National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for heat-pump water heaters

  1. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters May 4, 2012 - 5:21pm Addthis A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for...

  2. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient...

  3. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) Development2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiencyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  4. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01

    M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  5. Promising Technology: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A heat pump water heater uses electricity to transfer heat from the ambient air to stored water, as opposed to an electric resistance water heater, which uses electricity to generate the heat directly. This enables the heat pump water heater to be 2 to 3 times as efficient as an electric resistance water heater.

  6. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) DevelopmentKelso, J. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiency

  7. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

  8. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal...

  9. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States...

  10. Integrated heat pump water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, G.P.; Blackshaw, A.L.

    1986-07-08

    An integrated heat pump water heater system is described for providing either heating or cooling of an interior space, and heating water in conjunction with either the heating or cooling cycle or independently, by means of a refrigerant flowing through the system. The system consists of: a compressor; a first heat exchanger means for providing heat to the interior space in the heating cycle and for removing heat during the cooling cycle by heat transfer with a refrigerant therein; a second heat exchanger means for transferring heat to or from a refrigerant therein by heat exchanger with an exterior medium; a third heat exchanger means for transferring heat from a refrigerant therein to water circulated therethrough; a first expansion device; a second expansion device; a third expansion device; refrigerant flow connection means connected between the compressor, the heat exchanger means, and the expansion devices which may be controllably connected in alternate configurations whereby. In a first configuration the refrigerant flow is sequentially from the compressor, through the third heat exchanger means, through the second heat exchanger means, through the first expansion device, through the first heat exchanger means, and back to the compressor. In a second configuration the refrigerant flow is sequentially from the compressor, through the third heat exchanger means, through the first heat exchanger means, through the second expansion device, through the second heat exchanger means, and back to the compressor. In a third configuration the refrigerant flow is sequentially from the compressor, through the third heat exchanger means, through the third expansion device, through the second heat exchanger means, and back to the compressor.

  11. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

  12. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National...

  13. Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant...

  14. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

  15. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    "B. Sparn, L. Earle, D. Christensen, J. Maguire, and E. Wilson, C.E. Hancock

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  16. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  17. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.

    2012-05-01

    A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory studied heat pump water heaters, an efficient, cost-effective alternative to traditional electric resistance water heaters that can improve energy efficiency by up to 62%.

  19. THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the heat pump water heater

  20. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  1. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  2. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  3. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  4. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  5. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  6. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

  7. A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS William P a heat pump water heater (HPWH). After developing the HPWH, a field-test plan was implemented whereby 20 estimates were that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) could save from 50 to 70% of the energy used

  8. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting OversightEMS Policy HQDepartmentHeat PumpHeat

  9. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  10. Heat pump water heater and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

  11. Performance of an integrated heat pump gas-fired water heater system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torab, H.; Sonntag, R.E.

    1984-08-01

    The unsatisfactory performance of the heat pump water heaters (air-to-water) in colder ambient temperatures is the main obstacle to the expansion of the residential market for this device. On the other hand, the price increase of natural gas in the 1980's encourages retrofitting or replacing the existing gas-fired water heaters. The present study examines the possibility of retrofitting the gas-fired water heater with a heat pump water heater. The result of the investigation on the thermodynamic and economic performance of a water heater system comprised of a heat pump water heater and a gas-fired water heater is presented in this paper.

  12. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  13. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  14. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  15. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  16. Heat Pump Water Heater Durabliltiy Testing - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, VAND.

    2004-05-29

    Ten heat pump water heaters (HPWH) were placed in an environmentally controlled test facility and run through a durability test program of approximately 7300 duty cycles (actual cycles accumulated ranged from 6640 to 8324 for the ten units). Five of the units were upgraded integral types (HPWH mounted on storage tank, no pump) from the same manufacturer as those tested in our first durability program in 2001 (Baxter and Linkous, 2002). The other five were ''add-on'' type units (HPWH with circulation pump plumbed to a separate storage tank) from another manufacturer. This durability test was designed to represent approximately 7-10 years of normal operation to meet the hot water needs of a residence. The integral units operated without incident apart from two control board failures. Both of these were caused by inadvertent exposure to very hot and humid (>135 F dry bulb and >120 F dew point) conditions that occurred due to a test loop failure. It is not likely that any residential water heater would be installed where such conditions were expected so these failures are not considered a long-term reliability concern. Two of the integral HPWHs featured a condensate management system (CMS) option that effectively eliminated any need for an evaporator condensate drain, but imposed significant efficiency penalties when operating in high humidity ambient conditions. The add-on units experienced no operational failures (breakdowns with loss of hot water production) during the course of the testing. However, their control systems exhibited some performance degradation under the high temperature, high humidity test conditions--HPWHs would shut off with tank water temperatures 15-20 F lower than when operating under moderate ambient conditions. One unit developed a refrigerant leak during the test program and lost about 50% of its charge resulting in reduced efficiency. Efficiency measurements on all the integral units and four of the add-on units showed significantly higher efficiencies than conventional electric water heaters (EWH). DOE Simulated Use Tests conducted prior to starting the durability testing resulted in energy factors (EF) of about 2.3 for the integral design and 1.4 for the add-on design compared to the minimum value of 0.86 prescribed for EWHs. Based on the experience from this and the previous durability testing, there is no evidence that strongly suggests that any of the HPWHs suffered significant performance degradation after undergoing over 7000 water heat cycles.

  17. Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

  18. NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have the potential to significantly reduce energy use is a function of surrounding air temperature, humidity, hot water usage, and the logic controlling the heat pump

  19. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01

    pump water heater might be more exposed to the outdoor environment, such as garages and crawlspaces, a 5- year preventative maintenance cost

  20. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  1. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  2. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC (180�ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  3. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  4. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth; Owens, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  5. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    pool's water, the water drawn from the pool passes through a filter and the heat pump heater. The heat pump heater has a fan that draws in the outside air and directs it over the...

  6. Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofofWindUpcomingcanGrid Integrationheat pump water heater,

  7. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  8. A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) remove heat from the air and use it to heat water.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J. (2012). Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based

  9. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  10. Analysis of the performance and space-conditioning impacts of dedicated heat-pump water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, L.; Swisher, J.

    1980-12-01

    A description is given of the development and testing of the newly-marketed dedicated heat pump water heater (HPWH), and an analysis is presented of its performance and space conditioning impacts. This system utilizes an air-to-water heat pump, costs about $1000 installed, and obtains a coefficient of performance (COP) of about 2.0 in laboratory and field tests. Since a HPWH is usually installed indoors and extracts heat from the air, its operation is a space conditioning benefit if an air conditioning load exists and a penalty if a space heating load exists. To investigate HPWH performance and a space conditioning impacts, a simulation has been developed to model the thermal performance of a residence with resistance baseboard heat, air conditioning, and either heat pump or resistance water heating. The building characteristics are adapted for three US geographical areas (Madison, Wisconsin; Washington, DC; and Ft. Worth, Texas), and the system is simulated for a year with typical weather data. For each city, HPWH COPs are calculated monthly and yearly. In addition, the water heating and space conditioning energy requirements of HPWH operation are compared with those of resistance water heater operation to determine the relative performance ratio (RPR) of the HPWH. The annual simulated RPRs range from 1.5 to 1.7, which indicate a substantial space heating penalty of HPWH operation in these cities.

  11. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States.

  12. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

  13. Performance analysis of dedicated heat-pump water heaters in an office building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, L.

    1981-05-01

    An evaluation is made of the performance of two generic dedicated heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in supplying the domestic hot water (DHW) needs of a medium-sized office building in Colorado. Results are based on preliminary data measurements, and assumptions are made to compensate for a faulty flow meter. A stand-alone heat pump plumbed to a conventional tank obtains a coefficient of performance (COP) of 2.4 but only delivers load water temperatures of about 41/sup 0/C (105/sup 0/F) because of the 15,142 L/day (4000 gal/day) recirculating loop flow. An industrial-grade stand-alone HPWH will replace this unit. An integral heat pump/tank unit is being tested, but results are not available because of compressor starting problems. Recirculating loop losses account for 75% of the energy delivered by the HPWHs. These losses could be reduced by 75% if the recirculating loop were insulated, thus reducing the DHW fuel costs by 50%. The insulation expense could be paid in less than 3 years by savings in DHW fuel costs.

  14. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  15. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  16. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  17. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 1:49pm Addthis How a heat pump works. How a heat pump works. How They Work Heat pumps use electricity...

  18. Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - Second Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    Since the 1980s various attempts have been made to apply the efficiency of heat pumps to water heating. The products generated in the 80s and 90s were not successful, due in part to a lack of reliability and difficulties with installation and servicing. At the turn of the century, EnvironMaster International (EMI) produced a heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on a design developed by Arthur D. Little (ADL), with subsequent developmental assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ADL. This design was a drop-in replacement for conventional electric water heaters. In field and durability testing conducted by ORNL, it proved to be reliable and saved on average more than 50% of the energy used by the best conventional electric water heater. However, the retail price set by EMI was very high, and it failed in the market. ORNL was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. Several cost saving opportunities were found. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. After some experimentation, a prototype unit was built with a double-wall coil inserted into the tank. When tested it achieved an energy factor (EF) of 2.12 to 2.2 using DOE-specified test procedures. A.O. Smith contacted ORNL in May 2006 expressing their interest in the ORNL design. The prototype unit was shipped to A.O. Smith to be tested in their laboratory. After they completed their test, ORNL analyzed the raw test data provided by A.O. Smith and calculated the EF to be approximately 1.92. The electric resistance heating elements of a conventional electric water heater are typically retained in a heat pump water heater to provide auxiliary heating capacity in periods of high demand. A.O. Smith informed us that when they applied electric resistance backup heating, using the criterion that resistance heat would be applied whenever the upper thermostat saw water temperatures below the heater s nominal setpoint of 135oF, they found that the EF dropped to approximately 1.5. This is an extremely conservative criterion for backup resistance heating. In a field test of the previously mentioned EMI heat pump water heater, residential consumers found satisfactory performance when the criterion for use of electric resistance backup heating was the upper temperature dropping below the set point minus 27 degrees. Applying this less conservative criterion to the raw data from the original A.O. Smith EF tests indicates that electric resistance heating would never have come on during the test, and thus the EF would have remained in the vicinity of 1.9. A.O. Smith expressed concern about having an EF below 2, as that value triggers certain tax advantages and would assist in their marketing of the product. We believe that insertion of additional length of tubing plus a less conservative set point for electric resistance backup heating would remedy this concern. However, as of this writing, A.O. Smith has not decided to proceed with a commercial product.

  19. Impact of a retrofitted heat-recovery unit on an existing residential heat pump and water heater. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, K.M.; Fischler, S.

    1980-01-01

    Two heat-recovery units were retrofitted, one at a time, with one heat pump and one storage-type water heater to produce two integrated heat pump - heat recovery unit - water heater systems. Each system was operated with appropriate measuring devices to determine the effect(s) of using the retrofit heat recovery unit on the performance of the heat pump and water heater. The system was operated with the outdoor unit of the heat pump in an environmental chamber with outdoor temperatures of 75, 85, 95, and 20F. The indoor unit of the heat pump was in an environmental chamber whose indoor temperature was set at 80F when the outdoor temperature was 75, 85, 95F, and 70F when the outdoor temperature was set at 20F. The indoor relative humidity was maintained at approximately 50%. The heat recovery unit and water heater were in an environmental chamber set at the basement temperature of 65F with 50% relative humidity.

  20. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  1. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To evaluate the performance of central heat pump water heaters for multifamily applications, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California, for 16 months.

  2. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  3. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  4. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  6. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  7. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  8. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers should reinvest in R&D to lower the price of the units. The manufacturers should work with ''do-it-yourself'' (DIY) stores to facilitate introduction of th

  9. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Farouk Fardoun, Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering- 1 - 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH). The mathematical model consists of submodels of the basic

  10. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  11. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    also want to consider some less conventional storage water heaters -- heat pump water heaters and solar water heaters. These water heaters are usually more expensive but they...

  12. Study of an integrated appliance, the air conditioner/heat pump-heat recovery unit-water heater. Final report, November 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, K.M.; Davies, A.; Fischler, S.

