accurate models for the oxidation cata- lysts (in02FCC-140 Intra-channel mass and heat-transfer modeling in diesel oxidation catalysts Kalyana

  14. Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Mauldin, SC); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    2008-12-16

    A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

  15. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Sansone, Michael J. (Summit, NJ); Slegeir, William A. R. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  16. Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties of BIMEVOX (Me = Ta)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties for syngas or H2 production from light hydrocarbons. #12;2 Keywords: Dense membrane reactor, BIMEVOX, BITAVOX to decouple the two steps of the redox mechanism that prevails in selective oxidation of hydrocarbons [1

  17. Bi-directional dc-dc Converter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maryland. merit08goodarzi.pdf More Documents & Publications WBG Converters and Chargers Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: WBG Converters and Chargers Vehicle...

  18. Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

    2009-01-01

    An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

  19. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The emergence of technologies that efficiently convert heat into cooling, such as absorption chillers, has opened up many new opportunities and markets for combined heat and power systems. These...

  20. Fabrication of fuel cell electrodes and other catalytic structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.L.

    1987-02-11

    A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte. 1 fig.

  1. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  2. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  3. Hydrogen Oxidation-Driven Hot Electron Flow Detected by Catalytic Nanodiodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    In conclusion, the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen on a Pt/chemicurrent from catalytic CO oxidation at atmosphericchemicurrent in catalytic hydrogen oxidation on Pt. Hydrogen

  4. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) ON ACTIVATED CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSION: KINETICS AND MECHANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and Mechanism for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxidekinetic study of the catalytic oxidation on carbon particlesthe kinetics of the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on

  5. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  6. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  7. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina; P. Szedlacsek

    2006-03-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse is conducting a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1-Implementation Plan, Phase 2-Validation Testing and Phase 3-Field Testing. The Phase 1 program has been completed. Phase II was initiated in October 2004. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCL{trademark}) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to react part of the fuel, increasing the fuel/air mixture temperature. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the catalytic concept will be demonstrated through subscale testing. Phase III will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  8. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Adams, Donald Joe (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  9. Power system applications for PASC converter systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, M.K.; Johnson, R.M.

    1994-04-01

    This paper shows, using computer EMTP simulations, some preliminary results of applying pulse amplitude synthesis and control (PASC) technology to single-source level voltage converter system. The method can be applied to any single terminal pair source with appropriate modifications in power extraction interface and computer control program to match source and load impedance characteristics. The PASC realization as discussed here employs banks of transformers, one bank per phase, in which the primaries are connected in parallel through a switch matrix to the dc source. Two opposite polarity primaries per transformer are pulsed alternatively in time to produce an oscillatory sinusoidal output waveform. PASC conversion system capabilities to produce both leading and lagging power factor power output in single-phase and three-phase {Delta} or Y configurations are illustrated. EMTP simulations are used to demonstrate the converter capabilities. Also included are discussions regarding harmonics and potential control strategies to adapt the converter to an application or to minimize harmonics.

  10. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Lu

    2008-03-01

    We aim to develop new DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides, such as uranium, technetium, and plutonium, and metal contaminants, such as lead, chromium, and mercury. The sensors will be highly sensitive and selective. They will be applied to on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation, and stability of the individual contaminants before and during bioremediation, and for long-term monitoring of DOE contaminated sites. To achieve this goal, we have employed a combinatorial method called in vitro selection to search from a large DNA library (~ 1015 different molecules) for catalytic DNA molecules that are highly specific for radionuclides or other metal ions through intricate 3-dimensional interactions as in metalloproteins. Comprehensive biochemical and biophysical studies have been performed on the selected DNA molecules. The findings from these studies have helped to elucidate fundamental principles for designing effective sensors for radionuclides and metal ions. Based on the study, the DNA have been converted to fluorescent or colorimetric sensors by attaching to it fluorescent donor/acceptor pairs or gold nanoparticles, with 11 part-per-trillion detection limit (for uranium) and over million fold selectivity (over other radionuclides and metal ions tested). Practical application of the biosensors for samples from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge has also been demonstrated.

  11. Internal-integral sodium return line for sodium heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a portion of the return line for the alkali metal is located within the generator vacuum space.

  12. Study of Stability Regions in Parallel Connected Boost Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    Study of Stability Regions in Parallel Connected Boost Converters Yuehui Huang and Chi K. Tse attractors of parallel connected boost switching converters under a master- slave current sharing scheme. We boost converters. Under the master- slave scheme, one of the converters is the master and the other

  13. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

  14. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  15. Converting Centrifugal Chillers to HCFC-123

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebert, B.

    1994-01-01

    of large water chillers in addressing the CFC issue. These owners, for a variety of reasons, chose to address the issue through the conversion of the existing equipment to an HCFC refrigerant. For each of the three owners, the option of converting...

  16. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  17. Process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizuno, Noritaka (Sapporo, JP); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Finke, Richard G. (Eugene, OR)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexenes, to form a variety of oxygenates. The catalyst used in the process is a covalently bonded iridium-heteropolyanion species. The process uses the catalyst in conjunction with a gaseous oxygen containing gas to form 2-cyclohexen-1-ol and also 2-cyclohexen-1-one.

  18. Transparent and Catalytic Carbon Nanotube Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    for the dye-sensitized solar cell. Other possible applications include batteries, fuel cells and intercalation in hydrogen fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.1,10,12,14 However, the electrochemical activity to optimize performance through processing. In this study, we quantify the catalytic activity of single

  19. Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation{ So-Hye Cho, Nolan D. Walther, the catalytic membrane reactor configuration confers a significant advantage to oxidation reactions--the use of a catalytic membrane can provide a reactive interface for the oxidation to take place while avoiding long

  20. Capturing fleeting intermediates in a catalytic CH amination reaction cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    for the mechanistic study of catalytic processes. mass spectrometry | transient intermediates | CH oxidation | catalysis Catalytic methods for selective CH oxidation rely on the exquisite choreography of a series oxidant (4, 5, 11). The fast rates of the on- and off-path steps in this catalytic process

  1. Catalytic Oxidation Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400134

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Catalytic Oxidation Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400134 Trinuclear Pd3O2 Intermediate in Aerobic* Abstract: The activation of O2 is a key step in selective catalytic aerobic oxidation reactions mediated aerobic oxidation of alcohols. The formation and catalytic activity of the trinuclear Pd3O2 species

  2. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad model of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving five pseudo components, was presented) developed a more de- tailed model of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving 35 pseudo

  3. MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS - A NEW BREED OF POWER CONVERTERS Jih-Sheng...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    has been a well-known method and has been implemented in 18- and 48-pulse converters for battery energy storage and static condenser (STATCON) applications, respectively 15,161....

  4. Low density microcellular carbon or catalytically impregnated carbon foams and process for their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooper, R.W.; Pekala, R.W.

    1987-04-30

    Machinable and structurally stable, low density microcellular carbon, and catalytically impregnated carbon, foams, and process for their preparation, are provided. Pulverized sodium chloride is classified to improve particle size uniformity, and the classified particles may be further mixed with a catalyst material. The particles are cold pressed into a compact having internal pores, and then sintered. The sintered compact is immersed and then submerged in a phenolic polymer solution to uniformly fill the pores of the compact with phenolic polymer. The compact is then heated to pyrolyze the phenolic polymer into carbon in the form of a foam. Then the sodium chloride of the compact is leached away with water, and the remaining product is freeze dried to provide the carbon, or catalytically impregnated carbon, foam.

  5. Optical analog-to-digital converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM); Raring, James (Goleta, CA); Skogen, Erik J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-07-21

    An optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is disclosed which converts an input optical analog signal to an output optical digital signal at a sampling rate defined by a sampling optical signal. Each bit of the digital representation is separately determined using an optical waveguide interferometer and an optical thresholding element. The interferometer uses the optical analog signal and the sampling optical signal to generate a sinusoidally-varying output signal using cross-phase-modulation (XPM) or a photocurrent generated from the optical analog signal. The sinusoidally-varying output signal is then digitized by the thresholding element, which includes a saturable absorber or at least one semiconductor optical amplifier, to form the optical digital signal which can be output either in parallel or serially.

  6. Converting DYNAMO simulations to Powersim Studio simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2014-02-01

    DYNAMO is a computer program for building and running 'continuous' simulation models. It was developed by the Industrial Dynamics Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for simulating dynamic feedback models of business, economic, and social systems. The history of the system dynamics method since 1957 includes many classic models built in DYANMO. It was not until the late 1980s that software was built to take advantage of the rise of personal computers and graphical user interfaces that DYNAMO was supplanted. There is much learning and insight to be gained from examining the DYANMO models and their accompanying research papers. We believe that it is a worthwhile exercise to convert DYNAMO models to more recent software packages. We have made an attempt to make it easier to turn these models into a more current system dynamics software language, Powersim Studio produced by Powersim AS2 of Bergen, Norway. This guide shows how to convert DYNAMO syntax into Studio syntax.

  7. Preface: Challenges for Catalytic Exhaust Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-03-31

    This special issue of Catalysis Today continues the tradition established since the 18th NAM in Cancun, 2003, of publishing the highlights coming from these catalytic after-treatment technologies sessions, where this volume contains 18 papers based on oral and poster presentations of the 23rd NAM, 2013. The guest editors would like to thank all of the catalyst scientists and engineers who presented in the "Emission control" sessions, and especially the authors who contributed to this special issue of Catalysis Today.

  8. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  9. An economical single to three phase converter for induction motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Zerega, Philp Van Uytandaele

    1994-01-01

    There are several different types of single to three phase converters for induction motors available today. However, many of the presently available phase converters suffer from disadvantages such as high cost or low performance. An economical...

  10. DOE Announces Webinars on the Wave Energy Converter Prize, the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Wave Energy Converter Prize, the Best of the Clean Cities Tools and Resources, and More DOE Announces Webinars on the Wave Energy Converter Prize, the Best of the Clean Cities...

  11. Digital radix converters for high accuracy data conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghanta, Venkataratnam Chowdary

    1993-01-01

    A sub-binary radix Digital to Analog converter(DAC) which achieves high effective resolution is demonstrated. The converter does not have any built-in-self calibration mechanisms, but achieves high resolution and accuracy through the sub...

  12. Metal Dusting of Heat-Resistant Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Meshari, Abdulaziz I.

    dusting can also be a serious problem in other industrial sectors including nuclear plants, coal gasification units, ethylene plants, fuel cells, chemical reactors, steam generators, acetic acid cracking furnaces, and waste heat boilers [14] [15] [16... is catalytically accelerated by contact with iron, nickel, and cobalt. For example, coking which is a chronic problem in ethylene furnaces was thought to be caused by the reduction of a porous (Fe, Ni, Cr) spinel oxide layer at the metal surface...

  13. Method and apparatus for effecting light-off of a catalytic converter in a hybrid powertrain system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Spohn, Brian L

    2013-07-02

    A powertrain system includes a hybrid transmission and an internal combustion engine coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment device. A method for operating the powertrain system includes operating the hybrid transmission to generate tractive torque responsive to an operator torque request with the internal combustion engine in an engine-off state so long as the tractive torque is less than a threshold. The internal combustion engine is operated in an engine-on state at preferred operating conditions to effect light-off of the exhaust aftertreatment device and the hybrid transmission is coincidentally operated to generate tractive torque responsive to the operator torque request when the operator torque request exceeds the threshold. The internal combustion engine is then operated in the engine-on state to generate tractive torque responsive to the operator torque request.