    1981-02-01

    Three integrated heat-pump - heat-recovery-unit - water-heater appliances were tested under various environmental conditions to measure the functional parameters and study the operating characteristics of these systems. It was found that the heat recovery, heat-recovery rate, and heat-recovery efficiency were dependent on the heat-recovery-unit's characteristics. The use of the heat-recovery unit in the system resulted in a reduced work load for the heat pump's compressor and slightly improved the heat-pump's performance. A computer simulation model of the integrated system was developed to study the interactions between several of the pertinent system variables on an hourly basis for selected situations and to estimate energy savings. Two alternative estimation methods that utilize five-degree temperature bin data were also developed. The estimate savings determined by using the alternative methods were about the same as those estimated using the hourly data. Conclusions were also reached concerning the use of water heaters with different tank capacities and on methods of increasing potential energy savings.

  13. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-DoseOptions for AccidentalHealth, Safety,FOIAHeat

  14. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well asmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  15. Dawdon Mine Water Heat Pump Trial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    14-Dec-12 Dawdon Mine Water Heat Pump Trial #12;14 December 2012 2 Potential for Mine Water sourced heating Dawdon heat pump trial A demonstration project Contents #12;Friday, 14 December 2012 3 The UK salinity High Iron (removed by lime treatment) Offices , 8 rooms #12;Dawdon heat pump Warm mine water

  16. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  17. Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Rate...

  18. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  19. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems --...

  20. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview * Electric Water Heating Options - Conventional Electric Water Heaters - Heat Pump Water Heaters * Air-Source * Ground-Source - Solar Thermal Water Heater * Variable...

  1. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice |4-01r2.pdfATVM GuidanceDepartmentUs About

  2. Heat pump system with hot water defrost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, K.F.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes an integrated heat pump and hot water system that includes, a heat pump having an indoor heat exchanger unit and an outdoor heat exchanger unit that are selectively connected to a compressor inlet and a compressor outlet by a flow reversing means and to each other by a flow reversing means and to each other by a refrigerant liquid line containing a bi-flow expansion valve for metering refrigerant moving in either direction through the liquid line, and bi-flow expansion valve having a positive shut off means to prevent refrigerant from flowing therethrough, a refrigerant to water heat exchanger having a water flow circuit that is in heat transfer relation with a first refrigerant condensing circuit and a second refrigerant evaporating circuit. The refrigerant condensing circuit is connected into a discharge line connecting the outlet of the compressor to the reversing means whereby all the refrigerant discharged by the compressor passes through the condensing circuit. The refrigerant evaporating circuit is connected at one end to the inlet of the compressor and at the other end to an evaporator line that is operatively joined to the liquid line at a point between the bi-flow expansion valve and the outdoor heat exchanger, a metering valve in the evaporator line that is selectively movable between a first closed position whereby refrigerant is prevented from moving through the evaporator line and an open position whereby refrigerant is throttled from the liquid line into the evaporator circuit.

  3. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01

    have a domestic heat-pump water heater industry, there is apump manufacturing in South Africa’s refrigerator industry.

  4. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or demand-type water heaters heat water directly without the use of a storage tank Heat pump water heaters move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat...

  5. Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cawley, R.

    1992-01-01

    % and that this amounts to the full daily need of 14.4 KW-HR. Table 5 (right column) shows the hour by hour demand' for a standard non-integrated heat pump used in conjunction with a water heater having efficiency of 87%, The draw schedule in Table 5 is the same...

  6. Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options...

  7. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  8. Electric power demand limit for variable speed heat pumps and integrated water heating heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, K.F.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes a method of operating an integrated heat pump and hot water system that is capable of providing heating or cooling to an environmental comfort zone. The heat pump and hot water system including a variable speed compressor whose operating speed is substantially linearly related to the difference between outdoor air temperature and indoor air temperature in the comfort zone, and also including means to receive a utility peak demand limit signal to initiate automatic power limiting to reduce the power demand imposed by the heat pump and hot water system, the method comprising sensing the outdoor temperature T{sub OD}; sensing the indoor temperature T{sub ID} in the comfort zone; sensing the speed S{sub 1} of the variable speed compressor; and in response to receiving the utility peak demand limit signal DLS calculating a reference speed S{sub R} for the compressor as a function of the speed S{sub 1}, the outdoor temperature T{sub OD}, the indoor temperature T{sub ID}, and predetermined values that correspond to a reference indoor temperature T{sub ID} and a zero-load temperature difference {Delta}T{sub Z} that corresponds to the difference between the outdoor and indoor temperatures that result in a zero load requirement on the compressor; and during occurrence of the signal DLS operating the compressor at a reduced operating speed limited to a predetermined fraction, less than unity, times the reference speed S{sub R}.

  9. Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado.

  10. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProvedTravelInformation Resources » Geothermal MapsGuidance» HeadquartersHealthHeat &

  11. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢ £Space Heating &

  12. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  13. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, John W. (Sag Harbor, NY)

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  14. Field monitoring of a variable-speed integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanney, A.H. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    A variable-speed integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance was monitored for two years while meeting the space-conditioning and water-heating needs of an occupied residence. Experimental results are presented that show the total energy consumed by the residence was significantly reduced compared to previous years in which electric base-board heat, a wood stove, and window air conditioners were used. During the two space-heating seasons, the variable-speed integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance used 60% less energy than would have been consumed by an electric furnace with the same air distribution system and a storage-type electric water heater. The monthly space-cooling-only coefficients of performance (COP) ranged from 2.50 to 4.03, whereas the monthly space-heating-only coefficients of performance ranged from a low of 0.91 to a high of 3.33. A proposed index to quantify the overall system performance of integrated water-heating/space-conditioning appliances, referred to as the combined performance factor, ranged from 1.55 to 3.50. The majority of larger values occurred during months in which space cooling dominated. The combined performance factor for the entire two-year study was 2.45. A conventional watt-hour meter supplied by the local electrical utility and an electronic digital power analyzer were used to measure the energy consumption of the variable-speed heat pump to discern if variable-speed equipment introduces errors in conventional utility metering equipment. Measurements made using the two instruments were in excellent agreement. The monthly energy consumption and peak electrical demands of the residence, integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance, supplemental space heater, and water heater are discussed. The influence of outdoor temperature on electrical power demand is presented.

  15. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  16. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  17. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  18. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  19. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    test procedures for solar water heaters characterizes systemWasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/Newheaters/Annex_IV_8July08 International Organization for Standardization, "Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 9459-4 Solar

  20. SIMULATION AND VALIDATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE AND WATER-LOOP HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SIMULATION AND VALIDATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE AND WATER-LOOP HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By JASON EARL AND VALIDATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE AND WATER-LOOP HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: Dr. Jeffrey D. Spitler

  1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS AND DESIGN TOOL DEVELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS AND DESIGN TOOL DEVELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By MATT AND DESIGN TOOL DEVELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: Jeffrey D. Spitler Thesis Title of Study: EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND DESIGN TOOL DE- VELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP

  2. Analysis of Electricity Usage for Domestic Heating Based on an Air-To-Water Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    Analysis of Electricity Usage for Domestic Heating Based on an Air-To-Water Heat Pump in a Real of an air to water heat pump in relation to outdoor temperatures is proposed and evaluated. This model into account. Real empirical data for usage of a heat pump over a whole heating season have been used to obtain

  3. DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT CHAMOUN MARWAN to improve industrial energy efficiency, the development of a high temperature heat pump using water vapor as refrigerant is investigated. Technical problems restraining the feasibility of this industrial heat pump

  4. Hybrid Heat Pumps Using Selective Water Sorbents (SWS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, M. R.

    2006-11-30

    The development of the ground-coupled and air-coupled Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system is essential in meeting the goals of Zero Energy Houses (ZEH), a viable concept vigorously pursued under DOE sponsorship. ORNL has a large Habitat for Humanity complex in Lenoir City where modem buildings technology is incorporated on a continual basis. This house of the future is planned for lower and middle income families in the 21st century. The work undertaken in this CRADA is an integral part of meeting DOE's objectives in the Building America program. SWS technology is a prime candidate for reducing the footprint, cost and improve the performance of ground-coupled heat pumps. The efficacy of this technique to exchange energy with the ground is a topic of immense interest to DOE, builders and HVAC equipment manufacturers. If successful, the SWS concept will become part of a packaged ZEH kit for affordable and high-end houses. Lennox Industries entered into a CRADA with Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 2004. Lennox, Inc. agreed to explore ways of using Selective Water Sorbent materials to boost the efficiency of air-coupled heat pumps whereas ORNL concentrated on ground-coupled applications. Lennox supplied ORNL with heat exchangers and heat pump equipment for use at ORNL's Habitat for Humanity site in Lenoir City, Tennessee. Lennox is focused upon air-coupled applications of SWS materials at the Product Development and Research Center in Carrollton, TX.

  5. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  6. Kosciusko REMC- Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Kosciusko REMC offers rebates (as bill credits) to residential members for the purchase and installation of high efficiency air-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, and electric water heaters....

  7. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will improve the capability of engineers to design heat pump systems that utilize surface water or standing column wells (SCW) as their heat sources and sinks.

  8. Control of outdoor air source water heating using variable-speed heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, K.F.; Paige, L.E.; Dunshee, K.B.; Voorhis, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    This patent describes a process of controlling an integrated heat pump system of the type. It comprises a variable speed compressor having a discharge port and a suction port; a water heater exchanger coupled to the discharge port of the compressor for heating water by transfer of heat from a compressed heat exchange fluid; an outdoor evaporator heat exchanger having an outdoor fan and a coil receiving the heat exchange fluid from the water heat exchanger and coupled also to the suction port of the compressor, for drawing heat from the outdoor air which heat is transferred to the water in the water heat exchanger; a controller having output channels to control an outdoor fan and the speed of the variable speed compressor and inputs respectively coupled to a water heater setpoint adjustment means, an outdoor air temperature sensor for sensing the outdoor temperature of the outdoor air; and a water temperature sensor for sensing the temperature of the water heated by the water heat exchanger; the process comprising the steps of sensing the outdoor temperature T{sub o}.

  9. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  10. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  11. One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Dakin, Davis Energy Group Michael Koenig, American Honda Motor Company ABSTRACT The evolution of heat-pump design uses multiple systems and fuels to provide thermal services, the emerging generation of heat-pump

  12. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    test procedures for solar water heaters characterizes systemWasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/Newheaters/Annex_IV_8July08 International Organization for Standardization, "Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 9459-4 Solar heating — Domestic water

  13. Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heater, Tankless Electric - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water Heaters Water Heaters (Storage...

  14. Water Heaters (Storage Oil) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil) Water Heaters (Storage Oil) Water Heater, Storage Oil - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Storage Electric)...

  15. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

  16. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    forty gallon residential gas-fired storage water heater wasthat could replace a gas-fired storage water heater with adefined a baseline gas-fired storage water heater that meets

  17. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01

    behind the rebound effect is that more energy efficientrebound effect (also called a take-back effect or offsetting behavior), which refers to increased energy

  18. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). 1993. TechnicalEnergy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building

  19. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Rheem, AirGenerate, Stiebel Eltron, and AO Smith (See TableGenerate AO Smith Stiebel Eltron Model GEH50D***** HP50**

  20. Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling in EnergyPlus (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.; Christensen, C.

    2012-03-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL's development of a HPWH model for use in hourly building energy simulation programs, such as BEopt; this presentation was given at the Building America Stakeholder meeting on March 1, 2012, in Austin, Texas.

  1. Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct.7, 2015Verizon andSectionBioenergyPastDemolition

  2. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartmentEnergyEnterpriseDepartmentEnergyof

  3. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment of EnergyofDepartmentProcess DocumentPartner: A.O.

  4. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l DeInsulation at04-86)ContractorsCNG Exports by Truck out ofCO2

  5. Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s sconveyance(EPACT)SpringDOEADM-1 covers recordsDOE

  6. Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢ £Space Heating & Cooling

  7. Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99

  8. Application Prospect Analysis of the Surface Water Source Heat-Pump in China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Zhuang, Z.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    Surface water resources in China are rather abundant and it can be use as the heat or cool source for heat pump. The winter surface water temperatures of 17 typical cities are investigated in December, and they are all distributed in the interval...

  9. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

  10. Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost...

  11. Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

  12. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  13. Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  14. Marietta Power & Water- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Marietta Power & Water provides rebates for electric water heaters ($250) and electric and dual-fuel heat pumps ($150). If both a water heater and heat pump are installed simultaneously, a...

  15. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To install and monitor an innovative WaterFurnace geothermal system that is technologically advanced and evolving; To generate hot water heating from a heat pump that uses non-ozone depleting refrigerant CO2. To demonstrate the energy efficiency of this system ground source heat pump system.

  16. Two Stage Vapor Compression Heat Pump with Solution Circuits: Catering to Simultaneous Chilling and Water Heating Needs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rane, M. V.; Radermacher, R.