  14. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of a catalytic process to convert glycerol into solketal as an oxygenated fuel additive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wensheng

    and fuel industries [1]. Glycerol is produced at a large amount as a byproduct or waste stream from as an oxygenated fuel additive Malaya R. Nanda a , Zhongshun Yuan a , Wensheng Qin b , Hassan S. Ghaziaskar c , Marc-Andre Poirier d , Chunbao Charles Xu a, a Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative

  15. Aalborg Universitet Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    Aalborg Universitet Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage Trintis, Ionut; Munk). Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage. In 5th IET International Conference on Power from vbn.aau.dk on: juli 04, 2015 #12;SINGLE STAGE GRID CONVERTERS FOR BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE I

  16. Optimizing Ballast Design of Wave Energy Converters Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tumer, Kagan

    Optimizing Ballast Design of Wave Energy Converters Using Evolutionary Algorithms Mitch Colby, 97331 kagan.tumer@oregonstate.edu ABSTRACT Wave energy converters promise to be a viable alternative% improvement in power output over a ballast-free wave energy converter. General Terms Algorithms; Applications

  17. General Impedance Synthesizer Using Minimal Configuration of Switching Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    converter may contain a storage element and a pair of switches, such as the buck, buck-boost and boostGeneral Impedance Synthesizer Using Minimal Configuration of Switching Converters Joe C.P. Liu Chi a minimum number of switching converters is stud- ied in this paper. We begin with showing that any

  18. Design Methodology for a Very High Frequency Resonant Boost Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    Design Methodology for a Very High Frequency Resonant Boost Converter Justin M. Burkhart , Roman@ti.com Abstract--This document introduces a design methodology for a resonant boost converter topology demonstrated for boost conversion at frequencies up to 110MHz using a resonant boost converter topology in [5

  19. Coupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    proposed integrated boost converters [7] that are beginning to see applications in automotive power buck-boost (Flyback) power converter [9,10] that utilizes one magnetic core to integrate two FlybackCoupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application Ting Qian, Brad

  20. Modelling and geometry optimisation of wave energy converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nrvg, Kjetil

    Modelling and geometry optimisation of wave energy converters Adi Kurniawan Supervisors: Prof;Research questions Modelling How to develop more realistic wave energy converter (WEC) models while wave energy converter (WEC) models while at the same time reduce their simulation time? Optimisation

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 636 580 46 1 Q 114.0...

  6. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  7. Resource convertibility and ordered commutative monoids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias Fritz

    2015-07-02

    Resources and their use and consumption form a central part of our life. Many branches of science and engineering are concerned with the question of which given resource objects can be converted into which target resource objects. For example, information theory studies the conversion of a noisy communication channel instance into an exchange of information. Inspired by work in quantum information theory, we develop a general mathematical toolbox for this type of question. The convertibility of resources into other ones and the possibility of combining resources is accurately captured by the mathematics of ordered commutative monoids. As an intuitive example, we consider chemistry, where chemical reaction equations such as \\[ \\mathrm{2H_2 + O_2} \\to \\mathrm{2H_2O} \\] are concerned both with a convertibility relation "$\\to$" and a combination operation "$+$". We study ordered commutative monoids from an algebraic and functional-analytic perspective and derive a wealth of results which should have applications to concrete resource theories, such as a formula for rates of conversion. As a running example showing that ordered commutative monoids are also of purely mathematical interest, we exemplify our results with the ordered commutative monoid of graphs. While closely related to both Girard's linear logic and to Deutsch's constructor theory, our framework also produces results very reminiscent of the utility theorem of von Neumann and Morgenstern in decision theory and of a theorem of Lieb and Yngvason on thermodynamics. Concerning pure algebra, our observation is that some pieces of algebra can be developed in a context in which equality is not necessarily symmetric, i.e. in which the equality relation is replaced by an ordering relation. For example, notions like cancellativity or torsion-freeness are still sensible and very natural concepts in our ordered setting.

  8. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  9. Converting urban tree maintenance residue to energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphey, W.K.; Massey, J.G.; Sumrall, A.

    1980-01-01

    Three methods of utilizing urban wood waste collected by a tree maintenance firm in Houston, Texas (handling 30,000 ton waste/year) are examined: (a) hauling to a remote landfill; (b) chipping and hauling to a (local) power plant and converting to electricity; and (c) chipping and selling to an outside firm for use as boiler fuel. Breakdown of costs are given for each method in monetary and energy terms. Method (b) was the cheapest, producing a net energy gain (870 million Btu/day), but the firm chose method (c), since it realized a direct monetary return.

  10. Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhiyu

    2010-04-13

    A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, a semiconducting collector and an electron emitter. The electron emitter comprises a metal nanoparticle layer or plurality of metal nanocatalyst particles disposed on one side of said separator layer. A first electrically conductive lead is electrically coupled to the electron emitter. The collector layer is disposed on the other side of the separator layer, wherein the thickness of the separator layer is less than 1 .mu.m. A second conductive lead is electrically coupled to the collector layer.

  11. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  12. CCLIBS: The CERN Power Converter Control Libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Quentin; Magrans De Abril, Marc; Martino, Michele; Murillo Garcia, Raul; Nicoletti, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Accurate control of power converters is a vital activity in large physics projects. Several different control scenarios may coexist, including regulation of a circuits voltage, current, or field strength within a magnet. Depending on the type of facility, a circuits reference value may be changed asynchronously or synchronously with other circuits. Synchronous changes may be on demand or under the control of a cyclic timing system. In other cases, the reference may be calculated in real-time by an outer regulation loop of some other quantity, such as the tune of the beam in a synchrotron. The power stage may be unipolar or bipolar in voltage and current. If it is unipolar in current, it may be used with a polarity switch. Depending on the design, the power stage may be controlled by a firing angle or PWM duty-cycle reference, or a voltage or current reference. All these cases are supported by the CERN Converter Control Libraries (CCLIBS). These open-source C libraries include advanced reference generati...

  13. Heat Management in Thermoelectric Power Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zebarjadi, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric power generators are used to convert heat into electricity. Like any other heat engine, the performance of a thermoelectric generator increases as the temperature difference on the sides increases. It is generally assumed that as more heat is forced through the thermoelectric legs, their performance increases. Therefore, insulations are typically used to minimize the heat losses and to confine the heat transport through the thermoelectric legs. In this paper we show that to some extend it is beneficial to purposely open heat loss channels in order to establish a larger temperature gradient and therefore to increase the overall efficiency and achieve larger electric power output. We define a modified Biot number (Bi) as an indicator of requirements for sidewall insulation. We show that if Bi1, it lowers the conversion efficiency.

  14. Power Maximization in Wave-Energy Converters Using Sampled -Data Extremum Seeking /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tianjia

    2013-01-01

    Power Maximization in Wave-Energy Converters Using Sampled-design optimization of wave energy converters con- sistingN. Sahinkaya. A review of wave energy converter technology.

  15. Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes vs...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    at Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 22-24, 2014, Aiken, SC COMPARISON OF WATER-HYDROGEN CATALYTIC EXCHANGE PROCESSES VERSUS WATER DISTILLATION FOR WATER DETRITIATION A. Busigin,...

  16. Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of different fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qing-Tao

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of methane (CH{sub 4}), n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied experimentally in a Pt-coated monolith catalytic reactor. It is concluded that DME has the lowest catalytic ignition temperature and the least required H{sub 2} flow, while CH{sub 4} has the highest catalytic ignition temperature and the highest required H{sub 2} flow among the three fuels. (author)

  17. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  18. Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newburry, Donald Maurice (Orlando, FL)

    2002-01-01

    A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

  19. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels. Fact...

  20. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle

  1. Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of NO by Hydrocarbons Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis...

  2. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown...

  3. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Next Generation Manufacturing Processes project to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide...

  4. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified....

  5. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway...

  6. Probing Hot Electron Flow Generated on Pt Nanoparticles with Au/TiO2 Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.

    2009-01-01

    Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation Jeong Y. Parkwere measured during catalytic CO oxidation at pressures ofexothermic catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation was directly

  7. Converting acoustic energy into useful other energy forms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Putterman, Seth J. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Barber, Bradley Paul (Northridge, CA); Hiller, Robert Anthony (Los Angeles, CA); Lofstedt, Ritva Maire Johanna (Los Angeles, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is an off-equilibrium phenomenon in which the energy of a resonant sound wave in a liquid is highly concentrated so as to generate flashes of light. The conversion of sound to light represents an energy amplification of eleven orders of magnitude. The flashes which occur once per cycle of the audible or ultrasonic sound fields can be comprised of over one million photons and last for less 100 picoseconds. The emission displays a clocklike synchronicity; the jitter in time between consecutive flashes is less than fifty picoseconds. The emission is blue to the eye and has a broadband spectrum increasing from 700 nanometers to 200 nanometers. The peak power is about 100 milliWatts. The initial stage of the energy focusing is effected by the nonlinear oscillations of a gas bubble trapped in the liquid. For sufficiently high drive pressures an imploding shock wave is launched into the gas by the collapsing bubble. The reflection of the shock from its focal point results in high temperatures and pressures. The sonoluminescence light emission can be sustained by sensing a characteristic of the emission and feeding back changes into the driving mechanism. The liquid is in a sealed container and the seeding of the gas bubble is effected by locally heating the liquid after sealing the container. Different energy forms than light can be obtained from the converted acoustic energy. When the gas contains deuterium and tritium there is the feasibility of the other energy form being fusion, namely including the generation of neutrons.

  8. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  9. FCC Tail Gas olefins conversion to gasoline via catalytic distillation with aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partin, E.E. (Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1988-01-01

    The goal of every refiner is to continually improve profitability by such means as increasing gasoline production, increasing gasoline octane pool and in cases where fuel balance becomes a problem, decreasing refinery fuel gas production. A new refinery process is currently being developed which accomplish these goals. Chemical Research and Licensing Company (CR and L) developed Catalytic Distillation technology in 1978 to produce MTBE. They have since used the Catalytic Distillation technique to produce cumene. CR and L has further developed this technology to convert olefin gases currently consumed as refinery fuel, to high octane gasoline components. The process, known as CATSTILL, alkylates olefin gases such as ethylene, propylene and butylene, present in FCC Tail Gas with light aromatics such as benzene, toluene and xylene, present in reformate, to produce additional quantities of high octane gasoline components. A portable CATSTILL demonstration plant has been constructed by Brown and Root U.S.A., under an agreement with CR and L, for placement in a refinery to further develop data necessary to design commercial plants. This paper presents current data relative to the CATSTILL development.

  10. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes: Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biscardi, J.; Bowden, P.T.; Durante, V.A.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Gray, H.B.; Gorbey, R.G.; Hayes, R.C.; Hodge, J.; Hughes, M.; Langdale, W.A.; Lyons, J.E.; Marcus, B.; Messick, D.; Merrill, R.A.; Moore, F.A.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Seitzer, W.H.; Shaikh, S.N.; Tsao, W.H.; Wagner, R.W.; Warren, R.W.; Wijesekera, T.P.

    1997-05-01

    The first Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between January 1. 1992 and March 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products which can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient porphryinic macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE III).

  11. Thin film porous membranes for catalytic sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, R.C.; Boyle, T.J.; Gardner, T.J. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports on new and surprising experimental data for catalytic film gas sensing resistors coated with nanoporous sol-gel films to impart selectivity and durability to the sensor structure. This work is the result of attempts to build selectivity and reactivity to the surface of a sensor by modifying it with a series of sol-gel layers. The initial sol-gel SiO{sub 2} layer applied to the sensor surprisingly showed enhanced O{sub 2} interaction with H{sub 2} and reduced susceptibility to poisons such as H{sub 2}S.

  12. Surface Structure and Catalytic $CO$ Oxidation Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Danielak; A. Perera; M. Moreau; M. Frankowicz; R. Kapral

    1996-02-13

    A cellular automaton model is used to describe the dynamics of the catalytic oxidation of $CO$ on a $Pt(100)$ surface. The cellular automaton rules account for the structural phase transformations of the $Pt$ substrate, the reaction kinetics of the adsorbed phase and diffusion of adsorbed species. The model is used to explore the spatial structure that underlies the global oscillations observed in some parameter regimes. The spatiotemporal dynamics varies significantly within the oscillatory regime and depends on the harmonic or relaxational character of the global oscillations. Diffusion of adsorbed $CO$ plays an important role in the synchronization of the patterns on the substrate and this effect is also studied.

  13. Mechanical vibration to electrical energy converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kellogg, Rick Allen (Tijeras, NM); Brotz, Jay Kristoffer (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-03-03

    Electromechanical devices that generate an electrical signal in response to an external source of mechanical vibrations can operate as a sensor of vibrations and as an energy harvester for converting mechanical vibration to electrical energy. The devices incorporate a magnet that is movable through a gap in a ferromagnetic circuit, wherein a coil is wound around a portion of the ferromagnetic circuit. A flexible coupling is used to attach the magnet to a frame for providing alignment of the magnet as it moves or oscillates through the gap in the ferromagnetic circuit. The motion of the magnet can be constrained to occur within a substantially linear range of magnetostatic force that develops due to the motion of the magnet. The devices can have ferromagnetic circuits with multiple arms, an array of magnets having alternating polarity and, encompass micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices.

  14. Modular Power Converters for PV Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2012-05-01

    This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need for detailed design of new power converters for each new application or installation. One set of modules and controllers can be pre-developed and the only design question would be how many modules need to be in series or parallel for the specific power requirement. Then, a designer can put the modules together and add the intelligent reconfigurable controller. The controller determines how many modules are connected, but it might also ask for user input for the specific application during setup. The modules include protection against faults and can reset it, if necessary. In case of a power device failure, the controller reconfigures itself to continue limited operation until repair which might be as simple as taking the faulty module out and inserting a new module. The result is cost savings in design, maintenance, repair, and a grid that is more reliable and available. This concept would be a perfect fit for the recently announced funding opportunity announcement (DE-FOA-0000653) on Plug and Play Photovoltaics.

  15. Ion bulk heating in magnetic reconnection exhausts at Earth's magnetopause: Dependence on the inflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shay, Michael

    heating is ~8 on average. 1. Introduction Magnetic reconnection converts stored magnetic energy as the magnetic shear angle (guide field). In a statistical study of ion heating in solar wind reconnectionIon bulk heating in magnetic reconnection exhausts at Earth's magnetopause: Dependence

  16. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  17. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 043843 (2012) Heat fluctuations and coherences in a quantum heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukamel, Shaul

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells harness solar energy to produce electric charge which is used to perform work [1,2]. Current photocell technology reaches efficiencies which are too small to allow solar energy to meet our day heat engine (QHE), is a quantum system that converts the incoherent phonon energy of thermal baths

  18. THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIESTHE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIESreactive species in catalytic oxidation of S(IV). so 3 2- as

  19. KINETICS AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, R.

    2012-01-01

    AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDEmechanism for the catalytic oxidation of in an aqueous sus1ECHANISf 1 1 FOR TilE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

  20. High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) and Converter Advancement (CAP) programs. Final reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, C.B.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.R. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Desplat, J.L.; Hansen, L.K.; Hatch, G.L.; McVey, J.B.; Rasor, N.S. [Rasor Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This report contains the final report of the High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) Program, Attachment A, performed at Rasor Associates, Inc. (RAI); and the final report of the Converter Advancement Program (CAP), performed at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Attachment B. The phenomenology of cesium-oxygen thermionic converters was elucidated in these programs, and the factors that had prevented the achievement of stable, enhanced cesium-oxygen converter performance for the previous thirty years were identified. Based on these discoveries, cesium-oxygen vapor sources were developed that achieved stable performance with factor-of-two improvements in power density and thermal efficiency, relative to conventional, cesium-only ignited mode thermionic converters. Key achievements of the HET-IV/CAP programs are as follows: a new technique for measuring minute traces of oxygen in cesium atmospheres; the determination of the proper range of oxygen partial pressures for optimum converter performance--10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}9} torr; the discovery, and analysis of the cesium-oxygen liquid migration and compositional segregation phenomena; the successful use of capillary forces to contain the migration phenomenon; the use of differential heating to control compositional segregation, and induce vapor circulation; the development of mechanically and chemically stable, porous reservoir structures; the development of precise, in situ oxygen charging methods; stable improvements in emitter performance, up to effective emitter bare work functions of 5.4 eV; stable improvements in barrier index, to value below 1.8 Volts; the development of detailed microscopic models for cesium-oxygen reservoir dynamics and collector work function behavior; and the discovery of new relationships between electrode geometry and Schock Instability.

  1. Antibody-Metalloporphyrin Catalytic Assembly Mimics Natural Oxidation Enzymes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Ehud

    Antibody-Metalloporphyrin Catalytic Assembly Mimics Natural Oxidation Enzymes Shai Nimri and Ehud-metalloporphyrin assembly that catalyzes the enantioselective oxidation of aromatic sulfides to sulfoxides is presented-naphthoxy ligand. The catalytic assembly comprising antibody SN37.4 and a ruthenium- (II) porphyrin cofactor

  2. Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Extraction of Hydrogen from Bioethanol Reforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuncharam, Bhanu Vardhan

    2013-11-26

    -gas-shift catalytic membrane reactor, and (2) a multi-layer design for bioethanol reforming. A two-dimensional model is developed to describe reaction and diffusion in the catalytic membrane coupled with plug-flow equations in the retentate and permeate volumes using...

  3. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes, Phase 3. Topical report, January 1990--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in the first simple, economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to an alcohol-rich oxygenated product which can either be used as an environmentally friendly, high-performance liquid fuel, or a precursor to a liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuel. The authors have entered the proof-of-concept stage for converting isobutane to tert butyl alcohol in a practical process and are preparing to enter proof-of-concept of a propane to isopropyl alcohol process in the near future. Methane and ethane are more refractory and thus more difficult to oxidize than the C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} hydrocarbons. Nonetheless, advances made in this area indicate that further research progress could achieve the goal of their direct conversion to alcohols. Progress in Phase 3 catalytic vapor phase methane and ethane oxidation over metals in regular oxidic lattices are the subject of this topical report.

  4. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  5. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

    2014-11-04

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  6. Integrated Solar Power Converters: Wafer-Level Sub-Module Integrated DC/DC Converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-09

    Solar ADEPT Project: CU-Boulder is developing advanced power conversion components that can be integrated into individual solar panels to improve energy yields. The solar energy that is absorbed and collected by a solar panel is converted into useable energy for the grid through an electronic component called an inverter. Many large, conventional solar energy systems use one, central inverter to convert energy. CU-Boulder is integrating smaller, microinverters into individual solar panels to improve the efficiency of energy collection. The Universitys microinverters rely on electrical components that direct energy at high speeds and ensure that minimal energy is lost during the conversion processimproving the overall efficiency of the power conversion process. CU-Boulder is designing its power conversion devices for use on any type of solar panel.

  7. SEP Success Story: State Energy Program Helping Arkansans Convert...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to purchase andor convert their Arkansas-licensed vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG). | All Rights Reserved. The Arkansas Energy Office recently launched a Compressed...

  8. Sandia Energy - Advanced Controls of Wave Energy Converters May...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Controls of Wave Energy Converters May Increase Power Capture Up to 330% Home Renewable Energy Energy Water Power Partnership News News & Events Computational Modeling &...

  9. NREL Refines Method to Convert Lignin to Nylon Precursor - News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Convert Lignin to Nylon Precursor Recent Findings Published in Energy & Environmental Science February 26, 2015 A new study from the Energy Department's National Renewable...

  10. Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that Americans can use. "These innovative projects convert carbon pollution from a climate threat to an economic resource," said Secretary Chu. "This is part of our broad...

  11. Wave Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation Jesse Roberts 1 , Grace Chang *2 , Craig Jones *3 Sandia National Laboratories 1515 Eubank SE, Albuquerque, NM 87123 USA 1...

  12. Sandia Energy - Sandia, NREL Release Wave Energy Converter Modeling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Release Wave Energy Converter Modeling and Simulation Code: WEC-Sim Home Renewable Energy Energy Water Power Partnership News News & Events Computational Modeling & Simulation...

  13. Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Biphenylene with Platinum, Palladium, and Nickel Phosphine Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Biphenylene with Platinum, Palladium, and Nickel Phosphine Complexes activation and formation by plati- num and palladium phosphine complexes.4g The oper- ating catalytic cycle

  14. A Catalytic Mechanism for Cysteine N-Terminal Nucleophile Hydrolases, as Revealed by Free Energy Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    2 | e32397 A Catalytic Mechanism for Cysteine Ntn-Hydrolaseson the catalytic mechanism of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA):serine protease- like mechanism with an N-terminal threonine

  15. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  16. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  17. Multi-component Zirconia-Titania Mixed Oxides: Catalytic Materials with Unprecedented Performance in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3 after harsh hydrothermal ageing. Nathalie MARCOTTE1#, Bernard catalytic reduction. 1. Introduction. The abatement of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM% H2O, ~ 1050 K) is a prerequisite for deNOx catalysts of tomorrow in Diesel exhaust gas treatment

  18. Preparation and characterization of VOx/TiO2 catalytic coatings on stainless steel plates for structured catalytic reactors.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Preparation and characterization of VOx/TiO2 catalytic coatings on stainless steel plates are used in the mild oxidation of hydrocarbons and NOx abatement are studied. Stainless steel (316 L) was chosen because of its large application in industrial catalytic reactors. TiO2 films on stainless steel

  19. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  20. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  1. Stirling cycle heat pump for heating and/or cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijer, R.J.; Khalili, K.; Meijer, E.; Godett, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a duplex Stirling cycle machine acting as a heat pump. It comprises: a Stirling engine having pistons axially displaceable within parallel cylinders, the engine further having a swashplate rotatable about an axis of, rotation parallel to the cylinders and defining a plane inclined from the axis of rotation. The pistons connected to the swashplate via crossheads whereby axial displacement of the pistons is converted to rotation of the swashplate, and a Stirling cycle heat pump having a compression heat exchanger, an expansion heat exchanger and a regenerator with pistons equal in number to the engine pistons and axially displaceable within cylinders which are oriented co-axially with the engine cylinders. The crossheads further connected to the heat pump pistons whereby the heat pump pistons move simultaneously with the engine pistons over an equal stroke distance.

  2. Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K

    2012-01-01

    We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  3. Thermochemical Conversion: Using Heat and Catalysts to Make Biofuels and Bioproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-29

    This fact sheet discusses the Bioenergy Technologies Office's thermochemical conversion critical technology goal. And, how through the application of heat, robust thermochemical processes can efficiently convert a broad range of biomass.

  4. Switching power converter Figure 1(a): Switching DC-DC converter with analog voltage-mode control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    + RC L Vg 1 2 i + v _ Vref + _ Gc(s) VM = 1 PWM u c Switching power converter H v dTs H = 1 design of digital compensators. I. INTRODUCTION Discrete-time modeling of dc-dc switching converters has IEEE. #12;+ R C L Vg 1 2 i + v _ Vref + _ Gc(z) VM = 1 DPWM u c Switching power converter H v dTs H

  5. Make the most of catalytic hydrogenations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landert, J.P.; Scubla, T. [Biazzi S.A., Chailly-Montreux (Switzerland)

    1995-03-01

    Liquid-phase catalytic hydrogenation is one of the most useful and versatile reactions available for organic synthesis. Because it is environmentally clean, it has replaced other reduction processes, such as the Bechamp reaction, and zinc and sulfide reductions. Moreover, the economics are favorable, provided that raw materials free of catalyst poisons are used. The hydrogenation reaction is very selective with appropriate catalysts and can often be carried out without a solvent. Applications include reduction of unsaturated carbon compounds to saturated derivatives (for example, in vegetable-oil processing), carbonyl compounds to alcohols (such as sorbitol), and nitrocompounds to amines. the reactions are usually run in batch reactors to rapidly reach complete conversion and allow quick change-over of products. The paper describes the basics of hydrogenation; steering clear of process hazards; scale-up and optimization; and system design in practice.

  6. Biofuel from fast pyrolysis and catalytic hydrodeoxygenation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-09-04

    This review addresses recent developments in biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading by catalytic hydrotreating. The research in the field has expanded dramatically in the past few years with numerous new research groups entering the field while existing efforts from others expand. The issues revolve around the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Much work in batch reactor tests with precious metal catalysts needs further validation to verify long-term operability in continuous flow systems. The effect of the low level of sulfur in bio-oil needs more study to be better understood. Utilization of the upgraded bio-oil for feedstock to finished fuels is still in an early stage of understanding.

  7. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sealock, Jr., L. John (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials.

  8. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1997-05-20

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250 to 500 C and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials. 7 figs.

  9. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-09-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  10. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-12-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  11. Harmonic Elimination for Multilevel Converter with Programmed PWM Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Harmonic Elimination for Multilevel Converter with Programmed PWM Method Zhong Du, Leon M. Tolbert presents a programmed PWM method to eliminate specific higher order harmonics of multilevel converters. First, resultant theory is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate low order harmonics

  12. IEEE INFOCOM 2002 1 Design of Wavelength Converting Switches for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Jonathan S.