    1992-01-01

    The benefits of using a two stage vapor compression heat pump with ammonia water solution circuits (VCHSC) to simultaneously provide chilled water for air conditioning and hot water for various uses are reviewed. The performance results for a two...

  17. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    8 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water HeaterAssess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heater Marketassess California’s small gas storage water heater market.

  18. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  19. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-02-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, also known as ground source heat pumps, geoexchange, water-source, earth-coupled, and earth energy heat pumps, take advantage of this resource and represent one of the most efficient and durable options on the market to heat and cool your home.

  20. Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by Jerone Gagliano, director of Energy Engineering Performance Systems Development, about residential water heating technology and how to choose the right water heater.

  1. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heatdistribution systems, ground-source heat pumps and ground

  2. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  3. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  4. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    B: Input Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1.no baffle present SCREEN G: WATER SUPPLY AND DRAW PIPEfor EIDs (sec) 0.0 9. Supply Water Temperature (F) 58.00 10.

  5. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  6. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rculperformance of solar thermos i phon water heaters with heatSolar Jubilee, Phoenix, AZ, June 2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS

  7. Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

  8. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15, 2012 - 6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over...

  9. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC)...

  10. Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

  11. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid
    Image: Xergy Xergy is using its Electro...

  12. A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump SMARTER EUROPE E-world energy & water 2014 Proceedings page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Jan Treur VU University Amsterdam, Agent Systems be most efficient to use this energy in these periods. For air to water heat pumps a similar issue occurs

  13. Promising Technology: Tankless Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tankless gas water heater does not have a storage tank, as a conventional water heater does. Instead, a tankless water heater instantaneously heats water flowing over the heat exchanger coils when there is hot water demand. Because there is no tank, tankless water heaters have no standby energy losses that are associated with storage units. Another non-energy saving benefit is that a tankless water heater is much more compact.

  14. Field monitoring of a variable-speed integrated heat pump/water heating appliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanney, A.H.

    1993-06-01

    The report describes the residence, heat pump system, and monitoring equipment. Results are presented which include comparison of the total electrical energy consumption of the residence prior to and after installation of the heat pump system, the portion of energy used by each end use within the residence, a comparison of the heat pump's energy consumption using a conventional watthour meter and an electronic digital power analyzer, and the hourly electrical demands imposed on the utility. The thermal performance of the heat pump system is reported on a monthly, seasonal, and annual basis using conventional performance indicators in addition to using an index, proposed by NIST, which quantifies the overall system performance of integrated appliances.

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  16. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various...

  17. Integrated heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, W.R.

    1988-03-01

    An integrated heat pump and hot water system is described that includes: a heat pump having an indoor heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger that are selectively connected to the suction line and the discharge line respectively of a compressor by a flow reversing means, and to each other by a liquid line having an expansion device mounted therein, whereby heating and cooling is provided to an indoor comfort zone by cycling the flow reversing means, a refrigerant to water heat exchanger having a hot water flow circuit in heat transfer relation with a first refrigerant condensing circuit and a second refrigerant evaporating circuit, a connection mounted in the liquid between the indoor heat exchanger and the expansion device, control means for regulating the flow of refrigerant through the refrigerant to water heat exchanger to selectively transfer heat into and out of the hot water flow circuit.

  18. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, J.D.; Culling, J.R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  19. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  20. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  1. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  2. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  3. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  4. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater...

  5. Powering Your Water Heater Using Solar Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Daniel

    2013-02-13

    This report is a detailed overview of my research on solar water heating. Solar water heaters may be used to either supplement or even replace a standard water heater. In addition to being environmentally friendly, solar ...

  6. Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

  7. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters May 2, 2012 - 6:47pm Addthis Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. How...

  8. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater November 6, 2014 - 7:30pm Addthis Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing...

  9. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Study on Eco-Design of Water Heaters, Van Holstein en Kemnaand Assessment” in Water Heating Rulemaking TechnicalG. Smith, Tankless Gas Water Heaters: Oregon Market Status,

  10. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renewabletankless combined space/water heaterds, solar water heaters,combined solar space/water heater, electric water heaters

  11. Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-08-01

    Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks Geothermal heat pumps, one of the clean energy technology stars Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are one of the most cost-effective heating, cooling, and water heating systems available for both residential and commercial buildings. GHPs extract heat from the ground during the heating season and discharge waste heat to the ground during the cooling season. The U.S. Environmental Protecti

  12. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01

    households with water heaters, solar water heaters areMODELING THE IMPACT OF SOLAR WATER HEATERS ON THE REDUCTIONinsurance industry as a solar water heater driver in South

  13. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alissa

    2013-01-01

    households with water heaters, solar water heaters areMODELING THE IMPACT OF SOLAR WATER HEATERS ON THE REDUCTIONconditions than solar water heaters, and therefore provide

  14. Water Heaters (Storage Electric) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. waterheaterstorageelectricv1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Water Heaters (Storage...

  15. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's space heating system to heat water. They're part of what's called...

  16. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. How does it work? Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use your home's heating system to heat water. Tankless coil and...

  17. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Water Heaters Appliance Gas storage water heaters Definitionto use for rating gas-fired storage and instantaneous waterefficiency for all gas-fired storage and instantaneous water

  18. Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Find out if one is right for your home.

  19. Field and Laboratory Study of a Ground-Coupled Water Source Heat Pump with an Integral Enthalpy Exchange System for Classrooms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domitrovic, R.; Hayzen, G. J.; Johnson, W. S.; Chen, F. C.

    2002-01-01

    water-source heat pump, coupled with a geothermal water loop and incorporating a forced fresh-air enthalpy exchange system was installed in a typical middle school classroom in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This project is a joint effort among Oak Ridge School...

  20. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    condensing tankless com- bined space/water heaters, solarmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ablewater heaters, combined solar space/water heater, electric

  1. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  2. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  3. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  4. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  5. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  6. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  7. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11,Security Officer Program |quick referenceImage

  8. Critical Question #8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department of Energy Whole-Home Gas8 AUDITAprilDepartment of

  9. The Market - Who Needs Heat Pump Water Heaters? (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)FeedbackProperties of

  10. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial Opportunities

  11. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDIT REPORT: OAS-L-13-11 AUDITCommercialNewYouAbsorption

  12. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for gas storage...

  13. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services » Program Management »Eric J. Fygi About Us EricHeaters

  14. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    tool for geothermal water loop heat pump systems, 9thInternational IEA Heat Pump Conference, Zürich, Switzerland,of ground source heat pump system in a near-zero energy

  15. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    tool for geothermal water loop heat pump systems, 9thInternational IEA Heat Pump Conference, Zürich, Switzerland,Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zero

  16. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit...

  17. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  18. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  19. Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its...

  20. Tips: Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air, water, or ground outside your home and concentrate it for use inside. Geothermal (or ground source) heat pumps have some major advantages. They can reduce energy use by...

  1. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  2. Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat

  3. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  4. Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

    2006-01-01

    The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

  5. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    tankless com- bined space/water heaters, solar watermarket research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ableheaters, combined solar space/water heater, electric water

  6. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Commission. California’s Water-Energy Relationship. Novemberthe monthly hot water draw and energy usage for household2001 Department of Energy Water Heater Rulemaking Technical

  7. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  8. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

    2013-05-01

    Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

  9. Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

    1986-01-01

    of the compressors which constitute the heart and soul of the system. It will also provide a quick survey of the available types of compressors for heat pumping and some of the industrial processes where simultaneous heating and cooling proceed along parallel..., the real challenge comes process environment, or even for comfort HEAT PUMP APPLICATIONS INPU~ AND OUTPUT UTIUnES (HEAT SOUlCE) (ME0U.4) (API't1CATION) CoofIng, Dehumldilication. L.- -J ~Ing. Hot ...,tolel SIJr-lpIy Chilled ....,oter. Hoi waler...

  10. Getting Warmer: Solar Water Heaters Grade Levels: 6 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    water heaters use energy from the sun to heat water. The water heater is made up of a collector and a storage tank. In the collector, energy from the sun is absorbed the rubber tubing in the collector

  11. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a demand water heater at each hot water outlet. ENERGY STAR estimates that a typical family can save 100 or more per year with an ENERGY STAR qualified tankless water heater....

  12. A Comparison of Domestic Water Heating Options in the Austin Electric Service Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Hood, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    the operation of (1) a conventional electric resistance water heater (ERWH), (2) a heat pump water heater (HPWH), and (3) a heat recovery water heater (HRWH). Data from a previously conducted field test of solar water heaters (SWH) in the Austin area was used...

  13. Geothermal Heat Pump Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange medium for heat. Although many parts of the country experience seasonal temperature extremes—from scorching heat in the summer to sub-zero cold in the winter—the ground a few feet below the earth's surface remains at a relatively constant temperature.

  14. ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the Next Five Years ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the...

  15. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  16. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A household can receive a maximum of two solar water heater rebates. Rebate amounts vary slightly based upon installed equipment. Rebates will be $1,250 for solar water heaters with an OG-300 rat...

  17. Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE September 15, 2015 - 3:41pm Addthis Xergy Inc. and GE...

  18. Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative- Residential Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative offers up to $300 for the purchase of an electric water heater. The rebate amount varies based on the size of the water heater purchased.

  19. Which Water Heater Is Right for You? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Which Water Heater Is Right for You? March 5, 2015 - 11:07am Addthis Investing in a more energy efficient water heater can save you money in the long run. | Photo courtesy of...

  20. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    including delivered hot water and energy losses. Waterand 17% if hot water energy is included. INTRODUCTION Thedrawn, determines the hot water energy output. The current

  1. Confocal Heat Pump Mike Lampton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Confocal Heat Pump Mike Lampton Space Sciences Lab, UC Berkeley Originally posted 1 April 2014 heat pump since it is based on ideas stemming from confocal ellipsoids. 2 Confocal Ellipsoids I begin symmetrical. There are infinitely many other possibilities. Each is reciprocal. 3 Confocal Heat Pump

  2. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    76 to 379 liters) for gas storage water heaters and aStorage Water Heaters Gas Storage Water Heaters Electricand PBP Results for Gas Storage Water Heaters LCC Average

  3. Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  4. Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Products: Test Procedures for Water Heaters; Final Rule,"Testing of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance," DavisInc. , "T-K2 Instantaneous Water Heater Installation Manual

  5. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualifyboth a gas furnace and gas storage water heater. This study

  6. Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat...

  7. Data, exergy, and energy analysis of a vertical-bore, ground-source heat pump to for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is provided to support the view that greater than two-thirds of energy required to produce domestic hot water may be extracted from the ground which serves as renewable energy resource. The case refers to a 345 m2 research house located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 36.01 N 84.26 W in a mixed-humid climate with HDD of 2218 C-days (3993 F-days) and CDD of 723 C-days (1301 F-days). The house is operated under simulated occupancy conditions in which the hot water use protocol is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which captures the water consumption lifestyles of the average family in the United States. The 5.275 (1.5-ton) water-to-water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) shared the same vertical bore with a 7.56 KW water-to-air ground source heat pump for space conditioning the same house. Energy and exergy analysis of data collected continuously over a twelve month period provide performance metrics and sources of inherent systemic inefficiencies. Data and analyses are vital to better understand how WW-GSHPs may be further improved to enable the ground to be used as a renewable energy resource.

  8. An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric-resistance water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;/ ABSTRACT An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric and heat pumps. *. . ..-.' thereby making effective use of normally rejected energy. There are numerous and heat pumps. Analytical studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORN.) have shown

  9. North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview: Installation of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Replacement of Aging Heat Pumps. Alignment with Furmans Sustainability Goals.

  10. Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

  11. Geothermal Heat Pumps Produce Dramatic Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niess, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    applications. One approach now expanding the direct use of geothermal energy is coupling this energy resource with high temperature, industrial-type water-to water heat pumps. Such systems can tap geothermal energy in 50 F to 120 F water, normally available...

  12. Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost, webinar-based training on Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems. The webinar will focus the effective use of central heat pump water heaters...