    IEEE INFOCOM 2002 1 Design of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching Jeyashankher Ramamirtham, Jonathan Turner Abstract-- Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is an experi- mental network- tronic control. In this paper, we study two designs for wave- length converting switches

  13. Design of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching Jeyashankher Ramamirtham, Jonathan Turner Abstract-- Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is an experi- mental network technology. In this paper, we study two designs for wavelength converting switches that are suitable for use in optical

  14. Semiconductors 8-bit multiplying D/A converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Philips Semiconductors MC1408-8 8-bit multiplying D/A converter Product data Supersedes data of 1994 Aug 31 File under Integrated Circuits, IC11 Handbook 2001 Aug 03 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS #12;Philips Semiconductors Product data MC1408-88-bit multiplying D/A converter 22001 Aug 03 853-0935 26835 DESCRIPTION

  15. Minimum Phase Response in Digitally Controlled Boost and Flyback Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -frequency switching power converters has been related to point-of-load synchronous buck converters, while fewer, Mariko Shirazi and Dragan Maksimovic Colorado Power Electronics Center ECE Department, University-phase responses, thus simplifying compensator design in wide bandwidth closed-loop voltage regulators based

  16. Practical On-Line Identification of Power Converter Dynamic Responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    parameters to maintain stability at the .. 1 4Switched-Mode Power Converter 1-b I 1 PIIdenfgcation& design-frequency switching power converters has been shown to provide many possible benefits, including improved immunity power convertcrs. These findings provide the first step towards automating the control loop design

  17. Design Considerations for Very High Frequency dc-dc Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    the gating power while ensuring fast on- off transitions of the semiconductor switch. The rectifier of switching power converters operating at greatly increased switching frequencies. Greatly increasedDesign Considerations for Very High Frequency dc-dc Converters Juan M. Rivas, David Jackson, Olivia

  18. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF A WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER ARNAUD ROUGIREL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF A WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER MODEL ARNAUD ROUGIREL Abstract. In a context where for buoy-type ocean wave energy converter. The simplest model for this scheme is a non autonomous piecewise and periodic solutions, and compare the energy performance of this novel WEC with respect to the one of wave

  19. Multiple Input Converters for Fuel Cells Burak Ozpineci1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Multiple Input Converters for Fuel Cells Burak Ozpineci1 burak@ieee.org Leon M. Tolbert1,2 tolbert-2100 Abstract-- Multilevel converters have been used previously to integrate several fuel cell modules for higher power applications. Some previous publications have also shown improvements in fuel cell

  20. Programmatic status of NASA`s CSTI high capacity power Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss the status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs have been completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. This paper also provides an update of progress in these technologies.

  1. Microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Alex L. (Albuquerque, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Moorman, Matthew W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-04

    A microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device comprises a microfabricated gas chromatography column in combination with a catalytic microcalorimeter. The microcalorimeter can comprise a reference thermal conductivity sensor to provide diagnostics and surety. Using microfabrication techniques, the device can be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost. The microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device enables continuous calorimetric determination of the heating value of natural gas with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This device has applications in remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. For gas pipelines, the device can improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and provide accurate financial accounting. For industrial end users, the device can provide continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use.

  2. The New Modular Control System for Power Converters at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Cosmo, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The CERN accelerator complex consists of several generations of particle accelerators, with around 5000 power converters supplying regulated current and voltage to normal and superconducting magnet circuits. Today around 12 generations of converter control platforms can be found in the accelerator complex, ranging in age and technology. The diversity of these platforms has a significant impact on operability, maintenance and support of power converters. Over the past few years a new generation of modular controls called RegFGC3 has been developed by CERNs power conversion group, with a goal to provide a standardised control platform, supporting a wide variety of converter topologies. The aim of this project is to reduce maintenance costs by decreasing the variety and diversity of control systems whilst simultaneously improving the operability and reliability of power converters and their controls. This paper describes the state of the on-going design and realization of the RegFGC3 platform, focusing on fun...

  3. Exergy & Economic Analysis of Catalytic Coal Gasifiers Coupled with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas; Litster, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has undertaken a review of coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide. One way to achieve an overall system efficiency of greater than 60% is in a power plant in which a catalytic coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis and this is sent to a SOFC, with CO{sub 2} capture occurring either before or after the SOFC. Integration of a catalytic gasifier with a SOFC, as opposed to a conventional entrained flow gasifier, is improved due to (a) decreased exergy destruction inside a catalytic, steam-coal gasifier producing a high-methane content syngas, and (b) decreased exergy destruction in the SOFC due to the ability to operate at lower air stoichiometric flow ratios. For example, thermal management of the SOFC is greatly improved due to the steam-methane reforming in the anode of the fuel cell. This paper has two main goals. First, we converted the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) estimates of various research groups into an average internal rate of return on investment (IRR) in order to make comparisons between their results, and to underscore the increased rate of return on investment for advanced integrated gasification fuel cell systems with carbon capture & sequestration (IGFC-CCS) compared with conventional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC-CCS) systems and pulverized coal combustion (PCC-CCS) systems. Using capital, labor, and fuel costs from previous researchers and using an average price of baseload electricity generation of $61.50 / MW-hr, we calculated inflation-adjusted IRR values of up to 13%/yr for catalytic gasification with pressurized fuel cell and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), whereas we calculate an IRR of ?4%/yr and ?2%/yr for new, conventional IGCC-CCS and PCC-CCS, respectively. If the carbon dioxide is used for enhanced oil recovery rather than for saline aquifer storage, then the IRR values improve to 16%/yr, 10%/yr, and 8%/yr, respectively. For comparison, the IRR of a new conventional IGCC or PCC power plant without CO{sub 2} capture are estimated to be 11%/yr and 15.0%/yr, respectively. Second, we conducted an exergy analysis of two different configurations in which syngas from a catalytic gasifier fuels a SOFC. In the first case, the CO{sub 2} is captured before the SOFC, and the anode tail gas is sent back to the catalytic gasifier. In the second case, the anode tail gas is oxy-combusted using oxygen ion ceramic membranes and then CO{sub 2} is captured for sequestration. In both cases, we find that the system efficiency is greater than 60%. These values compare well with previous system analysis. In future work, we plan to calculate the IRR of these two cases and compare with previous economic analyses conducted at NETL.

  4. Sequential tasks performed by catalytic pumps for colloidal crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Afshar Farniya; Maria J. Esplandiu; Adrian Bachtold

    2014-10-20

    Gold-platinum catalytic pumps immersed in a chemical fuel are used to manipulate silica colloids. The manipulation relies on the electric field and the fluid flow generated by the pump. Catalytic pumps perform various tasks, such as the repulsion of colloids, the attraction of colloids, and the guided crystallization of colloids. We demonstrate that catalytic pumps can execute these tasks sequentially over time. Switching from one task to the next is related to the local change of the proton concentration, which modifies the colloid zeta potential and consequently the electric force acting on the colloids.

  5. Sequential tasks performed by catalytic pumps for colloidal crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farniya, Ali Afshar; Bachtold, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Gold-platinum catalytic pumps immersed in a chemical fuel are used to manipulate silica colloids. The manipulation relies on the electric field and the fluid flow generated by the pump. Catalytic pumps perform various tasks, such as the repulsion of colloids, the attraction of colloids, and the guided crystallization of colloids. We demonstrate that catalytic pumps can execute these tasks sequentially over time. Switching from one task to the next is related to the local change of the proton concentration, which modifies the colloid zeta potential and consequently the electric force acting on the colloids.

  6. ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING PLANT Dr.sc.ing. Agnese Lickrastina M.Sc. Normunds European Heat Pump Summit 2013, Nuremberg, 15-16.10.2013 Riga District Heating company Operation of the DH plant Imanta Selection of the heat pump/chiller Operation of the heat pump/chiller Summary

  7. Magnet Technology for Power Converters: Nanocomposite Magnet Technology for High Frequency MW-Scale Power Converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-27

    Solar ADEPT Project: CMU is developing a new nanoscale magnetic material that will reduce the size, weight, and cost of utility-scale PV solar power conversion systems that connect directly to the grid. Power converters are required to turn the energy that solar power systems create into useable energy for the grid. The power conversion systems made with CMUs nanoscale magnetic material have the potential to be 150 times lighter and significantly smaller than conventional power conversion systems that produce similar amounts of power.

  8. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-03-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

  9. Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

  10. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in moving air into rotational energy, which in turn is converted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in moving air into rotational energy, which in turn is converted to electricity. Since wind speeds vary from month to month and second to second, the amount of electricity wind can make varies constantly. Sometimes a wind turbine will make no power at all

  11. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-12-26

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter. 7 figs.

  12. Catalytic combustion in internal combustion engines: A possible explanation for the Woschni effect in thermally-insulated diesel engines. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.L.

    1996-11-15

    This report describes research undertaken to determine if catalytic combustion effects occur with the use of zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), or other coatings, in diesel engines, and if so, whether these effects have significant impact upon engine combustion, fuel economy, or pollutant emissions. A simple furnace system was used to identify catalytic combustion effects in the ignition and combustion of propane/air mixtures over catalyst-doped m-ZrO{sub 2} spheres. Three classes of catalysts were examined: zirconia-stabilizing oxides (CeO{sub 2}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO), transition metal oxides (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and noble metals (Pt). Each class exhibited characteristic combustion effects, with the ignition temperature increasing, e.g., from approximately 2000 deg C for Pt to 5500 deg C for the stabilizing oxides. The results suggest that the Woschni effect, a controversial phenomenon wherein thermal-insulating measures are postulated to actually increase heat transfer from the diesel combustion chamber, may be only a manifestation of catalytic combustion. Previous research on catalytic combustion in internal combustion engines is briefly reviewed and discussed. An earlier version of this report is to be published in J. Surface and Coatings Technology as `Catalytic Combustion Effects on m-ZrO{sub 2} Doped with Various Metal Nitrates.`

  13. Stochastic bi-resonance without external signal in the CO O2 catalytic oxidation reaction system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Lingfa

    Stochastic bi-resonance without external signal in the CO O2 catalytic oxidation reaction system reaction systems13 including the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO O2) and the catalytic reduction; accepted 19 April 1999 The noisy dynamic behavior of a surface catalytic reaction model to describe

  14. Thermally matched fluid cooled power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Beihoff, Bruce C.

    2005-06-21

    A thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. Power electronic circuits are thermally matched, such as between component layers and between the circuits and the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  15. Power converter having improved terminal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.; Phillips, Mark G.; Kaishian, Steven C.

    2007-03-06

    A terminal structure for power electronics circuits reduces the need for a DC bus and thereby the incidence of parasitic inductance. The structure is secured to a support that may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as by direct contact between the terminal assembly and AC and DC circuit components. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  16. Power converter having improved fluid cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Andreas A.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2007-03-06

    A thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support, which may be controlled in a closed-loop manner. Interfacing between circuits, circuit mounting structure, and the support provide for greatly enhanced cooling. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  17. Power converter having improved EMI shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Gettelfinger, Lee A.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Phillips, Mark G.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.

    2006-06-13

    EMI shielding is provided for power electronics circuits and the like via a direct-mount reference plane support and shielding structure. The thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support forms a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  18. Emerging catalytic processes for the production of adipic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Vyver, Stijn

    Research efforts to find more sustainable pathways for the synthesis of adipic acid have led to the introduction of new catalytic processes for producing this commodity chemical from alternative resources. With a focus on ...

  19. Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site and Catalytic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site and Catalytic Mechanism of Methane and Toluene Monooxygenases Friday, June 22, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL Main Conference Room 137-322 Prof....

  20. An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The gas boilers of conventional flame always produce varying degrees of combustion products NOx and CO, which pollute the environment and waste energy. As a new way of combustion, catalytic combustion breaks the flammable limits of conventional...

  1. Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golen, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

    2007-06-19

    A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

  2. Catalytic oxidation of VOC`s and air toxics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lassen, M.A.; Chu, W. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Catalytic oxidation for VOC control of stationary sources has been in use since the 1940`s for energy recovery and odor control. Widespread use of catalytic oxidation, as a means for controlling emissions began in earnest in the early 1970`s with the passage of the Clean Air Act of 1970. Since that time, catalytic technology has undergone many improvements and advancements. Some of these include higher destruction efficiencies at lower temperatures, poison resistance, enhanced durability and the ability to effectively control halogenated hydrocarbon compounds. This is particularly important for meeting the Title III requirements, since many of the air toxics regulated under Title III are halogenated VOC`s. This paper will describe catalytic oxidation, how it works, its benefits and limitations, its cost relative to thermal, and describe recent technology advances.

  3. Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation Streams to Hydrocarbons for Fungible Fuels 2.3.1.100 Chaitanya Narula, 1 Zhenglong Li, 1 E. Casbeer, 1 Robert A....

  4. Catalytic H2O2 decomposition on palladium surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salinas, S. Adriana

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic decomposition of H?O? at smooth single-crystal and polycrystalline palladium surfaces that had been subjected to various surface modifications has been studied. Monolayer and submonolayer coverages of I, Br and Cl adsorbates were used...

  5. In situ XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications to Fuel Cells and Batteries Friday, July 12, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Qingying...

  6. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to design, fabricate, evaluate, and optimize a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor/heat exchanger system with thin-film or particulate catalysts for hydrogenation of o-nitroanisole and other nitro aromatic compounds, under moderate temperature and pressure.