  13. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  14. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  15. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  16. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  17. 2005 ASHRAE. 109 Groundwater heat pump systems using standing column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    borehole that is filled with groundwater up to the level of the water table. Water is circulated from in growing numbers since the advent of geothermal heat pump systems and are recently receiving much more benefits, low maintenance, etc., as other forms of geothermal heat pump systems. The heat exchange rate

  18. Heat pump apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  19. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  20. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  1. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  2. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1981-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  3. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    LBNL collected water and waste water tariffs in Californiastate. Current water and waste water tariffs for these areaswas based on water and waste water tariffs in California

  4. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  5. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  6. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  7. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design was then implemented on a prototype heater that was being developed simultaneously with the controller development. (The prototype's geometry and components are based on a currently marketed heater, but several improvements have been made.) The MPC's temperature control performance was a vast improvement over the existing controller. With a benchmark for superior control performance established, five additional control methods were tested. One problem with MPC control is that it was found to be extremely difficult to implement in a TWH, so that it is unlikely to be widely adopted by manufacturers. Therefore the five additional control methods were selected based on their simplicity; each could be implemented by a typical manufacturer. It was found that one of these methods performed as well as MPC, or even better under many circumstances. This method uses a Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward algorithm that was developed for this project. Due to its simplicity and excellent performance this method was selected as the controller of choice. A final higher-capacity prototype heater that uses Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward control was constructed. This prototype has many improvements over the currently marketed heaters: (1) excellent control; (2) a modular design that allows for different capacity heaters to be built easily; (3) built-in fault detection and diagnosis; (4) a secondary remote user-interface; and (5) a TRIAC switching algorithm that will minimize 'flicker factor'. The design and engineering of this prototype unit will allow it to be built without an increase in cost, compared with the currently marketed heater. A design rendering of the new product is shown below. It will be launched with a new marketing campaign by Keltech in early 2009.

  8. temperature heat pumps applied to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Very high- temperature heat pumps applied to energy efficiency in industry Application of industrial heat pumps June 21 th 2012 J-L Peureux, E. Sapora, D. Bobelin EDF R&D #12;Achema 2012 Frankfurt There are thermal requirements in the industrial plant Treq Heat exchanger = Cons ~ 0 CO2 ~ -100% Treq

  9. Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc- Residential Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Aiken Electric Cooperative offers residential members rebates for installing high-efficiency electric water heaters and/or timers in their homes. Customers have four rebate options: 

  10. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

  11. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    overcame market barriers to widespread implementation of solar water heaters, thanks to local high-level government champions, financial incentives, and a locally sensitive...

  12. Commercial Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment ofCommercial Grade Dedication (CGD) isWater Heaters --

  13. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    heaters, or hot water supply boilers. Storage water heaterper gallon of stored water. 2 Hot water supply boiler meansa packaged boiler that has an input rating from 300,000 Btu/

  14. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01

    Emissions from Residential Water Heaters Table of Contents46 Table 10. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentally50 Table 11. Published information for water heater

  15. Development Requirements for Advanced Industrial Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Bliem, C. J.; Mills, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    DOE is attempting to advance the use of heat pumps to save energy in industrial processes. The approach has emphasized developing better heat pump technology and transferring that technology to the private sector. DOE requires that heat pump...

  16. Tips: Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pumps Tips: Heat Pumps July 20, 2014 - 5:48pm Addthis Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity. Heat...

  17. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    heaterds, solar water heaters, combined solar space/watermarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewableheaters, combined space heating and water heating appliances 3 , solar

  18. Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Applications and Case Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of ground loops for space-conditioning heat pumps, hot water, ice machines, and water-cooled refrigeration in residential and commercial applications. In Louisiana, a chain of hamburger drive-ins uses total ground...

  19. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    in order to reduce the water and energy wasted in hot waterhot water) and 17% if hot water energy is included. The datafrom the delivered hot water energy of 66% to provide the

  20. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with capacities of 20 to 120 gallons and maximum energy input of 12 kW. Residential heat pump and gas storage water heaters are covered by ENERGY STAR. Boilers, swimming pool...

  1. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -efficient Dryers Heat Pump Water Heaters Dual Purpose Ductless Heat Pumps Ductless Heat Pumps Advanced Heat Pump

  2. VAPOR COMPRESSION HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FIELD TESTS AT THE TECH COMPLEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    323 CHAPTER 17 VAPOR COMPRESSION HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FIELD TESTS AT THE TECH COMPLEX \\B E Van D for several novel and conventional heat pump systems for space conditioning and water heating. Systems tested include the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), solar assisted heat pumps (SAHP) both parallel and series

  3. Short communication Optimization of hybrid ground coupled and air source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Short communication Optimization of hybrid ­ ground coupled and air source ­ heat pump systems 2008 Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Ground coupled heat pump Air to water heat pump Thermal storage device Hybrid HVAC system Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b

  4. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    associated with the EU water heater test procedure loadEU test procedure for water heaters. Load No. Delivered Max.period to allow the water heater to adjust completely to

  5. Numerical Analysis of Water Temperature Distribution in the Tank of ASHPWH it ha Cylindrical Condenser 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, D.; Shan, S.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01

    Air source heat pump water heaters (ASHPWH) are becoming increasingly popular for saving energy, protecting the environment and security purposes. The water temperature distribution in the tank is an important parameter for an ASHPWH. This paper...

  6. Geothermal Heat Pump Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The definition of geothermal heat pump property does not include swimming pools, hot tubs, or any other energy storage device that has a primary function other than storage. In addition, systems...

  7. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe ...

  8. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    1987-01-01

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  9. Industrial Heat Pump Design Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    There are numerous industries that can incorporate heat pumps into their operations to save energy costs and payoff the investment in well under two years. Many of these industries can cut energy costs associated with evaporation by over 75...

  10. Heat Pumps - Theory and Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altin, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper the thermodynamic viability of heat pumps is evaluated by potential work flux (exergy) analysis. A short description of the exergy (work potential) and other concepts such as 'lost work' needed for exergy analysis are given...

  11. Ground-source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

    2009-07-14

    Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground-source heat pump technology.

  12. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01

    tube Flue Temperature Varies with water heater Air inletnear water heater Air inlet near water heater APT: Automated99 Figure 56. Air intake for water heater AW07. Temperature

  13. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

  14. Tennessee: Ground-Source Heat Pump Receives Innovation Award...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    analysis, the Trilogy 40 Q-Mode heat pump can save about 60% of annual energy use and cost for space conditioning and water heating in residential applications versus minimum...

  15. Multi-function fuel-fired heat pump CRADA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-function fuel-fired heat pump CRADA 2014 Building Technologies Office Engine-driven heat Peer Review pump provides cooling, heating, water heating, and electrical power CRADA...

  16. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  17. New Braunfels Utilities - Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AC & Heat Pump: 200 - 500 Washing Machine: 100 Solar Water Heater: 900 Solar ScreenFilm: up to 300 LED Exit Sign: 20 Shade Tree: 25 Rain BarrelCistern: 1gallon Drought...

  18. Heat pump market and statistics report 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Heat pump market and statistics report 2013 Thomas Nowak Secretary General European Heat Pump Summit 15.10./16.10.2013 | Nuremberg #12;European Heat Pump Association (EHPA) · 107 members from 22 countries (status 08/2013) ­ Heat pump manufacturers ­ Component manufacturers ­ National associations

  19. Heat Pump Markets UK in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Heat Pump Markets UK in Europe IEA Heat Pump Workshop 13. November 2012 Zoltan Karpathy #12;2 Excellence in Market Intelligence Agenda About BSRIA WMI UK in the European Heat Pump Market Heating BSRIA WMI UK in the European Heat Pump Market Heating Technologies in New and Existing Buildings Hybrid

  20. ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING PLANT Dr.sc.ing. Agnese Lickrastina M.Sc. Normunds European Heat Pump Summit 2013, Nuremberg, 15-16.10.2013 · Riga District Heating company · Operation of the DH plant Imanta · Selection of the heat pump/chiller · Operation of the heat pump/chiller · Summary

  1. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater March 2, 2015 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY...

  2. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  3. Heat Pump Strategies and Payoffs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    (Evaporator) Heat Source Heat Pump Turbine Compressor Compressed Vapor Pump IZl:G1 Type IV - Rankine Cycle (Waste Heat Driven) Heat Sink (Condenser) Fig. 3 Basic Heat Pump Categories 324 ESL-IE-82-04-66 Proceedings from the Fourth Industrial... payback. 500 450 400 Leas Than G:" ~ 2! 350 2-Vear Payback .a e 300 !. E ~ 250 Simple Waste Heat Boller 200 100 1.-........_-'-_.1.---1"---.1._..&0.._1.---'-_'-__ o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Heat Removed (%) 82291 Fig. 4 Heat...

  4. Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps Heat Pumps An error occurred. Try watching this video

  5. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. The principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the integrated WHD, and creating programs that embrace first-cost and life-cycle cost principles.

  6. Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor the installation.

  7. Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

    2006-01-01

    As a mature applied technology, the largest obstacle to the promotion of the solar water heater is the high initial investment that makes an impact on consumers' choices. The initial investment and maintenance cost of the ...

  8. Making Water Heaters More Efficient | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Making Water Heaters More Efficient Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to...

  9. Process Integration of Industrial Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, S. J.; Chappell, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    OF INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMPS* S. J. Priebe EG&G Idaho, Inc. Idaho Falls, Idaho ABSTRACT The integration of heat pumps into industrial processes shows potential for energy savings. Heat pumps must, however, be integrated properly relative to the process pinch... and the unit operations in the process. The shape of the grand composite curve, the type of heat ?pump drive, and the kind of heat pump cycle were examined to determine their effects on the placement of industrial heat pumps. Finally, three ~ample...

  10. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Fang, Xia; Wilson, Eric

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  11. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and pool use, they may not be the most energy-efficient option when compared to heat pump and solar pool heaters. How They Work Gas pool heaters use either natural gas or...

  12. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, V. D.; Rice, K.; Murphy, R.; Munk, J.; Ally, Moonis; Shen, Bo; Craddick, William; Hearn, Shawn A.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test experience, CM developed a 2nd generation (or beta) prototype in 2012. Field test verification units were fabricated and installed at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge in May 2012 and at several sites near CM headquarters in Oklahoma. Field testing of the units continued through February 2013. Annual performance analyses of the beta unit (prototype 2) with vertical well ground heat exchangers (GHX) in 5 U.S. locations predict annual energy savings of 57% to 61%, averaging 59% relative to the minimum efficiency suite and 38% to 56%, averaging 46% relative to the SOA GSHPwDS. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the test units it was projected that the 2nd generation units would achieve ~58% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at the Zebra Alliance site with horizontal GHX. A new product based on the beta unit design was announced by CM in 2012 – the Trilogy 40® Q-mode™ (http://cmdealernet.com/trilogy_40.html). The unit was formally introduced in a March 2012 press release (see Appendix A) and was available for order beginning in December 2012.

  13. Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geothermal Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 5:08pm Addthis An error occurred. Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in...

  14. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhotoLordRunar. A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air...

  15. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schematics of a heat pump clothes dryer
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Schematics of a heat pump clothes dryer Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge...

  16. Industrial Heat Pumps: Where and When 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, S. M.; Chao, Y. T.

    1989-01-01

    A brief review of the types of industrial heat pumps is presented. General guidelines are provided for appropriate placement of industrial heat pumps. Industrial applications are used as examples to illustrate key points.

  17. Portland General Electric- Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Portland General Electric's (PGE) Heat Pump Rebate Program offers residential customers a $200 rebate for an energy-efficient heat pump installed to PGE’s standards by a PGE-approved contractor....

  18. Industrial Heat Pumps--Types and Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, R. N.; Bliem, C. J.; Mills, J. I.; Demuth, O. J.; Plaster, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    Many potentially beneficial applications for industrial heat pumps are not being pursued because of confusion regarding both energy savings and economics. Part of this confusion stems from the variety of heat pumps available and the fact...

  19. Residential Multi-Function Gas Heat Pump: Efficient Engine-Driven...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will develop hardware and software for engine and system controls for a residential gas heat pump system that will provide space cooling, heating, and hot water. Various...

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Effect Of Zeolite Coating Thickness on the Performance of a Novel Zeolite-Water Adsorption Heat Pump Module 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawoud, B.; Hofle, P.; Chmielewski, S.

    2010-01-01

    is an extruded aluminum finned-tube heat exchanger coated with AQSOA-Z02 zeolite of Mitsubishi Plastics Incorporation (MPI). The effect of the Zeolite layer thickness (300 and 500 micrometers) on the performance of the heat pump module has been experimentally...

  1. Heat pumps in industrial cleaning applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Heat pumps in industrial cleaning applications Achema 2012 - Frankfurt Bjarke Paaske, bjpa to promote heat pumps in industrial cleaning apps. #12;Cleaning plant, drum type Items enter here #12;Washing;Heat pumps in industrial washing applications Bjarke Paaske, bjpa@dti.dk, phone: +45 7220 2037, Energy

  2. GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS Jack DiEnna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS THE "PLAYBOOK" Jack DiEnna Executive Director The Geothermal National What do we call it... Geothermal, Ground Source, GeoExchange. The feds call it geothermal heat pumps IS GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP TECHNOLOGY ??? Answer: It is a 60 year old technology! #12;FACT GHP's were first written

  3. NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

    2012-04-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

  4. Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, heat driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump ...