  7. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Tobin Jay

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  8. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  9. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie

    2010-12-22

    We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

  10. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  11. Generating Isolated Outputs in a Multilevel Modular Capacitor Clamped DC-DC Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    -dc converters based on inductive energy transfer method (IETM) such as buck, boost, and buck-boost converter967 Generating Isolated Outputs in a Multilevel Modular Capacitor Clamped DC-DC Converter (MMCCC clamped dc-dc converter. The multilevel modular capacitor clamped converter (MMCCC) has several key

  12. Bifurcation in a System of Coupled Buck Converters Herbert H. C. Iu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    electronic regulators (e.g. buck converter, boost converter and buck-boost converter) have been thoroughlyBifurcation in a System of Coupled Buck Converters Herbert H. C. Iu , Chi K. Tse and Octavian the bifurcation behaviour of a system of coupled buck converters under current-mode control. The effects due

  13. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Converters Michael Evzelman Shmuel (Sam) Ben-Yaakov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by simulation and experimentally. The experimental converter included a Boost converter followed by x3 switched. This can be conveniently done by hybrid converters with multiple Figure 1. Hybrid Boost SCCx3 converterModeling and Analysis of Hybrid Converters Michael Evzelman Shmuel (Sam) Ben-Yaakov Power

  14. Bifurcation in Parallel-Connected Buck Converters under Current-Mode Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    converter, boost converter and buck-boost converter) have been thoroughly studied in the past decade [1], [2Bifurcation in Parallel-Connected Buck Converters under Current-Mode Control H. H. C. Iu School a system of parallel-connected dc/dc buck converters under current-mode control. The effects of variations

  15. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Phelps, M.R.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at low temperatures (350{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C). From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous reactor system (CRS) testing were undertaken in the development of this system under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. A wide range of biomass feedstocks were tested, and the importance of the nickel metal catalyst was identified. Specific use of this process for treating food processing wastes was also studied. The concept application was further expanded to encompass cleanup of hazardous wastewater streams, and results were reported for batch reactor tests and continuous reactor tests. Ongoing work at PNL focuses on refining the catalyst and scaling the system to long-term industrial needs. The process is licensed as the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) to Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., of Duarte, California. This report is a follow-on to the 1989--90 interim report [Elliott et al. 1991], which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with a fixed-bed, continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The discussion here provides an overview of experiments on the wide range of potential feedstock materials conducted in a batch reactor; development of new catalyst materials; and tests performed in continuous-flow reactors at three scales. The appendices contain the history and background of the process development, as well as more detailed descriptions and results of the recent studies.

  16. Electroless preparation and characterization of Ni-B nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their catalytic activity towards hydrogenation of styrene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Zhilin; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Wang, Feng; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Liu, Jingjun; Ji, Jing; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Park, Ki Chul; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The MWCNT/Ni-B catalyst has been successfully prepared by an electroless deposition process. The Ni-B nanoparticles on the supporter are amorphous and are well-distributed. The catalytic conversion towards hydrogenation of styrene shows excellent catalytic activity of the obtained materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-step treatment of MWCNTs enabled the homogeneous growth of Ni-B nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-B nanoparticles were amorphous with an average size of 60 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were electron transfer between Ni and B. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst had excellent catalytic activity towards hydrogenation of styrene. -- Abstract: Nickel-boron (Ni-B) nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were successfully synthesized through an electroless deposition process using the plating bath with sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The structural and morphological analyses using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown that the Ni-B nanoparticles deposited on the sidewalls of MWCNTs are fine spheres comprised of amorphous structure with the morphologically unique fine-structure like flowers, and homogenously dispersed with a narrow particle size distribution centered at around 60 nm diameter. The catalytic activity of MWCNT/Ni-B nanoparticles was evaluated with respect to hydrogenation of styrene. The hydrogenation catalyzed by MWCNT-supported Ni-B nanoparticles has been found to make styrene selectively converted into ethylbenzene. The highest conversion reaches 99.8% under proper reaction conditions, which demonstrates the high catalytic activity of MWCNT/Ni-B nanoparticles.

  17. Protocols for the Equitable Assessment of Marine Energy Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingram, David; Smith, George; Bittencourt-Ferreira, Claudio; Smith, Helen

    This book contains the suite of protocols for the equitable evaluation of marine energy converters (based on either tidal or wave energy) produced by the EquiMar consortium led by the University of Edinburgh. These protocols ...

  18. Oversampled pipline A/D converters with mismatch shaping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabra, Ayman U. (Ayman Umar)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis introduces a technique to improve the linearity of pipeline analog to digital converters (ADC). Through a combination of oversampling and mismatch shaping, the distortion introduced by component mismatch is ...

  19. Design Methodology for a Very High Frequency Resonant Boost Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burkhart, Justin M.

    This paper introduces a design methodology for a resonant boost converter topology that is suitable for operation at very high frequencies. The topology we examine features a low parts count and fast transient response, ...

  20. Design methodology for a very high frequency resonant boost converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burkhart, Justin M.

    This document introduces a design methodology for a resonant boost converter topology that is suitable for operation at very high frequencies. The topology we examine features a low parts count and fast transient response ...

  1. Development, evaluation, and design applications of an AMTEC converter model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Cliff Alan

    2002-01-01

    An AMTEC converter model was developed and its effectiveness as a design tool was evaluated. To develop the model, requirements of the model were defined, modeling equations were selected, and a methodology for model development was established...

  2. Soft switched high frequency ac-link converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Anand Kumar

    2009-05-15

    Variable frequency drives typically have employed dc voltage or current links for power distribution between the input and output converters and as a means to temporarily store energy. The dc link based power conversion systems have several inherent...

  3. Converting normal insulators into topological insulators via tuning orbital levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Wu-Jun

    Tuning the spin-orbit coupling strength via foreign element doping and modifying bonding strength via strain engineering are the major routes to convert normal insulators to topological insulators. We here propose an ...

  4. Non-synchronous control of self-oscillating resonant converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaser, John Stanley (Niskayuna, NY); Zane, Regan Andrew (Scotia, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A self-oscillating switching power converter has a controllable reactance including an active device connected to a reactive element, wherein the effective reactance of the reactance and the active device is controlled such that the control waveform for the active device is binary digital and is not synchronized with the switching converter output frequency. The active device is turned completely on and off at a frequency that is substantially greater than the maximum frequency imposed on the output terminals of the active device. The effect is to vary the average resistance across the active device output terminals, and thus the effective output reactance, thereby providing converter output control, while maintaining the response speed of the converter.

  5. A Dual Supply Buck Converter with Improved Light Load Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    2013-05-02

    Power consumption is the primary concern in battery-operated portable applications. Buck converters have gained popularity in powering portable devices due to their compact size, good current delivery capability and high efficiency. However...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: WBG Converters and Chargers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about WBG converters...

  7. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ living --- HEATER??ACTIVE --- ACTIVATING??HEATER --- HEATER??RUNNING ; #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION

  8. Author's personal copy Towards optimization of a pyroelectric energy converter for harvesting waste heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    efficiencies. Organic Rankine cycles use organic working fluids such as refrigerants and hydrocarbons instead

  9. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11,Security Officer Program |quick referenceImage

  10. DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 2015 GATEWAY Takes 9. TechnologyDOE Web Managers

  11. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, N.R.; King, R.D.; Schwartz, J.E.

    1999-05-11

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals. 10 figs.

  12. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, Neil Richard (Niskayuna, NY); King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); Schwartz, James Edward (Slingerlands, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals.

  13. SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Small Particle Heat Exchange Receiver (SPHER) for Solarof the small particle heat exchange receiver (or SPHER), asabsorption process, the heat exchange to the gas, the choice

  14. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  15. An evaluation of a parallel-resonant current-source converter for an electrothermal thruster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tchamdjou, Aristide-Marie

    1996-01-01

    The Parallel-Resonant Current-Source Converter promises highly efficient DCDC power conversion. It uses zero-voltage switching to reduce the losses and improve the converter efficiency. The Parallel-Resonant Current-Source Converter has been...

  16. Mass-modulation schemes for a class of wave energy converters: Experiments, models, and efficacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamond, CA; Judge, CQ; Orazov, B; Sava?, ; O'Reilly, OM

    2015-01-01

    dynamics of a novel ocean wave energy converter. Journal of5565. Dick, W. , 2005. Wave energy converter. U.S. Patentof the IPS buoy wave energy converter including the effect

  17. A New Methodology for Frequency Domain Analysis of Wave Energy Converters with Periodically Varying Physical Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    A New Methodology for Frequency Domain Analysis of Wave Energy Converters with Periodically Varying Methodology for Frequency Domain Analysis of Wave Energy Converters with Periodically Varying Physical of Mechanical Engineering) ABSTRACT Within a wave energy converter's operational bandwidth, device operation

  18. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  19. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

  20. Catalytic liquid-phase hydrogenation of aqueous nitrate solutions: A kinetic investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pintar, A.; Batista, J.; Levec, J. [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kajiuchi, Toshio [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Liquid-phase reduction using a solid Pd/Cu bimetallic catalyst provides a potential technique for the removal of nitrates from waters. Kinetic measurements were performed in an isothermal semi-batch slurry reactor operating at atmospheric pressure. The proposed intrinsic rate expression for nitrate disappearance is based on the conventional Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic approach, considering both equilibrium nitrate as well as dissociative hydrogen adsorption processes to different types of active sites, and assuming an irreversible bimolecular surface reaction between adsorbed reactant species to be the rate-controlling step. The apparent activation energy for catalytic liquid-phase nitrate reduction and the heat of nitrate adsorption, in the temperature range 280.5-293 K, were found to be 47 and -22 kJ/mol, respectively. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-04-29

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  3. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  4. Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-15

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

  5. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  6. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  7. DOE-TSPP-8-2013, Converting DOE Technical Standards to Voluntary...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8-2013, Converting DOE Technical Standards to Voluntary Consensus Standards DOE-TSPP-8-2013, Converting DOE Technical Standards to Voluntary Consensus Standards Technical Standards...

  8. Power Maximization in Wave-Energy Converters Using Sampled -Data Extremum Seeking /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tianjia

    2013-01-01

    A review of wave energy converter technology. Proceedings ofdecades. With the technology of wave-energy convert- ers(Wave energy utilization: A review of the technologies. Re-

  9. Probing CP Violation in $h\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ with Converted...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CP Violation in hrightarrowgammagamma with Converted Photons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing CP Violation in hrightarrowgammagamma with Converted...

  10. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  11. Integrated heat pump and heat storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, A.

    1983-09-13

    An integrated heat pump and heat storage system is disclosed comprising a heat pump, a first conduit for supplying return air from an enclosure to the heat pump, a second conduit for supplying heated air from the heat pump to the enclosure, heat storage apparatus. A first damper is operative in a first orientation to permit return air from the enclosure to enter the first conduit and to prevent return air from passing through the heat storage apparatus and operative in a second orientation to cause return air to pass through the heat storage apparatus for being heated thereby before entering the first conduit. A second damper is operative in a first orientation to cause heated air from the second conduit to pass through the heat storage apparatus for giving up a portion of its heat for storage and operative in a second orientation to prevent heated air from the second conduit from passing through the heat storage apparatus and to permit the heated air from the second conduit to reach the enclosure. The heat storage apparatus may comprise phase change materials.

  12. 1 Copyright 2013 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    water mixtures (b) a gas-phase catalytic reactor. We focus on the fundamental experimental heat transfer studies (pool and flow boiling of ethanol-water mixtures) required for the primary pre-heater boiler of flow boiling process, pool-boiling of ethanol- water mixtures has also been initiated. After

  13. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  14. Sub-picosecond Resolution Time-to-Digital Converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ph D, Vladimir Bratov; Ph D, Vladimir Katzman; MS EE, Jeb Binkley

    2006-03-30

    Time-to-digital converters with sub-picosecond resolutions are needed to satisfy the requirements of time-on-flight measurements of the next generation of high energy and nuclear physics experiments. The converters must be highly integrated, power effective, low cost, and feature plug-and-play capabilities to handle the increasing number of channels (up to hundreds of millions) in future Department of Energy experiments. Current state-off-the-art time-to-digital converter integrated circuits do not have the sufficient degree of integration and flexibility to fulfill all the described requirements. During Phase I, the Advanced Science and Novel Technology Company in cooperation with the nuclear physics division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the architecture of a novel time-to-digital converter with multiple channels connected to an external processor through a special interfacing block and synchronized by clock signals generated by an internal phase-locked loop. The critical blocks of the system including signal delay lines and delay-locked loops with proprietary differential delay cells, as well as the required digital code converter and the clock period counter have been designed and simulated using the advanced SiGe120 BiCMOS technological process. The results of investigations demonstrate a possibility to achieve the digitization accuracy within 1ps. ADSANTEC has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed concept in computer simulations. The proposed system will be a critical component for the next generation of NEP experiments.