  5. Development of a Residential Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Hern, Shawn [ClimateMaster, Inc.] [ClimateMaster, Inc.; McDowell, Tim [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC] [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A residential-size ground-source integrated heat pump (GSIHP) system has been developed and is currently being field tested. The system is a nominal 2-ton (7 kW) cooling capacity, variable-speed unit, which is multi-functional, e.g. space cooling, space heating, dedicated water heating, and simultaneous space cooling and water heating. High-efficiency brushless permanent-magnet (BPM) motors are used for the compressor, indoor blower, and pumps to obtain the highest component performance and system control flexibility. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model (HPDM) for each of the four primary modes of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options and to simulate the selected internal control strategies, such as controlling to a constant air supply temperature in the space heating mode and a fixed water temperature rise in water heating modes. Equipment performance maps were generated for each operation mode as functions of all independent variables for use in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. These were performed for the GSIHP installed in a well-insulated 2600 ft2(242 m2) house and connected to a vertical ground loop heat exchanger(GLHE). We selected a 13 SEER (3.8 CSPF )/7.7 HSPF (2.3 HSPF, W/W) ASHP unit with 0.90 Energy Factor (EF) resistance water heater as the baseline for energy savings comparisons. The annual energy simulations were conducted over five US climate zones. In addition, appropriate ground loop sizes were determined for each location to meet 10-year minimum and maximum design entering water temperatures (EWTs) to the equipment. The prototype GSIHP system was predicted to use 52 to 59% less energy than the baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads.

  6. Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    work like refrigerators in reverse. Solar water heaters Solar water heaters use the sun's heat to heat the water. They include a collector and a storage tank and are typically classified as passive or active

  7. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater March 2, 2015 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water...

  8. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  9. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

    1997-01-01

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  10. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  11. Generation Following with Thermostatically Controlled Loads via Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers Sharing Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Eric M.; Moura, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    electric water heaters, heat pumps, and electric baseboardelectric water heaters, heat pumps, and electric baseboardshown in the table. For heat pumps and baseboard heaters,

  12. Modeling and Test-and-Rate Methods for Innovative Thermosiphon Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Shoukas, G.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

    2006-05-01

    Conference paper regarding research in modeling and test-and-rate methods for thermosiphon solar domestic water heaters.

  13. Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

  14. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  15. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes, Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NRELDepartment ofEnergy 1Air-to-Water Heat Pumps

  16. Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review New Project Lee Jestings (lee@S-RAM.com), Project Summary Timeline: Key Partners: Start date:...

  17. Tips: Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    climates, providing up to three times more heat than the energy they use. Today's heat pump can reduce your electricity use for heating by approximately 50% compared to...

  18. Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofit Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory Senior Engineer Erin Anderson about geothermal heat pump (GHP) technology options, applications, and installation costs for residences.

  19. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Steven A.; Pratt, Richard M.; Chassin, Forrest S.

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  20. Efficiency, Economic and Environmental Assessment of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumsack, Seth

    1 Efficiency, Economic and Environmental Assessment of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Central pump (GSP) for heating, cooling and hot water in a Central Pennsylvania residence (namely, the author, the efficiency gain for the ground-source heat pump compared to electricity is 43% for cooling and 81

  1. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The batch collector is a large box holding a tank and covered with a glaze that faces the sun. Water is heated in this tank, and another pipe takes the heated water from the batch...

  2. SMUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Solar Domestic Hot Water Program provides rebates and/or loan financing to customers who install solar water heating systems. The amount of the...

  3. Assessment of Unglazed Solar Domestic Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-12-01

    Conference paper investigating cost-performance tradeoffs in replacing glazed collectors with unglazed collectors in solar domestic water heating systems.

  4. `Heat pumps in Smart Grids' IEA Annex 42

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Annex 42 `Heat pumps in Smart Grids' #12;IEA Annex 42 `Heat Pumps in Smart Grids' by Peter P.M. Wagener Managing Consultant OPERATING AGENT: #12;GAS HEAT PUMPS COMMERCIAL SECTOR RESEARCH, STRATEGY AUTOMATION HEAT PUMPS DOMESTIC AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS WORKING GROUP THERMAL DRIVEN HEAT PUMPS TARGET

  5. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Construct a ground sourced heat pump, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system for the new Oakland University Human Health Sciences Building utilizing variable refrigerant flow (VRF) heat pumps. A pair of dedicated outdoor air supply units will utilize a thermally regenerated desiccant dehumidification section. A large solar thermal system along with a natural gas backup boiler will provide the thermal regeneration energy.

  6. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential5 Commercial5 Water Heater

  8. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps April 23, 2015 - 3:35pm Addthis When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat...

  9. MODELING, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS Thesis Approved by: Dr.................................................................................................................... 16 MODELING OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS

  10. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Boecker, C. L.; Murphy, W. E.; Notman, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this study included: (1) development of classes of heat pumps, (2) evaluation and selection of a suitable heat pump design model, (3) characterization of suitable baseline heat pump designs, (4) selection of design options that can...

  11. Achema Congress 2012 Application of Industrial Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Achema Congress 2012 Session Application of Industrial Heat Pumps Improving energy "Heat Pump Programme" and "Industrial Energy-related Technologies and Systems" Programme Introduction H of Energy (IER), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany Industrial Heat Pumps in Germany ­ Potentials

  12. www.heatpumpcentre.org IEA HEAT PUMP PROGRAMME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    www.heatpumpcentre.org IEA HEAT PUMP PROGRAMME Research, Development, Demonstration and Promotion of Heat Pumping Technology #12;www.heatpumpcentre.org Includes ­ Heating ­ Air conditioning ­ Refrigeration Covers applications in ­ Residential and commercial buildings ­ Industry HEAT PUMPING TECHNOLOGY

  13. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  14. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  15. Triple integrated heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackshaw, A.L.; Robinson, G.P. Jr.

    1987-03-03

    A heat pump system is described comprising: a first heat exchange means having first and second refrigerant connections; a second heat exchange means having first and second refrigerant connections; a third heat exchange means having first and second refrigerant connections; a refrigerant pressurizing device having a suction inlet and a high pressure outlet; a reversible refrigerant expansion means for expanding refrigerant from condenser to evaporator pressure connected between the second refrigerant connections on the first and second heat exchange means; an alternate refrigerant expansion means for expanding refrigerant from condenser to evaporator pressure connected to the second refrigerant connection on the third heat exchange means; check valve means connecting the alternate refrigerant expansion means to the common points between the reversible expansion means and each of the first and second heat exchange means so that refrigerant can flow from the alternate expansion means to the first and second heat exchange means but flow of refrigerant from the first and second heat exchange means is prevented; and control valve means.

  16. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  17. The Design of an Open Rankine-Cycle Industrial Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibowitz, H. M.; Chaudoir, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    from a simulated 150?F clean waste water stream. The plant is based on the Open-Dpen? heat pump concept, i.e., no system evapo rator or condenser. The water vapor is generated by a flash evaporation process. In this heat pump system, shown... schematically in Figure 2, the waste stream supplies the heat energy for the system and also serves as the heat pump working flUid. The waste water stream is directed to a flash evapo rator, where approximately 0.5 to 1% of the stream is vaporized...

  18. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancialInvestingRenewable Energy (EERE)NewslettersWater Heating »

  19. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  20. Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Geothermal Heat Pumps:...

  1. Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Comparison of building energy use before and after...

  2. Develop Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pump - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Develop Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

  3. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

  4. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Purdue prototype system Purdue prototype system...

  5. DOE Webinar ? Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Webinar Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation) DOE Webinar Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation) Presented at the U.S. Department...

  6. 7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-47 7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily. HP Wnet,in QH QL TL TH Analysis The maximum heat pump coefficient of performance would occur if the heat pump were completely reversible, 5.7 K026K300 K300 COP maxHP, LH H TT

  7. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About Us Shirley Ann Jackson,Delivery and EnergyStayingContests atStorage Water

  8. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipment CertificationSolar Hot Water

  9. Water Heater Controller - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02)ManagementWatching theWater Energy

  10. Numbers of Abstract/Session (given by NOC) 00090 -1 IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Numbers of Abstract/Session (given by NOC) 00090 -1 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan R-1234yf MIXTURES FOR REPLACING R-407C IN RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMPS Marcello BENTIVEGNI: This paper deals with the design of air-to-water heat pumps dedicated to the replacement of old oil boilers

  11. Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless...

  12. Absorption Heat Pumping- Have You Tried It? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a thermal powered absorption heat pump is not a new or revolutionary idea. It has been successfully demonstrated in the lab and prototypes have been installed in the field. Units have been successfully applied in a number...

  13. Edmond Electric- Residential Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Edmond Electric offers rebates to residential customers who install energy-efficient heat pumps. This program applies to installations in both new and existing residential homes and complexes. Air...

  14. Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

    2006-01-01

    The heat pump system used for recycling and reusing waste heat in s high school bathroom was minutely analyzed in its coefficient of performance, onetime utilization ratio of energy, economic property and so on. The results showed that this system...

  15. Geothermal heat pumps for federal buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-09-02

    Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) can provide significant energy savings to a wide range of Federal facilities. GHP equipment can be obtained and installed at no up-front cost through Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) through energy service companies (ESCOs).

  16. Electric Driven Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Radian Corporation, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has recently completed a study of the potential range of application for retrofitting electric driven heat pumps to existing distillation columns. ...

  17. Promising Technology: Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) use the constant temperature of the Earth as the heat exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. During the winter, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat source to provide heating, and during the summer, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat sink to provide cooling. Although more expensive than air-source heat pumps, GSHP’s are much more efficient, especially in cold temperatures.

  18. Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    if they offer off- peak electricity rates. If available, heating your water during off-peak hours will save you or electricity. Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters Demand water heaters do not have storage tanks. Cold water travels through a pipe into the unit, and either a gas burner or an electric element heats

  19. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  20. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.The gas-fired tank type water heaters in the housing units were replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  1. Residential Multi-Function Gas Heat Pump: Efficient Engine-Driven...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hardware and software for engine and system controls for a residential gas heat pump system that will provide space cooling, heating, and hot water. The project will build on...

  2. A Simplified Procedure for Sizing Vertical Ground Coupled Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for Residences in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Aldred, W.

    1994-01-01

    the simplified method were compared to two available heat exchanger sizing methods: the National Water Well Association (NWWA) and the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA). The simplified method predicted shorter lengths than those from...

  3. An Evaluation of Industrial Heat Pumps for Effective Low-Temperature Heat Utilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibowitz, H. M.; Colosimo, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of industrial heat pumps utilizing waste water from various industrial processes for the production of process steam is presented as a viable economic alternative to a conventional fossil-fired boiler and as an effective fuel...

  4. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    water heaters in US new construction market Alex B. Lekov &single-family home construction rep- resents a significantequipment. In the new construction market, the choice of

  5. Mountain Association for Community Economic Development- Solar Water Heater Loan Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Kentucky Solar Partnership (KSP) and the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED) partner to offer low interest loans for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans...

  6. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D.; Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Ally, Moonis Raza; Shen, Bo

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test house been better insulated (more like the house used for the savings predictions noted above) and the IHP system nominal capacity been a bit lower that the energy savings estimate would have been closer to 45% or more (similar to the analytical prediction for the cold climate location of Chicago).

  7. PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP W. D. C. Richards and W. L. Auxer General Electric Company Space Division King of Prussia, Pa. ABSTRACT A heat activated heat pump (HAHP by the heat pump effect. The Stirling engine/Rankine cycle refrigeration loop heat pump being developed would

  8. Industrial heat pumps in Germany -potentials, technological development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1 Industrial heat pumps in Germany - potentials, technological development and application examples of Energy (IER) Universität Stuttgart ACHEMA 2012 Application of industrial heat pumps Improving energy-efficiency of industrial processes 13. Juni 2012 #12;ACHEMA 2012 - Industrial heat pumps 21st June 2012 Types of Heat Pumps

  9. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2013-01-01

    E.1 ACs . . . . . . E.2 Heat pumps . . E.3 Water heaters .heterogeneous ACs or heat pumps. Resource duration curvesas air conditioners, heat pumps, electric water heaters, and

  10. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01

    E.1 ACs . . . . . . E.2 Heat pumps . . E.3 Water heaters .heterogeneous ACs or heat pumps. Resource duration curvesas air conditioners, heat pumps, electric water heaters, and

  11. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    1987-01-01

    HEAT PUMPS USING LIQUID-VAPOR REACTIONS LANCE KIROL Senior Program Specialist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho . ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous... to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place restrictive working fluid requirements on others, but two thermodynam ically feasible systems...

  12. An Analysis Method for Operations of Hot Water Heaters by Artificial Neural Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaha, M.; Takahashi, M.

    2004-01-01

    supply heater forbathtub 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 14: 24 14: 38 14: 52 15: 07 15: 21 15: 36 15: 50 Temperature 0 0. 5 1 1. 5 2 2. 5 Electrical current [A] Exaust air temp. Exaust air temp. for small burner Electrical current Hot water supply... Hot water supply and additional combustion Additional combustion for bathtub Figure 2. The diagram of heater and operational modes The heater had 2 burners, which were main burner for hot water supply and additional heater for a bathtub...

  13. Cold Climates Heat Pump Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Heat pumps provide an efficient heating method; however they suffer from sever capacity and performance degradation at low ambient conditions. This has deterred market penetration in cold climates. There is a continuing effort to find an efficient air source cold climate heat pump that maintains acceptable capacity and performance at low ambient conditions. Systematic optimization techniques provide a reliable approach for the design of such systems. This paper presents a step-by-step approach for the design optimization of cold climate heat pumps. We first start by describing the optimization problem: objective function, constraints, and design space. Then we illustrate how to perform this design optimization using an open source publically available optimization toolbox. The response of the heat pump design was evaluated using a validated component based vapor compression model. This model was treated as a black box model within the optimization framework. Optimum designs for different system configurations are presented. These optimum results were further analyzed to understand the performance tradeoff and selection criteria. The paper ends with a discussion on the use of systematic optimization for the cold climate heat pump design.

  14. A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. This paper proposes a more realistic ratings draw that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. Presented at the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum; Denver, Colorado; May 13-17, 2012.

  15. Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allan, Marita (Old Field, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

  16. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    78 80 82 Miami 11-1231 1100 1460 1845 w cover 11-1231 215 300 410 Phoenix 31-1031 680 875 1090 w cover 31-1031 45 85 125 Dallas 41-1031 760...

  17. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-DoseOptions for AccidentalHealth, Safety,FOIAHeat PumpPump

  18. Multi-stage quantum absorption heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis A. Correa

    2014-01-16

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized $N$-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging $N-2$ elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths, and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of $N$. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  19. Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-10-22

    A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

  20. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING OF AN IMPROVED (1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY WATER HEATER (2} (3) (21 which uses a design approach quite different from the conventional center-flue water heater. While high heating. The design and performance of an early prototype is described in a previous paper (Ref. 2

  1. Heat Pump Application- An Industrial Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shukla, D.; Umoh, R.

    1990-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-90-06-17.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 18112 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-90-06-17.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 HEAT PUMP... APPLICATION- AN INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDY Deepak Shukla, Ph.D. Sr. Process Engineer TENSA services, Inc. Houston, Texas ABSTRACT The economics of heat pumping across a distillation column is usually dependent on the amount of additional compressor work...

  2. Simulation and Analysis for Applying the Double-Stage Coupled Heat Pump System in the Villa of Cold Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, L.; Yao, Y.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01

    -to-water double-stage coupled heat pump system, is presented in this paper based on analyzing the characteristics of the villa district heating. Prediction and analysis of the feasibility of the double-stage coupled heat pump system in cold areas were carried...

  3. Evaluation of solar collectors for heat pump applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skartvedt, Gary; Pedreyra, Donald; McMordle, Dr., Robert; Kidd, James; Anderson, Jerome; Jones, Richard

    1980-08-01

    The study was initiated to evaluate the potential utility of very low cost (possibly unglazed and uninsulated) solar collectors to serve as both heat collection and rejection devices for a liquid source heat pump. The approach consisted of exercising a detailed analytical simulation of the complete heat pump/solar collector/storage system against heating and cooling loads derived for typical single-family residences in eight US cities. The performance of each system was measured against that of a conventional air-to-air heat pump operating against the same loads. In addition to evaluation of solar collector options, the study included consideration of water tanks and buried pipe grids to provide thermal storage. As a supplement to the analytical tasks, the study included an experimental determination of night sky temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients for surfaces with dimensions typical of solar collectors. The experiments were conducted in situ by placing the test apparatus on the roofs of houses in the Denver, Colorado, area. (MHR)

  4. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Edward C. (Woodinville, WA); Huxtable, Douglas D. (Bothell, WA)

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  5. Brayton Cycle Heat Pump for VOC Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovach, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    The first full size continuous operation Brayton Cycle Heat Pump (1)(2)(3) application for VOC recovery occurred in 1988. The mixed solvent recovery system was designed and supplied by NUCON for the 3M facility in Weatherford, OK (4). This first...

  6. Covered Product Category: Residential Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including geothermal heat pumps, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  7. Integrated heat pump and heat storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, A.

    1983-09-13

    An integrated heat pump and heat storage system is disclosed comprising a heat pump, a first conduit for supplying return air from an enclosure to the heat pump, a second conduit for supplying heated air from the heat pump to the enclosure, heat storage apparatus. A first damper is operative in a first orientation to permit return air from the enclosure to enter the first conduit and to prevent return air from passing through the heat storage apparatus and operative in a second orientation to cause return air to pass through the heat storage apparatus for being heated thereby before entering the first conduit. A second damper is operative in a first orientation to cause heated air from the second conduit to pass through the heat storage apparatus for giving up a portion of its heat for storage and operative in a second orientation to prevent heated air from the second conduit from passing through the heat storage apparatus and to permit the heated air from the second conduit to reach the enclosure. The heat storage apparatus may comprise phase change materials.

  8. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Murphy, Richard W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

  9. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1998-12-08

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

  10. Hybrid Heat Pump Design and Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Koebberman, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Hybrid Heat Pump (HHP) converts industrial waste heat into process steam. Waste heat at temperatures as low as approximately 200°F can be used. Steam output covers a range between 12,000 Ib/h and 50,000 Ib/h, depending on the application...

  11. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Hua

    2014-01-01

    methods for ground-source heat pumps. in ASHRAE Summergas emission savings of ground source heat pump systems inheat exchangers for ground-source heat pumps: A literature

  12. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zerosimulation tool for ground- source heat pump system designflow systems and ground source heat pump systems Abstract

  13. Residential Multi-Function Gas Heat Pump: Efficient Engine-Driven...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Multi-Function Gas Heat Pump: Efficient Engine-Driven Heat Pump for the Residential Sector - Fact Sheet, 2013 Residential Multi-Function Gas Heat Pump: Efficient...

  14. Thermoeconomic Analysis of a Solar Heat-Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Y.; Wang, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a solar energy heat-pump system and analyzes the thermoeconomics. The results show that the solar energy heat-pump system can be operated in different modes and used for room heating in winter and ...

  15. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  16. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source...

  17. Performance of Horizontal Field Earth-Coupled Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbott, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative to traditional methods of residential heating and cooling is the heat pump. However, heat pumps which use the outside air as a heat source/sink become inefficient during the periods of highest demand. Another possible heat source...

  18. Pinch Application- Heat Pump Study in a Food Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Y. T.; Tripathi, P.

    1990-01-01

    was to appropriatly place and size the heat pump system in a food plant. A change in the process configuration was recommended as a result of this study to increase the heat pump profitability and to improve the product quality....

  19. Efficient Engine-Driven Heat Pump for the Residential Sector

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building on previous work on an 11-ton packaged natural gas heat pump, this project will develop hardware and software for engine and system controls for a residential gas heat pump system that...

  20. Red River Valley REA- Heat Pump Loan Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Red River Valley Rural Electric Association (RRVREA) offers a loan program to its members for air-source and geothermal heat pumps. Loans are available for geothermal heat pumps at a 5% fixed...

  1. A Comparative Economic Evaluation of Industrial Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, J. I.; Bliem, C. J.; Chappell, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on the cost of delivering process heat with state-of-the-art heat pump systems. Sixteen heat pump systems were configured for relative cost comparisons. These systems consisted ...

  2. Industrial and Commercial Heat Pump Applications in the United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niess, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The energy crisis of 1973 accelerated the development of large-scale heat pumps in the United States. Since that time, the commercial, institutional, and industrial applications of heat pumps for waste heat recovery ...

  3. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  4. DOE Webinar ? Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE webinar, Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits presented at the DOE EERE Webinar Series on Dec. 14, 2010.

  5. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  6. Industrial Heat Pump Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Brush, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    -effect ijeSi. g ns. A high degree of recirculation is maintain d, with several hundred pounds of product liquor bei g recir culated for every pound of water evaporate. Kraft uses its evaporator to concentrate and cr stal1ize lactose, using cheese whey... undesirable results. Concentrated liquor exits at the bottom of ~e sepa rator, where a small portion is drawn off an sent to the next stage" of the production process. dditona1 raw material is continuously added to compefate for product removal...

  7. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2009-01-01

    improvements to baseline gas storage water heaters over theminor. Currently, the gas storage water heater market isimprovements to baseline gas storage water heaters over the

  8. APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS TO BUILDINGS AND BRIDGE DECKS. By MAHADEVAN Chapter Page 1. Introduction 1.1. Overview of hybrid ground source heat pump systems 1.2. Literature review 1.3. Thesis objective and scope 2. Optimal sizing of hybrid ground source heat pump system

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP R. C. Meier, Program Manager, Gas Heat Pump Program General Electric Company P. 0. Box 8555 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 FILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE SUMMARY The Stirling/Rankine Heat Activated Heat Pump is a high performance product for space

  10. Working on new gas turbine cycle for heat pump drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Working on new gas turbine cycle for heat pump drive FILE COPY TAP By Irwin Stambler, Field Editor, is sized for a 10-ton heat pump system - will be scaled to power a commercial product line ranging from 7 of the cycle- as a heat pump drive for commercial installations. Company is testing prototype gas turbine

  11. Recuperative Vapor Recompression Heat Pumps for Cryogenic Air Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    Air N2 CW MAC MHE LP HP CW N2 O2 Recuperative Vapor Recompression Heat Pumps for Cryogenic Air · The compression of O2 in the air feed is avoided by applying recuperative vapor recompression heat pumps) heat pump The compression of B can be avoided 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 -5000 5000 15000 25000 35000

  12. www.heatpumpcentre.or IEA HEAT PUMP PROGRAMME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ­ Refrigeration Covers applications in ­ Residential and commercial buildings ­ Industry HEAT PUMPING TECHNOLOGY STARTED SO FAR! #12;www.heatpumpcentre.or g Annex 35 Application of Industrial Heat Pumps (Operating application of heat pumps in industry. Development of information that will le

  13. Lessons learned How to Build Successful Heat Pump Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;2 Lessons learned ­ How to Build Successful Heat Pump Markets Lukas Bergmann, Delta Energy & Environment European Heat Pump Summit 2013 Nürnberg, 15th October 2013 Contact: lukas CHP Small Wind Photovoltaics Energy Efficiency Smart Demand Heat Pumps Networks Micro-CHP Energy

  14. Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California Geothermal Resources Development Account http://www.energy.ca.gov/geothermal/ grda.html May 2011 The Issue Ground source heat pumps can far made little impact in California. Estimates are that adoption of ground source heat pumps

  15. Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Diane

    Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates The Current State of the Alaska Industry, a Review-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates The Current State of the Alaska Industry, a Review of the Literature and contributions from individuals and organizations involved in ground-source heat pump installation around Alaska

  16. Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE and to install heat pumps in unoccupied spaces. Nevertheless manufacturers keep working on components for hydrocarbons. In the frame of a research project on heat pumps for simultaneous heating and cooling, an R407C

  17. Control and optimal operation of simple heat pump cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control and optimal operation of simple heat pump cycles Jørgen Bauck Jensen and Sigurd Skogestad in the opposite direction, the "heat pump", has recently become pop- ular. These two applications have also merged. The coefficients of performance for a heating cycle (heat pump) and a cooling cycle (refrigerator, A/C) are defined

  18. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy...

  19. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's...

  20. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  1. Comfort-constrained distributed heat pump management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parkinson, Simon; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of a demand response network control strategy aimed at thermostatically controlled electric heating and cooling systems in buildings. The method relies on the use of programmable communicating thermostats, which are able to provide important component-level state variables to a system-level central controller. This information can be used to build power density distribution functions for the aggregate heat pump load. These functions lay out the fundamental basis for the methodology by allowing for consideration of customer-level constraints within the system-level decision making process. The proposed strategy is then implemented in a computational model to simulate a distribution of buildings, where the aggregate heat pump load is managed to provide the regulation services needed to successfully integrate wind power generators. Increased exploitation of wind resources will place similarly themed ancillary services in high-demand, traditionally provided by dispatchable energy ...