  15. Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2009-10-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis undertaken at PNNL. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of catalyst formulations were tested over a range of operating parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow-rate with bio-oil derived from several different biomass feedstocks. Effects of liquid hourly space velocity and catalyst bed temperature were assessed. Details of the process results were presented including mass and elemental balances. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition, chemical functional type determined by mass spectrometry, and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to bio-oil.

  16. Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil from Pine Sawdust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Solantausta, Yrjo

    2012-06-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to the fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) from softwood biomass in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of operating parameters including temperature, and flow-rate were tested with bio-oil derived from pine wood as recovered and pyrolyzed in the pilot pyrolyzer of Metso Power in Tampere, Finland. Effects of time on stream and catalyst activity were assessed. Details of the process results were presented included product yields and hydrogen consumption. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an initial understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to the Finnish pine bio-oil.

  17. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1993--1994 interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Deverman, G.S.; Werpy, T.A.; Phelps, M.R.; Baker, E.G.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    Process development research is continuing on a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system that has been demonstrated to convert organics in water (dilute or concentrated) to useful and environmentally safe gases. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEESO), treats a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from hazardous organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of continuous-feed, tubular reactors systems for testing catalysts and feedstocks in the process. A range of catalysts have been tested, including nickel and other base metals, as well as ruthenium and other precious metals. Results of extensive testing show that feedstocks, ranging from 2% para-cresol in water to potato waste and spent grain, can be processed to > 99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The product fuel gas contains from 40% up to 75% methane, depending on the feedstock. The balance of the gas is mostly carbon dioxide with < 5% hydrogen and usually < 1% ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics from 10 to 1,000 mg/l COD, depending on the feedstock. The level of development of TEES has progressed to the initial phases of industrial process demonstration. Testing of industrial waste streams is under way at both the bench scale and engineering scale of development.

  18. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur. First quarterly technical progress report, [October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedek, K. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation will be conducting Phase I of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. this catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria or zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an ongoing DOE-sponsored University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicates that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. the performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  19. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Second quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    In the more than 170 wet scrubber systems in 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers, the SO{sub 2} removed from the boiler flue gas is sorbed, and the sulfated sorbent must be disposed of. The use of regenerable sorbents has the potential to reduce this disposal problem. The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts Univ., and Engelhard Corp. are conducting Phase I of a 4.5-year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting SO{sub 2} to S. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide such as ceria and zirconia; the catalytic activity can be promoted by active transition metals such as Cu. The Phase I program includes the following work elements: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization, lab-scale bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies, bench-scale catalyst/process studies, and utility review.

  20. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for...

  1. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  2. Enhancing the Catalytic Activity of Site-Isolated Heterogeneous Transition Metal Expoxidation Catalysts Prepared via the Thermolytic Molecular Precursor Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordeiro, Paul Joseph

    2010-01-01

    applied to a variety of catalytic oxidation reactions. 11-1548 h. Table 3. Catalytic 1-octene oxidation with tert-butylcatalysts. Table 4. Catalytic 1-octene oxidation with H 2 O

  3. Electrical power converter method and system employing multiple-output converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2006-03-21

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  4. Catalytic studies of supported Pd-Au catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar

    2006-08-16

    -Au Bimetallic Supported Catalysts Palladium (Pd) is a well known catalyst for many reactions which are of industrial and environmental importance [7]. A major drawback of using Pd-only catalysts is the formation of carbides, i.e. PdCx, as shown in the Fig. 1... reveal that the addition of gold to palladium catalysts has pronounced catalytic effect [3, 6]. It is plausible that the electronic and geometric properties are tuned by the addition of Au with highly optimized sites [3, 6, 11]. Also, model catalytic...

  5. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-06-17

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  6. Methods for degrading or converting plant cell wall polysaccharides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berka, Randy (Davis, CA); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA)

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into saccharified material; (b) fermenting the saccharified material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  7. Power line carrier interference from HVDC converter terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatro, P.J.; Adamson, K.A. (New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States)); Eitzmann, M.A.; Smead, M. (GE Industrial and Power Systems, Schenectady, NY (United States). Power Systems Engineering Dept.)

    1993-07-01

    Power line carrier (PLC) equipment typically operates in the frequency range from 25 kHz to 300 kHz. Interference studies for HVDC converters usually concentrate on interference from noise sources within this frequency range. However, operating experience at the Sandy Pond converter terminal has indicated that PLC equipment is also susceptible to interference from sources of power system harmonics below the PLC frequency range. Extensive field testing and analytical studies have shown that each PLC circuit has a resonant frequency below the operating frequency. If excited at this resonant frequency, high voltages may exist within the PLC circuit. The resulting saturation of PLC components leads to local generation of radio frequency (RF) noise that interferes with proper operation of PLC circuits. Sources of power system harmonics in the 3-10 kHz range, such as line commutated dc converters, are potential sources of this type of interference.

  8. Auxiliary quasi-resonant dc tank electrical power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2006-10-24

    An auxiliary quasi-resonant dc tank (AQRDCT) power converter with fast current charging, voltage balancing (or charging), and voltage clamping circuits is provided for achieving soft-switched power conversion. The present invention is an improvement of the invention taught in U.S. Pat. No. 6,111,770, herein incorporated by reference. The present invention provides faster current charging to the resonant inductor, thus minimizing delay time of the pulse width modulation (PWM) due to the soft-switching process. The new AQRDCT converter includes three tank capacitors or power supplies to achieve the faster current charging and minimize the soft-switching time delay. The new AQRDCT converter further includes a voltage balancing circuit to charge and discharge the three tank capacitors so that additional isolated power supplies from the utility line are not needed. A voltage clamping circuit is also included for clamping voltage surge due to the reverse recovery of diodes.

  9. Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall Flow Filters - 4 Way Catalyst and DeNOx Application examples Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity...

  10. Continued investigations of the catalytic reduction of N? to NH? by molybdenum triamidoamine complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanna, Brian S. (Brian Stewart)

    2011-01-01

    A study of the effects of employing different solvents and the introduction of dihydrogen during the catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia with [HIPTN 3N]Mo complexes was completed. During a catalytic reaction, the ...

  11. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  12. Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peck, Jhongwoo, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine project, the development of a hydrocarbon-fueled catalytic micro-combustion system is presented. A conventionally-machined catalytic flow reactor was built to simulate the ...

  13. 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles: Comparison to Reference Methods 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles:...

  14. THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    and Technology THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OFof California. THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OFg los~ S(IV) in aqueous fly ash slurries :n;- and 0 , and SO

  15. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.

  16. Method for converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Volponi, Joanne V. (Livermore, CA); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Andrew (Woodinville, WA)

    2009-07-07

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for continuously converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose. The method comprises a three-stage enzymatic reactor in which an aqueous solution of sucrose is first converted into a solution of fructose and .alpha.-D-glucose by passing it through a porous, packed column containing an inert media on which invertase is immobilized. This solution is then sent through a second packed column containing glucose isomerase and finally a third packed column containing mutarotase. Solution temperature and pH are adjusted to maximize glucose output.

  17. Nitinol engine for low grade heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.T.

    1981-12-01

    A continuous band of nitinol wrapping in between a cluster of tightly engaged rollers to form a series of s-shaped bends is used as the principle working medium of a thermal engine to convert low grade heat to mechanical power output. The band, together with the rollers, divides the space into an inner and an outer zone. A stream of warmer water and a stream of cooler water are guided to flow separately through one or the other of the two zones to make uniform and intimate contact with the segments of the nitinol band alternatively at appropriate intervals. A well defined four-cycle operation of temperature and stress is thus established and can convert a portion of the energy which is available in the thermal gradient of the two water streams into a mechanical shaft power which may be tapped from one of the rollers.

  18. Northwest Energy Innovations (TRL 5 6 System)- WETNZ MtiMode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Northwest Energy Innovations (TRL 5 6 System) - WETNZ MtiMode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project

  19. Analysis and Optimization of Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    on conduction loss) of a ladder-type converter is found to be superior to that of a conventional boost converterAnalysis and Optimization of Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converters Michael D. Seeman, Seth R. Sanders Analysis methods are developed that fully determine a switched-capacitor (SC) dc-dc converter's steady

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS 1 Singular Perturbation Theory for DCDC Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    model. Similar results hold for boost, buck, and buckboost converters. Experimental boost convertersIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS 1 Singular Perturbation Theory for DCDC Converters and Application to PFC Converters Jonathan W. Kimball, Senior Member, IEEE, and Philip T. Krein, Fellow, IEEE

  1. 17.March.2005 C. A. Martins, CERN AB/PO 1 Power converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    , 1000Vdc Converter topology 18 kV cell Power transformers (in an oil tank) 2x4 Rectifier bridges Passive Passive filter self Passive filter capacitors self capacitors DC output #12;17.March.2005 C. A. Martins Converters location: At building 193 (AD) like ALICE/LHCb converter 2nd choice target Power converter (193

  2. Sigma-Delta Modulation of Multi-Phase High Frequency Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    Sigma-Delta Modulation of Multi-Phase High Frequency Converters Jonathan W. Kimball, Senior Member control architecture is proposed that merges advanced digital modulation techniques, high frequency resonant converters, and multi-phase converters. If a converter's switching frequency is high enough

  3. Agglutination of single catalyst particles during fluid catalytic cracking as observed by X-ray nanotomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meirer, F.; Kalirai, S.; Weker, J. Nelson; Liu, Y.; Andrews, J. C.; Weckhuysen, B. M.

    2015-04-14

    Metal accumulation at the catalyst particle surface plays a role in particle agglutination during fluid catalytic cracking.

  4. Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R on the gasification in air and 3.1 kPa steam of North Dakota lignitic chars prepared under slow and rapid pyrolysis of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis

  5. Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Propane in Hydrogen Permselective Membrane Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Propane in Hydrogen Permselective Membrane Reactors John P. Collins and Production, Amoco Research Center, 150 West Warrenville Road, Naperville, Illinois 60566-7011 Propane operated at liquid hourly space velocities (LHSVs) similar to those used in commercial reactors for propane

  6. Catalytic Domain of Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PLC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Roger L.

    Catalytic Domain of Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PLC) MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RESIDUES WITHIN THE ACTIVE SITE AND HYDROPHOBIC RIDGE OF PLC 1* (Received for publication, November 20, 1997 Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, United Kingdom Structural studies of phospholipase C 1 (PLC

  7. Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

  8. ULTRA LOW NOx CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FOR IGCC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance L. Smith

    2004-03-01

    Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using PCI's two-stage (catalytic / gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage is a Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{trademark}) catalytic reactor, wherein a fuel-rich mixture contacts the catalyst and reacts while final and excess combustion air cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, wherein the catalyst cooling air mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During the reporting period, PCI successfully achieved NOx = 0.011 lbs/MMBtu at 10 atm pressure (corresponding to 2.0 ppm NOx corrected to 15% O{sub 2} dry) with near-zero CO emissions, surpassing the project goal of < 0.03 lbs/MMBtu NOx. These emissions levels were achieved at scaled (10 atm, sub-scale) baseload conditions corresponding to Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station operation on 100% syngas (no co-firing of natural gas).

  9. Metal Vinylidenes and Allenylidenes as Intermediates in Catalytic Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Metal Vinylidenes and Allenylidenes as Intermediates in Catalytic Transformations Literature Group Key references: Metal Vinylidenes in Catalysis. Bruneau, C.; Dixneuf, P. H. Acc. Chem. Res. 1999, 32.; Pinkerton, A. B. Chem. Rev. 2001, 101, 2067-2096. Outline: Definitions Metal vinylidene generation

  10. Diffusiophoretic Self-Propulsion for Partially Catalytic Spherical Colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joost de Graaf; Georg Rempfer; Christian Holm

    2015-02-11

    Colloidal spheres with a partial platinum surface coating perform auto-phoretic motion when suspended in hydrogen peroxide solution. We present a theoretical analysis of the self-propulsion velocity of these particles using a continuum multi-component, self-diffusiophoretic model. With this model as a basis, we show how the slip-layer approximation can be derived and in which limits it holds. First, we consider the differences between the full multi-component model and the slip-layer approximation. Then the slip model is used to demonstrate and explore the sensitive nature of the particle's velocity on the details of the molecule-surface interaction. We find a strong asymmetry in the dependence of the colloid's velocity as a function of the level of catalytic coating, when there is a different interaction between the solute and solvent molecules and the inert and catalytic part of the colloid, respectively. The direction of motion can even be reversed by varying the level of the catalytic coating. Finally, we investigate the robustness of these results with respect to variations in the reaction rate near the edge between the catalytic and inert parts of the particle. Our results are of significant interest to the interpretation of experimental results on the motion of self-propelled particles.

  11. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation and hydroconversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, James B. (Denville, NJ); McLean, Joseph B. (So. Somerville, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A process for two-stage catalytic hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent and fed at temperature below about 650.degree. F. into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils at conditions favoring hydrogenation reactions. The first stage reactor is maintained at 650.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-60 lb coal/hr/ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The partially hydrogenated material from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the close-coupled second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at a temperature at least about 25.degree. F. higher than for the first stage reactor and within a range of 750.degree.-875.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and thermal hydroconversion reactions. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, which results in significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of undesirable residuum and unconverted coal and hydrocarbon gases, with use of less energy to obtain the low molecular weight products, while catalyst life is substantially increased.

  12. Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y. A.

    Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction Andrew involving both absorption and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The model helps identify operator The system under analysis involves two key pro- cesses: absorption and selective catalytic reduction (SCR

  13. Journal of Power Sources 142 (2005) 184193 Modeling and optimization of catalytic partial oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    2005-01-01

    of a micro-reformer for a fuel cell unit based on catalytic partial oxidation using a systematic numerical is around 80% is identified. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Catalytic partial oxidationJournal of Power Sources 142 (2005) 184193 Modeling and optimization of catalytic partial

  14. Thiol-Dependent Recovery of Catalytic Activity from Oxidized Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    Thiol-Dependent Recovery of Catalytic Activity from Oxidized Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Zachary PTPs via oxidation of the enzyme's catalytic cysteine thiolate group. Importantly, low- molecular. Here we examined the recovery of catalytic activity from two oxidatively inactivated PTPs (PTP1B

  15. Stochastic resonance in surface catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide Lingfa Yang, Zhonghuai Hou, and Houwen Xina)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Lingfa

    Stochastic resonance in surface catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide Lingfa Yang, Zhonghuai Hou: catalytic oxidation on a single sur- face, by analysis of the behavior of a set of ordinary differ- ential help researchers to find SR in this system experimentally. II. REACTION MODEL The catalytic oxidation

  16. Catalytic activation and reforming of methane on supported palladium clusters Aritomo Yamaguchi, Enrique Iglesia *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Catalytic activation and reforming of methane on supported palladium clusters Aritomo Yamaguchi and 13 C18 O, and 13 CO and 12 CO during CH4 reforming catalysis. This catalytic sequence, but do not contribute to steady-state catalytic reforming rates. The high reactivity of Pd surfaces in C

  17. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2009-09-30

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE??s goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines, Incorporated Saturn engine rig. High pressure single-injector rig and modified engine rig tests demonstrated NOx less than 2 ppm and CO less than 10 ppm over a wide flame temperature operating regime with low combustion noise (<0.15% peak-to-peak). Minimum NOx for the optimized engine retrofit Full RCL® designs was less than 1 ppm with CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Durability testing of the substrate and catalyst material was successfully demonstrated at pressure and temperature showing long term stable performance of the catalytic reactor element. Stable performance of the reactor element was achieved when subjected to durability tests (>5000 hours) at simulated engine conditions (P=15 atm, Tin=400C/750F.). Cyclic tests simulating engine trips was also demonstrated for catalyst reliability. In addition to catalyst tests, substrate oxidation testing was also performed for downselected substrate candidates for over 25,000 hours. At the end of the program, an RCL® catalytic pilot system has been developed and demonstrated to produce NOx emissions of less than 3 ppm (corrected to 15% O2) for 100% and 50% load operation in a production engine operating on natural gas. In addition, a Full RCL® combustor has been designed and demonstrated less than 2 ppm NOx (with potential to achieve 1 ppm) in single injector and modified engine testing. The catalyst/substrate combination has been shown to be stable up to 5500 hrs in simulated engine conditions.

  18. Comparison of architectures for two-step flash analog-to-digital converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reese, Robert Bryan

    1982-01-01

    A/D converters have been designed and fabricated in the last three to five ?om a survey of the literature it was discovered that the majority of these converters were of the successive approximation (SAP) type (Table I, page 4). This is because... the SAP converter offers a fast conversion time, a low complexity level and a small area requirement. Only one comparator, the design critical subcircuit of most converters, is needed in a SAP converter. Area requirements increase only moderately...

  19. Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well as the space shuttle. Although fuel cells have been successfully used in such applications, they have proven difficult

  20. Multi-level converters for three-phase photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    Multi-level converters for three-phase photovoltaic applications Renato M. Nakagomi, Ye Zhao, Brad a switching matrix device and photovoltaic (PV) panels. The approach is based on the dynamic reconfiguration photovoltaic PV panels. The number of PV panels that are connected to the load can be altered using dynamic

  1. Apparatus for converting biomass to a pumpable slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri (Hillsborough, CA); Schaleger, Larry L. (Oakland, CA); Wrathall, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Yaghoubzadeh, Nasser (El Cerrito, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus used in the pretreatment of wood chips in a process for converting biomass to a liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel. The apparatus functions to break down the wood chips to a size distribution that can be readily handled in a slurry form. Low maintenance operation is obtained by hydrolyzing the chips in a pressure vessel having no moving parts.

  2. Energy Savings Assessment for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-18

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  3. Everything Digital: Converting the world in 2 Exabytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesk, Michael

    2003-11-05

    Nearly everything created today is in digital format: music is on digital CDs, documents come from word processing, still photography is switching to digital cameras and even movies are now edited digitally. What about the past? We have projects like the Million Book Project scanning one million books, and we know technically how to convert everything: the problems are legal, economic and organizational.

  4. REGULAR ARTICLE A comparison of methods for converting rhizotron root

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    provide valuable information about plant root production, but measurements are usually made in units of root length per unit surface area of observation window surface. These measure- ment units developed to convert rhizotron measurement units into root mass production per unit ground area

  5. Multiport Converter Topologies for Distributed Energy System Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawke, Joshua

    2014-07-28

    . Next, three system designs are discussed: single-zone, dual-zone, and multi-zone. Each implements PSC technology and high-frequency isolated full-bridge converters to interface multiple fuel cell sources to a medium voltage grid via a single multilevel...

  6. Cycling firing method for bypass operation of bridge converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zabar, Zivan (99-72 66th Rd., Apt. 9N, Forest Hills, NY 11375)

    1982-01-01

    The bridge converter comprises a number of switching elements and an electronic logic system which regulated the electric power levels by controlling the firing, i.e., the initiation of the conduction period of the switching elements. Cyclic firing of said elements allows the direct current to bypass the alternating current system with high power factor and negligible losses.

  7. Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Ren Rydhof

    Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Based on the EquiMar Methodology S of the wave energy sector, device developers are called to provide reliable estimates on power performanceMar, Nissum Bredning, Hanstholm, North Sea, Ekofisk, Wave-to-wire, Wave energy. I. INTRODUCTION The wave

  8. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  9. Heat Plan DenmarkHeat Plan Denmark Anders Dyrelundy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efficient use of renewable energy in district heating individual heat pumps solar heating and wood pellets individual heat pumps, solar heating and wood pellets 6Ris International Energy Conference 2009Heat Plan

  10. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. |...

  11. Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, heat driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump ...

  12. Introduction to Heat Exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    . Since, the effectiveness can be written in terms of heat capacitance rate [W/K], C, and change in temperature [K], . The heat capacitance rate is defined in terms of mass flow rate [kg/s], , and specific heat: ! ! ! " # = ! ! "# ! ! ! - ! ! ! ! ! ! = ! !! ! ! ! ! = ! ! ! ! ! - ! ! ! ! ! "# ! ! ! - ! ! ! ! ! ! = ! ! ! ! ! - ! ! ! ! ! "# ! ! ! - ! ! ! ! ! Heat%Capacitance%Rate % ! = ! !! ! ! Heat%Capacitance%Rate%[W % ! = ! ! ! ! ! ! ! = ! ! !! ! ! ! max

  13. Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

    2006-01-01

    The heat pump system used for recycling and reusing waste heat in s high school bathroom was minutely analyzed in its coefficient of performance, onetime utilization ratio of energy, economic property and so on. The results showed that this system...

  14. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  15. City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating...

  16. San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low...

  17. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  18. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  19. Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating...

  20. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  1. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  2. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polycarbonate and plastic waste to recover monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-06-14

    A process is described using fast pyrolysis to convert a plastic waste feed stream containing polycarbonate and ABS to high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituents prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting an acid or base catalysts and an oxide or carbonate support for treating the feed stream to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of the high value monomeric constituents of polycarbonate and ABS in the first temperature program range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis or other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents from the polycarbonate to cause pyrolysis to a different high value monomeric constituent of the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of different high value monomeric constituents; and separating the different high value monomeric constituents. 68 figs.

  3. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony; ,

    2012-04-13

    This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

  4. Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-04-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators convert heat directly into electricity when a temperature gradient is applied across junctions of two dissimilar metals. The devices could increase the fuel economy of conventional vehicles by recapturing part of the waste heat from engine exhaust and generating electricity to power accessory loads. A simple vehicle and engine waste heat model showed that a Class 8 truck presents the least challenging requirements for TE system efficiency, mass, and cost; these trucks have a fairly high amount of exhaust waste heat, have low mass sensitivity, and travel many miles per year. These factors help maximize fuel savings and economic benefits. A driving/duty cycle analysis shows strong sensitivity of waste heat, and thus TE system electrical output, to vehicle speed and driving cycle. With a typical alternator, a TE system could allow electrification of 8%-15% of a Class 8 truck's accessories for 2%-3% fuel savings. More research should reduce system cost and improve economics.

  5. SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    heat exchangers. These types of heat exchangers have limitedheat exchanger to solar collection systems that utilize linear trough- typenon-solar heat exchangers. These may be of the type used to

  6. Concentrating solar heat collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattor, A.P.

    1980-09-23

    A heat storage unit is integrated with a collection unit providing a heat supply in off-sun times, and includes movable insulation means arranged to provide insulation during off-sun times for the heat storage unit.

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  8. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  9. Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    Basic concepts of heat recovery are defined as they apply to the industrial community. Methods for locating, ranking, and developing heat recovery opportunities are presented and explained. The needs for useful heat 'sinks' are emphasized as equal...

  10. Quantum optomechanical piston engines powered by heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Mari; Alessandro Farace; Vittorio Giovannetti

    2015-09-01

    We study two different models of optomechanical systems where a temperature gradient between two radiation baths is exploited for inducing self-sustained coherent oscillations of a mechanical resonator. Viewed from a thermodynamic perspective, such systems represent quantum instances of self-contained thermal machines converting heat into a periodic mechanical motion and thus they can be interpreted as nano-scale analogues of macroscopic piston engines. Our models are potentially suitable for testing fundamental aspects of quantum thermodynamics in the laboratory and for applications in energy efficient nanotechnology.

  11. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  12. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  13. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  14. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  15. Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Find out if one is right for your home.

  16. Catalytic Porous Ceramic Prepared In-Situ by Sol-Gelation for Butane-to-Syngas Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Catalytic Porous Ceramic Prepared In-Situ by Sol-Gelation for Butane-to-Syngas Processing1859, 2009 Keywords: catalytic porous ceramic, butane-to-syngas processing, catalytic foam, sol-gelation, Rh containing cat- alytic Rh/ceria/zirconia nanoparticles is tested by its catalytic performance for butane

  17. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  18. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1994-09-20

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attrition mill and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system. 1 fig.

  19. Low work function material development for the microminiature thermionic converter.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Marshall, Albert Christian; King, Donald Bryan; Jennison, Dwight Richard

    2004-03-01

    Thermionic energy conversion in a miniature format shows potential as a viable, high efficiency, micro to macro-scale power source. A microminiature thermionic converter (MTC) with inter-electrode spacings on the order of microns has been prototyped and evaluated at Sandia. The remaining enabling technology is the development of low work function materials and processes that can be integrated into these converters to increase power production at modest temperatures (800 - 1300 K). The electrode materials are not well understood and the electrode thermionic properties are highly sensitive to manufacturing processes. Advanced theoretical, modeling, and fabrication capabilities are required to achieve optimum performance for MTC diodes. This report describes the modeling and fabrication efforts performed to develop micro dispenser cathodes for use in the MTC.

  20. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  1. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  2. Role of surface generated radicals in catalytic combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santavicca, D.A.; Stein, Y.; Royce, B.S.H.