  2. Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to houses with "non-ducted" heating systems, such as hydronic (hot water heat), radiant panels, and space heaters (wood, kerosene, propane). They can also be a good choice for...

  3. Phonon cooling by an optomechanical heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying Dong; F. Bariani; P. Meystre

    2015-07-27

    We propose and analyze theoretically a cavity optomechanical analog of a heat pump that uses a polariton fluid to cool mechanical modes coupled to a single pre-cooled phonon mode via external modulation of the substrate of the mechanical resonator. This approach permits to cool phonon modes of arbitrary frequencies not limited by the cavity-optical field detuning deep into the quantum regime from room temperature.

  4. Phonon cooling by an optomechanical heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying Dong; F. Bariani; P. Meystre

    2015-12-04

    We propose and analyze theoretically a cavity optomechanical analog of a heat pump that uses a polariton fluid to cool mechanical modes coupled to a single pre-cooled phonon mode via external modulation of the substrate of the mechanical resonator. This approach permits to cool phonon modes of arbitrary frequencies not limited by the cavity-optical field detuning deep into the quantum regime from room temperature.

  5. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  6. Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services »Information ResourcesHeatGenericExplorationHeat Pumps

  7. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting OversightEMS Policy HQDepartmentHeat Pump

  8. Overview of DOE-Sponsored Heat Pump Research DOE research activities related to residential and commercial heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Overview of DOE-Sponsored Heat Pump Research DOE research activities related to residential and commercial heat pump technology are supported by the Office of Building Energy Research and Development%) allocated to elec- tric and heat-actuated heat pump research. The remaining 15% is allocated to appliance

  9. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ON SIDE REFRIGERANT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ON SIDE REFRIGERANT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT PUMP SEASONAL PERFORMANCES C. T. Tran, PhD student, Centre for Energy and Processes, MINES, Research Engineer, ENERBAT, Electricity of France R&D, Moret/Loing, France Abstract Heat pump systems have

  10. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ENERGY EFFICIENT AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP OPERATING WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    00149 -1- 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ENERGY EFFICIENT AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP OPERATING WITH R-1234yf Sorina Mortada, Ph.D. student, Center for Energy and Processes Abstract: Significant improvements in energy performance of air-to-air heat pumps are the major reason

  11. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  12. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    for residential gas furnaces in the U.S. In the proceedingsEconomics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters inconsumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S.

  13. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

  14. Tri-County Electric Cooperative- Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Tri-County Electric Cooperative offers a $75 rebate on the purchase of energy-efficient electric water heaters. The rebate is valid for new or replacement units which have an Energy Factor Rating...

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  16. Solar heat pump systems with refrigerant-filled collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dell, M.P.; Beckman, W.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The heat pump system with a refrigerant-filled evaporator consists of a standard air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat pump that utilizes a solar panel as the evaporator. A combination of solar energy and convection heat transfer acts as the ''free'' energy absorbed by the collector/evaporator. In this paper, the seasonal performance of such systems for industrial applications will be presented. Performance of collector/evaporator heat pumps will be compared with alternative heat pump and solar systems. The benefits of covered and coverless collector/evaporators will be discussed. Results to date have shown that refrigerant-filled collector heat pumps do not perform as well as conventional heat pumps at small collector areas but have as much as 15% performance improvement over conventional heat pumps at an appropriate collector area.

  17. An experimental and analytical study of the transient behavior of vertical u-tube ground-coupled heat pumps in the cooling mode 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Monte Keith

    1991-01-01

    GROUND-COIL MODELING . . . . . . . . FIELD MONITORING OF GCHP COOLING PERFORMANCE . . . . TRANSIENT PERFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . SUMMARY . 23 24 28 IV EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT AND MONITORING EXPERIENCE 31 RESIDENCE AND HEAT PUMP DATA... Regression Equation Return Air Soil sup Supply Air Total wat Ground-Coil Water CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Heat pumps have become a popular alternative for space-heating and cooling in new residences. Heat pumps represent a decreased first-cost to new...

  18. Electric Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles: Electric-Powered Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a new class of advanced nanomaterial called an electrical metal organic framework (EMOF) for EV heating and cooling systems. The EMOF would function similar to a conventional heat pump, which circulates heat or cold to the cabin as needed. However, by directly controlling the EMOF's properties with electricity, the PNNL design is expected to use much less energy than traditional heating and cooling systems. The EMOF-based heat pumps would be light, compact, efficient, and run using virtually no moving parts.

  19. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill, PA); Lackey, Robert S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fagan, Jr., Thomas J. (Penn HIlls, PA); Veyo, Stephen E. (Murrysville, PA); Humphrey, Joseph R. (Grand Rapids, MI)

    1984-01-01

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module 10, an air mover module 12, and a resistance heat package module 14, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor 36 in a space adjacent the heat exchanger 28, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown in FIGS. 4-7 to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations.

  20. Heat pumping with optically driven excitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik M. Gauger; Joachim Wabnig

    2010-06-07

    We present a theoretical study showing that an optically driven excitonic two-level system in a solid state environment acts as a heat pump by means of repeated phonon emission or absorption events. We derive a master equation for the combined phonon bath and two-level system dynamics and analyze the direction and rate of energy transfer as a function of the externally accessible driving parameters. We discover that if the driving laser is detuned from the exciton transition, cooling the phonon environment becomes possible.

  1. Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFESOpportunities NuclearlongGeneralGeorgePage Unknown TheHeat Pump

  2. Tips: Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMayBuildingTheEasements30, 2008: US portionHeat pumps can

  3. Designing, selecting and installing a residential ground-source heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    It's a compelling proposition: Use the near-constant-temperature heat underground to heat and cool your home and heat domestic water, slashing your energy bills. Yet despite studies demonstrating significant energy savings from ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, their adoption has been hindered by high upfront costs. Fewer than 1% of US homes use a GSHP system. However, compared to a minimum-code-compliant conventional space-conditioning system, when properly designed and installed, a GSHP retrofit at current market prices offers simple payback of 4.3 years on national average, considering existing federal tax credits. Most people understand how air-source heat pumps work: they move heat from indoor air to outdoor air when cooling and from outdoor air to indoor air when heating. The ground-source heat pump operates on the same principle, except that it moves heat to or from the ground source instead of outdoor air. The ground source is usually a vertical or horiontal ground heat exchanger. Because the ground usually has a more favorable temperature than ambient air for the heating and cooling operation of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, GSHP sysems can operate with much higher energy efficiencies than air-source heat pump systems when properly designed and installed. A GSHP system used in a residual building typically provides space conditioning and hot water and comprises three major components: a water-source heat pump unit designed to operate at a wider range of entering fluid temperatures (typically from 30 F to 110 F, or 1 C to 43 C) than a conventional water-source heat pump unit; a ground heat exchanger (GHX); and distribution systems to deliver hot water to the storage tank and heating or cooling to the conditioned rooms. In most residual GSHP systems, the circulation pumps and associated valves are integrated with the heat pump to circulate the heat-carrier fluid (water or aqueous antifreeze solution) through the heat pump and the GHX. A recent assessment indicates that if 20% of US homes replaced their existing space-conditioning and water-heating systems with properly designed, installed and operated state-of-the-art GSHP systems, it would yield significant benefits each year. These include 0.8 quad British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy savings, 54.3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} emission reductions, $10.4 billion in energy cost savings and 43.2 gigawatts of reduction in summer peak electrical demand.

  4. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  5. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  6. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landerman, A.M.; Biancardi, F.R.; Melikian, G.; Meader, M.D.; Kepler, C.E.; Anderson, T.J.; Sitler, J.W.

    1982-08-12

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors and on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. The bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating and expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  7. The Role of the Consultant in Marketing Industrial Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.; Niess, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    OF THE CONSULTANT IN MARKETING INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMPS Joel S. Gilbert & Richard C. Niess Dames & Moore, Bethesda, Maryland ABSTRACT This paper explores the role that a consultant can play in the acceptance of applied heat pumps by industry (the key word... is "industry?). Unfor tunately, there are very few engineers in practice today with expertise in this specialized area of energy conservation technology. In this discussion, we will define the indus trial heat pump, review experience and training...

  8. Industrial Process Heat Pumps--Some Unconventional Wisdom 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, A.

    1987-01-01

    HEAT PUMPS--SOME UNCONVENTIONAL WISDOM ALAN KARP Project Manager Electric Power Research Institute Palo Alto, California ABSTRACT Recent research on the cost-effective use of industrial process heat pumps challenges some popu larly held... on previously formulated prin ciples of "appropriate placement," a generic metho dology has been developed for examining heat pump ing as an alternative to increased heat integration in any process. PC-based software to execute this methodology will soon...

  9. Commercialization of Industrialized Absorption Heat Pumps in the US 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettigrew, M. G.

    1987-01-01

    OF INDUSTRIAL ABSORPTION HEAT PUMPS IN THE US MALCOLM G. PETTIGREW LITWIN ENGINEERS &CONSTRUCTORS, INC. HOUSTON, ABSTRACT The recovery of waste heat through absorption heat pumping is quite appeal ing to U.S. industry. However, although... this technology has been successfully applied in Europe and Japan, a cauti ous atmosphere wi 11 continue to prevail in the U.S. until the first absorption heat pump is built and successfully demonstrates it's viability for industrial applications...

  10. Low GWP Working Fluid for High Temperature Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Low GWP Working Fluid for High Temperature Heat Pumps: DR-2 Chemical Stability at High Temperatures Temp Heat Pumps: DR-2 Very Low GWP AND Non-Flammable HFC-245fa DR-2 Chemical Formula CF3CH2CHF2 HFO 171.3 Pcr [MPa] 3.65 2.9 Kontomaris-DuPont; European Heat Pump Summit, Nuremberg, October 15th, 2013

  11. Operating and Maintaining Your Heat Pump | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Changing filters regularly is an important part of maintaining a heat pump system. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoBanksPhotos Changing filters regularly is an important part...

  12. Research and Development Roadmap. Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kar, Rahul

    2012-10-01

    Roadmap identifying potential activities and technical innovations that may enable substantial improvements in residential and commercial Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) installed cost and/or efficiency.

  13. Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential air-source heat pumps, which is an ENERGY STAR qualified product category.

  14. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies,...

  15. Comparative Performance of Heat Pumps and R&D Requirements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ally, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    PERFORMANCE OF HEAT PUMPS AND R&D REQUIREMENTS M. R. ALLY Research Staff Member Energy Divisi.on Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee INTRODUCTION One of the major programs conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office... of Industrial Programs is the Industrial Heat Pump Program. The objective of this program is to develop and advance heat pump technology to help American industry use its energy resources more efficiently. It involves using heat pumps in a role of both...

  16. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies,...

  17. Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (DE-FOA-0000823) Project Objective This project aims to develop a regenerative air source heat pump for commercial and industrial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)...

  18. Monitoring SERC Technologies —Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory Project Leader Dave Peterson about Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps and how to properly monitor its installation.