    1984-04-01

    The role of surface generated OH radicals in determining the catalytic ignition characteristics for propane oxidation on platinum were studied. The experiments were conducted in a stacked-plate, catalyst bed. Transient measurements, during catalytic ignition, of the catalyst's axial temperature profile were made and the effect of equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and inlet velocity was investigated. These measurements will provide insights which will be useful in planning and interpreting to OH measurements. Attempts to measure OH concentration in the catalyst bed using resonance absorption spectroscopy were unsuccessful, indicating that OH concentrations are below 10 to the 16th power/cc but still possibly above equilibrium values. Measurements are currently underway using forward scatter laser induced fluorescence which should extend the OH detection limits several orders of magnitude below the equilibrium concentrations.

  3. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  4. Catalytic effects of minerals on NOx emission from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, M.Y.; Che, D.F.

    2007-07-01

    The catalytic effects of inherent mineral matters on NOx emissions from coal combustion have been investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas analyzer. The effect of demineralization and the individual effect of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe on the formation of NOx are studied as well as the combined catalytic effects of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti. Demineralization causes more Fuel-N to retain in the char, and reduction of NOx mostly. But the mechanistic effect on NOx formation varies from coal to coal. Ca and Mg promote NOx emission. Na, K, Fe suppress NOx formation to different extents. The effect of transition element Fe is the most obvious. The combination of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti can realize the simultaneous control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.

  5. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  6. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  7. An aid to convert spreadsheets to higher quality presentations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olajide, Wasiu Olaniyi

    2005-08-29

    with CALC. CALC is available on all common operating systems and has a well documented and easily accessible Java Application Programming Interface. 6 CHAPTER III QUALITY PRESENTATIONS A. Spreadsheets as Information Conveyors Tables are a good way to show...Office using the Java Application Programming Interface. The contents of the spreadsheet are extracted passed on to the Data Storage module. 2. Canonical Data Storage The converted data is stored in XML [16] format using the Document Object Model [17]. XML...

  8. Low current plasmatron fuel converter having enlarged volume discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA); Alexeev, Nikolai (Moscow, RU); Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Samokhin, Andrei (Moscow, RU)

    2009-10-06

    A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter ("plasmatron") that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.

  9. Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  10. Intensive neutrino source on the base of lithium converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Lyashuk; Yu. S Lutostansky

    2015-04-13

    An intensive antineutrino source with a hard spectrum (with energy up to 13 MeV, average energy 6.5 MeV) can be realized on the base of beta-decay of short living isotope 8Li (0.84 s). The 8Li isotope (generated in activation of 7Li isotope) is a prime perspective antineutrino source owing to the hard antineutrino spectrum and square dependence of cross section on the energy. Up today nuclear reactors are the most intensive neutrino sources. Antineutrino reactor spectra have large uncertainties in the summary antineutrino spectrum at energy E>6 MeV. Use of 8Li isotope allows to decrease sharply the uncertainties or to exclude it completely. An intensive neutron fluxes are requested for rapid generation of 8Li isotope. The installations on the base of nuclear reactors can be an alternative for nuclear reactors as traditional neutron sources. It is possible creation of neutrino sources another in principle: on the base of tandem of accelerators, neutron generating targets and lithium converter. An intensive neutron flux (i.e., powerful neutron source) is requested for realization of considered neutrino sources (neutrino factories). Different realizations of lithium antineutrino sources (lithium converter on the base of high purified 7Li isotope) are discussed: static regime (i.e., without transport of 8Li isotope to the neutrino detector); dynamic regime (transport of 8Li isotope to the remote detector in a closed cycle); an operation of lithium converter in tandem of accelerator with a neutron-producing target on the base of tungsten, lead or bismuth. Different chemical compounds of lithium (as the substance of the converter) are considered. Heavy water solution of LiOD is proposed as a serious alternative to high-pure 7Li in a metallic state.

  11. Low current plasmatron fuel converter having enlarged volume discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai; Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Samokhin, Andrei

    2005-04-19

    A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter (""plasmatron"") that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.

  12. Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System for Shipboard Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System, a natural gas fuel processor system (FPS), a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) and a catalytic) systems based on fuel cells and fuel processing technologies have great potential for future shipboard

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  14. Catalytic membrane reactors for chemicals upgrading and environmental control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F. [Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Mixed ionic and electronic conducting catalytic membrane reactors are being developed for promoting a number of spontaneous chemical reactions either leading to synthesis of value added products or decomposition of environmental contaminants. The dense non-porous ceramic materials behave as short-circuited electrochemical devices whereby ions (oxygen anions or protons) and electrons become simultaneously mediated for one reaction surface to another. The rationale behind membrane materials selection and specific applications will be discussed.

  15. Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-Low NOx Hydrogen Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep

    2011-06-30

    Precision Combustion, Inc., (PCI) in close collaboration with Solar Turbines, Incorporated, has developed and demonstrated a combustion system for hydrogen fueled turbines that reduces NOx to low single digit level while maintaining or improving current levels of efficiency and eliminating emissions of carbon dioxide. Full scale Rich Catalytic Hydrogen (RCH1) injector was developed and successfully tested at Solar Turbines, Incorporated high pressure test facility demonstrating low single digit NOx emissions for hydrogen fuel in the range of 2200F-2750F. This development work was based on initial subscale development for faster turnaround and reduced cost. Subscale testing provided promising results for 42% and 52% H2 with NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm with improved flame stability. In addition, catalytic reactor element testing for substrate oxidation, thermal cyclic injector testing to simulate start-stop operation in a gas turbine environment, and steady state 15 atm. operation testing were performed successfully. The testing demonstrated stable and robust catalytic element component life for gas turbine conditions. The benefit of the catalytic hydrogen combustor technology includes capability of delivering near-zero NOx without costly post-combustion controls and without requirement for added sulfur control. In addition, reduced acoustics increase gas turbine component life. These advantages advances Department of Energy (DOEs) objectives for achievement of low single digit NOx emissions, improvement in efficiency vs. postcombustion controls, fuel flexibility, a significant net reduction in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system net capital and operating costs, and a route to commercialization across the power generation field from micro turbines to industrial and utility turbines.

  16. Hybrid lean premixing catalytic combustion system for gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Critchley, Ian L.

    2003-12-09

    A system and method of combusting a hydrocarbon fuel is disclosed. The system combines the accuracy and controllability of an air staging system with the ultra-low emissions achieved by catalytic combustion systems without the need for a pre-heater. The result is a system and method that is mechanically simple and offers ultra-low emissions over a wide range of power levels, fuel properties and ambient operating conditions.

  17. Catalytic cracking receives heavy attention at Q and A meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-19

    Refiners discussed fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) - the workhorse of the modern refinery - in great detail at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association's annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. Among the topics covered were the newest FCC refractory lining and particulate-control methods. The panel of experts also answered questions on the role of FCC in reducing gasoline benzene to meet reformulated gasoline specifications. This paper discusses refractories; particulate control; gasoline feeds; and benzene reduction.

  18. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yi

    2003-06-01

    The goals of the project are to develop new catalytic DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides and metal ions, and apply the sensors for on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation and stability of the individual contaminants during and after bioremediation. A negative selection strategy was tested and validated. In vitro selection was shown to yield highly active and specific transition metal ion-dependent catalytic DNA/RNA. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study of in vitro selected DNA demonstrated that the trifluorophore labeled system is a simple and powerful tool in studying complex biomolecules structure and dynamics, and is capable of revealing new sophisticated structural changes. New fluorophore/quenchers in a single fluorosensor yielded improved signal to noise ratio in detection, identification and quantification of metal contaminants. Catalytic DNA fluorescent and colorimetric sensors were shown useful in sensing lead in lake water and in leaded paint. Project results were described in two papers and two patents, and won an international prize.

  19. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yi

    2002-06-01

    The goals of the project are to develop new catalytic DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides and metal ions, and apply the sensors for on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation and stability of the individual contaminants during and after bioremediation. A negative selection strategy was tested and validated. In vitro selection was shown to yield highly active and specific transition metal ion-dependent catalytic DNA/RNA. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study of in vitro selected DNA demonstrated that the trifluorophore labeled system is a simple and powerful tool in studying complex biomolecules structure and dynamics, and is capable of revealing new sophisticated structural changes. New fluorophore/quenchers in a single fluorosensor yielded improved signal to noise ratio in detection, identification and quantification of metal contaminants. Catalytic DNA fluorescent and colorimetric sensors were shown useful in sensing lead in lake water and in leaded paint. Project results were described in two papers and two patents, and won an international prize.

  20. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jingguang; Frenkel, Anatoly; Rodriguez, Jose; Adzic, Radoslav; Bare, Simon R.; Hulbert, Steve L.; Karim, Ayman; Mullins, David R.; Overbury, Steve

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  1. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  2. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, Roger R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  3. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  4. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  5. Mass and Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building...

  6. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  7. Integrated heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, W.R.

    1988-03-01

    An integrated heat pump and hot water system is described that includes: a heat pump having an indoor heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger that are selectively connected to the suction line and the discharge line respectively of a compressor by a flow reversing means, and to each other by a liquid line having an expansion device mounted therein, whereby heating and cooling is provided to an indoor comfort zone by cycling the flow reversing means, a refrigerant to water heat exchanger having a hot water flow circuit in heat transfer relation with a first refrigerant condensing circuit and a second refrigerant evaporating circuit, a connection mounted in the liquid between the indoor heat exchanger and the expansion device, control means for regulating the flow of refrigerant through the refrigerant to water heat exchanger to selectively transfer heat into and out of the hot water flow circuit.

  8. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  9. Design and characterization of a radio-frequency dc/dc power converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, David A. (David Alexander)

    2005-01-01

    The use of radio-frequency (RF) amplifier topologies in dc/dc power converters allows the operating frequency to be increased by more than two orders of magnitude over the frequency of conventional converters. This enables ...

  10. GUIDELINES FOR CONVERTING FTN4 PROGRAMS TO FTN5 AND THE NEW FORTRAN-77 STANDARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, R.

    2012-01-01

    1st Edition GUIDELINES FOR CONVERTING FTN4 PROGRAMS TO FTN5Edition (August 79) Guidelines for Converting FTN4 Programsprogram F45 are described in each instance. lst Edition (

  11. Design techniques for low noise and high speed A/D converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2009-05-15

    subscriber line (ADSL) modems, cellular systems, high accuracy instrumentation, and medical imaging systems. This thesis suggests some design techniques for such high resolution and high sampling rate A/D converters. As the A/D converter performance keeps...

  12. Wide input range DC-DC converter with digital control scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2006-04-12

    :1 voltage variation as well as a slow transient response. The proposed approach consists of two stages: a primary three-level boost converter stage cascaded with a high frequency, isolated boost converter topology, which provides a higher voltage gain...

  13. High-Frequency Resonant SEPIC Converter With Wide Input and Output Voltage Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Jingying

    This paper presents a resonant single-ended-primary-inductor-converter (SEPIC) converter and control method suitable for high frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) dc-dc power conversion. The proposed design provides ...

  14. Power Maximization in Wave-Energy Converters Using Sampled -Data Extremum Seeking /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tianjia

    2013-01-01

    A review of wave energy converter technology. Proceedings ofWave energy utilization: A review of the technologies. Re-decades. With the technology of wave-energy convert- ers(

  15. The impulsive effects of momentum transfer on the dynamics of a novel ocean wave energy converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamond, CA; O'Reilly, OM; Sava?, O

    2013-01-01

    7] J. Falnes, A review of wave-energy extraction, MarineOrazov, O. M. OReilly, O. wave energy converter, Journal ofsimple model for a novel wave energy converter: non-resonant

  16. Computer-aided optimization of DC/DC converters for automotive applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neugebauer, Timothy C.

    This paper investigates computer-aided optimization of DC/DC converters, with a focus on converters for dual-voltage automotive electrical systems. A new CAD optimization approach based on Monte Carlo search methods is ...

  17. Power Maximization in Wave-Energy Converters Using Sampled -Data Extremum Seeking /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tianjia

    2013-01-01

    design optimization of wave energy converters con- sistingN. Sahinkaya. A review of wave energy converter technology.2009. [6] A.F.O. Falcao. Wave energy utilization: A review

  18. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  19. Outphasing Control of Gallium Nitride based Very High Frequency Resonant Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madsen, Mickey P.

    In this paper an outphasing modulation control method suitable for line regulation of very high frequency resonant converters is described.

  20. A Predictive power control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator for Wave Energy Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Universit de

    Switchgear Wave converter control Gear hal-01023509,version1-13Jul2014 Author manuscript, published in "IEEE