  19. Increasing Confidence In Geothermal Heat Pump Design Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1998-03-01

    Sizing the ground heat exchanger is one of the most important tasks in the design of a geothermal heat pump (GHP) system. Undersizing the heat exchanger can result in poor operating efficiency, reduced comfort, and nuisance heat pump lockouts on safety controls, while an oversized heat exchanger increases the installation cost of the system. The cost of ground loop installation may mean the difference between a feasible and an unfeasible project. Thus there are strong incentives to select heat exchanger lengths which allow satisfactory performance under all operating conditions within a feasible project budget. Sizing a ground heat exchanger is not a simple calculation. In the first place, there is usually some uncertainty in the peak block and annual space conditioning loads for the building to be served by the GHPs. The thermal properties of the soil formation may be unknown as well. Drilling logs and core samples can identify the soil type, but handbook values for the thermal properties of soils vary widely. Properly-done short-term on-site tests and data analysis to obtain thermal properties provide more accurate information, but since these tests are expensive they are usually only feasible in large projects. Given the uncertainties inherent in the process, if designers were truly working 'close to the edge' - selecting the absolute minimum heat exchanger length required to meet the predicted loads - one would expect to see more examples of undersized heat exchangers. Indeed there have been a few. However, over the past twenty years GHPs have been installed and successfully operated at thousands of locations all over the world. Conversations with customers and facility managers reveal a high degree of satisfaction with the technology, but studies of projects reveal far more cases of generously sized ground heat exchangers than undersized ones. This indicates that the uncertainties in space conditioning loads and soil properties are covered by a factor of safety. These conservative designs increase the installed cost of GHP systems, limiting their use and applicability. Moreover, as ground heat exchanger sizing methods have improved, they have suggested (and field tests are beginning to verify) that standard bore backfill practices lead to unnecessarily large ground heat exchangers. Growing evidence suggests that in many applications use of sand backfill with a grout plug at the surface, or use of bottom-to-top thermally enhanced grout, may provide groundwater protection equal to current practice at far less cost. Site tests of thermal properties provides more accurate information, but since these tests are expensive they are usually only performed in large projects. Even so, because soil properties can vary over a distance as small as a few feet, the value of these tests is limited. One objective of ongoing research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is to increase designers confidence in available ground heat exchanger sizing methods that lead to reliable yet cost-effective designs. To this end we have developed research-grade models that address the interactions between buildings, geothermal heat pump systems and ground heat exchangers The first application of these models was at Fort Polk, Louisiana, where the space conditioning systems of over 4,000 homes were replaced with geothermal heat pumps (Shonder and Hughes, 1997; Hughes et. al., 1997). At Fort Polk, the models were calibrated to detailed data from one of the residences. Data on the energy use of the heat pump, combined with inlet and outlet water temperature and flow rate in the ground heat exchangers, allowed us to determine the thermal properties of the soil formation being experienced by the operating GHP system. Outputs from the models provide all the data required by the various commercially-available ground loop sizing programs. Accurate knowledge of both the building loads and the soil properties eliminated the uncertainty normally associated with the design process, and allowed us to compare the predictions of the commercially-available

  20. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes -- Update to Include Analyses of an Economizer Option and Alternative Winter Water Heating Control Option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2006-12-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of an integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006). The present report is an update to that document. Its primary purpose is to summarize results of an analysis of the potential of adding an outdoor air economizer operating mode to the IHPs to take advantage of free cooling (using outdoor air to cool the house) whenever possible. In addition it provides some additional detail for an alternative winter water heating/space heating (WH/S

  1. Heat pump with freeze-up prevention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1981-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

  2. Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components ofTankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Jim; Biermayer, Peter

    2008-04-17

    The objective of this study was to determine if it was feasible to collect information regarding energy use and hot water delivery from tankless gas water heaters using the sensors and controls built into the water heaters. This could then be used to determine the water heater efficiency ? the ratio of energy out (hot water delivered) to energy in (energy in the gas) in actual residential installations. The goal was to be as unobtrusive as possible, and to avoid invalidating warranties or exposing researchers to liability issues. If feasible this approach would reduce the costs of instrumentation.This paper describes the limited field and laboratory investigations to determine if using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters is feasible for field monitoring.It was more complicated to use the existing gas flow, water and temperature sensors than was anticipated. To get the signals from the existing sensors and controls is difficult and may involve making changes that would invalidate manufacturer warrantees. The procedures and methods for using signals from the existing gas valves, water flow meters and temperature sensors will vary by model. To be able to monitor different models and brands would require detailed information about each model and brand.Based on these findings, we believe that for field monitoring projects it would be easier, quicker and safer to connect external meters to measure the same parameters rather than using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters.

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  4. An Economic Analysis of Industrial Absorption Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, S. I.; Huntley, W. R.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1985-01-01

    OF INDUSlRIAL ABSORPl'ION HEAT PUMPS- Horacio Perez-Blanco S. I. Kaplan W. R. Huntley Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSlRAcr The interest in industrial absorption heat pumps in Japan raises a number of important qnes...

  5. Performance of Gas-Engine Driven Heat Pump Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdi Zaltash; Randy Linkous; Randall Wetherington; Patrick Geoghegan; Ed Vineyard; Isaac Mahderekal; Robert Gaylord

    2008-09-30

    Air-conditioning (cooling) for buildings is the single largest use of electricity in the United States (U.S.). This drives summer peak electric demand in much of the U.S. Improved air-conditioning technology thus has the greatest potential impact on the electric grid compared to other technologies that use electricity. Thermally-activated technologies (TAT), such as natural gas engine-driven heat pumps (GHP), can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. GHP offers an attractive opportunity for commercial building owners to reduce electric demand charges and operating expenses. Engine-driven systems have several potential advantages over conventional single-speed or single-capacity electric motor-driven units. Among them are variable speed operation, high part load efficiency, high temperature waste heat recovery from the engine, and reduced annual operating costs (SCGC 1998). Although gas engine-driven systems have been in use since the 1960s, current research is resulting in better performance, lower maintenance requirements, and longer operating lifetimes. Gas engine-driven systems are typically more expensive to purchase than comparable electric motor-driven systems, but they typically cost less to operate, especially for commercial building applications. Operating cost savings for commercial applications are primarily driven by electric demand charges. GHP operating costs are dominated by fuel costs, but also include maintenance costs. The reliability of gas cooling equipment has improved in the last few years and maintenance requirements have decreased (SCGC 1998, Yahagi et al. 2006). Another advantage of the GHP over electric motor-driven is the ability to use the heat rejected from the engine during heating operation. The recovered heat can be used to supplement the vapor compression cycle during heating or to supply other process loads, such as water heating. The use of the engine waste heat results in greater operating efficiency compared to conventional electric motor-driven units (SCGC 1998). In Japan, many hundreds of thousands of natural gas-driven heat pumps have been sold (typically 40,000 systems annually) (Yahagi et al. 2006). The goal of this program is to develop dependable and energy efficient GHPs suitable for U.S. commercial rooftop applications (the single largest commercial product segment). This study describes the laboratory performance evaluation of an integrated 10-ton GHP rooftop unit (a 900cc Daihatsu-Aisin natural gas engine) which uses R410A as the refrigerant (GEDAC No.23). ORNL Thermally-Activated Heat Pump (TAHP) Environmental Chambers were used to evaluate this unit in a controlled laboratory environment.

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, CaulkingWeather-stripping,...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Eligibility: Residential, InstallersContractors Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    regarding future funding. Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Agricultural Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery,...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    United's Rebate Program: Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, Caulking...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercial, Construction, Residential, InstallersContractors Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    been discontinued. Eligibility: Residential, Integrators Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps,...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Eligibility: Residential, InstallersContractors Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats,...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Industrial, Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  16. Measured water heating performance of a vertical-bore water-to-water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for domestic water heating over twelve months under simulated occupancy loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents monthly performance metrics of a 5.275 kW (1.5 ton) WW-GSHP providing 227 L day-1 domestic hot water at 49 C. Daily water use is simulated as stipulated in the Building America Research Benchmark Definition capturing the living habits of the average U.S household. The 94.5m vertical-bore ground loop is shared with a separate GSHP for space conditioning the 251m2 residential home. Data on entering water temperatures, energy extracted from the ground, delivered energy, compressor electricity use, COP, WW-GSHP run times, and the impact of fan and pump energy consumption on efficiency are presented for each month. Factors influencing performance metrics are highlighted.

  17. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Source: http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/water_ heating/heating is a large source of energy use in California homes.heating is the third largest source of energy use in homes [

  18. MEASURED SPACE CONDITIONING PERFORMANCE OFA VERTICAL-BORE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP (GSHP) OVER TWELVE MONTHS UNDER SIMULATED OCCUPANCY LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents monthly performance metrics of a 7.56 kW (2.16 ton) GSHP serving the space conditioning loads of a 251m2 (2700ft2) residential home with a phase change material in its envelope, and a single vertical-bore 94.5m (310 ft) ground loop. The same ground loop also serviced a ground source heat pump water heater. Envelope characteristics are discussed briefly in the context of reducing thermal losses. Data on entering water temperatures, energy extracted from the ground, energy delivered/removed, compressor electricity use, COP, GSHP run times (low and high compressor stages), and the impact of fan and pump energy consumption on efficiency are presented for each month. Both practical as well as research and development issues are discussed. The findings suggest that GSHPs represent a practical technology option to reduce source energy reduction and greenhouse emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 target of generating over 25% of heat consumed in the EU from renewable energy.

  19. Do Heat Pump Clothes Dryers Make Sense for the U.S. Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steve

    2011-01-01

    N ATIONAL L ABORATORY Do Heat Pump Clothes Dryers Make Senseof California. Do Heat Pump Clothes Dryers Make Sense forCalifornia ABSTRACT Heat pump clothes dryers (HPCDs) can be

  20. "Elevated heat pump" hypothesis for the aerosolmonsoon hydroclimate link: "Grounded" in observations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigam, Sumant

    "Elevated heat pump" hypothesis for the aerosolmonsoon hydroclimate link: "Grounded April 2010; published 18 August 2010. [1] The viability of the elevated heat pump hypothesis, S., and M. Bollasina (2010), "Elevated heat pump" hypothesis for the aerosolmonsoon hydroclimate

  1. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Hua

    2014-01-01

    for ground-source heat pumps. in ASHRAE Summer Meeting.savings of ground source heat pump systems in Europe: Afor ground-source heat pumps: A literature review,

  2. Do Heat Pump Clothes Dryers Make Sense for the U.S. Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steve

    2011-01-01

    N ATIONAL L ABORATORY Do Heat Pump Clothes Dryers Make SenseUniversity of California. Do Heat Pump Clothes Dryers MakeCalifornia ABSTRACT Heat pump clothes dryers (HPCDs) can be

  3. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps, Final Report, May 1986 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Murphy, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this study included: (1) development of classes of heat pumps, (2) evaluation and selection of a suitable heat pump design model, (3) characterization of suitable baseline heat pump designs, (4) selection of design options that can...

  4. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump prototype showing generator for auxiliary system power Top: 24V DC to...

  5. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  6. ISSUANCE 2015-05-12: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Consumer and Commercial Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Consumer and Commercial Water Heaters

  7. Covered Product Category: Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including whole-home gas tankless water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rebates are available for air-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, central air conditioning systems, water heaters, and appliance recycling. Heat pumps and air conditioners...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    incentives to residential customers. Rebates are available on air-source heat pumps, heat pump water heaters, and geothermal heat pumps. All appliances must be Energy Star in...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    air source, and ductless heat pumps; central air conditioning; ECM motors; and heat pump water heaters. Rebates for air-source heat pumps and central air conditioners...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    are available for energy efficient central air conditioners, mobile home heat pumps, dual fuel heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, duct sealing and water heaters. Rebates vary...

  12. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

  13. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-08-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  14. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  15. A Simple Method to Continuous Measurement of Energy Consumption of Tank Less Gas Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaha, M.; Fujita, M.; Miyoshi, T.

    2006-01-01

    energy consumptions of hot water supply in restaurants or residential houses are large amount, guidelines for optimal design are not presented. measurements of energy consumption of tank less gas water heaters very difficult unless gas flow meters...

  16. WATER INFLOW INTO BOREHOLES DURING THE STRIPA HEATER EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    is plotted against water extraction rate with temper­ aturei^ H 2 _ -i I Liquid water extraction rate (liters/day) XBLholi? s due to water extraction was negligible because the

  17. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These water heating systems work with forced air systems and hydronic or radiant floor heating systems. Selecting a Combination Water and Space Heating System Integrated...

  18. Geothermal Heat Pump Profitability in Energy Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    If geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are to make a significant mark in the market, we believe that it will be through energy service pricing contracts offered by retailcos. The benefits of GHPs are ideally suited to energy service pricing (ESP) contractual arrangements; however, few retailcos are thoroughly familiar with the benefits of GHPs. Many of the same barriers that have prevented GHPs from reaching their full potential in the current market environment remain in place for retailcos. A lack of awareness, concerns over the actual efficiencies of GHPs, perceptions of extremely high first costs, unknown records for maintenance costs, etc. have all contributed to limited adoption of GHP technology. These same factors are of concern to retailcos as they contemplate long term customer contracts. The central focus of this project was the creation of models, using actual GHP operating data and the experience of seasoned professionals, to simulate the financial performance of GHPs in long-term ESP contracts versus the outcome using alternative equipment. We have chosen two case studies, which may be most indicative of target markets in the competitive marketplace: A new 37,000 square foot office building in Toronto, Ontario; we also modeled a similar building under the weather conditions of Orlando, Florida. An aggregated residential energy services project using the mass conversion of over 4,000 residential units at Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Our method of analyses involved estimating equipment and energy costs for both the base case and the GHP buildings. These costs are input in to a cash flow analysis financial model which calculates an after-tax cost for the base and GHP case. For each case study customers were assumed to receive a 5% savings over their base case utility bill. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to determine how key variables affect the attractiveness of a GHP investment.

  19. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of...

  20. Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    remodel and your home does not have heating and cooling ducts, a ductless mini-split heat pump may be a cost-effective, energy-efficient choice. Ductless, mini-split-system heat...